Natura 2000

Document Sample
Natura 2000 Powered By Docstoc
					        Requirements of the Habitats
          Directive and planning and
        implementation of the projects
Cohesion Fund and Environmental Impact Assessment
                  TAIEX Seminar
            Prague, 24 February, 2005

                      András Demeter,
                 Nature & Biodiversity Unit,
             Directorate-General Environment,
                   European Commission
            Contact: Andras.Demeter@cec.eu.int
DG Env.B2                    1
       Key Priorities of the 6th
         Environment Action
             Programme
      1. Climate Change
      2. Nature and Biodiversity
            One of the specific aims
            (Gothenburg summit):
             Halt biodiversity decline by 2010!
      3. Environment and Health and
         quality of life
      4. Natural Resources and Waste

            = 156 priority actions
DG Env.B2                     2
Legal Instruments for
nature
                  National Legislation
            Protected species, protected areas, hunting
                           provisions, ...


                          European
                           Union

            International Conventions
            Bern, Bonn, Ramsar, Washington (CITES),
                       Biological Diversity
DG Env.B2                      3
                EU-nature
            conservation policy
  Two main directives:
  • “Wild Birds Directive”
    (79/409/EEC)
            bird species
  • “Habitats Directive”
    (92/43/EEC)
            other animal and plant species,
            habitat types
DG Env.B2                  4
PRIORITY EU LEGAL INSTRUMENTS
  FOR NATURE & BIODIVERSITY
            BIRDS DIR. - 1979                      HABITATS DIR. - 1992


    All bird species protected             Species/habitats of EU interest
  No priority bird species (cf.           protected
 indicative list for Life-Nature)             Priority Habitats/species
    EU territory treated as a whole          Biogeographical regions
   Habitat conservation measures          Site protection and management
 (incl. SPAs in NATURA 2000)               measures (SACs) in NATURA 2000
  Regulated hunting and trade             Species protection and
 limited to a few species                  management


     DG Env.B2                         5
DG Env.B2   6
            Natura 2000
             network
 Global aim:     Maintain or restore the
 favourable conservation status of certain
 species and natural habitat types in their
 natural range



        SPA                          SCI

DG Env.B2               7
 What is the target of protection under
           Natura 2000? - I



 • Birds Directive
       – 181 vulnerable bird species
         (Annex I)
            +13 species (EU15+10)
       – migratory bird species (esp. wetlands)



DG Env.B2                  8
            Implementing the Birds
                 Directive –
             nesting and migratory species




DG Env.B2                9
            2 of the 13 new bird
             species in Annex I
            also proposed by CZ,
               HU, PL, SK (BG)




DG Env.B2   10
    Setting up Natura
          2000
            Birds Directive
1) Member States classify (CC: by
        accession)
2) Commission takes coordinating role

Reference list: Important Bird Areas
   (IBAs) based on international criteria
DG Env.B2              11
 What is the target of protection under
           Natura 2000? - II


                      Species and habitats
                    of Community interest
 • Habitats Directive (its annexes I-V)
       – appr. 200 habitats (EU15)
            + 20 habitats (EU15+10)
       – appr. 700 species (EU15)
            + 165 species (EU15+10)

DG Env.B2                  12
  The species such as the steppe
   polecat (Mustela eversmanii)
 or the beetle Carabus hungaricus
 have been proposed by both the
   Czech Republic and Hungary




DG Env.B2           13
   Not only endemic plants...




Dianthus moravicus

DG Env.B2            14
                          Galium sudeticum
 but also species
  which occur in
 other acceding
   countries..




                e.g. Cirsium
            brachycephalum
DG Env.B2             15
     Setting up Natura
           2000
            Habitats Directive
1)          National lists proposed (CC: by accession)
2)          Selection process on biogeographical level
            (aim: Community list) - MS & EC - max. 3
            years
3)          Designation by MS max.
            6 years after Community list


DG Env.B2                     16
          NATURA 2000 network
   Habitat types (Annex I)
           Species                            « Habitats » Directive
         (Annex II)                                   Art. 3



    National list of sites   May 2004




    List of Sites of
                             2005 - 2006
 Community Importance



   Special Conservation
                             End 2007
           Areas
                                                « Birds » Directive
                                                      Art. 4

   NATURA 2000                               Special Protection Areas
      DG Env.B2                         17
NA103IT
DG Env.B2   18
      What is special
         about
      Natura 2000?
• Clearly defined objectives
• Science based
• Biogeographic regions
• Site evaluation/selection on EU-level
• Management / Integration
• Legal obligation for the member states

DG Env.B2               19
       State of play in 2005




DG Env.B2        20
            Natura 2000 in the EU-15




DG Env.B2              21
            What about the new Member States?




DG Env.B2                      22
 Special Protection Areas – February, 2005


                                                                                           No. of sites in
                                                                                                 which a
                                                                                                             Marine Area
       MS   Total Number   Total Area (km²)   Terrestrial Area (km²)   % Terrestrial (1)          marine
                                                                                                                   (km²)
                                                                                                   part is
                                                                                                    noted



  CY                  2                 108                     108                  1,2                0                  0

  CZ                 38               6.936                   6.936                  8,8                          -

  EE                 67              12.063                   5.668                12,5                26              6.394

  HU                 55              11.376                  11.376                12,2                           -

  LT                 40               3.570                   3.570                  5,5                                   0

  LV                 97               6.751                   6.232                  9,6                4               520

  MT                  6                   8                       8                  2,4                                   0

  PL                 72              33.156                  24.362                  7,8                3              8.794

  SI                 27               4.656                   4.653                23,0                 1                  3

  SK                 38              12.295                  12.295                25,2                           -

   EU-10            442           90.918,64                  75.207               10,19                34             15.711

DG Env.B2                                               23
                            SPAs database - February 2005


 50                                                                   18.000
 45                                                                   16.000
 40                                                                   14.000
 35
                                                                      12.000
 30                                                                            % Terrestrial (1)
                                                                      10.000   Marine Area (km²)
 25
                                                                      8.000
 20
                                                                      6.000
 15
 10                                                                   4.000

  5                                                                   2.000

  0                                                                   0
      CY    CZ   EE   HU   LT   LV     MT       PL     SI   SK   EU

DG Env.B2                                  24
Sites of Community Importance – February 2005



           MS     Total Number   Total Area    Terrestrial        % Terrestrial    No. of sites in   Marine Area
                                       (km²)        Area                 (1)             which a           (km²)
                                                    (km²)                                 marine
                                                                                           part is
                                                                                            noted

     CY                    26           510             459                  5,0                5               50

     CZ                   864         7.244           7.244                  9,2                          -

     EE                   509        10.591           7.172                 15,9               34             3.419

     HU                   467        13.025          13.025                 14,0                          -

     LT                   276         1.409           1.389                  2,1                1               20

     LV                   331         7.651           7.095                 11,0                6              556

     MT                    23            39                  39             12,5                                 0

     PL                   184        11.715          11.715                  3,7                                 0

     SI                   259         6.360           6.359                 31,4                3               0,2

     SK                   382         5.739           5.739                 11,8                          -
          EU-10          3.321    64.283,30          60.237                 8,16               49             4.046




DG Env.B2                                              25
                            pSCIs database - February 2005


35                                                                      5.000

30
                                                                        4.000
25

                                                                        3.000   % Terrestrial (1)
20                                                                              Marine Area (km²)


15
                                                                        2.000

10
                                                                        1.000
 5

 0                                                                      0
     CY     CZ   EE   HU   LT    LV      MT     PL      SI   SK EU-10



DG Env.B2                                26
                    Article 6
• For sites Member States shall:
     – Establish necessary conservation measures
     – Avoid deterioration

• Prepare appropriate assessment for any plan
  or project (except direct management of site)
     – Likely to have a significant effect on site
     – Either individually or in combination with other
       plans or projects




DG Env.B2                     27
            Article 6

• Requirements have to be transposed in
  the national legislation
• “Appropriate assessment” might be a
  separate document or part of the EIA
  package



DG Env.B2          28
                 The procedure
Screening: the process which identifies the likely impacts upon Natura
   2000 site of a project or plan, either alone or in combination with
   other projects or plans, and considers whether these impacts are
   likely to be significant
Appropriate assessment: the consideration of the impact on the
   integrity of the Natura 2000 site of the project or plan with respect to
   the site’s structure and function and its conservation objectives.
   Additionally, where there are adverse impacts, an assessment of the
   potential mitigation of those impacts;
Alternative solutions: the process which examines alternative ways of
   achieving the objectives of the project or plan that avoid adverse
   impacts on the integrity of the Natura 2000 site;
If adverse impacts remain: an assessment of compensatory measures
   where, in the light of an assessment of Imperative Reasons of
   Overriding Public Interest (IROPI), it is deemed that the project or
   plan should proceed.


  DG Env.B2                            29
       Art. 6.3 and 6.4
       “Habitats” Directive
              Plan/project with impact on a site
       Is the plan/project likely to have a negative impact on the values of the NATURA
1      2000 site?
       YES
                             EVALUATION OF CONSEQUENCES
       Does the evaluation conclude that there will be significant negative
2      consequences?
       YES
                           STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
       If the initial project is kept
3           • No priority habitats/species and overriding public interest

                YES
                                   Inform the Commission
                                    COMPENSATION MEASURES
              • Priority habitats/species and specific interest for human health, public safety
                or environment
                YES
                                   Opinion of the Commission
                                    COMPENSATION MEASURES
              • Priority habitats/species and other overriding public interests

                YES
          DG Env.B2
                                  OPINION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                   + COMPENSATION MEASURES
                                                   30
    NA107IT
              Screening
               Is the project or plan directly connected to or
              necessary for the management of the site and is
                    unlikely to have significant effects?

         No
                                                                                      Yes


                      Significant Impacts are
                         likely to occur ?

                                                           No

Yes

                        Appropriate
                        assessment                               Move directly to the relevant
                                                                  authorisation procedures




 DG Env.B2                               31
            Screening

• Brief description of the plan or project
• Brief description of the site
• Brief description of potential effects on
  the Natura 2000 site
• Assessment of significance (use criteria)


DG Env.B2            32
       No significant effect

• Fill in the Annex I (A) of the project
  document
• Signed and stamped by responsible
  authority
• Add the screening report to the project
  document and submit to the
  Commission
DG Env.B2            33
     Appropriate assessment
                        Can be concluded that the integrity of the site will
                             not be affected by the project or plan?                       Yes
         No


                          It is possible to design appropriate mitigation
                             measures that will cancel or minimise the
                                          adverse impacts?

                                               Yes

                    It is objectively concluded that adverse impacts on the
                                   integrity of the site remain?               No

No         Yes

                                                                               Move directly to the relevant
                                                                                 authorisation process

           To 6.4

     DG Env.B2                                       34
            Article 6

“Appropriate assessment”
• Study prepared by project promoter
• Used by responsible nature
  conservation authority for the
  assessment and filling in the ANNEX I
  (A) form (in case of Community funding)

DG Env.B2           35
Appropriate assessment

No significant negative consequences
• Mitigation measures
• Appropriate assessment’s report
• Should be made publicly accessible
• Annex I (A)


DG Env.B2         36
            Alternative solutions

• It is for national competent authority to determine
  whether alternative solution exists or not
• Alternatives suggested by project proponent
• Alternatives suggested by other stakeholders
• Mitigation measures




DG Env.B2                 37
            Overriding public
                interest
• targeted to protect fundamental values for citizens’ lives
  (health, safety, environment)
• carrying out activities of economic or social nature,
  fulfilling specific obligations of public service
• within the framework of fundamental policies for the State
  and society
• Determined by national authorities
• Supported by evidence
• Weigh against conservation status of the site and objectives
  of the directive

DG Env.B2                     38
Compensation measures
• Within the same biogeographic region (HD)
• Within the same range and/or migration rout (BD)
• Within the territory of the same Member State
• Maintain coherence of the Natura 2000 network
• Enlargement of the same site
• Designation of new site with the same quality,
  function and structure
• Restoration of an other site
• Creation of a new site
DG Env.B2                39
 Compensation measures

• The Commission informed and consulted
  well in advance
• Timing of compensation agreed
• Responsibilities agreed (also financial)
• Legal (contractual measures in place)


DG Env.B2             40
            Art. 6.3/4 Habitats Directive, simplified

Possible negative impact on Natura 2000 site?              yes

Nature impact assessment                          If negative

Alternatives?                                            If no

Overriding public interest?                             If yes
Compensation measures - Commission opinion (if
priority interest)



DG Env.B2                       41
The way article 6 is implemented in the
          United Kingdom


            (diagramme by Wyn Jones)




DG Env.B2               42
                              Imperative Y N
                              reasons
Appropriate                   excluding
Assessment                    socio-economics
of Plans and
  Projects

                        Imperative Y N
                        reasons
                        including
                        socio-economics
                                                                                               Y   N
                                                                                    Priority
                                                                                    features
               Notify
                SoS



                                                              Alternative
                                                                            N   Y          STOP
     SoS to secure                                            solutions
     compensation
       measures

                                                                                     Avoid by
                                                                                    conditions
                                                                                      Y N




                                                                                    No adverse
                                                                                     effect on
                                                                                     integrity
                              Likely Significant                                       Y N
                                                                     Further
                              Effect Branch-line                    info and
                                    Y    N                         consult EN

     Plan or Project
           Express
                                                                                        DECISIONSVILLE
                                                                                           STATION
     DG Env.B2                          43         Usual Considerations
                                                         Junction
                              Imperative Y N
Appropriate                   reasons
Assessment                    excluding
                              socio-economics
  of Plans
and Projects


                        Imperative Y N
               Notify   reasons
                SOS     including
                        socio-economics
                                                                                                     Y   N
                                                                                            Priority
                                                                                            features
                                                                                            branchline



      SOS to secure                                           Alternative
                                                                            Y   N                    STOP
       compulsory
        measures                                              solutions



                                                                                             Avoid by
                                                                                            conditions
                                                                                              Y N




                                                                                           No adverse
                                                                                            effect on
                                                                                            integrity
                              Likely Significant                                              Y N
                                                                     Further
                              Effect Branch-line                    info and
                                    Y    N                         consult EN

                                                                                Plan or Project
                                                                                      Express
                                                                                                  DECISIONSVILLE
                                                                                                     STATION
        DG Env.B2                       44         Usual Considerations
                                                         Junction
      The Commission is
     concerned because…
The Habitats and Birds Directive: a sector with high public
  attention: for example, in mid-2003
     – 53% of all environmental complaints (97%: bad application)
     – 30% of all environmental own initiative cases (93% bad
       application)
     – 28% of all environmental infringement cases (78% bad
       application)
Most of them relate to project developments (art.6), not to
  designation of sites



DG Env.B2                         45
            SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
        dealing with plans and projects
Problems:
– no or inappropriate nature impact assessments
– negative results of assessments not respected
– no alternatives considered
– no or inadequate mitigation / compensation measures
– no designation or nomination of a qualifying site:
   provisions apply nevertheless (SPAs: even stricter rules!)

New Member States : Art.6 (2/3/4) apply from
accession onwards


DG Env.B2                     46
            The Commission’s
                response


   Production of guidance documents
   Information & communication (NATURA
    newsletter, web site, etc)
   Legal actions (many court cases)

DG Env.B2               47
            Guidance documents, for
                   example




DG Env.B2                48
DG Env.B2   49
DG Env.B2   50
   Should there always be a conflicts between
   conservation goals and economic interests?




DG Env.B2                51
    Conclusions as regards
   planning vs. Art. 6 of the
      Habitats Directive
• The Competent Authority must be
  „competent”
• Appropriate assessment ≠ EIA
• Case by case judgement important
• Resource-demanding legal
  obligation

DG Env.B2            52
Best of luck in applying Article 6,
and thank you for your attention!

            More information at homepage:

  http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/
  nature/home.htm


DG Env.B2                  53

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:11/10/2011
language:English
pages:53