CARE 20 20Capacity 20building 20training 20manual by 06nZI45

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									    REDD Capacity Building for Grassroots Forest Sector
                      Stakeholders:


                   A Training Manual



                        November 2009




(This document is consolidated form of publications of different
organizations specially RECOFTC)
About FECOFUN

The FECOFUN is an umbrella organization of community forestry users groups of
Nepal. FECOFUN has established in 1995 and functioning as the national level
civil society organization of forestry sector which works in close collaboration with
CFUGs and other partner organizations to actively support the development of
community forestry and community based natural resource management in Nepal.

As a learning organization, FECOFUN designs and facilitates learning processes
and systems that support the capacity development of CFUGs to promote
community forestry .FECOFUN also has been playing vital role in advocacy to
secure the rights of CFUGs over the local forest resources. This Manuel is a
consolidated form of different training materials and documents produced by
different concerned organizations




Federation of Community Forestry Users, Nepal
GPO Box 8219, Puranobaneshwor, Kathmandu
Phone: 00977 1 4485263
Fax: 00977 1 4485262
e-mail: fecofun@wlink.com.np (O)
web : www.fecofun.org




                                                                                Page ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
USER’S GUIDE TO THE TRAINING MANUAL                             1
     Introduction                                                1
     The Objectives of the Training Program                      1
     Approach of the Training Manual                             2
     Who Will Use the Training Manual?                           4
     What is in this Training Manual?                            4
PREPARING FOR THE TRAINING                                    6
     PREP 1: PREPARING A CASE STUDY                           8
     PREP 2: PREPARING THE REDD BUILDING BLOCKS FRAMEWORK 9
     PREP 3: PREPARING A TRAINING SCHEDULE                   12
SECTION 1: SETTING THE SCENE FOR THE TRAINING                14
     SESSION 1.1: INTRODUCTIONS AND EXPECTATIONS             15
     SESSION 1.2: SETTING THE TRAINING CONTEXT               16
SECTION 2: INTRODUCTION TO REDD AND REDD-INESS               20
     SESSION 2.1: INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL RESPONSES TO
     CLIMATE CHANGE – THE ROLE OF REDD                       21
     SESSION 2.2: LOCAL SIGNS AND IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE. 22
     SESSION 2.3: FORESTS AND CARBON – MITIGATING AND ADAPTING.
                                                             24
     SESSION 2.4: WHAT IS DRIVING DEFORESTATION AND FOREST
     DEGRADATION?                                            27
SECTION 3: REDD CONCEPTS                                     32
     SESSION 3.1: INTRODUCING ADDITIONALITY. LEAKAGE AND
     PERMANENCE                                              33
     SESSION 3.2: REDD CONCEPTS IN THE PROJECT CONTEXT       35
     SESSION 3.3: UNDERSTANDING BASELINES (AND REFERENCE
     EMISSION LEVELS)                                        37
SECTION 4: IMPLEMENTING REDD - MANAGING, MEASURING AND
MONITORING                                                   39
     SESSION 4.1: MANAGING FORESTS SUSTAINABLY               40
     SESSION 4.2: MANAGING STAKEHOLDERS: INTERESTS, INFLUENCE
     AND IMPACT                                              42
     SESSION 4.3: RISKS OF REDD TO PEOPLE AND FORESTS        44
     SESSION 4.4: MEASURING AND VALIDATING                   46
SECTION 5: ACTION PLANNING AND TRAINING ASSESSMENT           49
     SESSION 5.1: DEVELOPING AN ACTION PLAN                  50
     SESSION 5.2: TRAINING ASSESSMENT                        52




                                                           Page iii
USER’S GUIDE TO THE TRAINING MANUAL
Introduction
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) is a
concept that has generated considerable debate and discussion from the highest
international levels right down to community debate under village shade trees.
Many are optimistic of REDD being finally able to reverse the rapid tropical
deforestation trends of the last several decades, but there are also many skeptics
that have highlight considerable challenges in designing, implementing and
monitoring a economically, environmentally and socially sustainable REDD
mechanism. There are also those that are confused and a little bewildered by the
life that REDD has assumed in a few short years, which has led to some
unrealistic expectations, opportunistic speculation and naïve assumptions about
REDD.

This matter is not helped by the still uncertain international frameworks that are
being developed during the current the period of „REDD-iness‟ leading into
Copenhagen 2009 and the post Kyoto 2012 era. Therefore for those working on
REDD projects, it is a period of exciting challenges in an uncertain and rapidly
changing policy, environmental and economic frameworks at both the national and
international levels.

And somewhere in the middle are those that must actually work with forest
dependent communities in communicating and implementing both the science, the
methods and monitoring outcomes. This is a large task made all the more difficult
by pressing international time lines - Copenhagen 2009 is looming.

FECOFUN has been active in strengthening the capacity of the following groups,
depending on national circumstances:
    Forest Users‟ Groups
    Forest-dependent communities
    Indigenous peoples and
    Forest rangers and local forestry officials
    Local government officials
    Local civil society representatives, including NGOs, political parties and
     women‟s groups

It is these stakeholders that must quickly develop an understanding of the science,
methods and possible outcomes of REDD, relevant to their level of work and
influence. While all have a diverse range of interests, they hold in common the
need for practical, needs-based information on REDD that provides them the
information and tools required for them to
      understand the impact of REDD on their interests and livelihoods;
      engage meaningfully in REDD readiness and implementation processes at
         the appropriate level; and
      influence, from an informed position, the development of REDD strategies
         and projects to reflect their interests.

The Objectives of the Training Program
This training manual continues the process of moving information from national
level policy dialogue and „down‟ to those that will be working to implement policy or
User‟s Guide                                                                    -1-
project directives (as either stand alone projects or as part of national
deforestation and/or carbon sequestration activities). Therefore the training
manual is created to support national level trainers working to strengthen the
capacity for those tasked with local implementation.

With this in mind, the objectives of this training program are to:
   1. Present update to date information on the national context in which any
       REDD project will be operating;
   2. Strengthen the capacity of „grass roots forest sector stakeholders‟ in
       implementing simple tools and approaches applicable for implementing a
       REDD project;
   3. Build a solid understanding that the successful implementation of REDD
       must be built on genuine participatory processes that allow forest
       dependent communities to actively participate in management and
       implementation processes and actively assess the risks and opportunities
       presented to them through a REDD program.
   4. Build the knowledge levels of grass roots stakeholders so that they can
       engaged in meaningful debate and dialogue over local REDD projects;
   5. Develop participant action plans that clearly define both immediate and long
       term activities that must be implemented to achieve a successful REDD
       outcome.


Approach of the Training Manual
This training manual has not been produced to provide „the answer‟ or a „blueprint
for project implementation‟. It can not do this given the quickly expanding and
evolving REDD field of practice. What this manual does provide is an opportunity
for participants to explore and understand some of the fundamental „building
blocks‟ in any REDD activity, and to explore these in a participatory, fun and
insightful manner.

To do this, this training manual suggests utilizing two key training tools:
   1. A simple case study: It is very useful for a relevant case study to be
       presented at the start of the training and utilized throughout the training to
       explore these „building blocks‟. A generic case study is provided, but every
       effort should be made to either adapt this generic case study to be locally
       relevant or use a locally or regionally relevant case study. A REDD project
       design document (PDD) presents an excellent set of material from which a
       case study can be specifically developed to support this training program
       and the following organizations and their web sites should be considered
       when searching for a relevant case study:
        The Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA) and the
           projects      seeking    accreditation     through      their    standards
           (http://www.climate-standards.org/projects/index.html)

         Good case studies can also be taken and adapted from such publications
         as:
          “Community Forestry Management as a Carbon Mitigation Option”
             edited by Daniel Murdiyarso and Margaret Skutsch from CIFOR.

    2. A Building Block Framework: This framework is very simple, but highlights
       the key factors that must be considered in any REDD project. This
User‟s Guide                                                                    -2-
         framework can also be used to develop an action plan for participants by
         clearly identifying areas that need immediate action or long term planning
         after the training has finished.

The training manual is made up of a number of sessions which will allow the topic
to be explored in a participatory and flexible way. While there is link between all
sessions, each session has also been designed to „stand-alone‟ with a step-wise
guide to the session‟s development. Each session plan has:
     Session objectives;
     Materials required for the implementation of the session;
     Time required to fully complete the session;
     Preparation required for delivery of the session;
     Steps that walk through the session development; and
     Issues and areas that the trainer should be aware of before implementing
       the session.

The time to conduct each session is provided, if the full session is run. It is fully
expected that the trainer will select, adapt and revise session plans to meet the
audience needs and time available. For instance, some sessions could be
combined, some of the sessions shortened, or additional resource person invited
in to provide some detailed knowledge on a particular issue.

As indicated, the session plans are based on participatory and adult-centered
learning processes, but specific theoretical or technical input will be required to
outline scientific or policy context throughout the training. Where this is required, a
technical flag -   - is shown. BUT the training should not become „top-heavy‟ with
outside experts and must remain focused on allowing participants to actively
contribute to their own learning at all times. The balance however between
participation and „expert‟ input will depend on the context of the training, those
supporting the training and the trainer‟s own unique style.

Most sessions are also supported by a background fact sheet that briefly explores
the key technical or theoretical issues and this, in turn, is supported by links to
further reading resources and key websites where appropriate.




Comment: To encourage a participatory, learner-centered training program,
please remember that adults learn best when it:
     Is self-directed: Adults can share responsibility for their own learning
       because they know their own needs.
     Fills an immediate need: Motivation to learn is highest when it meets the
       immediate needs of the learner.
     Is participatory: Participation in the learning is active, not passive.
     Is experiential: The most effective learning is from shared experience;
       learners learn from each other, and the trainer often learns from the
       learners.
     Is reflective: Maximum learning from a particular experience occurs when a
       person takes the time to reflect back upon it, draw conclusions and derive
       principles for application to similar experiences in the future.
     Feedback is provided: Effective learning requires feedback that is
User‟s Guide                                                                      -3-
         corrective but supportive.
        Shows respect for the learner: Mutual respect and trust between trainer
         and learner help the learning process.
        Provides a safe atmosphere: A cheerful, relaxed person learns more easily
         than one who is fearful, embarrassed, nervous, or angry.
        Occurs in a comfortable environment: A person who is hungry, tired, cold,
         ill or otherwise physically uncomfortable cannot learn with maximum
         effectiveness

A final comment on the training manual: due to the rapid evolution of REDD, this
manual must be continually reviewed and revised to ensure the issues presented
are current, regionally relevant and practical. Virtually all session will need to be
regularly reviewed prior to any training commencing.

Who Will Use the Training Manual?
The training manual has been prepared primarily for national level trainers and
organizations wishing to enhance the knowledge of those working on REDD
issues and projects at the „local‟ level and primarily with forest dependent
communities. The training manual is not designed for high level policy
development or project design.

The training manual is also provided to assist trainers to organize their thoughts
and actions to meet their learners‟ needs. This is not a static process, but one of
constant planning, action, review and reflection. It is hoped the training manual
allows this flexibility and adaptation.

It is expected that the trainers using these materials will already be knowledgeable
and experienced in learner-centered training approaches and adult education
principles as well as skilled in participatory approach to community based forestry
and natural resource management and have some experience/understanding
surrounding the issues of sustainable forest management, climate change and
REDD mechanisms.

The target audience for this training are so called „”grass roots forest sector
stakeholders”. But this is a broad term covering a diverse range of stakeholders.
This training manual focuses at the forest ranger, local forestry official level and
local civil society representatives that must collaborate and work with forest
dependent communities to ensure sustainable REDD outcomes.

What is in this Training Manual?
The training manual has been developed to match the briefing notes arising from a
number of symposiums and workshops for policymakers and experts held in
Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR in late 2008.

Preparing for the Training
As the training will be short, 2 days, the trainer needs to be well prepared prior to
the training to maximize learning opportunities for participants. Three important
issues need to be carefully considered prior to the training:
   1. The training schedule needs to be carefully considered to match the time
       allocation and participants‟ needs. A suggested training schedule is
       provided (see PREP 3)

User‟s Guide                                                                    -4-
    2. The trainer needs to understand the intended learning outcomes of the
       case study provided with this manual OR develop/revise an existing locally
       relevant case study were the same REDD concepts can be examined (see
       PREP 1)
    3. The REDD Building Block Framework has been developed to complement
       the supporting briefing notes, but it is useful if this can be drawn onto a
       number of flip charts and posted to the training room walls in a visible and
       accessible location (see PREP 2)

Section 1: Setting the Context of the Training.
These sessions are important to set a friendly, interesting and stimulating training
environment as well as clearly communicating the training objectives.

Section 2: Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness
This section is to set the scene and cover the important underlying science behind
REDD, in a very simple and practical way. It is not expected that the presentation
of the 4 sessions in this section of the manual will occur in order but that the
trainer will carefully „pick and choose‟ the sessions and parts of the sessions
dependent on participant‟s needs, the time constraints, access to good resource
people and her/his own level of knowledge.

Section 3: REDD Concepts
This is an important part of the training where participants will explore the key
concepts of a REDD project. A case study is a very useful way to explore these
issues as it provides „real life‟ examples for issues that can otherwise be quite
theoretical.

Section 4: Implementing REDD – Managing, Measuring and Monitoring
This is another important and intentionally practical exploration of the key issues
participants may face in developing and implementing a REDD project.



Section 5: Action Planning
This session provides a useful opportunity to review all issues covered during the
training and again revisit some of the critical actions and activities that participants
believe will need to be implemented upon the return to their work place if their
potential REDD projects are to succeed.




User‟s Guide                                                                       -5-
PREPARING FOR THE TRAINING


Prep 1: Developing a Case Study
Prep 2: Preparing the REDD Building Block Framework
Prep 3: Developing a Training Schedule




Preparing for the Training                            -6-
Preparing for the Training   -7-
Prep 1: PREPARING A CASE STUDY


OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session a case study will be prepared that:
     Provides a working-example for participants to explore key REDD concepts
        in a structured way throughout the training.

MATERIALS
   Flip chart
   Marker pen
   Handout (Project „REDD‟ Case Study)

TIME for PREPARATION
    1 hour minimum, but will depend on case study utilized

PREPARATION
   Draw a map of the major features of the case study up on a flip chart and
    post in a clearly accessible area of the training room

STEPS
   1. This is a preparation activity to be completed before the training
      commences.




Preparing for the Training                                                -8-
Prep 2: PREPARING                     THE      REDD        BUILDING        BLOCKS
FRAMEWORK


OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the REDD Building Block Framework will be prepared
that:
     Provides a visual „check-list‟ of the main issues that participants will need to
       understand when working on a REDD project.
     Provides a framework for which participants can develop up an action plan
       throughout the training program.

MATERIALS
   Flip chart
   Marker pen
   Handout (photocopy of the Building Block Framework) to be presented to
     participants during the Action Planning session (Session 5.1)

TIME
    1 hour minimum

PREPARATION
   Draw the REDD Building Block framework over several flip charts and post
     on a wall in a clearly accessible area of the training room.

STEPS
   1. This is a preparation activity to be completed before the training
      commences.

COMMENT
   The Building Blocks framework is to act as both a visual check-list and also
    as an area where participants and trainer can list some of the important
    issues or follow-up activities that will need to be undertaken by participants
    once the training has been completed.
   The building block framework is not to be confused with the REDD Project
    Life Cycle explored in Session 4.4.
   The colour codes are only a reference guide to group issues according to
    the training briefing notes:
        o Green corresponds to topics covered in „Introduction to REDD and
            Readiness”.
        o Yellow corresponds to topics covered in „REDD Concepts‟
        o Blue corresponds to topics covered in „Implementing REDD:
            Managing, Measuring and Monitoring‟
         Throughout the training manual, the      symbol indicates where the trainer
          should note down key issues, actions and activities that participants must
          undertaken at the end of the training. These should be clearly written on the

Preparing for the Training                                                        -9-
          REDD Building Block Framework as these will be revisited in Session 5.1;
          „Action Planning‟.




Preparing for the Training                                                   - 10 -
SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
REDD Building Block Framework




Preparing for the Training      - 11 -
Prep 3: PREPARING A TRAINING SCHEDULE


OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session a training schedule will be developed that:
     Covers the majority of issues considered necessary to achieve the aims of
        the training; and
     Matches the needs of participants in order to strengthen their capacity to
        implement a sustainable REDD project.

MATERIALS
   Flip chart
   Marker pen
   Handout (training schedule)

TIME
    1 hour.

PREPARATION
   Consider the training aims, participants‟ needs and time allocated for the
     training to develop up a training schedule.

STEPS
   1. This is a preparation activity to be completed before the training
      commences.

COMMENT
   A proposed training schedule is presented in the Session Support Material.
    However it is anticipated that the trainer will revise and adjust the training
    schedule to suit the local context, training objectives and participant needs.
   All session plans have been written to ensure maximum flexibility in
    presentation of the material and in the development of the training
    schedule.




Preparing for the Training                                                   - 12 -
SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Suggested Training Schedule

Day 1: Introducing the Training, REDD and REDD Concepts
Time       Session Title                                                  Session #
08:00            - Introductions and Expectations                         Sessions
                                                                          1.1, 1.2
                 - Introducing the training program
08:40            - Understanding the international processes and national 2.1, 2.2
                 systems
                 - Local signs and impacts of climate change
10:10            Morning Break
10:30            - Forests and Carbon – Mitigating and Adapting           2.3, 2.4
                 - Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation
12:30            Lunch
14:00            - Introducing Additionality, Leakage and Permanence      3.1
14:45            - REDD Concepts in the Project Context                   3.2
15:30            Afternoon Break
15:45            - REDD Concepts in the Project Context (continued)       3.2
16:30            - Understanding Baselines                                3.3
5:00             Close of Day


Day 2: Managing, Measuring and Monitoring
Time             Session Title                                            Session #
08:00            - Day one review and Question and Answer session
08:30            - Managing Forests Sustainably                           4.1
09:45            Morning Break
10:00            - Managing Stakeholders                                  4.2
11:15            - Managing Risks to People and Forests                   4.3
12:15            Lunch
13:45            - Measuring and Validating                               4.4
15:00            Afternoon Break
15:15            - Action planning                                        5.1
16:15            - Training Assessment                                    5.2
16:45            - Closing Address
17:00            Close of Day




Preparing for the Training                                                       - 13 -
SECTION 1: SETTING THE SCENE FOR THE TRAINING


1.1: Introductions and Expectations
1.2: Setting the Context and Introducing the Training Program




Section 1: Setting the Scene                                    - 14 -
Session 1.1: INTRODUCTIONS AND EXPECTATIONS


OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants:
     Will know more about the other participants, the trainer(s) and their interest
        in REDD projects and programs.
     Will have clearly identified what they expect from the training and what they
        do not want (or do not expect) from the training

MATERIALS
   Flip charts
   Marker pens
   Name Tags
   Cards

TIME
    20 minutes

PREPARATION
   Write interview questions on a flip chart or whiteboard so that all
     participants can clearly see. Allow space below each question for the
     responses

STEPS
   1. Explain that before we start the workshop, it would be nice to know about
      those participating in this training and what is their interest in REDD
      processes and practices.
   2. Hand to each participant a name card and get them to write their name and
      organisation on the name card.
   3. Introduce the prepared interview questions on the flipchart/whiteboard as
      follows:
           What do you WANT (expect) from the training?
           What do you NOT WANT (expect) from the training?
           What is your interest in REDD?
      Give each participant 3 card/ Post-it
   4. Ask participants to find a partner (someone they do not know, if possible).
      Members of each pair should interview the other to obtain answers to the
      above three questions and write short answers on cards provided. Allow 10
      minutes for this exercise.
   5. Instruct participants to pin/stick the cards below the appropriate question
      and take time to examine the answers from other participants. Allow 5
      minutes for this exercise.
   6. The responsible trainer summarizes the expectations from the pin-board to
      inform the group about the different expectations.




Section 1: Setting the Scene                                                   - 15 -
Session 1.2: SETTING THE TRAINING CONTEXT


OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will be able to:
     Explain the training objectives and understand the importance of these
        objectives.
     Explain the flow and approach to the training program.

MATERIALS
   Flip chart 1: Training objectives
   Flip chart 2: Training schedule or training flow diagram.
   Handout: A photocopy of the training objectives and training schedule

TIME
    20 minutes

PREPARATION
   Write up flip charts and post on training walls where all participants can
     see.

STEPS
  1. Introduce the session by explaining that the training objectives and training
     schedule will be reviewed. Encourage participants to ask questions during
     the presentation so that any misunderstandings on the training objectives,
     approach and schedule are dealt with early on in the training.
  2. Read through each of the training objectives and briefly indicate why the
     objectives have been set and the importance of each.
  3. Present the training schedule, clearly outlining start and end times as well
     as key breaks during the day. Get participants to read the schedule and
     seek questions or comments on the training schedule.
  4. Outline the participatory training approach by noting the various learning
     methods used during the training (these may be „expert‟ presentations,
     small group work, case studies, simulations, field exercises and tours, etc).
    5.    Outline the REDD Building Block framework (see Prep 2) which should
       be posted on the training room wall and indicate that these will be some of
       the main issues to be explored during the training. Indicate that the
       Framework has been drawn at such a large scale so that key issues,
       actions and activities that must be undertaken once the training has been
       completed are noted.
    6. Outline any logistical issues that participants should be made aware of. This
       may include food, accommodation, transportation, financial issues, etc.
    7. Introduce training norms (flipchart 3) and invite comments or amendments
       from participants.
    8. Invite questions or comments from participants to ensure that the training
       objectives, schedule and approach are clearly understood and that there
       are no outstanding issues.


SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Section 1: Setting the Scene                                                   - 16 -
Flip Chart 1: Training Objectives

The training objectives are to:
    Present up to date information on the national context in which any REDD
       project will be operating;
    Strengthen the capacity of „grass roots forest sector stakeholders‟ in
       implementing simple tools and approaches applicable for implementing a
       REDD project;
    Build a solid understanding that the successful implementation of REDD
       must be built on genuine participatory processes that allow forest
       dependent communities to actively participate in management and
       implementation processes and actively assess the risks and opportunities
       presented to them through a REDD program.
    Build the knowledge levels of grass roots stakeholders so that they can
        engaged in meaningful debate and dialogue over local REDD projects;
    Develop participant action plans that clearly define both immediate and
        long term activities that must be implemented to achieve a successful
        REDD outcome.


SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Flip Chart 2: Training Schedule

See PREP 3




SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL

Flip Chart 3: Suggested Group Norms
     Everyone has the right to know (meaning they can ask the trainers at any
      time why something is being done or said, and how it relates to the overall
      workshop aims).
     Any question is a good question.

        Allow everyone to participate.

        Start and finish on time BUT accept flexibility in the schedule.
        No smoking in the training room.
        Switch off mobile phones (or turn mobile phones to silent mode).




Section 1: Setting the Scene                                                - 17 -
SECTION 2: INTRODUCTION TO REDD AND REDD-iness


    2.1 International and National Response to Climate Change – The Role of
        REDD
    2.2 Local Signs and Impacts of Climate Change.
    2.3 Forests and Carbon – Mitigating and Adapting.
    2.4 What Is Driving Deforestation and Forest Degradation?




Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                       - 18 -
  Session 2.1: INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL RESPONSES
TO CLIMATE CHANGE – THE ROLE OF REDD

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will:
 Understand some of the key international processes currently moving REDD
    forward.
 Understand national responses to the international debate and action on
    REDD.

MATERIALS
 LCD projector – This will depend on resource person‟s requirements.

TIME
         45 minutes

PREPARATION
   Identify and invite a resource person to provide a very basic presentation
     on:
        o Global warming
        o The emissions from deforestation and forest degradation
        o International debate on climate change, the process to Copenhagen
            2009 and beyond, and the emerging role of REDD in this debate.
        o The current period of developing and testing REDD processes and
            methodologies – a period of REDD-iness.
        o What the national government has put in place (where the training is
            being held) regarding REDD processes and practices, ie is there a
            national carbon accounting system? Has a national baseline or
            emissions target been set?
   The presentation should be brief and cover the key areas discussed in the
     briefing note „Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness‟.

STEPS:
   1. Invite the resource person to provide a short summary of the key
      international and national issues that are shaping REDD.
   2. Encourage questions and discussion throughout the presentation

COMMENT:
   The trainer can also provide this overview session provided he/she has a
    good level of knowledge on the issues.
   Posters with photos and precise explanation are preferred to powerpoint
    presentations as support materials.
         The     trainer should highlight any issues that arise from either the
          presentation or questions from participants that need further action or
          explanation and note these down on the REDD Building Blocks Flip chart




Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                             - 19 -
Session 2.2: LOCAL SIGNS AND IMPACTS OF CLIMATE
CHANGE.

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session participants will be able to:
     List the local signs and impacts of climate change.

MATERIALS
   Flip charts
   Marker pens

TIME
         45 minutes

PREPARATION
   Flip Chart 1: Definition of Climate Change
   Flip Chart 2: Two guiding questions for small group work:
        What are the local signs of climate change?
        What are the expected local impacts of climate change on humans,
          livelihoods, water supplies, agriculture, animals, vegetation and
          biodiversity?

STEPS
  1. Introduce the session by explaining that in the previous session we heard
     about what is causing climate change and what are some of the
     international and national responses to climate change.
  2. In this session, we will explore the signs and impacts of climate change
     within our own local communities and ecosystems.
  3. If a definition of climate change has not already been provided in Session
     2.1 then present the definitions in Flip Chart 1.
  4. Explain the next small group activity as a very simple activity, but a very
     important one. Two questions will be asked of the participants:
      What are the local signs of climate change?
         Give participants a clue by asking if they have notices any changes in
         temperature (hotter/colder), rain (patterns/intensity), more extreme
         weather, rising sea levels (don‟t ask in a land locked country), changes
         in wildlife movements
      What are the anticipated impacts of climate change on humans,
         livelihoods, water supplies, agriculture, animals, vegetation and
         biodiversity?
  5. Now break the group into smaller groups and allow approximately 30
     minutes for the group work. At the end of this period reconvene the group
     and get each group to read out what they have discussed.
  6. Use a „snowballing‟ method (one group reads out their outcomes and
     subsequent groups only add additional information) to present the
     outcomes.
  7. Conclude the session by outlining areas that participant‟s may not have
     covered.



Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                             - 20 -
COMMENT:
   This session is a useful follow on to Session 2.1 and while simple in
    process can generate much discussion and debate among participants.


SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Flip Chart 1: Definition of Climate Change

Climate Change
      Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature or
      precipitation) lasting for an extended period of time (typically decades)


United Nations Forum Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) definition:
      Climate Change as „a change of climate which is attributed directly or
      indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global
      atmosphere‟


SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Flip Chart 2: Guiding Questions

1. What are the local signs of climate change?
2. What are the expected local impacts of climate change on:
    people,
    livelihoods,
    water supplies,
    agriculture,
    animals,
    vegetation and
    biodiversity?




Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                           - 21 -
Session 2.3: FORESTS AND CARBON – MITIGATING AND
ADAPTING.

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will:
 Know the difference between a mitigating effect and an adaptation response
 Understand the role of forests in both mitigating and adapting to climate
    change.
 Have an introductory understanding of the carbon pools within a forest.
 Be introduced to the main Greenhouse Gases and main sources of emission.

MATERIALS

TIME
         45 minutes

PREPARATION
   Flip Chart 1: What is Carbon
   Flip Chart 2: The 6 Carbon Pools
   Flip Chart 3: Definition of Adaptation and Mitigation.

This session is divided into a number of sub-sections. The trainer should carefully
consider what sub-sections should be presented – this will depend on material
already presented in sessions 2.1 and 2.2, time constraints and level of interest of
participants.

STEPS:
Sub-section 1: What is Carbon
   1. Explain to participants that in this session we will explore a number of
      issues related to forest and carbon.
   2. Ask all participants to provide an example of pure carbon (Some answers:
      diamonds, graphite, coal).
   3. Then ask participants where carbon can be found (Answer: in virtually
      everything). Highlight Flip Chart 1 to further explain what Carbon is.

Sub-section 2: Carbon and Trees
   4. Show participants a slide or pre-drawn flipchart of the carbon cycle and
      highlight the position of forests within the cycle.
   5. Next ask participants to see if they can identify six carbon pools linked to a
      tree. Using 4 or 5 copies of the tree diagram in flip chart 2, posted around
      the room, participants will write the names of these carbon pools in the
      appropriate places on the diagram. Allow 5 minutes for the exercise.
   6. At the end of the exercise present a copy of flip chart 2 with the answers
      entered. Note that, on average, about 50% of the dry weight of above
      ground biomass is carbon.
       If peat forests are of relevance/interest to some of the participants,
          highlight the very high percentage of carbon stores in the inorganic
          matter of the soil.
   7. Conclude this section be stating that forests play a valuable role in storing
      (or sequestering) carbon and can be a forest sink. However harvesting or

Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                                - 22 -
          burning trees can also release carbon and act as sources of carbon.
          Therefore forests can be both carbon sinks and sources of carbon.

Sub-section 3: Adaptation and Mitigation
   8. Refer participants back to Session 2.1 on global warming and remind
       participants that because of the increased release of carbon into the
       atmosphere by human activity, the earth is warming which will have
       significant impacts on all aspects of life (refer to outcomes from Session
       2.2). The deforestation and degradation of forests contribute approximately
       20% of carbon emissions to the atmosphere.
   9. Introduce the terms Adaptation and Mitigation, emphasizing that plants and
       animals (including humans) will have to adapt to changes in temperature,
       but we also have a responsibility to mitigate against the worst effects of
       climate change. Show Flip Chart 2 to highlight definitions.
   10. Break participants into groups of 4 to 6 and get each group to consider to
       key questions:
       How can forests help communities and biodiversity adapt to changes in
          climate?
       How can forest help in the mitigation against climate change?
   11. Allow 30 minutes for group work and ask each group to report back using a
       „snowballing‟ method (ie the first group reports their findings, the second
       group only reports new findings and so on). The trainer should make a list
       of all suggested adaptation and mitigation mechanisms.

     12. Conclude the session by again highlighting the key points:
         Forests can be both carbon sinks and carbon sources depending on
           how they are managed.
         Forests have a role in both adaptation and mitigation
         Other land use changes can also release important greenhouse gases
           and this should also be considered in any REDD project.

COMMENT:
 This session plan covers many aspects of forests and carbon. The trainer
  should carefully design the training to match the time requirements and the
  level of participants understanding of the issues.

SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL
Flip Chart 1: What is Carbon

Carbon is a chemical element and is the fourth most abundant element in the
universe (by mass). It is abundant in the Sun, stars, comets and in the
atmospheres of most planets. Carbon is found in the Earth's atmosphere,
dissolved in all water bodies and stored as coal, oil and gas in the earth.

Carbon is found in all living life forms, including humans and is the chemical basis
of all known life.

Carbon is continually cycled between the atmosphere, the terrestrial biosphere
(solid earth), water bodies and sediments (such as coal).




Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                                - 23 -
SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL
Flip Chart 2: Carbon Pools




IMPORTANT: DELETE THE PERCENTAGE FIGURES ON THE ABOVE PICTURE

SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL
Flip Chart 3: What is Adaptation and Mitigation

Adaptation is:
     Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human
     systems in response to actual or expected climatic changes, which reduces
     the negative impacts of climate change.

Mitigation is:
      Human activities to reduce the source of greenhouse gases or activities to
      enlarge the sink for greenhouse gases.




Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                            - 24 -
Session 2.4: WHAT IS DRIVING DEFORESTATION AND FOREST
DEGRADATION?


OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session participants will be able to:
     Explain why deforestation and forest degradation are important contributing
        factor to the world wide emissions for Greenhouse Gases (GHGs).
     Identify the direct and underlying (or root) causes of deforestation and
        forest degradation.
     Identify and prioritize which „causes‟ of deforestation and forest degradation
        must be considered when establishing REDD processes

MATERIALS
   Flip charts
   Marker pens
   Index cards
   Glue or tape

TIME
         1 hour 15 minutes

PREPARATION
   Write up three flip charts with a definition of „Forest‟, „Deforestation‟ and
     „Forest Degradation‟ (see session support material).
   Photocopy sample Deforestation Root Cause Analysis for each participant
     (see Session Support Material)

STEPS
  1. Introduce the session by explaining that preventing deforestation and forest
     degradation can mitigate nearly 20% of global carbon emissions. Standing
     forests can also help us to adapt to climate change by providing valuable
     ecosystem services
  2. Present a flip chart with the following definitions:
             Forest as defined by the Kyoto protocol
             Deforestation
             Degradation
     Make sure participants clearly understand the difference between forest
     degradation and deforestation.
  3. Explain that direct causes of deforestation and forest degradation are often
     only symptoms of more complex, underlying causes or „root‟ causes.
     Explain that gaining a full understanding of both causes of deforestation
     and forest degradation is important to develop a long-term and successful
     approach to REDD
  4. Hand out a copy of the sample „Deforestation Root Cause Analysis‟ (see
     Session Support Material) to illustrate a „root‟ cause map. Explain that this
     mapping tool is a very useful and powerful way to explore both direct and
     underlying causes of deforestation.


Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                                - 25 -
    5. Break participants into groups of 4 to 6 (small groups based on
       geographical areas will work best for this exercise) and explain the following
       small group work:
                Each group is to clearly identify a geographical area that is
                   currently being deforested – even if not all group members have
                   intimate knowledge of the particular area, they should at least be
                   able to provide input to the discussion.
                Write the deforestation problem or issue on a card and place at
                   the top of the flip chart (refer to Session Support Material to
                   illustrate – Step 1).
                The group is then to brainstorm the direct (or proximate) causes
                   leading to deforestation. Each reason should be written on a card
                   and placed below the deforestation heading on the flip chart
                   (Step 2).
                Then, for each of the direct causes identified, the group should
                   work „downwards‟ by asking „why this event or activity is
                   happening‟. At each level participants should clearly identify the
                   reason, or cause. These reasons need to be written on a card to
                   help fully explore the „roots‟ of the deforestation problem (Steps
                   3-10).
                Once the first direct cause has been fully explained, participants
                   need to explore the second direct cause (Step 11) and so on.
                The group members need to continue to ask 'why' until the 'root
                   causes' of the deforestation problem are identified.
                Due to time constraints each group will only be able to explore 2-
                   3 „direct‟ causes.
                Finally the group members should connect all the index cards
                   with lines that show the linkages between cause and effect.
                   Remind participants to check their logic by repeating the process
                   of asking „why?‟ down through the levels of cause.
    6. The trainer will need to spend some time with each of the groups to ensure
       that the groups have understood the task and that their logic in asking
       „why?‟ and responding is correct.
    7. When the small-group work is completed, ask each group to post their flip
       charts on the training room wall and then get all participants to walk around
       the room examining the other groups‟ outcomes.
    8. Initiate a discussion with the following questions:
                How does this activity help us think about the causes of
                   deforestation?
                What activities and mechanisms can be put in place to stop
                   deforestation and forest degradation?
                How does this activity help us to think about possible REDD
                   processes to reduce emissions from deforestation?
    9.      Note any outstanding issues or follow up action that must be
        considered after the training on the REDD Building Blocks Flipchart.
    10. Conclude that any REDD mechanism must not only consider the obvious or
        apparent causes of deforestation, but also the underlying causes, which are
        generally institutionally entrenched in a county‟s economic and social
        systems.



Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                                - 26 -
COMMENT:
 The time provided for this exercise (1 hour) is quite short therefore care must
  be taken in clearly explaining the steps and purpose of the exercise.
 The root cause analysis tool (or problem tree) is useful for participants to
  explore and understand the context and interrelationship of the deforestation
  problem, and the potential impacts when targeting projects and programs
  toward specific issues.
 Be sure to stress to participants that the outcome of the „problem tree‟ is never
  static, and constant review and monitoring of deforestation rates and
  causes will be required throughout the life of any REDD project.
 Many of the linkages will be based on assumptions. Areas where more
  information is required should be noted as the analysis is being conducted.




Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                               - 27 -
SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Flip Chart Definitions

Flip Chart 1: Forest as defined under the Kyoto Protocol:
     Minimum area: 0.05 – 1.00 ha
     Minimum crown cover 10 – 30%
     Minimum potential height 2 – 5m
     Young forests with the potential to meet the above 3 criteria
     Areas which were forested before 1990

Flip Chart 2: Deforestation
     “The long-term or permanent conversion of land from forested to non-
     forested”

Flip                      Chart                   3:                     Degradation
       “Changes within the forest which negatively affect the structure or function of
       the stand or site, and thereby lower the capacity to supply products and/or
       services”.




Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                                  - 28 -
      SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL: An Example Of A Deforestation ‘Root Cause’ Analysis

Step 1:                                                              Deforestation by company and „outside‟ communities is
Deforestation                                                             impacting on forest communities livelihoods
Issue


Step 2: Direct
                          Forestry operators break
Causes                                                        Damage to spiritually              Additional deforestation by „distant‟           Dispute over legality of agree-
                         rules of logging agreement
                                                            important sites and NTFPs                       communities                           ment of timber concession


                                                               Step 11: Plant operators              Distant communities lack                       Wrong tenure holders &
                                                                     not aware of                   understanding of good forest                 resource users signed logging
   Step 3: Forest                  Step 5: Limited/no            spiritual/NFTP sites                                                                     concession
                                                                                                           management
  agency logging                    understanding of
     guidelines                     logging operation
                                                                                                                                                                        Low level of
   inadequate to                  rules and regulations                      Sites not
                                                                                                                                                Local authority       participation and
  protect resource                                                          marked on              Distant                 Insufficient
                                                                                                                                                 gave wrong           consultation with
       base                                                                logging plan        community has                  forest
                                                                                                                                                information to          forest users
                         Step 6:                 Step 8: Plant                                  no customary              management
                                                                                                                                                forest agency          before draft of
                       Inadequate             operators don‟t care                              management                extension (no
                                                                          Community did                                                            on tenure                timber
Step 4: Forest        supervision of           about damages to                                rules for timber            education)
                                                                         not inform forest                                                          holders              agreement
agency has no          operators by               resources
  access to                                                                   agency                                                             Local authority
                      forest agency                                                                                                                                        Logging
   technical                                                                                                                                    with poor know-          company
 information                                  Step 9: Company has                                 Distant         Insufficient       Little          ledge of
                                                                          Community did                                                                                 encouraged
                                              no code of practice or                            community         funding by       interest/        traditional
                       Step 7: No                                             not see                                                                                 signatories not
                                              education on environ-                            is a farming         Govern-      low priority        authority
                      political will to                                    relevance of                                                                                  to consult
                                                 mental impacts                                 community            ment          of forest
                      enforce forest                                     providing info on                                                                                resource
                                                                                               close to city                        agency
                          agency                                          spiritual/NTFP                                                         Local authority            users
                                                                                                                                                                           Timber
                                                                                                                                    officers
                       guidelines                Step 10: No                    sites                                                             composed of            company
                                                requirements                                                                                    young, educated        interested to
                                                 from forest                                                                                      people from            complete
                                                   agency                   Inadequate                                                             outside, not            contract
                                                                          consultation by                                                          educated in          quickly and
                                                                           forest agency                                                        traditional rights          quietly


      Section 2 – Introduction to REDD and REDD-iness                                                    - 29 -
SECTION 3: REDD CONCEPTS


    3.1 Introducing Additionality, Leakage and Permanence
    3.2 REDD Concepts in the Project Context
    3.3 Understanding Baselines




Section 3 – REDD Methodologies                              - 30 -
 Session 3.1: INTRODUCING               ADDITIONALITY, LEAKAGE AND
PERMANENCE

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will:
 Understand three basic REDD concepts and why these concepts are so
    important for a successful REDD project.
 Have read a simple case study upon which further discussions on the REDD
    concepts will be based. The case study could either be the case study
    presented in PREP 1 or a country/local specific case study.

MATERIALS
 Flipcharts

TIME
        45 minutes

PREPARATION
  1. Photocopy of case study hand out for each participant.
  2. Write up flipcharts for each of the four concepts and post around the
     training hall

STEPS:
   1. Identify and invite a resource person to lead a session on REDD concepts.
      This resource person should have specific knowledge of the concepts of
      additionality, leakage and permanence, preferably from direct involvement
      in the development of REDD projects or programs.
   2. Explain to participants that 3 important concepts relating to REDD will be
      examined in some detail:
      1. Additionality,
      2. Leakage
      3. Permanence
   3. Handout out the case study and read through it with the participants. Allow
      10 minutes for this. Ask if there are any questions or comments.
   4. Using the flip defining Additionality, read out what the principle of
      additionality is to participants. Seek any questions and clarification on the
      concept.
   5. Using the flip defining Leakage, read out what the concept of leakage is to
      participants. Seek any questions and clarification on the principle.
   6. Using the flip defining Permanence, read out what the concept of
      permanence is to participants and the main risks associated with the
      „permanent‟ reduction of emissions from a REDD project. Seek any
      questions and clarification on the principle.




Section 3 – REDD Methodologies                                                - 31 -
 SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
 Flip Chart 1:
 Additionality:
        The principle that only those projects that would not have happened
        anyway should be counted for carbon credits.




 SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL
 Flip Chart 2:
 Leakage:
        is defined as the increases in deforestation and forest degradation rates
        which occur outside the project boundary, and which are attributable to the
        project activity.


 There are three types of „leakage‟:
        1) Activity Leakage: Where an activity moves to outside the project
        boundaries.
        2) Market Leakage: Where the REDD activity reduces supply from the
        project area resulting in increased demand for the products outside the
        project area.
        3) International Leakage: Where logging companies move to other
        countries or continents.




 SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL
 Flip Chart 3:
 Permanence:
        The concept of PERMANENCE relates to the duration of the positive effects
        of a climate change mitigation activity. Permanence implies that these
        effects will last indefinitely – but this is rarely the case.


 Risks to permanence include:

 Ecological risk: Forest fires, natural disasters, disease
 Government risk: A change in government could overturn prior commitments
 Demand-side (Market) risk: If the value of a competing product (such as palm oil)
 increases, storing carbon may stop being profitable.


  Direct and „root‟ causes of deforestation must be understood and tackled in
 national policy and international negotiations.




Section 3 – REDD Methodologies                                                    - 32 -
Session 3.2: REDD CONCEPTS IN THE PROJECT CONTEXT

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will:
 Understand what the implications of Additionality, Leakage and Permanence
    are for potential REDD projects.

MATERIALS
     Flip Charts from previous session

TIME
        1 hour and 30 minutes

STEPS:
   1. Divide participants into small groups and ask them to answer the following
      questions, based on information in the case study:
           a. Which forest estate areas could be considered for a REDD project
              and which areas cannot be included because of additionality
           b. Will there be any leakage from the potential REDD project site?
              What types of leakage may occur and how can it be reduced?
           c. What mechanisms could be put in place to ensure permanence of
              the reductions in deforestation and degradation rates in the project
              area (or at least until the end of the project)
   2. Allow 45 minutes for this exercise
   3. Invite each group to present their conclusions. Use a „snowballing‟
      approach, so that each group only presents points on which they have
      different conclusions from previous groups
   4. Initiate a discussion and Q+A session in the plenary on the following points:
            Any differences of opinion in answers to the three questions
            Implications of additionality, leakage and permanence for potential
              REDD projects in their forest areas

COMMENT:
   Answer to question (a): Only 745 hectares of forest can be eligible for a
    REDD activity considering the Additionality principle.
   The remaining 255 hectares are not eligible for REDD as the protection of
    these areas from deforestation is already happening.
   BUT there may be some debate over the 5 ha that “should be protected”.

                                 Protected                         Tradable
               Total             Protected   Should      Mountains Protected Balance
                                 by law      be                    but
                                             protected             threatened
Hectares       1,000             50          5           200       10         735
Tons           50,000            2,500       500         8,000     1,000      38,000
CO2e

Issues that need to be communicated:
    Countries will have to prove the additionality of all REDD activities.


Section 3 – REDD Methodologies                                                   - 33 -
        Leakage can be minimized through landscape management and a national
         accounting system. The more countries that participate in a climate change
         regime, the lower the risk of leakage.
        There are several solutions to secure permanence of carbon emissions
         including 1) issue of temporary credits that would expire after a few years,
         2) credit buffers in which some credits are put aside as insurance in case of
         future loss of forest carbon and 3) risk pooling by combining REDD with
         different activities such as afforestation and energy efficiency projects.




Section 3 – REDD Methodologies                                                   - 34 -
Session 3.3: UNDERSTANDING BASELINES (and REFERENCE
EMISSION LEVELS)

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will:
 Understand the difference between three kinds of baselines and how they are
    relevant to establishing a credible REDD project.

MATERIALS
 Handout

TIME
         30 minutes

PREPARATION
   Flip Chart 1: Definitions of 3 kinds of Baseline
   Flip Chart 2: Graph of the 3 baselines

STEPS:
   1. Using flip charts 1 and 2, describe the three kinds of Baseline which are
      involved in developing a REDD project.
   2. Before breaking the participants back into their small groups, provide them
      with the historical data for deforestation rates in the multiple use forest
      zone over the last ten years (see PREP 1.1).
   3. Again break participants into groups of 4 to 6 and get them to consider the
      case study again with the additional information.
   4. This time ask participants to consider a baseline and to set a BAU baseline
      or Reference Emission Level for the multiple use forest zone over a 30 year
      period.
   5. Allow 15 minutes for this discussion.
   6. Once all groups have finished their analysis, get each group to report back
      to the plenary with their outcomes.
   7. Initiate a discussion about:
            How did participants set their baseline – was it based on an average
              of historical data, one year or other factors?
            Do participants see any conflicts arising in determining baselines –
              are there incentives to over estimate deforestation rates?
            What are the implications for. potential REDD projects in their forest
              areas
     8.       Note any outstanding issues or follow up action that must be
          considered after the training on the REDD Building Blocks Flipchart.


COMMENT:
Issue           that         need          to         be          communicated:
1. A baseline must be independently validated and adequately monitored in order
to be credible enough to generate REDD credits.
2. Sub-national and project-level baselines will be more accurate and monitoring
will have a higher degree of certainty.

Section 3 – REDD Methodologies                                                - 35 -
SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL
Flip Chart 1: What is a Baseline or Reference Emission Level?

Three kinds of Baseline:
Historical baseline = Actual recorded rates of deforestation and forest
     degradation in the past
Business As Usual baseline (BAU) = Projected future rates of deforestation and
    forest degradation in the absence of REDD
Crediting baseline = The rate of future deforestation and forest degradation
    below which a REDD project may claim credits (a negotiated baseline, lower
    than the BAU)



Flip Chart 2:
                            TYPES OF BASELINE




Section 3 – REDD Methodologies                                           - 36 -
SECTION 4: IMPLEMENTING REDD - MANAGING, MEASURING
AND MONITORING


    4.1 Managing Forests Sustainably
    4.2 Managing Stakeholders: Interests, Influence and Impact
    4.3 Managing Risks to People and Forests
    4.4 Measuring and Validating




Section 4 – Implementing REDD                                    - 37 -
Session 4.1: MANAGING FORESTS SUSTAINABLY

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will:
 Consider options to manage forests sustainably and in a way that stops or
    reduces the causes of deforestation and forest degradation (explored in
    Session 2.4)
 Understand that need to achieve a zero net loss of carbon from the forest while
    still maintaining social and economic services for local people.

MATERIALS
 Flip chart
 Market pens

TIME
         1 hour and 15 minutes

PREPARATION
   Flip Chart 1: Common Forest Management Strategies to Reduce
    Deforestation

STEPS:
   1. Introduce the session by explaining the discussion during this session will
      build upon the outcomes from Session 2.2
   2. Explain that there are three broad strategies generally used to reduce
      deforestation:
              Forest Protection
              Sustainable Forest Management
              Payment for Environmental Services
   3. Break the group into smaller groups of 4 to 6 people and ask each group to
      consider their forest areas and ways to reduce deforestation. Ask each
      group to respond to the following questions:
              What strategies are currently in place to reduce deforestation?
              Which of these strategies are working and why?
              Which of these strategies are not working and why?
   4. Allow approximately 45 minutes for the group discussion and once the
      groups have completed the task ask each of them to report back their
      findings in the plenary.
   5. Draw out a discussion on:
       Some of the common reasons for success and failure.
       Whether the strategies in place are actually dealing with the underlying
          root causes identified in session 2.4 or the more direct or immediate
          causes.
       Conclude the session by asking participants whether they think the
          management forests they are working with is „sustainable‟ and what
          implications there are for any REDD developments?
     1.       Note any outstanding issues or follow up action that must be
          considered after the training on the REDD Building Blocks Flipchart.

SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Section 4 – Implementing REDD                                               - 38 -
Common Strategies to Reduce Deforestation

Forest Protection: The establishment and management of national parks, or
protected areas or the zoning of forest areas based on utilization. Areas of
significant and/or threatened ecosystems are „reserved‟ and strategies put in place
to monitor and properly manage the ecological integrity of the reserved area.
People are generally excluded from the „protected forest‟.

Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) The stewardship and use of forests in a
way that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity and their
potential to fulfil relevant ecological, economic and social functions, without
causing damage to other ecosystems (FAO definition).

SFM achieves a balance between the needs of people and the long term
conservation of the forest‟s health and ecological integrity.
It may incorporate many approaches, such as community forestry, forest zoning
for multiple use and reduced impact logging.

Payment for Environmental Services (PES): PES are a variety of market based
arrangements between buyers (those receiving the benefit from environmental
services, ie urban people who want clean drinking water) and willing sellers (those
managing the environmental service, ie upland communities farming and living
near the water source). REDD fits the broad definition of PES, in which the
environmental service is the storage of forest carbon, but at a much larger scale
than traditional PES schemes.




Section 4 – Implementing REDD                                                  - 39 -
Session 4.2: MANAGING                      STAKEHOLDERS:               INTERESTS,
INFLUENCE AND IMPACT

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will:
 Identify stakeholders that will be, or should be, involved in any REDD project
    and assess their ability to influence (positively or negatively) any REDD
    developments.

MATERIALS
 Flip chart
 Market pens
 Glue or sticking tape

TIME
        1 hour and 15 minutes

PREPARATION
   Flip Chart 1: What is a stakeholder
   Flip Chart 2: Stakeholder Analysis Matrix

STEPS:
   1. Introduce the session by explaining that forest management is not only
      about trees, but about working with a range of stakeholders to achieve
      sustainable forest management and no net loss of carbon stocks from the
      forest.
   2. Start with the question: What is a stakeholder?
       Note answers and conclude by presenting a definition of a stakeholder:
                 A stakeholder is “An individual, group or institution that has an
                    interest in a particular forest resource (this interest is sometimes
                    called their “stake”) (See Session Support Material).
   3. Indicate that a stakeholder analysis is a very important tool to clearly
      identify ALL stakeholders, their interest (or stake) in the project and their
      ability to influence any REDD project.
   4. Introduce the Stakeholder Analysis Matrix and explain that in the next small
      group activity, participants are to identify all stakeholders for their REDD
      project, their interest (or stake) in the project, their ability (positive and
      negative) to influence the direction of the REDD project and the likely
      impact on them from the introduction of a REDD project.
   5. Divide the participants up into groups of 4 to 6 and give them 45 minutes to
      complete the task.
   6. At the end of the task, get each of the groups to stick their flip charts onto
      the walls of the training room and ask all participants to review the
      outcomes of the other groups work.
   7. Ask the following questions:
       Was this a useful exercise?
       What are the implications for potential REDD projects in your forest
          area? Has any stakeholder been forgotten or ignored in your planning?
       Are the stakeholders that can positively influence a REDD project fully
          involved in planning? Why/why not?
Section 4 – Implementing REDD                                                     - 40 -
             For those stakeholders that can negatively influence a REDD project,
              are there any strategies in place to reduce their impact?
     8.       Note any outstanding issues or follow up action that must be
          considered after the training on the REDD Building Blocks Flipchart.

COMMENT:
   Ensure that participants are as specific as possible in identifying
    stakeholders. For instance „the government‟ provides very little information
    as there are many agencies, ministries and departments within “the
    government”. The usefulness of the exercise is greatly increased if
    participants can be as specific as possible in identifying stakeholders.

SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Flip Chart 1: What is a Stakeholder

     A stakeholder is “An individual, group or institution that has an interest in a
     particular forest resource (this interest is sometimes called their “stake”).

     A “stake” can be a particular forest product e.g. fuelwood; timber; non-timber
     forest products; water or it can be a service e.g. recreation; biodiversity
     conservation; scenic beauty.



SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Flip Chart 2: Stakeholder Analysis Matrix (Example)

 Stakeholder              Interest or Stake      Ability     to Impact
                                                 Influence

 Women of          the Collection of NTFPs       No Influence    + Financial income from
 community                                                       Carbon
                                                                 - Reduced access to
                                                                 forest
 Men   of          the Harvesting of timber      +               + Financial income from
 community                                                       Carbon
                                                                 - Reduction in logging –
                                                                 changing      employment
                                                                 opportunities
 Dept of Forestry         Sustainable            ++        (very + Reduced deforestation
                          management          of strong)
                          forest
 Illegal loggers          Access to timber                    - - No access to forest
                                                 -- (very weak)
                                                              - - No income from log
                                                              sales
 NGO                      Livelihoods         of +/- (depends +      Increased  rural
                          community              on context)  livelihoods
                                                              - Possible increased
                                                              conflict




Section 4 – Implementing REDD                                                         - 41 -
Session 4.3: RISKS OF REDD TO PEOPLE AND FORESTS

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will:
 Assess the possible risks that may emerge from the introduction of a REDD
    project to both forests and people.
 Develop strategies to reduce risks that will affect the sustainability of any
    REDD project.

MATERIALS
 Flip chart
 Market pens
 Index cards
 Glue or sticking tape

TIME
        1 hour

PREPARATION
   Flip Chart 1: Risk Assessment Framework

STEPS:
   1. Introduce the session by suggesting that REDD has the potential to deliver
      many positive benefits to forest-dependent communities while significantly
      reducing deforestation and forest degradation. But there will be many
      challenges, problems and risks associated with a REDD project. This
      session will provide participants time to consider problems they will face
      (both forest management and „people‟ problems) and consider strategies to
      over come these problems or risks.
   2. Explain that a very simple Risk Assessment Framework will be used to
      assess likely risks and the impact on the sustainability of any REDD project
      of these risks.
   3. Break participants into groups or 4 to 6 and explain the following exercise.
   4. Each group is to identify potential problems or risks that they see in
      developing and/or implementing a REDD project. This may range from
      methodological issues such as leakage to forest management problems
      such as increased fire regimes to social problems such as increased inter
      and intra community conflict and reduced forest access to harvest NTFPs.
      Each problem or risk is to be written on one index card.
   5. Each problem is then to be placed on the Risk Assessment Framework
      according to the likelihood or chance of an adverse or poor outcome and
      the impact of the problem.
   6. For those problems or risks placed in the „high likelihood‟, „high impact‟
      corner, participants should consider a strategy to stop, avoid or reduce the
      risk.
   7. Allow approximately 30 minutes for the exercise and at the conclusion of
      the small group work, get each group to briefly identify their priority risks
      (high likelihood, high impact) and strategies to overcome these risks.
   8. Initiate a discussion around the following key questions:
       What were some of the commonly identified risks and what strategies
          were put in place to overcome these risks?
Section 4 – Implementing REDD                                                 - 42 -
                 Where the risks identified mainly methodological/forest management
                  risks or social risks?
                 Which stakeholders were most affected by the identified risks?
     9.       Note any outstanding issues or follow up action that must be
          considered after the training on the REDD Building Blocks Flipchart.



SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Risk Assessment Framework



                High
                                  Back-Up           Detailed
              PROBABILITY




                             (Contingency) Plan    Management




                             Occasional Review    Regular Review

                 Low



                            Low                              High
                                     SEVERITY

                 Probability is the of an adverse or very a risk occurring
          Likelihood is the chancechance or likelihood of poor outcome.
              Impact is the degree of difficulty go to plan caused by the
             Severity is the scale if things don‟t or damage or go wrong. risk
                                           occurring


Session supporting material
Risk: the chance of something happening that will have a negative impact
on one’s objectives




Section 4 – Implementing REDD                                                    - 43 -
Session 4.4: MEASURING AND VALIDATING

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will:
 Assess possible forest inventory methods to calculate changes in forest carbon
    stocks over time.
 Consider their current forest inventory methods to assess if these are currently
    adequate to monitor forest carbon changes over time.
 Understand the concepts of project validation and verification and be familiar
    with emerging standards for REDD.

MATERIALS
 Flip charts
 Marker pens
 Glue or sticking tape

TIME
        1 hour and 15 minutes

PREPARATION
   Flip Chart 1: Forest Inventory Methods
   Flip Chart 2: Small Group Questions
   Flip Chart 3: Definitions of Validation and Verification
   Flip Chart 4: REDD standards

STEPS:
1. Introduce the session be explaining that the measurement of forest carbon
   stocks over time is a key element of any REDD project. Without accurate,
   timely and representative measurements, carbon credits could not be reliably
   verified and sold.
2. Explain that at the project level, various forest inventory methods will be
   required to measure forest carbon changes over time. Use the flip chart to
   explore these methods and ask participants for any examples they may have of
   each of the common inventory methods
3. Explain that in small groups, participants will examine issues regarding forest
   inventory methods currently being used, according to the chart below, and
   write brief notes in the space provided on the flipchart. Each group will then
   discuss what they would do differently to address each issue, if they were
   measuring forest carbon as part of their inventory, and enter this information in
   the space provided.
4. Break participants into small groups of between 4 to 6 people and give them
   30 minutes to complete the exercise.
5. Each group is to report their findings back to the plenary.
6. Discuss in the plenary the issues of accuracy versus cost/time and how the
   data collection process and analysis can be improved.
7. Explaining that all REDD projects need to be independently verified and
   validated for carbon credits to be ultimately sold from a REDD project.
8. Introduce the definitions of Validation and Verification on Flip Chart 3. Ask for
   any questions on clarification of these issues


Section 4 – Implementing REDD                                                  - 44 -
9. Introduce the emerging standards for potential REDD standards on Flip Chart
   4. Explain that a specific standard for UN REDD projects is still in development
   but will be based mainly on these existing standards.

    Note any outstanding issues or follow up action that must be considered after
the training on the REDD Building Blocks Flipchart.


SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL

Flip Chart 1:

Common Forest Inventory Methods

Forest Sample Plots (permanent and non-permanent)

Remote Sensing

Ground Truthing

Data management



                        Session Support Material
 Flip Chart 2: Group questions on forest inventory methods

 In column 1, ask participants to review the ways in which they address the
 listed issues in their current forest inventory practices. In column 2, ask them
 to consider ways in which their actions would change if they were measuring
 forest carbon as part of their inventory.

 Forest Inventory Practice                Column 1:             Column 2:
                                       Standard Forest       Measuring Forest
                                          Inventory              Carbon
     Defining boundaries
     Forest classification
     Frequency of measurements
     Intensity of inventory
     Personnel and data collection
     Accuracy of measurements
     Validation of collected data
     Data management




Section 4 – Implementing REDD                                                   - 45 -
SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Flip Chart 3: Definitions

Validation: The assessment of a project‟s Project Design Document (PDD)
     against a specific standard, by an independent third party, before the
     implementation of the project.


Verification: An independent third party provides an assessment of the expected
     or actual emission reductions of a particular abatement (measuring) period.




SESSION SUPPORT MATERIAL
Flip Chart 4: REDD Standards

Standards are a set of rules or codes defining product performance (e.g. grades,
dimensions, characteristics, test methods, and rules for use]. In all REDD projects
standards are essential to ensure the creation of credible, high quality carbon credit is
produced for sale on the market. Standards ensure that each ton that is credited actually
represents one ton of emissions reductions and therefore each ton has an equal value in
a market. Standards also reduce risks for both project developers and investors since they
allow each actor to know exactly what they are selling and buying.

Several standards are currently in use on the voluntary carbon market.The two most
widely recognized standards are the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) and the Climate,
Community and Biodiversity standard (CCB). In order to receive certification under these
standards, a project design document must be submitted, and an independent third-party
must audit the project against each respective standards‟ criteria.

Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS): The VCS is a widely accepted certification and
verification system for voluntary carbon projects that recently released guidance to include
agriculture, forestry and land-use activities, including voluntary REDD activities.
        An example of some criteria:
         Demonstrate the project‟s additionality
         Account for the project‟s secondary effects (cumulative impacts)
         Demonstrate the project has no negative impacts on sustainable development
            in the local community

Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCB): CCB standards do not certify
carbon credits, but are used to certify (validate) a project‟s design and show that the
project will be successful in mitigating climate change, and have social and environmental
benefits. Currently, over 100 projects are employing the CCB standard.
        An example of some criteria:
     Estimate impacts of project on communities
     Commit to a biodiversity monitoring plan
     Estimate the net change of carbon stocks due to the projects‟ activities

Source: The above had been adapted from the CCBA, CI, GTZ, RA, TNC and WWF
‘Introductory Course on REDD: A Participant Resource Manual’ (draft November 2008, to
be published in early 2009).




Section 4 – Implementing REDD                                                         - 46 -
SECTION 5: ACTION PLANNING AND TRAINING ASSESSMENT


     5.1 Developing an Action Plan
     5.2 Training Assessment




Section 5 – Action Planning                      - 47 -
Session 5.1: DEVELOPING AN ACTION PLAN

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the participants will:
 Have reflected upon the training content, key issues explored and their key
    learning outcomes that may impact on their work.
 Document their key learnings and actions that must be undertaken after the
    conclusion of the training for the successful implementation of a REDD project
    in their forest area.

MATERIALS
 Flip charts
 Marker pens
 Glue or sticking tape

TIME
         1 hour

PREPARATION
   REDD Building Block Framework is prominently positioned in the training
     room and that all comments written on the Framework can be clearly read
     by all participants.
   Handout of the Action Plan template.

STEPS:
1. Explain that one of the challenges of the training is taking the training
   experiences and converting the valuable lessons learnt into the participants
   own working context.
2. Distribute the Action Plan template to each participant and divide them into
   groups based on their common involvement in a particular project or field area.
3. Direct participants attention to the REDD Building Block Framework that
   comments and suggested activities have been added to throughout the
   training. Use this framework as a reminder of the issues and topics that the
   participants have covered in the two day training program. Highlight any key
   issues that have emerged throughout the training.
4. Explain that participants are to now reflect upon the whole training and use the
   REDD Building Block framework to clearly identify activities that they believe
   must occur at the end of the training for potential REDD projects to be
   successfully implemented.
5. The Action Plan template is to be filled out by participants. It is not to be
   handed to the trainer, but used as a „contract‟ between their group for activities
   that must now be completed.
6. Allow participants 45 minutes to complete the work plan.




Section 5 – Action Planning                                                    - 48 -
ACTION PLAN
Name of participants:

What (are the main lesson learnt from this training?):




What (are the key actions and activities that must be undertaken after the end of
the training for the successful implementation of a potential REDD project within
your project area?).

What needs to be done to understand deforestation and forest degradation?



What needs to be done to meet the requirements of leakage and permanence?



How do you work together with stakeholders to reduce deforestation?


What needs to be done to improve the current monitoring and data collection
system?



How must forest management strategies be improved for sustainable forest
management?




Section 5 – Action Planning                                                 - 49 -
Session 5.2: TRAINING ASSESSMENT

OBJECTIVES
   Assessment of the training program

MATERIALS
   Assessment forms and Note cards (six for each participant)
   Marker Pens

TIME
    30 minutes

STEPS
Step 1 The facilitators hand out the assessment form to the training
participants,and invite them to consider the following questions:

1. What do you think about the relevance, usefulness of the content?
Invite the trainees to consider specifically:
     Are any topics particularly confusing?
     Is the amount of information adequate, or is it excessive?
     What improvements would you like to suggest?

2. What do you think about the quality of the handout?
Invite the trainees to consider specifically:
     Is it easy to understand?
     Do you like the appearance?
     Do you think the information is useful to you?
     What improvements would you like to suggest?

3. What do you think about the training methodology?
Invite the trainees to consider:
     Which activities do you think were most or least useful?
     What improvements would you like to suggest?

4. What do you think about the organization of the training?
Invite trainees to consider:
     Were the food and coffee breaks arranged well?
     In your opinion, how many days should the training last?
     What improvements would you like to suggest?

5. What do you think you have learned from this training?

6. What would you like to learn more about?
.
Step 2. Invite participants to write their responses on one card for each question
and hand them to the trainers. During the process, encourage questions and
discussion

Step 3.Trainers synthesize the answers from the trainees into a report.

Section 5 – Action Planning                                                  - 50 -
TRAINING ASSESSMENT


Please answer in detail the following questions:



1. What do you think about the relevance, usefulness of the training’s content?




2. What do you think about the quality of the handout?




3. What do you think about the training methodology?




4. What do you think about the organization of the training?




5. What do you think you have learned from this training?




6. What would you like to learn more about?




Section 5 – Action Planning                                                       - 51 -

								
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