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					     Food on The Oregon Trail

                                       Objective:
    By the end of this study, students should be able to grab the fundamentals
   of life along the Oregon Trail and how food effects their daily lives. Through
exploring the web and working through activities, students should understand
 nearly everything about food on the journey west. From how it was attained
     to how it was cooked, and everything else in between. In the course of
studying the Oregon Trail, the student should be able to relate their own life to
                the life of those who traveled west, in terms of food.
         Through the activities and worksheet, students should be able to realize
  the hardships of acquiring necessary ingredients to make their daily meals,
 such as how the pioneers were able to cook their meals while being on-the-
   go all the time and where they were able to get foods not found in nature.
     Students should understand a pioneer diet and how it compares to the
                                    modern world.
What Students Will Learn..
          Through an thorough analysis of the following websites and completion
          of the activities, students are to accomplish the task of learning
          everything about food along the Oregon Trail.
          •On the topic of recipes, students should explore the websites listed
          under recipes and compare past recipes to modern ones and notice their
          difference.
          •Through research for the puppet show, students should understand the
          type of environments along the trail and how it affected the food
          pioneers ate.
          •In the course of research, students should be able to understand where
          certain foods were available and how to get them.
          •After completing the activities and worksheet, students should also
          understand the money involved on this trip. Knowing that a trip to the
          west was one that only the wealthy should afford. And through looking
          at the various charts provided on the websites, students should take note
          of the prices of foods. To further aid this activity, students may wish to
          do some research on modern inflation and prices of items used back
          then.
          •Firstly, students must do a bit research on their own, then come back
          and complete the provided activities. Upon completion of the web quest
          and confident understanding of the topic, students may attempt to take
          the test, and evaluation of what the student has learned through this
          experience.
              Task
•To complete this web quest, you will need to accomplish the following:
 Explore the websites provided and take notes in order to understand the
concepts of food along the Oregon Trail
 Complete the provided worksheets, activities, and test
•Firstly, you must know and understand the basic concepts of the Oregon
Trail in order to be able to learn even more. Then, go through the websites
and find relative information to the following:
 -how pioneers were able to eat along the two thousand mile journey
 -what they brought with them to begin the trip
 -where the pioneers were able to attain necessary food/materi als
 -comprehension of prices and inflation throughout the country and its causes
 -why some foods were brought and others not
 -who did what in preparing the meals
 -when was the season for specific foods in different parts of the country
 -what the food was used for other than eating
 -...and, well, just about anything food-related in the lives of pioneers
•After much research, you should move onto the Puppet Show activity. In this
activity, you will demonstrate your understanding of this topic through
expressing it as a play. incorporate what you have learned from the note-
taking, into your characters and story line.
•Then you should print out the other activity pages and complete them to
determine whether you truly understand the topic of food along the Oregon
Trail. Afterwards, if you should feel you are ready, move onto the test, the last
and final part of this web quest. Please do not use any materials other than
your own knowledge for the test, although you are welcome to use your notes
for the worksheets. After you finish with the test, have someone else, or your
teacher to grade it. If you missed any question, please redo it and see if you get
it correct this time around, and continue doing so until you get it correct and
fully understand it. Only after this are you truly done with this "Food Along
the Oregon Trail" web quest!!
•
Recipes
 ●   Hardtack

 You will need:


 ●2 cups stone ground flour
 1 cup water

 ●Combine the flour and water. Knead until smooth. S prinkle some flour on a smooth
 surface and roll the dough flat until it is 1/4 inch thick. Cut biscuits out with a can or a
 glass making each biscuit about 3-4 inches in diameter. Poke holes into each biscuit
 with a fork. Place on a floured cookie sheet. It should come out hard and dry.


 Oven: 400 F
 ●

 Time: 35-45 minutes
 Yield: 12-15 biscuits

 ●




 ●   Recipes



 ●   Beef Jerky

 You will need:

 ●1 flank or london broil steak (or other very lean cut of meat)
 salt and pepper
 1 cup soy sauce
 aluminum foil


 ●Cut the steak into strips with the grain of the meat. It is very important to cut along
 the grain or the cooked meat will fall apart into small pieces! Pour the soy sauce into a
 bowl and dip the meat strips in it. Lay the strips out on a piece of foil and sprinkle
 generously with salt and pepper on both sides. Place the strips on a metal rack in the
 oven with foil below to catch the drippings.


 Oven: 150 F
 ●

 Time: 10 hours


 ●** You can put your beef jerky in the oven at bedtime and it will be ready to take out
 in the morning before school.
Recipes Cont.
      •Indian Fry B read

      You will need:
      •3 cups self -rising f lour
      2/3 cup powdered sugar
      1/3 cup milk
      1 cup cold water
      corn oil (f or f rying)

      •In a bowl, mix sugar and milk. Add f lour. G radually stir in the water until the f lour is moistened and the
      dough f orms. Turn the dough out on a lightly f loured surf ace; knead until dough is well mixed. Roll to a 10
      inch square and about 1/2 inch thickness. Cut into 12 rectangles. In a deep saucepan, heat some oil at 375 F.
      and f ry the dough 2-3 minutes or until medium brown. Turn of ten as you are f rying. Drain on a paper towel
      and sprinkle with powdered sugar.
      •




      •Cranberry-Nut Muf f ins

      You will need the f ollowing:
      •1/4 cup margarine
      1/2 cup honey
      2 beaten eggs
      1/2 cup orange juice
      1 1/2 cups f lour
      1 tsp. grated orange rind
      1 tsp. baking powder
      1 1/2 tsp. salt
      3/4 cup chopped cranberries
      1/2 cup chopped walnuts

      •Cream margarine and honey. Add the eggs, orange juice, and rind. Mix in the f lour, baking powder, and salt.
      Then, add the cranberries and the walnuts. B ake in oiled muf f in tin.
      •Oven: 350 F
      Time: 35 minutes
                                                       Recipes Cont.
                                                                                                 •B eef Jerky
Tea Biscuits
                                                                                                 You will need:
You w ill need:                                                                                  •1 f lank or london broil steak (or other very lean cut of meat)
1 cup but t er                                                                                   salt and pepper
1 cup milk                                                                                       1 cup soy sauce
4 eggs                                                                                           aluminum f oil
3 cups flour
1 t sp. salt
1 1/2 t sp. baking soda                                                                          •Cut the steak into strips with the grain of the meat. It is very important to cut along the grain or the cooked
2 t sp. cream of t art er                                                                        meat will f all apart into small pieces! Pour the soy sauce into a bowl and dip the meat strips in it. Lay the strips
                                                                                                 out on a piece of f oil and sprinkle generously with salt and pepper on both sides. Place the strips on a metal
Mix all ingredient s t oget her. Make int o a t hin loaf and bake in flat , greased pan.         rack in the oven with f oil below to catch the drippings.
Break int o chunks. Serv e w arm w it h but t er and honey .
Ov en: 350 F                                                                                     •Oven: 150 F
Time: 30 minut es (check aft er 20 min.)                                                         Time: 10 hours

                                                                                                 •** You can put your beef jerky in the oven at bedtime and it will be ready to take out in the morning bef ore
                                                                                                 school.


Tea Biscuits
                                                                                                   Apple Treat
You w ill need:
1 cup but t er                                                                                     You w ill need t he follow ing:
1 cup milk                                                                                         4-5 slices of but t ered bread
4 eggs                                                                                             1 can sw eet ened apple sauce
3 cups flour                                                                                       2 eggs
1 t sp. salt                                                                                       1 pint milk
1 1/2 t sp. baking soda                                                                            1/2 cup granulat ed sugar
2 t sp. cream of t art er                                                                          1/2 t sp. salt

Mix all ingredient s t oget her. Make int o a t hin loaf and bake in flat , greased pan. Break     Line t he bot t om of a pudding dish w it h but t ered bread and cov er w it h apple sauce. Repeat
int o chunks. Serv e w arm w it h but t er and honey .                                             unt il dish is half-full, finishing t he lay ering w it h t he bread on t op. Mix eggs, milk, sugar, and
Ov en: 350 F                                                                                       salt . Pour t his mix t ure ov er bread and sauce. Bake unt il set . Serv e cold w it h cream, sugar,
Time: 30 minut es (check aft er 20 min.)                                                           and nut meg grat ings or cinnamon.
                                                                                                   Ov en: 350 F
                                                                                                   Time: Approx . 25 minut es
                                                                    Journal Entries
April 19, 1847
Summary: Mileage count er idea (odomet er), t oot hache, fishing by boat .

Journal entry: MONDAY. At 5:00 a.m., at t he sound of t he bugle, I arose my face st ill paining me v ery badly . Aft er eat ing breakfast , I st art ed out on foot , before t he w agons st art ed, w ith my rifle on my
shoulder. At 7:15 t he w agons began t o mov e and at 7:30 w ere all formed in double file and proceeded on. Aft er t rav eling about eight miles w e arriv ed at a number of small lakes, w here w ere many ducks.
A number of t he bret hren shot at t hem and killed sev eral. At 1:15 p.m. w e arriv ed at a bend in t he riv er w here a small st ream runs around an island.
W e st ay ed here t o feed aw hile, hav ing t rav eled about fift een miles most ly a w est ern course w ith t he w ind sout h. The roads v er y good and t he count ry v ery lev el on t hese flat bot t oms of t he Plat t e riv er
w hich bot t oms appear t o be from t en t o fift een miles w ide. Soon aft er t he camp w as formed, 0. P. Rockw ell, Jackson Redding, a nd J. C. Lit t le came in from W int er Quart ers. They arriv ed at 2:10. They hav e
found Dr. Richard's mare w hich w as lost east of t he Elk Horn and brought her t o camp.
They brought me a line from Diant ha and one from Rut h and Margaret . I n t he last w as a v ery gent le piece of informat ion w hich has caused me t o reflect much, and prov es t o me t hat Rut h and Margaret 's
v irt ue and int egrit y hav e for t he last y ear been far superior t o mine. I n my let t er t o t hem I request ed t hem t o at t end t o family pray er in my absence, a t hing w hich I hav e neglect ed since leav ing Nauv oo,
They informed me t hat t hey had done t hat w hen I w as at home but unknow n t o me, and t hey had t hen, and st ill cont inue t o bear me up before t heir Heav enly Fat her. Oh, w hat int egrit y , w hat fait hfulness.
I feel unw ort hy t o possess t w o such t reasures, but st ill feel t o t ry t o rew ard t hem for it , and may my Fat her in heav en bless t hem, and all my family and let his angels guard t hem, and me during my absence
t hat w e may all be permit t ed t o meet again and enjoy each ot her's societ y in t he, w orld for many y ears t o come, and et ernal i n t he w orld t o come. O! Lord, grant t his pray er of t hine unw ort hy serv ant , and
fill my family w it h peace and union, and open a w ay t hat t hey may hav e t he necessaries and comfort s of life, and Thy name sha ll hav e t he praise, ev en so, amen.
I receiv ed by Port er, some few fish hooks and lines, a ball of fish line and t hree pencils, but no small hooks nor kniv es nor w afers.
At t w enty minut es aft er 3:00 p.m. t he w agons began t o mov e again, in t he same order as t his morning and t rav eled unt il 6:00 p .m. w hen w e arriv ed at a v ery pret t y open v iew of t he Plat t e riv er, and t he
encampment w as formed in a semi-circle on it s banks, hav ing t rav eled since noon, about fiv e miles, and in t he w hole day 20 miles , ov er t he same kind of dry , lev el, sandy bot t om. The riv er here appears t o
be about a mile w ide but v ery shoal. There is not much t imber w here w e are camped, and t he w at er is pret t y muddy .
I w alked some t his aft ernoon in company w it h Orson Prat t and suggest ed t o him t he idea of fix ing a set of w ooden cog w heels t o t he hub of a w agon w heel, in such order as t o t ell t he ex act number of
miles w e t rav el each day . He seemed t o agree w it h me t hat it could be easily done at a t rifling ex pense.
Aft er t he encampment w as formed, I w ent t o Brot her Luke Johnson and asked him t o draw my t oot h w hich has pained me so much fo r a long t ime. W hile I w as speaking t o him St ephen Markham came
up, and w ant ed him t o t ake his t eam and t he Rev enue Cut t er - t he name by w hich t he leat her boat is called back about t w o miles, as t hey designed t o seine in one of t he lakes. Brot her Luke Johnson
driv es t he t eam w hich draw s t he boat and rides in t he boat as in a w agon. I concluded I w ould go and w at ch t hem fish and st ar t ed out on foot .
I ov ert ook Markham and John S. Higbee and in our conv ersat ion I ment ioned t o Brot her John S. Higbee t he same idea I had adv anced t o Orson Prat t , and he also seemed t o coincide fully . Aft er arriv ing at
t he lake t hey launched t he boat and made t hree hauls. They only caught a snapping t urt le, four small t urt les, one duck, t w o s mall cat fish, and t w o creek suckers. They t hen concluded t o ret urn and I
st art ed on foot again w it h t w o rifles t o carry . I got back t o camp before t hey ov ert ook me and being perfect ly t ired and v ery foot sore, w ent t o bed, but had no rest on account of t he sev ere pain in my
head and face.



April 20, 1847
Summary: Fishing, t oot h ex t ract ion, blacksmit h w ork, and an unsuccessful hunt .

Journal entry:TU ESDAY. Arose at 5:30, my head and face v ery bad indeed. I at e but lit t le breakfast , alt hough w e had a couple of ducks and a snipe. W e st art ed out at 7:30, t he morning pleasant ex cept a
st rong w est w ind.
At 9:15 arriv ed at Shell creek, w hich is about six or eight feet w ide, and a poor bridge ov er it , but all t he w agons got w ell ov er. This is about fiv e miles from w here w e camped last night . W e t hen passed t hrough
a small grov e of t imber, and ent ered again upon t he w ide, open prairie bot t om.
At 11:30 w e st opped beside a small slough or lake t o feed and eat , et c., being fiv e miles from Shell creek. W hile st opping he re, t hree deer passed about half a mile w est of t he w agons. 0. P. Rockw ell and
Thomas Brow n chased t hem on horses four or fiv e miles, but did not succeed in t aking any of t hem. The w ind has fallen conside rably and it is v ery w arm and dust y .
At 1:00 p.m. st art ed again, t he horse t eams t aking t he lead, t rav eled about t en miles fart her and camped near a cot t onw ood gr ov e on t he banks of t he riv er. The encampment w as formed about half past
fiv e. Tanner's bellow s and anv il w ere set up and a number of t ires set before dark.
John S. Higbee, Luke Johnson, S. Markham, and some ot hers, st art ed ahead of t he camp about noon, and w ent about t w o miles far t her t han t his place t o a lake w it h t he boat and seine. They t ook ov er 200
v ery nice fish, and arriv ed w it h t hem about t he t ime t he camp w as formed. The fish w ere dist ribut ed around t he camp according t o t he number of persons in each w agon, generally t w o t o a w agon, and t he
bret hren enjoy ed a good supper on fish.
I w ent t o t he riv er and w ashed my feet w hich w ere v ery dust y and sore. I also w ashed my socks as w ell as I could in cold w at e r w ithout soap. Aft er Brot her Luke Johnson had got t hrough dist ribut ing fish, I w ent
and asked him t o draw my t oot h. He w illingly agreed and get t ing his inst rument s, I sat dow n in a chair, he lanced t he gum, t hen t ook his nippers and jerked it out . The w hole operat ion did not t ake more t han
one minut e. He only got half t he original t oot h, t he balance being left in t he jaw . Aft er t his my head and face pained me muc h more t han before. I at e but lit t le supper and t hen lay dow n, but could not sleep
for pain t ill near morning. The ev ening w as v ery calm and pleasant .
                                               Journal Entries Cont.
April 21, 1847
Summary: Visit with Pawnee Indians, caught in a thunderstorm, setting up guard at night.

Journal entry: WEDNESDAY. Arose at 5:00, my face easier, but swollen and my gums raw. Took breakfast on fish and coffee, but ate no bread, it being very dry and hard. I could not bear to put it in my
mouth.
At seven started on foot; the ox teams being gone ahead. Some appearances of rain, and a slight shower fell. Wind northeast a nd pretty cool. At ten minutes to nine an Indian rode up to the first wagon
and appeared very friendly, Soon after six or eight others came running on foot. They came from the timber about a mile to the left.
At 10:00 we arrived at a fork in the road, the one on the left leading to the new Pawnee village, and the one to the right le aving the village some distance to the south. A consultation was held by President
Young with father Case relative to the Toads crossing the river, etc., when it was concluded to take the right hand road.
We proceeded, I accordingly and at 12:00 came in sight of the new Pawnee village, in an open spot on the south bank of the Lo op Fork, between two bodies of timber. The village appeared to be about
three quarters of a mile south of the road we were on.
At 12:30 we were opposite the village, and could then see distinctly upwards of 100 lodges set pretty close together, and app eared to be arranged in several lines, and set in good order. We proceeded
until we arrived at a long narrow lake by the side of the timber and near to the river.
At 1:00 p.m., the encampment was made on the bank of the lake and a guard instantly placed at the passes, as many of the Indi ans had followed us, although they had to wade the river, but it is very
shoal. One of the Indians presented several certificates from persons who had previously traveled through their village, all certifying that the Grand Chief of the Pawnees was friendly disposed, and they
had made him presents of a little powder, lead, salt, etc.
Heber gave them a little tobacco, and a little salt. President Young gave to the chief, some powder, lead, salt and a number of the brethren gave a little flour each. The old chief, however, did not seem to
think the presents sufficient, and said he did not like us to go west through their country, he was afraid we should kill the ir buffalo and drive them off. Brother Shumway told him we did not like buffalo, but
this does not appear to give him much satisfaction.
However, there was no appearance of hostility. In fact, all that came to camp seemed highly pleased to shake hands with our b rethren and would run from one side to another so as not to miss one. A
number of the squaws were on the opposite side of the lake with mattocks digging roots
Brother Shumway says there are about twelve thousand of the Pawnees in this neighborhood, and it is reported that there are f ive thousand warriors. We did not see many of them. Larpy is at their village
trading, and it is uncertain whether he will endeavor to use an influence for us or against us. We have no fear, however, bec ause their only object appears to be plunder, and it is the calculation to be well
prepared by night and day.
During the resting hour I spent the time writing in my journal. At 2:15 p.m. the ox teams started out again and the horse tea ms soon after. The weather had been calm And pleasant for a few hours, but
about 2:00 or a little before, some heavy clouds began to gather, ana thunder was heard at a distance.
About 2:30 the rain began to descend heavily, accompanied by heavy peals of thunder and vivid lightning which continued till about 4:00 o'clock. A strong north wind blew up, the rain and thunder
ceased and the weather grew very cold. We traveled till 5:30 and the encampment was formed on the Loop Fork of the Platte riv er.
After the encampment was formed and teams turned out, the brethren were all called together and some remarks made by Presiden t Young, advising them to have a strong guard round the camps
tonight. He called for volunteers to stand guard and about 100 volunteered amongst whom were all the twelve except Dr. Richar ds. This guard was divided into two companies of fifty each, one company
to stand the first half the night, and the remainer the last half. Those of the twelve who stood took the first watch till 1: 00 o'clock. Brigham and Heber both stood on guard. Out of the companies a party were
stationed as a picket guard some distance from the camp, the balance stood near the camp. The night was very cold, with a str ong wind from the northeast, and in the middle of the night, it rained
considerable.
Our course this morning was about west. This afternoon, northwest. We are now within three miles from the bluffs on the north . We have traveled today about twenty miles, the roads being good and very
level. The grass here is short but looks good. The buffalo grass is very short and curly like the hair on a buffalo robe. The spring grass doesn't seem to be as early here as at the Elk Horn, and the last year's
growth not being burnt off, will be rather a disadvantage to the spring companies.
I have noticed all the way on this bottom from the Elk Horn, that the Mound is full of wild onions which appear far richer and larger than any wild onions I ever saw. I have no idea that corn would grow here
for the land is very dry and loose and sandy, and appears poor. The country is beautiful and pleasing to the eye of the trave ler, although you call only see one kind of scenery for several days.
                                   Journal Entries Cont.
April 28, 1847
Summary: Crossing a riv er. W ild onions. Feed for t he liv est ock. Cool, clear w at er.

Journal entry: W EDNESDAY: Morning fine and pleasant , no I ndians. The w ind blew st rong from t he nort heast w hich makes it much cooler. There a re many w olv es and ant elope around
here, but no buffalo hav e been seen as y et .
Orders w ere giv en t his morning for no man t o leav e t he w agons ex cept t he hunt ers. The bret hren had t o make a road dow n t o t he small creek near w hich w e camped. This occupied
t ill about nine o'clock, w hen t he w agons commenced crossing; t he last w agon crossed at t en o'clock and t hen t he camp proceede d on. President Young, Kimball, and sev eral ot hers
going before t o point out t he road w hile t he w agons w ere crossing t he creek.
Brot her Luke Johnson shot t he horse dead w hich had his leg broke last night . The horse belonged t o Brot her Barney , but w as in Markham's t eam and w as a good one, but t hey
concluded it w as bet t er t o shoot her t han leav e her alone t o t he mercy of t he I ndians.
Our course for t he first sev en miles w as a lit t le east of sout h ov er a v ery lev el prairie and green w it h grass. The largest w ild onions grow here I hav e ev er seen.
Aft er t rav eling about sev en miles w e t urned sout hw est , being w ithin a mile of t he main Plat t e and opposit e t o Grand I sland. W e t rav eled t ill 2:30 and t hen st opped t o feed, hav ing
come about elev en miles t oday .
The roads are ex t remely dust y and t he st rong w ind blow s it int o t he w agons and ev ery t hing is cov ered. W e are now near t o t imb er and a good chance for grass for t he cat t le. At 4. 00
p.m. w e mov ed again and t rav eled t ill six , hav ing t rav eled about four miles, and during t he day , about fift een miles.
W e hav e camped about a quart er of a mile from t he t imber and t here is plent y of grass t o fill t he st ock t onight . The w at er is also clear and cool and good t ast ing. The ev ening is
cloudy and v ery cool, w hich affect s my head some. Suppered on some ant elope and w ent t o bed early .

April 30, 1847
Location: Grand I sland (St urh Museum), Nebraska - Location: 40:55:30N 98:20:30W Elevation: 1864 feet

Summary: Buffalo chips. Cold and w indy .

Journal entry: FRI DAY: Arose at half past fiv e. Morning cool and pleasant . The t eams hav e filled t hemselv es w it h rushes. St art ed at 7:40 and soon aft er t he camp st art ed, I st art ed
ahead on foot and hav e t rav eled about fiv e miles. The prairie lev el and green w it h grass.
W e t rav el on t he first bench about t hree quart ers of a mile nort h of t he t imber on Grand I sland. There are many w ild geese on t he prairie, also buffalo dung, but none v ery recent .
There are immense pat ches of blue grass w hich from appearances, t he buffalo are fond of. There are also numerous pat ches of b uffalo grass w hich is v ery short , t hick on t he ground,
and curly like t he hair on a buffalo's hide, and much resembling it , ex cept in color.
About a mile from w here w e camped last night , w e passed a place w here t he I ndians hav e camped no doubt during t heir hunt . The y must hav e been v ery numerous for t heir camp
has cov ered a number of acres of ground.
President Young, Kimball and Ly man are gone ahead on horseback t o look out t he road. W e hav e t hus far follow ed t he I ndian t ra il, but it is now so grow n ov er and so old it is scarce
discernible.
The w ind blow s st rong from t he nort h and t he dust is v ery bad. The at mosphere is dull and cloudy . Our course t oday has been a bout w est . At a quart er t o t w elv e w e st opped t o feed
beside a small creek of clear, good, w at er, hav ing t rav eled about eight miles. The grass along t his creek is long and plent if ul. W e are about a half a mile from Grand I sland.
Hav ing t he priv ilege of copy ing from Brot her Bullock s journal, I w ill now record t he names of t he st anding guard as organize d April 16t h, also t he men select ed by Brot her Tanner t o
form t he gun div ision as ordered Sat urday , April 17t h.
Tarlt on Lew is, St ephen H. Goddard, Seeley Ow ens, Thomas W oolsey , John G. Luce, Horace Thort on, Charles D. Barnam, Sy lv est er H . Earl, George Scholes, Rufus Allen, W illiam Empey ,
John Holman, George R. Grant , W illiam P. Vance, James Craig, Dat us Ensign, W illiam Dy kes, John Dix on, Samuel H. Marble, Art emus Johnson, Nort on Jacobs, Addison Ev eret t , W illiam
W ordsw orth, John W . Nort on, Francis M. Pomroy , Ly man Curt is, Horace W Frink, Erast us Snow , Hans C. Hanson, W illiam C. A. Smoo t , Barnabas L. Adams, Rodney Badger, Charles Burk,
Alex ander P. Chesley , Applet on M. Harmon, Dav id Pow ell, Joseph Mat hew s, John W heeler, Gillrid Summe, Mat hew I v ory, Edson W hip ple, Conrad Kinsman, Joseph Rocker, Nat haniel
Fairbanks, Orzo East man, Andrew S. Gibbons, W illiam A. King, Thomas Tanner, Hosea Cushing, and John H. Tippet s.
The names of t he gun det achment are as follow s:
Thomas Tanner, Capt ain; St ephen H. Goddard, Seeley Ow ens, Thomas W oolsey , John G. Luce, Horace Thornt on, Charles D. Barnam, Sy lv est er H. Earl, George Scholes and Rufus Allen.
At t w enty minut es aft er t en o'clock st art ed again, t he w ind blow ing from t he nort h t remendously st rong, and clouds of dust ar ose from under t he w agon w heels. I t has t urned v ery cold
and gloomy .
W e t rav eled again ov er a lev el prairie some dist ance from t he riv er and t urned off t o camp under t he bench soon aft er 5:00 p. m. hav ing t rav eled about eight miles, our course a lit t le
sout hw est .
The w agons w ere formed in an imperfect circle in such a manner as t o hav e all t he w agon mout hs from t he w ind, w hich t ook near an hour t o form t he encampment . W e are about a
mile from w at er and a mile and a half from t imber, w it h v ery lit tle grass for our t eams. I t is now so cold t hat ev ery man w ant s his ov ercoat on and a buffalo robe ov er it .
W e hav e had no accident and t he bret hren feel w ell; some are w rest ling t o keep t hemselv es w arm. Some hav e had t he good luck t o bring a lit t le w ood w ith t hem but it seems as if
many w ill hav e a cold supper. And some perhaps lit t le or not hing as t hey hav e no bread cooked.
Eight p.m., t he camp hav e found a good subst it ut e for w ood in t he dried buffalo dung w hich lies on t he ground here in great p lent y , and makes a good fire w hen propert y managed.
Brot her Kimball inv ent ed a new w ay of building a fire t o cook on and w hich is w ell adapt ed t o t he use of t his kind of fuel. H e dug a hole in t he ground about 8 inches deep, 15 inches
long and 8 inches w ide. Then at each end of t his hole he dug anot her about t he same dimensions as t he first leav ing about 3 i nches of eart h st anding bet w een t he middle and t w o
end hols. At t he end of t hese part it ions he made a hole t hrough about 3 inches in diamet er t o serv e as a draught . I n t he bot t om of t he middle hole t he fire and fuel w as placed, and
across t he t op t w o w agon hammers t o set t he pot s and pans on, so t hat t he fire could hav e free circulat ion underneat h. By t hi s met hod much cooking w as done w it h v ery lit tle fuel.
To sav e t he t rouble of carry ing w at er so far a w ell w as dug in a short t ime about 4, feet deep and good w at er obt ained. Aft er supper I w ent and gat hered some dried buffalo dung.
[polit ely called buffalo chips] t o cook w it h in t he morning.
Brot her Hanson play ed some on his v iolin and some of t he bret hren danced t o w arm t hemselv es. I w ent t o bed early t o get w arm but hav ing only one quilt for cov ering, I suffered
much w it h cold.
                   Websites To Visit
Supplies and packing
"Oregon Trail Guidebook." 2005
http://www.beavton.k12.or.us/greenway/leahy/ot/guidebook/food.htm

This site gave us information on how much of each food the pioneers brought on the
Oregon Trail. It also contained an informative chart of supplies and their prices,
along with some vocaulary necessary to understand the terms used in some recipes.

“Oregon Trail. Read. Look. Imagine.."
http://www.hasd.org/ges/oregon/Oregon.htm

This site contains information on what the pioneers brought with them on their journey.
It was clear and easy to understand.

"Outfitting for the Trail."
http://www.hasd.org/ges/oregon/Oregon.htm

This site shows how the pioneers brought food with them, describing it in detail, it’s
quite interesting.

A Typical Day
"Oregon Trail Guidebook."
http://www.hasd.org/ges/oregon/Oregon.htm

This site gave us an idea of what a typical day for a pioneer was. It included
information on their different meals of the day.

Ø    http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/learning_history/children_westward/california.cfm
  Accounts of the journey West written by various people about daily life along the
Oregon Trail, contains little details of a normal day.
                                                            Websites, cont.
Recipes
"Pioneer and Indian Recipes."
http://www.nps.gov/whmi/educate/ortrtg/ortrtg14.htm

This site gave us recipes on what the pioneers ate. It was detailed and accurate.

 http://www.post-gazette.com/food/19990902vintage7.asp

Article contains authentic recipes from the Oregon Trail, without any modernization. It is quite interesting to look at these and compare them to modern recipes.


Prices
Ø http://www.sd129.org/goodwin/plan-3.htm#Food

The authors provides guidelines for relevant food items and other supplies pioneers would have needed to bring along with them.

Ø
    http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/outfit.html

In this site are provisions and prices for items from the 1800s and is quite useful for the M ath Break activity.

Ø     Misceallaneous
    http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodpioneer.html

This website explores food history and is full of tales and contradictory facts. S everal links lead to Oregon Trail recipes and food. This, too, is very interesting to just explore.

Ø http://www.over-land.com/trore.html

In case the above is not enough, then this website contains many links about the Oregon Trail.

Ø http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/places/trails_ter/oregon.htm

      Perspectives about the West from a television show about the Oregon Trail and the West.

"Buffalo."
http://www.isu.edu/%7Etrinmich/Buffallo.htm

In this site, are many fascinating facts to interest you. S uch things are like the $100 glass of water and more. These shows haw life was in the 1800s in the West.
Activity
•Group Activity: Puppet Show
• Working in groups of five or six, you are to put together a puppet show
demonstrating your knowledge of food during the Westward movement (i.e.
how food was retrieved, what pioneers ate, etc.)
•Materials
•-Variety of colored felt
•-Popsicle sticks
•Instructions
•1. Using felt, cut to shape and size of various characters and the setting (i.e.
pioneers, horses, wagons, etc.)
•2. Attach the Popsicle sticks to the puppets
•3. Write a screenplay that your group will follow while performing the show
•4. Lights, Camera, and Action

• Grading
•The play will be graded on how much information about the topic of food
during the Westward movement is included
• Topics to be incorporated into the show:
•·     Why it was difficult to attain food along the Oregon Trail
•·     When would certain foods be available to attain
•·     How pioneers got their food and cooked it while on the road
•·     What types of food they ate
•·     Who pioneers might have gotten food from
•·     Where pioneers were able to retrieve food (wilderness, trading stops,
etc.)
•
•
•*Bonus Assignment: You may wish to create scenery for your play depicting
the environment in which pioneers traveled through. The background must
show your comprehension of the Oregon trail, its atmosphere, and how it
affected what the pioneers ate along their journey
                           Activity: Do You Know Your Oregon Trail Vocabulary?

Read each description and write the word in the blank that m atches the description.
W ord Bank:
Saleratus   Vinegar         Flour          Bushel         Keg
Hardtack    Preservatives           Jerky          Pem m ican    Oregon Trail

Fill In The Blanks
1.) At least 200 pounds of this item w as brought along the journey.
__________________________

2.) W e com m only know this today as 'baking soda'.
__________________________

3.) A hard biscuit or bread m ade w ith only flour or w ater.
__________________________

4.) This is added to food to prevent spoilage or bacteria.
__________________________

5.) A unit of volum e that m easures dry food.
__________________________

6.) A special type of dried m eat, usually m ade of beef.
__________________________

7.) A unit of volum e that usually m easures liquids.
__________________________

8.) This w as used as a preservative and prevented scurvy.
__________________________

9.) A com m on nam e used for the path leading w estw ard.
__________________________

10.) A pow dered dry m eat or strips of dried m eat m ixed w ith berries or other foods.
_________________________
M  ath Break
Using the follow   ing inform           er
                             ation, answ the questions:
Prices (1840’s to the early 1850s in the east)           m         m
                                                 Recom ended A ount per A    dult
Flour $0.02 per pound                              150 lbs
C orn m  eal $0.05 per pound                       20 lbs
Bacon $0.05 per pound                              50 lbs
Sugar $0.04 per pound                              40 lbs
C offee $0.10 per pound                            10 lbs
D ried fruit $0.06 per pound                       15 lbs
Salt $0.06 per pound                               5 lbs
Saleratus (baking soda) $0.12 per pound            ½ lbs
Tea $0.60 per pound                                2 lbs
Rice $0.05 per pound                               5 lbs
Beans $0.06 per pound                              15 lbs
     ES
PRIC IN O           O
              REG N (1852)
O                 s
  xen and cow $50 – 100                        Saleratus $0.25 per pound
Bacon $0.25 per pound                          Salt $0.03 per pound
Pork $0.125 per pound                          W heat $1.03 per bushel
Beef $0.10 per pound                             ats
                                               O $1.25 per bushel
Tallow $0.15 per pound                         O nions $2.50 per bushel
Lard $0.25 per pound                           Potatoes $0.75 per bushel
Butter $0.60 per pound                         Beans and peas $1.50 per bushel
Flour $0.06 per pound                          C hickens (w hole) $1
C offee $0.20 per pound                        Turkeys $2-$2.50
Sugar $0.10 - 0.16/lb                          Tobacco $0.25 per pound
Rice $0.06 per pound

1.)About how much money would be needed to buy only the dry portion of the food according to the chart?

                                          ith                                             ers
2.)”Prices of labor do not correspond w the prices of our produce... How can farm afford to pay $40 per m               onth for second rate hands,
                      m      o                   o                            m
fifty dollars for com on tw horse harness, tw hundred dollars for a com on tw horse w  o         agon, tw                           o
                                                                                                          enty-five dollars for a tw horse plow ,
tw  elve cents a bushel for threshing grain -- and sell their wheat at 75 cents, oats 40 cents, potatoes 25 cents, pork 5 to 6 cents, onions $1,
peas 75 cents, etc. etc. I pay saw             y ill
                                    yers on m m $60 per m       onth, log choppers $40 to $50 per m onth, team                 e,
                                                                                                                 sters the sam and yet I sell good
flooring, fencing, ceiling, and w eatherboards at $12 per thousand feet! Hence m       any, very m       ill
                                                                                                  any, w vote for Slavery in order to cheapen
labor!” –D          ew    ,
            avid N som 1857
   om
C pare and contrast the prices in the east to the prices in O                      ith
                                                                   regon, along w the quote formN som W ew                                hy
                                                                                                                . hat do you notice? W do you
think that this is so?

   N     C
*BO US A TIVITY:
  om                                                           o
C pare and contrast present-day prices to those in the 1840s. G to a local superm                                          s
                                                                                 arket and find prices for each of the item on the list
and see how they differ. W                      o
                          rite a paragraph or tw describing what you noticed.
TEST.
  n      p ra      e t f a e n e e llo in u stio s.
O a se a te sh e o p p r, a sw r th fo w g q e n
 a     n
P rt O e
                  h t e io e rs id r n h
1. "________" is w a th p n e d fo lu c .

    o  id o e e      o sa d f io e rs rvive
2. H wd c ffe h lp th u n s o p n e su     ?

    h t re re  a    io e rs o ld b in e   o ?
3. W a a th e w ys p n e c u o ta th ir fo d

    io e rs n e re o   il a   re  e ls  a                       n
4. P n e o th O g n Tra h d th e m a a d y: _______, ________, a d ________.

    h t o id e io e rs o m n a r re kfa
5. W a fo d d th p n e c m o ly e t fo b a st?

    a e re iffe n     e f o r rin       io e rs a a    a d n       e se
6. N m th e d re t typ s o fo d o d ks p n e m y h ve c rrie a d th ir u s.

     r in e       e io e rs o ld 't a   , o  id e a e a o ?
7. Fo d n r, if th p n e c u n m ke fire h wd th y e t th ir b c n

    h t id e io e rs o  a     e fto r u lo e t st n e      h    u h e      is c n u ?
8. W a d th p n e d to m ke th le ve b ffa m a la lo g r? W o ta g t th mth te h iq e

    h t o ld e io e rs d   ith r o     m e a       m ric n
9. W a w u th p n e tra e w fo fo d fro th N tive A e a s?

     h t     le tu
10. W a is sa ra s?

 a     o ritic l in g
P rt Tw -C a Th kin
      e rib ,   e il, m f e a sh s io e rs e t ro g    h n a h g r o . o       a    a       h t e su s id e
11.)D sc e in d ta so e o th h rd ip p n e w n th u h w e se rc in fo fo d H wh rd w s it? W a m a re d th y
 a        ke    e h t e e d d
h ve to ta to g t w a th y n e e ?

            m f e      e f m a           u in e      o
12.) List so e o th typ s o ite s th t yo th k w re m st im o n th t w re b u h a n w th mo th ir jo rn y. Te w y yo th k
                                                           p rta t a e     ro g t lo g ith e n e u e         ll h   u in
  e        m e      o    p rta t. c       p ith vid n e n xa p s.
th se ite s w re m st im o n Ba k it u w e e c a d e m le

      h t e     m f e c e o ke         ith e o io e rs ro g t? h t m e      se     o k e e ls? se n h t u
13.) W a w re so e o th re ip s c o d w th fo d p n e b u h W a ite s w re u d to c o th m a Ba d o w a yo
  o    b u o     u h f a h m e ro g t, o ld m s a          a n is e l fte ?
kn wa o t h wm c o e c ite th y b u h w u fa ilie h ve e te th m a o n

      io e rs ro g t lo g ith e ro n     o n s, t a   f u re d isc its, tc    la    h     u h f is g d n a
14.) P n e b u h a n w th ma u d 200 p u d a le st, o flo r, b a , b u e . Exp in w y so m c o th in re ie t w s
 e e ry       rin lo g isc ss m f e m a io e rs o ke         ith is, r a e to e ls.
n c ssa to b g a n . D u so e o th ite s th t p n e c o d w th o m d in m a

      a e t a n         m a o ld e se s      re rva    n s
15.) N m a le st o e ite th t c u b u d a a p se tive a d a a c o g in re ie t. W a re ip u d th ite ? Th n e la
                                                               o kin  g d n      h t c e se     is m     e , xp in
 n     m ro g t lo g y io e rs a    u o ld d st s se l.
o e ite b u h a n b p n e th t yo w u fin ju a u fu
Puppet Show Grading Rubric
   = o r = ir = o d = x e n = u e r
  1 p o 2 fa 3 g o 4 e c lle t 5 s p rio


  Qa s
   u litie                           1     2   3   4    5



   tu e ts a e la e     e fo a n
  S d n h v re y dth in rm tio
       e u ie c e ro g s g f
  toth a d n ew ll th u hu a eo
    e h ra te a d c n ry
  th ir c a c rs ( n s e e )


    tu e ts s a h d e io e rs
  S d n re e rc e th p n e '
      s le o u h n c rp ra d
  life ty th ro g lya din o o te
     e fo a n to e h ra te
  th in rm tio in th c a c rs


   tu e ts e ic d e a io e rs
  S d n d p te th w yp n e
   b in d e o c u te
  o ta e th ir fo da c ra ly



   tu e ts s d re tiv  e to
  S d n u e c a ityinth ir s ry
    lo n c t
  p t a ds rip



   tu e ts llo e ire tio s
  S d n fo w dd c n




                                     o l
                                    T ta           2
                                                   /5
For Teacher Use: Answer Sheets

   Activity Sheet. The ANSWERS.
   Do You Know Your Oregon Trail Vocabulary?

   1) flour

   2) saleratus

   3) hardtack

   4) preservatives

   5) bushel

   6) jerky

   7) keg

   8) vinegar

   9) Oregon Trail

   10) pemmican
                        Answer Sheets, cont.
  ah r a nwr h e.
Mt Be kAs e S e t
 .
1)      1. 1
       $ 27
 .
2)      c n m O o ws xr mly s a le r e oe n f ll e e d g n e s n v ns n s c . o x mle t e u mr
                   e
       E o o yin r g n a et e e int b . Pic sr s a d e d p n in o s ao , ee t , a d u h F r ea p , in h s m e
 n f ll, r u e r s e
          o      ic
a d a p d c p e wr lo , b ta s o a w t r c m, t e r e b g n o is . Imo e g o swr c e p h n h r wsa
                      e w u s o n s ine a e h p s e a t r e p r d o d e h a we t e
                                                     ic                 t             e              e a
  r qat y t ad u s o n s h r
   g                             e e e e h s a in s c g o s h p s e a t r e a dio , a it l a
                                    e             r                  ic
la e u nit a h n , b ta s o a t e wr f wr s ip c r y g u h o d, t e r e b g n o is . In d it n c paws
 o sa t     s o g.
               t
c nt nlyin h r a e

 o u civ y nwr a a
                 s
B n sAt it : As e myv r .y
 a r h h u ds r
   a a             ib t e r t
                           o h p s u t inlaio
                                ic
P r g p s o ld ec e h g w in r e d e o f t n
TS AS ES
E T N WR .
                             Answer Sheets, cont.
 a n
P rt O e
 . : ____          h t e io e rs id r n h
1 Q "_ _ _ _ " is w a th p n e d fo lu c .
 : on g
A N o in

 . : o id o e e        o s n s f io e rs u iv ?
2 Q H wd c ffe h lpth u a d o p n e s rv e
 : y o g e a r r o e              ille a y a fu n e d e s        e a r.
A B b ilin th w te fo c ffe , it k dm n h rm l a dd a lyg rm inth w te

  . : h t re re a s io e rs o ld tta e o?
3 Q W a a th ew y p n e c u a inth ir fo d
  : h e a s io e rs o ld tta e o re rin in    ith e , d g ith e a e m ric n , n u in u p s t e
A T re w y p n e c u a inth ir fo da b g git w th mtra in w th N tiv A e a s a db y gs p lie a th
   d g ots
tra in p s .

 . : io e rs n e re o ra a    re e ls a: _ _ _ , _ _ _ _ n _ _ _ _
4 Q P n e o th O g nT il h dth em a ad y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , a d_ _ _ _ .
 : re k s    o n g in e
A B a fat; "n o in "; d n r

 . : h t o id e io e rs o m n a r re k s
5 Q W a fo dd th p n e c m o lye t fo b a fat?
 : a o a e o io e rs o m n te r re k s
A B c nw s th fo dp n e c m o lya fo b a fat.

 . : a e re iffe n p s f o r rin s io e rs a a e a d n           e s s
6 Q N m th ed re t ty e o fo do d k p n e m yh v c rrie a dth ir u e.
 : n w rs a a . x m le: h k y r ra d - o d r te a e te a e ic a u oe; in g r- o d r re e tin c rv n
A A s e m yv ry E a p s W is e o B n y g o fo in rn l/ x rn l m d in l p rp s s V e a g o fo p v n gs u ya d
 od r s g s     ree a e e y rie n ree e u lo e t n llo s e e t                   s ne
g o fo u in a ap s rv tiv ; J rk - d da dp s rv db ffa m a a da w th m a tolat lo g r.

 . : o in e         e io e rs o ld 't a e , o id e a e a o ?
7 Q F r d n r, if th p n e c u n m k fire h wd th ye t th ir b c n
 : h y te e a o
A T e a th ir b c nra .  w

 . : h t id e io e rs o       a e e fto e u lo e t s n e       h    u h e th       cn u?
8 Q W a d th p n e d tom k th le v r b ffa m a lat lo g r?W ota g t th m is te h iq e
 : io e rs rn d e fto e u lo e t to rk . h a e m ric n u h e th               cn u.
A P n e tu e th ir le v r b ffa m a in je y T eN tiv A e a s ta g t th m is te h iq e

 . : h t o ld e io e rs d ith r o            m e a e m ric n ?
9 Q W a w u th p n e tra ew fo fo dfro th N tiv A e a s
 : io e rs d d lo e, b c o r         s r o      m e a e m ric n .
A P n e tra e c th s to a c , o rifle fo fo dfro th N tiv A e a s

 0 : h t a ra s
1 . Q W a is s le tu ?
 : a ra s     a in o a
A S le tu is b k gs d .
                          Answer Sheet, cont.
                                                  E T NW c n.
                                                          R
                                                 T S A S E S( o t)
 a w T eo w g
   t                  s g et d nwr h e, t d n's nwr a a s       y u h u c pue h min e s ec d e w ib
P r T o h f llo in isa u g s e a s e s e t s u e t a s e myv r , b ts o ld a t r t e a id a d s r e b lo .

 1) io e r e t ho g mn a h s r in t g t h ir o d h a s h y e r v lin t r u h e nn w t t e , s n
          s                     d                         e        e              e
1 . P n e wn t r u h a yh r s ip t y g o e t e f o . T e r a t e wr t ae g ho g wr u k o n o h m o o
 n r a n w x cly h t a u h r       e n te e ee a y a g r s n a , r if e t y e f e p ns t . h t a u
                                                           o             e
o e e llyk e ea t wa wso tt e , a d h r wr mn d n e u a imls o df r n t p so n w la t , ect a wso t
 hr e    o ld f n e if ic lt u t g o n n a o o d n t e u t r o ld aily e t a k d in e h y id o n w h t
               t                                              s
t e . Itc u o e b df u h nin d w a imlsf r f o , a d h h ne c u e s g tat ce . S c t e d n tk o wa
  a t e n s h a , a y o ld s imly ae o ae is s
wsin h la d a e dmn wu juts p h v t t k r k.

 2) o e f h ms p r n e s r g t lo g h t ip e h g e lo r is u s e , n my e a. h s it m e e
                      t        o               e                                               e y
1 . S m o t e otimo a tit mb u h a n t e r wr t in slik f u, b c it , t aa d ab s lt T ee e swr v r
  p r n. lo r n b c it e
     t                   e p r n e a s t oe e s o ld e r e d o lo g im a d it r c e, h y a b ue
                               t                         e v
imo a t F u a d is u swr imo a tb c ue h s it mc u b p s r e f r a n t e n wh e ip s t e c n e s d
 o r t mn h g e r d h h a ae jut b u v r a. e ws p r n e a s it a r a ly h t h y r k
    e                  e                        y                t                 o
t c ae a yt in slik b a , wic wse t n s a o tee d y T a a imo a tb c ue wsp b b wa t e d n      a
 ot uin t oe as n a o io e r o ld e d o eh g o r . a a e d d e a s it a s d o lao h ir o d n
                                 s                 in
ms d r g h s d y, a d ls , p n e wu n e s mt in t d k S ltwsn e e b c ue wsue t f v r t e f o a d
 a ls a o d r e t e
               e v
wsa o g o p s r aiv .

 3) o h u s io , t d ns o ld a e n t in f o t e e s e ee r ws o e n F r x mle h wbit s o g v m
                                                          c
1 . F r t isq et n s u e t c u n m a yh g r mh wbit sr s a h a d n o ( o ea p , t e e s e y u ae e
 it r c e n lis s f h t h y r g t t .
                               o
wh e ip sa d t o wa t e b u h, ec     )

 4) le t f lo r a r g t lo g it p n e e a s f u
                     o               s                 g o p e t e lo r a a o e s d o o k a y h g, e
                                                            e v
1 . P nyo f u wsb u h a n wh io e r b c ue lo r isa o d r s r aiv . F u c n ls b ue t c o mn t in s lik
 is u s h h o ld e ae f r lo g im a d t e d le lo r a ls ue t c o a y f h ir t e e ip s f h t io e r
b c it , wic c u b s v d o a n t e n s ill b e ib . F u wsa o s d o o kmn o t e oh r r c e o wa p n e   s
 t a n t e un y
ae lo g h ir jo r e.

 5) o h u s io , t d ns o ld a e x mle e in g r r a, t . h y o ld s r c e e h ma h y t s mt e,
1 . F r t isq et n s u e t c u n m ea p slik v e a o s lt ecT e c u ue e ip slik t e e tt e ae o eims
 h h s d a o lao
wic ue s ltf r f v r  .

				
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