STUDY GUIDE - AHST A102
PROFESSOR WILLIAM S. BROCKINGTON, JR.
This Study Guide consists of narrative outlines and test questions that have been used in lectures and on tests given
by Professor Brockington in the past.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Foreword ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2
1. The World during the Age of European Exploration and Colonization ------------------ 3
2. Absolutism & Divine Right; ConMon; & Eastern Europe ----------------------------------- 6
3. The Age of Reason: Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment ------------------------------ 12
4. Enlightenment and Absolutism ------------------------------------------------------------------ 14
5. Origins of the French Revolution -------------------------------------------------------------- 18
6. Napoleon & Nationalism ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 22
7. The Industrial Revolutions ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 25
8. Europe, 1815-1850 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30
9. 19th Century Intellectual Developments ------------------------------------------------------- 34
10. The Unification of Italy and Germany ---------------------------------------------------------- 37
11. Con Mon in the 19th Century, 1870-1914 ----------------------------------------------------- 39
12. Central European DTSs, 1870-1914 ----------------------------------------------------------- 42
13. The Age of Neo-Imperialism ------------------------------------------------------------------- 46
14. The Road to World War I ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 50
15. World War I & Its Aftermath/myth ---------------------------------------------------------- 54
16. Postwar Malaise --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
17. Totalitarianism in the Interwar Era ---------------------------------------------------------- 59
18. World War II ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 62
19. The Cold War: Part I --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 66
20. The Cold War: Part II -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72
21. The Cold War: The End? ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 74
22. Europe Today ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 76
23. Decolonization & The World Today -------------------------------------------------------- 78
Syllabus for Tuesday – Thursday classes ----------------------------------------------------- 83-92
After you print this material, you should: punch holes (Professor Brockington has a hole puncher you may use) and
place in a loose-leaf notebook for ready reference.
102 STUDY GUIDE [SG]
PROFESSOR WILLIAM S. BROCKINGTON, JR
On your syllabus for this session there is a reading assignment that is to be done before you come to
class. This Study Guide parallels the materials that you are to read and which will be discussed in class.
The words listed at the beginning of each section are important people, places and ideas to which you
should pay particular attention as you read. This list should not be construed as exclusive or
comprehensive, only as a selection of important items. Be aware that you must be able to locate on a
map where a person was from or where an event took place. A prose overview/outline of the assignment
is also provided in an effort to make the material more understandable. In addition, questions that have
been used on past 102 tests (by Professor Brockington) are provided. The answer that best completes the
question is provided. Regarding true/false, some of the statements are true while others are false. It
would behoove you to ascertain why a question is false [i.e. make it true] or why a particular item in a
multiple choice is not the correct answer. These questions, variations of these questions, and/or similar
questions will be used on tests in this class. This means that there is no guarantee that these exact
questions will be used on a test given by Professor Brockington. Other questions may come from the
text, the SG prose, and/or the lecture.
Using the SG. You should always consider a study guide to be merely objectified information. In and of
itself, this SG, or any study guide, will not provide the narrative needed for assimilation of the
information into your consciousness. A narrative provides the student with a depth for comprehension
and perspective; that is the purpose, not only of the lecture but also of your text. It is important for a
student to read the material and to learn how to take notes in class. In order to learn this important
technique, a student should not use this study guide in class in note taking. The student should read the
assignment before class, take notes in class [audio-taping lectures is permissible], and study by using this
guide with class notes. By following this program, history will become more than a series of disjointed
facts; it will become a living lesson.
The sources for this study guide are many and varied for it has been 30+ years in preparation. The
material has been rearranged, altered, and intermixed to fit this, and other courses. Only general
attribution and thanks can be given. The prose outlines are a composite of material from personal lecture
notes, various history outlines, and Western and World Civilization texts. Other sources consulted
include various monographs on specific topics as well as periodicals (both professional and news) and
newspapers. Test questions are based upon all of the foregoing.
THE WORLD DURING THE AGE OF EUROPEAN EXPLORATION AND
1. Europe and the World. In contrast to all other previous examples of Western expansion, the Age of Exploration
and Colonization was an expansion of societies, not of groups. Records were kept, maps were made, and colonies
were established and controlled. More ground was covered and far more rapidly than ever before. It was the first
time that people of the west crossed the great oceans of the world. It carried westerners outside the orbit of
Byzantium and the Moslems, placing them into new and unfamiliar contact with a bewildering variety of races,
creeds, and cultures. Because of superior organization, technological strength, and drive, Westerners extended their
power and influence throughout the world. There was no single western center, rather a number of competing
centers, each perfectly willing to cut the throats of the others. Yet this deadly rivalry neither weakened nor delayed
the processes of conquest and expansion; indeed, it enhanced and accelerated it. By 1700 the expansion of Europe
affected almost every part of the world. It is important to note that these were not “New Worlds” that were
conquered for there existed thriving cultures and civilizations throughout the areas of European dominance.
Technology, especially weaponry, allowed westerners to defeat, control, and decimate many of the places to which
they went. Within Europe itself, feudalism withered under the multiple impacts of the Price Revolution, the
strengthening DTS monarchs, and the rising middle classes who possessed the money made during the Commercial
2. Some questions & terms: The World of 1750 – Africa and Asia. Map: The World of 1750. Terms: Islam and
North Africa, Ethiopia, slave trade; Ottoman Empire – reasons for decline; India – European outposts, British East
India Company; China – foreign pressures; Japan – isolationism.
3 G‟s: Gold (or Greed), Glory, & God
Global Trade Network/Global Economy
Which of the following was not a motive for exploring unknown seas in the early modern era?
A. to discover places to dispose of surplus population **[true for 17th Century]
B. to claim new lands for the Dynastic Territorial State
C. to discover gold and silver
D. to find new routes to the source of the spice supply
The West was primarily interested in the Orient because vast numbers of uncivilized natives needed to be converted
to Christianity in order to save their souls. [F][spices]
India could be described as a land with a bewildering mixture of races, ethnic groups, and languages.
The first permanent English acquisition in India was Bombay .
In 1690 the real base for British India was established when the East India Company established a trading station at
Calcutta, on the River Hughli near the southern edge of the Bengal cotton-weaving district.
British trading posts
A. trading posts
C. factories **
D. triangles of trade
Regarding the Dutch Empire, which of the following was not true?
A. the East Indies were taken from the Portuguese by the 1640s
B. Capetown in South Africa was established in 1652
C. Manhattan Island was purchased from the Indians in 1626
D. the Dutch annexed Brazil from the Portuguese in the 1630s
Which of the following was an Indian product sold in China for Chinese products?
A. silk B. tea C. opium ** D. porcelain
The African slave trade was part of a larger commercial system and was directed to the exploitation of the Americas.
The primary product marketed by the Royal Africa Company was
A. slaves ** B. ivory C. gold D. diamonds E. rubber
Liverpool, England and its role in the slave trade
3. Some questions & terms. The World of 1750: the Americas & Europe. Terms: Seeds of Change, Native
Americans, slavery, sugar. Europe: social & economic overview.
The native peoples of the “New World” were subordinated because of European superiority in
A. economics B. intelligence C. firearms D. administration
The Native Americans who occupied the Atlantic seaboard of the present–day United States were semi–nomadic
groups (tribes) who combined fishing, hunting, gathering, and farming.
Post–Columbian Native American warfare was highly sophisticated and relied heavily upon European principles of
The pre–Columbian cultures/civilizations of the Americas
A. were pretty thoroughly destroyed by the Europeans
B. lived on and prospered, but were segregated from the Europeans
C. greatly influenced the subsequent development of Spain
D. had more or less died out before the Europeans arrived
Columbus discovered, in a way that other people could use, the geographical relationship between Europe and
Columbus failed to reach the Orient because of inadequate:
A. courage B. geographical knowledge C. seamanship D. finances
Seeds of Change: sugar, potato, corn, horse, disease (look for these in your book)
Military commanders like Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro were responsible for the Spanish conquest of the
Aztecs and Incas, two highly civilized Indian empires in Central and South America.
The British Sugar Islands swiftly became communities in which the vast majority of the population was slaves from
Africa and there was no room for any white man below the planter level of prosperity.
The triangular trade was significant in British history for all of the following reasons except
A. the profits made from the slave trade provided capital necessary for the Industrial Revolution
B. the entrepreneurial skills gained by the commercial class were useful in the management of other businesses
C. the sale of slaves to the American South and the purchase of American cotton provided the foundation for the
American Civil War **
D. the area around Liverpool became a significant center for trade, commerce and business
Which was the most important crop/commodity produced on the Caribbean islands?
A. coffee B. cotton C. cane sugar D. tobacco
The first permanent French settlement in North America was Quebec .
Which of the following statements does not represent an explicit consequence of overseas discoveries?
A. The influx of imported goods and bullion stimulated entrepreneurial ambitions and economic growth in Western
B. The center of European long–distance trade moved permanently from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic coast
C. The early overseas discoveries established Portugal and Spain as Europe‟s leading long–distance traders in the
D. The division of European Christendom along several religious lines was soon transferred to the newly discovered
territories, resulting in religious wars **
E. Due to ruthless exploitation and contagious, epidemic diseases, practically the entire indigenous population of
Hispaniola and Mexico was extirpated during the first century of Spanish rule
Creolization: Two concepts that are critical to an understanding of modern World History are “creolization” and
“adapt & adopt.” Define each concept. Using examples from a specific area and time, explain how the processes
work. What are the significances of these processes?
Control of the economy was considered essential for 17th and 18th Century European governments. Mercantilism
meant channeling the national economic effort by government subsidies, grants of monopolies, government-run
industries, and encouragement of scientific and technological research. It also meant protective tariffs, and complete
domination of the economic life of the colonies. According to mercantile theory, colonies could potentially
strengthen the mother country vis-à-vis rival nations by providing needed raw materials.
Which of the following was not an idea of mercantilism?
A. colonies should provide markets and natural resources for the home country
B. high tariffs to protect a country from foreign competition
C. colonists of different countries should trade with each other **
D. foreign luxuries should not be imported for consumption
Capitalism may be defined as a system in which:
A. private individuals or groups are responsible for production, distribution, and exchange of goods
B. all competition no matter from what source is considered good
C. workers compete with each other and with owners for wealth and power
D. the needs of society are placed before those of individuals
The Commercial Revolution was the result of a number of revolutions:
A. Agricultural Revolution
B. Population Shifts [Demographic] and Population Pressures – positive & negative
C. the Price Revolution
D. Role of Government changing [monarchical centralization of state power was as important as the development of
E. Rise of Middle Class continues [Renaissance & Reformation]
F. Scientific Revolution and Technical Revolution continue
Which of the following was not an effect of the Commercial Revolution?
A. money became not only the basic medium of exchange but also the basis of power
B. competition was established as a fundamental element in production and trade
C. business for profit became the accepted mode of commercial existence
D. commercial activities tended to concentrate in local or regional patterns **
E. accumulation of wealth became acceptable and respectable
Among the results of the Commercial Revolution was the rise of the middle class and the Europeanization of the
ABSOLUTISM VS CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
(THE STATE IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE, 1500-1750)
1. The Dynastic Territorial State (DTS) in Early Modern Europe: Absolutism vs. Constitutional Monarchy. The
early modern monarchy in the West was subject to many limitations. The medieval legacy resulted in diversities of
many kinds: language, laws, customs, weights and measures, and many others. In all of the important countries, the
feudal nobility was able, in different ways and frequently with some difficulty, to maintain itself in a position of
strength into modern times. Just as they had done in the medieval period, the strength of the monarchs continued to
grow in the dynastic, territorial state, subjecting not only the nobility but also the church to their wishes. Not all
subjects agreed with these desires, however.
2. Some questions:
The best definition of a sovereign state is one that is ruled by an authoritative government that is independent of
external control and that has the power to pass laws and to preserve order by enforcing those laws.
The term “sovereign state” refers to a state:
A. whose affairs are controlled by a stronger one
B. whose ruler can act independently of others
C. that is ruled by a democratic government
D. that is ruled by a monarchical government
Until the 17th century most of the cultural and political developments of the emergent modern world centered almost
entirely in Europe‟s western regions, including those German and Bohemian lands composing the Holy Roman
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, each of the great monarchies of Western Europe, in terms of the
social and political requisites of modern statehood, lacked only:
A. a professional diplomatic service
B. a large literate population
C. a professional military force
D. a degree of national awareness
E. a governmental bureaucracy
Most European kings of the 16th and 17th centuries exercised a personalized (not institutionalized as in a
dictatorship), despotism over their subjects.
The average prince of the 16th and 17th centuries was limited in his actions by ancient rights and liberties enjoyed by
certain corporations, cities, provinces, social classes, and the Church.
The ancient rights and liberties enjoyed by certain corporations, cities, provinces, social classes, and the Church in
the 16th and 17th centuries in various dynastic territorial states meant that kings and princes were forced to be
careful, even Machiavellian, in their political activities if they wanted to get around those impediments to their
claims of absolute authority within their kingdom.
Which of the following is a correct assessment of state building in the 17th and 18th Centuries?
A. Monarchical centralization of state power was as important as the development of capitalism in leading to the
B. colonial expansion on distant continents had little impact on state building
C. monarchs feared foreign rivalries and consequently discouraged foreign trade
D. monarchs faced fierce resistance to their foreign and domestic policies by the bourgeoisie
Role of the church (a national religion) in early modern societies as well as throughout history.
Between 1550 and 1650 all states of Western Europe were involved in war, either civil or international, often both.
The most important element in the extension of monarchical power was the standing army. The goal of the monarch
was to acquire absolute power within his/her state.
Between 1000 and 1750 the single most important advance in military science was the introduction of
A. the castle B. the longbow C. gunpowder D. standing armies
Which of the following was not a sovereign state in the 16th century?
A. England B. France C. Italy D. Spain E. Bavaria
Which of the following was the least organized among the early modern states?
A. Spain B. the HRE C. France D. Sweden E. England
Despite overlapping causes for instability, the greatest single cause for warfare in the 16th and 17th Centuries was
A. provincial animosity toward distant and arbitrary royal rulers
B. continuous religious rivalry between Catholics and Protestants
C. the territorial ambitions of the Spanish Habsburgs
D. the mutually exclusive economic self–interest of the major states
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, each of the great monarchies of Western Europe, in terms of the
social and political requisites of modern statehood, lacked only:
A. a professional diplomatic service
B. a large literate population
C. a professional military force
D. a degree of national awareness
E. a governmental bureaucracy
Be able to match Dynasty – Territory – State Capital [NOTE: 100s of other possibilities]
Habsburgs Austria Vienna
Hohenzollern Prussia Berlin
Stuart/Hanover England/Great Britain London
Bourbon France Paris
Romanov Russia St. Petersburg
The 17th Century Doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings asserted that the monarch‟s power was all of the following
A. paternal and absolute
B. subject only to approval by a parliament
C. derived from Biblical authority
D. an extension of God‟s power on earth
The true significance of absolutism lies in the fact that:
A. countries would be better prepared for war because of the central control that would be provided by the ruler
B. economies would be run far more efficiently because of the central planning that would be done
C. as the ruler had virtually unquestioned authority to do as he would, as was the ruler, so was the country
D. it teaches us that dictatorships are dangerous and should be avoided
The term “balance of power” in European diplomacy means:
A. that when two or more countries are at war, and when the two sides are stalemated, then there will be an
B. that no single power or group of powers in Europe should be permitted to develop enough strength to dominate
C. that in a system of absolutism, the King maintains his power by playing off the nobles and the clergy
D. that in a system of parliamentary democracy, there would be virtual equality between the King and the
representatives of the people [B]
A power vacuum exists when:
A. an area or state has an extremely weak government and/or army
B. several major powers have borders that adjoin an area that has a weak government
C. a major power attacks another major power that is temporarily weakened because of the death of the king
D. an area or state which has an extremely weak government and/or army has powerful neighbors that are desirous
of expansion [D]
Maps are an essential part of history. You should be able to locate on a map, which has geographical features only,
the places that we have discussed. For example, you should know the location of the Danube River, Rhine River,
Paris, London, Vienna, Berlin, Rome, or St. Petersburg. You should also be able to locate the site of persons and
events that we have discussed. For example, you should be able to find the Center of the High Enlightenment, the
location of the most militarized state, the site of significant economic change [industrial revolution], the site of
Bastille, the location of Waterloo, and the site of the Frankfurt Assembly. These are examples only--not a list.
Absolutism & Divine Right. Absolutism: Bishop Bossuet, Louis XIV, L’ etat c`est moi, Versailles, Edict of Nantes,
Wars of Louis XIV, Peace of Utrecht; Constitutional Monarchy (ConMon): Charles II, Glorious Revolution, Social
Contract/John Locke, British strength; Eastern European DTS: Habsburgs, Prussian army, bureaucracy in Prussia,
Peter the Great, Charles XII
1. The early modern monarchy in the West was subject to many limitations. The medieval legacy resulted in
diversities of many kinds: language, laws, customs, weights and measures, and many others. In all of the important
countries, the feudal nobility was able, in different ways and frequently with some difficulty, to maintain itself in a
position of strength into modern times. Challenging the nobility was the new strength of the monarchs in the
dynastic, territorial state.
2. In France during the early seventeenth century Richelieu and Mazarin had replaced them in the tasks of running
the government with commoners, a process that was completed by Louis XIV. The old feudal nobility, the “ nobility
of the sword,” competed with the commoners who were often elevated to status that was technically noble and came
to be hereditary, or the “ nobility of the robe.” Although the two kinds of nobility had somewhat integrated by the
early eighteenth century, rivalry remained, and the old nobles continued to entertain a degree of contemptuous envy
toward the relative newcomers of the robe. Nobles were required by Louis XIV to live at Versailles, Louis‟
extravagant palace, which was the symbol of his wealth, power, and greatness. In the new France, the Crown
fostered a national Gallican church which was Catholic but controlled by the monarchy. Under Louis XIV, this
union of church and state reached its highest point, with the leading French bishop of Louis‟ reign, Bossuet, writing
glowingly of the virtues and necessity for royal absolutism based on the theory of “ the divine right of kings.”
Religious diversity had been attacked by Cardinal Richelieu when he eliminated the political privileges of the
Huguenots during the early decades of the seventeenth century, Louis XIV moved to destroy their right of free
worship when he revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685, thereby forcing some fifty thousand of the best and most
productive citizens of the country to flee to foreign lands, which they and their descendants helped to improve and
enrich. Louis also sought to control the administrative machinery of state, but was not entirely successful. The
“parlements,” supreme courts of appeal in the various provinces, claimed the right of judicial review. Such a claim
negated the idea of royal absolutism. Control of the economy was also essential for absolutism. Mercantilism
flourished most strongly in France under Louis and his great minister, Colbert, who attempted to channel the national
economic effort by government subsidies, grants of monopolies, government-run industries, encouragement of
scientific and technological research, protective tariffs, and complete domination of the economic life of the
colonies. Under this mercantilist regime France did attain leadership in European industry and commerce; but, like
Spain before her, spent an undue proportion of wealth in the ultimately fruitless effort to achieve the political
hegemony of Europe and the conquest of the overseas world. Louis XIV led France into four wars. At the
conclusion of the second, which was directed largely at the Dutch, the power and prestige of France reached their
peak. The third war (1689-1697) ended in a draw. The fourth, which began as a result of a dispute over the
succession to the Spanish throne, was the most costly, and the French were gradually worn down and defeated. The
Treaty of Utrecht (1713) was a typical balance of power peace: France was not humiliated, and Louis did achieve his
objective in Spain, but France suffered a cost in lives and indebtedness that contributed to the ultimate downfall of
the Bourbon dynasty.
3. Questions on France:
The 17th Century Doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings asserted that the monarch‟s power was all of the following
A. paternal and absolute
B. subject only to approval by a parliament
C. derived from Biblical authority
D. an extension of God‟ s power on earth [B]
The true significance of absolutism lies in the fact that:
A. countries would be better prepared for war because of the central control that would be provided by the ruler
B. economies would be run far more efficiently because of the central planning that would be done
C. as the ruler had virtually unquestioned authority to do as he would, as was the ruler, so was the country
D. it teaches us that dictatorships are dangerous and should be avoided [C]
Which of the following would not be associated with Louis XIV?
A. strict control of his nobles by keeping a close eye on them at Versailles
B. militarism and territorial expansion for France
C. budgetary reduction and economizing
D. state intervention in economic affairs under the guidance of Colbert, the minister of finance
E. a single state religion after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 [C]
The wars of Louis XIV strengthened the guiding principle of international diplomacy, that of the concept of the
balance of power.
4. England between 1600 and 1689 seemed to be the land of violence and change. During these years, the English
cut off the head of one king and drove another into exile. The primary cause of friction between the first two Stuarts
and their Parliaments, which led to revolution and the dictatorship of Cromwell, was that both sides were seeking
drastic changes in the existing structure of government. Both were trying to bend the line of English constitutional
growth away from the Tudor compromise of a strong Crown working with and through a medieval type of
Parliament built and based upon the alliance of nobility, gentry, and the commercial classes. James and Charles tried
to bend the line toward divine-right monarchy of the continental type; the men in Parliament sought a legislative
body possessing the final authority in the making and carrying out of policy and law. Religion played an important
part in welding both sides into cohesive fighting groups. The royalist cause was identified with High Church [Anglo-
Catholic] Anglicanism; the parliamentary cause, at first supported by many moderate Anglicans, also came to attract
and be dominated by a strong Puritan or Calvinist element. The Englishmen who rose against the Crown in the
British Civil Wars [1643-1660] and again in the Glorious Revolution  were not downtrodden people revolting
from a sense of despair. They were self-assertive people out to get the things they wanted: power, wealth, their own
form of religious worship, and what they conceived to be their rights. In the British Civil Wars, the Commonwealth
became a dictatorship that had come to power as result of the strength of the New Model Army and the dominating
personality of Oliver Cromwell. Although faced with a divided England, a hostile Scotland, and a rebellious Ireland,
Cromwell not only mastered all his foes – with great brutality in the case of Ireland – but also succeeded in
conducting victorious foreign wars extending the limits of the British Empire throughout the world. Control of the
state through a parliamentary system was never achieved, however, and the parliamentary government collapsed two
years after his death in 1659. Though the Stuarts were restored in the person of Charles II (son of Charles I), no
English king could ever again hope to rule without Parliament or take from it ultimate command of the public purse.
The revolution that overthrew James II, last of the Stuart kings, in 1688, was actually a coup d’ etat engineered by
his parliamentary opponents, the Whigs, and supported by some of his nominal friends, the Tories, and the vast
majority of the English people. Not only did Parliament throw out the Stuarts in 1688, but the Declaration of Rights
(1689) and the Act of Settlement (1701) also clearly established the fact that it would decide, in the future, who
would be the King of England. The new monarchy – William and Mary – soon controlled all of Great Britain
(England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland). This strong, unified state would become the dominant European power
within a generation. A masterful interpretation of the meaning of the Revolutions in Britain in the 17 th Century may
be seen in John Locke‟s Two Treatises on Government (1690).
5. Questions on Great Britain:
In a constitutional monarchy the king is limited by the law as well as by a representative assembly.
A constitutional monarchy has all of the following characteristics except
A. a government limited by law
B. a representative assembly
C. C. a strong middle class
D. a concept of popular sovereignty [C]
A significant result of the Glorious Revolution was that a balance was struck between king and Parliament
After 1688 the support of a majority of the members of Parliament was absolutely necessary for any king of England
who wished to rule effectively.
John Locke said that the people have the right to resist a tyrannical government by force.
Which of the following was not a factor in making Britain the strongest state in Europe in the l8th century?
A. Strong absolute monarchy and army
B. Commercial and mercantile wealth
C. Sea power and colonies
D. Geographical isolation
E. Stable government [A]
6. Low Countries
The accession of William of Orange, King of the Dutch state, to the throne of England meant that England would be
involved in continental matters, especially wars with France which often threatened the Dutch state militarily.
7. Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe – see SG # 5
As one moved farther eastward in Europe in the 18th Century there was increasing likelihood of finding:
B. larger navies
E. prominent intellectuals [C]
Austrian Empire, Habsburgs, and Nationalities [maps of Austrian Empire in text]
The two main pillars of the Prussian State have been the bureaucrats and the church. [F]
The major objectives of Peter the Great were all of the following except:
A. to introduce European ideas to Russia
B. to build a new capital which would be a window to the west
C. to make his power absolute
D. to introduce parliamentary democracy to Russia [D]
Under Peter the Great the Russian government was moved from Moscow to St. Petersburg, his window to the West.
Age of Reason: Age of Reason; Scientific Revolution: Scientific Method, Isaac Newton, technology & the Industrial
Revolution, Baroque; Enlightenment: philosophes, Voltaire/Candide; Adam Smith, Deism, Jean Jacques Rousseau,
Romanticism, Baron de Montesquieu
1. The Renaissance prepared the way for modern science by attacking the late medieval philosophy of Scholasticism
and by emphasizing the discovery of the laws governing the functioning of this world. During the Age of Reason, a
period which encompasses both the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, human intellect was deemed
superior to faith and obedience to God‟s laws and will. Two basic concepts emerged from seventeenth century
thought: (1) there is a regular “natural” order underlying the apparent confusion of the universe and (2) men have a
faculty called “reason” which can be enhanced through by rational processes such as teaching and focused learning.
From this comes the belief that “man” can attain in this life a state of well being which earlier generations thought
possible only for Christians in a state of grace and in a heaven after death.
2. During the Scientific Revolution, the scientific method – a systematic and logical way of seeking truth which, in
its search for facts, relied upon curiosity, skepticism, and reason – was used to determine the laws of nature. Francis
Bacon, an articulate proponent of the scientific method, advocated the observation of phenomena and the
accumulation of data. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries witnessed great advances in the physical sciences.
Copernicus, Galileo, Napier, Leibntz, Boyle, Harvey, Descartes and dozens of others made essential contributions to
the discovery of scientific laws. Isaac Newton pulled everything together in his “Newtonian World-machine,” which
set the tone for the scientific and philosophical work of the next two centuries. Each step forward in the accumulation
of scientific knowledge seemed to further substantiate faith in natural law and human progress. Newton‟s “World
Machine” and the demand for rational explanations of all existing human institutions (government, church, social
structure, etc.) led naturally to a reexamination of each. For organized religion, the consequence of this was that,
while some philosophes became atheists, the great majority of eighteenth century intellectuals became Deists. These
generally believed in a Supreme Creator, or God, and probably believed in His presence on the Day of Judgment, but
believed that, like the expert watchmaker, He set the universe in motion and sat back to watch it function. It was up
to man to do with the world and with human society what he could.
3. The eighteenth century was the Age of Enlightenment. In the vocabulary of the men of this age the key words
were natural law, reason, and progress. Just as with science, the natural laws on which society should be based could
be discovered by human reason. “Philosophes” lashed out at stupidity, cruelty, and barbarism, and demanded that
natural law and the use of human reason be made the controlling factors. This faith in natural law for nature and for
society came from Newton‟s “World-machine” concept. To the philosophe, life lived according to these natural laws
would then ensure continued progress. It was an age of optimism and faith in the future. Confidence in the
applicability of natural law to man and his society was begun by John Locke. He insisted that men had no innate
ideas (rasa tabula or blank slate), that they were products of their environments, and that a society built upon reason
would produce men capable of leading rational and productive lives. Observers thus had to examine critically the
existing societies and provide suggestions for change when existing laws and institutions did not conform to natural
law. During this period French became the accepted international language and France the second homeland of
civilized men. Under the leadership of Denis Diderot, “philosophes” began assembling an Encyclopedia, which
would be a compendium of all human knowledge. Such knowledge would expose the superstitions and bigotry of
the existing order and teach the virtues of natural law and the wonders to be derived from the discoveries of science.
In the field of economics Physiocrats (French economists) stressed the fallacies of the mercantilist doctrine that
equated money with national well being. They asserted that the controlled economy of mercantilism stifled
commerce and that only a free economy could liberate the productive forces of a country. The Scot Adam Smith put
labor in the place of land as the decisive source of wealth. However, he insisted, along with the Physiocrats, that a
free economic system, unhindered by tariffs and restrictions of all kinds, would act in a way – guided by an
“invisible hand” – so as to benefit and enrich all society. In the field of politics, men like the Baron de Montesquieu
set out to examine existing governments and to find those political institutions and practices that would best conform
to the needs of different types and sizes of society. There was no doubt in their minds that the key in each case was
natural law and the lessons to be derived therefrom.
The Age of Reason is a term used to describe the era during which the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
The scientific method was a systematic and logical way of seeking truth which, in its search for facts, relied on all of
the following except:
B. healthy skepticism
D. faith [D]
The scientific revolution was important because it emphasized ascertaining the processes and laws governing the
The scientific revolution, with its advances in mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other sciences, was important
because it prepared the foundation for the Industrial Revolution.
The center of the High Enlightenment was Paris.
The philosophes may best be described as:
B. students of society who analyzed its evils and advocated reforms
D. writers with wide popular appeal [B]
Philosophes were critics of society who urged reform and the application of reason to social problems.
More then any other thinker the skepticism of the 18th century toward traditional religion and the evils of the time
was personified by Voltaire.
An Enlightenment writer who favored emotion over reason was John Locke. [F]
Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote that an ideal society is controlled by the general will of free and equal citizens (social
The theory of government fitting the natural environment and the separation of powers is most closely linked to
A. Thomas Hobbes
B. J.J. Rousseau
C. John Locke
D. Baron de Montesquieu [D]
The most influential advocate of laissez faire economics was Adam Smith
Crime and Punishment
Madame du Châtelet
Era of Enlightenment and Absolutism: The Age of Limited Warfare & Balance of Power, Robert Walpole, Louis
XV, War of Austrian Succession, Diplomatic Revolution, Seven Years War, Peace of Paris, Enlightened Despotism,
Partitions of Poland, liberum veto, American Revolution, Constitution
1. The eighteenth century, despite the fact that it was the Age of Enlightenment, it was also the Age of the Ancien
Regime (Old Regime). Although serfdom had largely been abolished west of the Elbe, it remained in full strength
east of that river. All governments represented the interests of the few as apposed to the many; all societies were
basically oligarchic (upper class) and agrarian. However, in Western Europe, drastic changes in economic life – in
commerce, agriculture, and industry – were also helping to undermine the institutions of the “Old Regime.” As a
result of its leadership in the economic revolution (see # 7), Britain became not only the wealthiest but also the most
powerful country in the world. Its empire (commercial revolution) was becoming ever more prosperous. Its
parliamentary government, based on a coalition of gentry and commercial classes, was developing a system of
cabinet rule that would prove its value in the years ahead. France, potentially the greatest country in the West,
stumbled through the eighteenth century primarily because of weak leadership: weak kings and a second estate (the
nobility), which had outlived its usefulness and was bankrupt. A restrictive imperial policy choked the colonies;
corruption and inefficiency marred the development of the armed forces. Administrative instability caused confusion
to reign. Yet France remained a great power. Spain, though claiming great-power status, was in a state of decline.
Holland and Sweden had both over-extended themselves during the struggles of the seventeenth and early eighteenth
centuries; no longer would they play significant roles in the European balance-of-power struggle. Italy and Germany
were geographical expressions, with each being constant sources of dissension among the great powers and
playgrounds in the game of power politics [power vacuums].
2. The rise of Prussia was one of the most significant facts of European life during the second half of the
seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries. A series of capable monarchs; a successful policy of winning over the
landed aristocracy and making them an integral part of the entire power structure of the society, a process of
centralization of economic, financial, and political power in the hands of the monarch, a careful program of building
the finest armed force in Europe – all combined to give Prussia the capacities of a great power. In contrast to
Prussia, Austria had all the appearance of a great power, but very little of the reality. A heterogeneous population, a
backward economy, a decayed feudal structure – all were basic, inherent weaknesses. In Russia Peter the Great
moved his DTS somewhat closer to the West and opened several windows in that direction. In order to achieve this
goal he waged almost constant war throughout his long reign; in order to obtain the essentials for fighting these wars
he drained the country dry with exorbitant taxes, completed the process of absolutely tying the Boyars (Russian
nobles) to the state, enserfed several millions peasants, and destroyed what little independence the church possessed.
Without doubt, the total result was a further impoverishment and brutalization of Russian people. During the
eighteenth century, both Poland and Turkey retrogressed still further. The former could not maintain a viable
national government and was doomed to destruction. The latter hung on--barely--but became known as the “ Sick
Man of Europe” and stimulated the appetite of the major European powers [power vacuums].
3. During the eighteenth century, there developed three major threats to the international balance of power. The first
resulted from the Great Northern War, which led to the replacement of Sweden by Russia as the dominant power in
the Baltic region and continued expansion by Russia throughout most of the century. The second came from the
growing strength of Prussia and its expansion at the expense of Austria, Poland, and Sweden. The third revolved
around the continuing struggles between Britain on the one hand and France and Spain on the other for commercial
and colonial supremacy in various parts of the world. What is important to note, however, was the fact that, while
individual countries gained or lost and while there were constant shifts in the balance of power itself, there was no
serious challenge to the concept of a balance of power. Wars were fought with limited means and for limited
objectives. Total war was not yet in the cards, and unconditional surrender was never put forward as a precondition
for peace. At the peace conference, opponents were not destroyed; on the contrary, minor compensation was
generally awarded for a greater loss.
4. This is not to say that wars at this time were not a serious and bloody business. They were, but they were
governed, in a sense, by a system of rules that were designed to at least prevent an unsupportable amount of loss for
any power or the total destruction of any power (Poland‟s fate is an exception to the rule). The major participants in
the play were aristocrats: the kings, generals, admirals, and diplomats. They designed and followed a fairly uniform
code of behavior, and respected and felt much closer to each other than toward the lower classes of their own
countries. During the period between 1713 and 1739, Britain and France took lead in utilizing diplomacy to prevent
or localize wars and keep the international balance from being upset. As much as both Robert Walpole of England
and Cardinal Fleury of France desired peace, they could not prevent the outbreak of war in 1739, a war destined to
resume what may well be called the second Hundred Years‟ War between the two countries. The struggle began
over issues involving trade, smuggling, Jenkins‟ ear, and the like, but a chain of events soon linked it to a much
greater struggle on the continent, the War of the Austrian Succession. Although the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was
signed in 1748, none of the basic issues were resolved. It was generally recognized that the time between this
“peace” and the outbreak of the next war would merely a truce, during which each player would seek to strengthen
his hand as much as possible. During this period there occurred a Diplomatic Revolution, a shift of alliances that
demonstrated the absence of any ideological commitments and the working of the international balance. The new
war was fought both in Europe and over the oceans and landmasses of the world. It ended with the Treaty of Paris,
which recognized the unquestioned emergence of Britain as the great world power. It also meant a relative
weakening of both France and Spain; Prussia retained Silesia but was greatly weakened by 25 years of war; Austria
lost both territory and structure. Although a restructured international balance of power was created, wherein each
power had its place, it did not resolve the power struggles which would reemerge during the wars of the French
Revolution and Napoleon.
5. In 1763, with the Treaty of Paris, Britain emerged as the world‟s greatest imperial and naval power with the
world‟s largest empire. She also emerged as the most hated. Britain‟ s success in The Seven Years‟ War was soon
overshadowed by her failure in the war for American independence. The victory left Britain with a variety of
financial and administrative problems. The new ruler, George III, was determined that he “would be king,” but he
alienated many elements within British political life. With turmoil at home and dissension in the colonies, George
and his ministers could neither pacify nor control the situation. The American colonies finally revolted in 1775, and
a brutal war followed. In addition to war in the Thirteen Colonies, Britain also faced the determined opposition of
France and Spain, as well as the determined neutrality of Russian, Prussia, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, and Portugal.
Finally, in 1783, the Americans won their independence, although the rest of the British Empire remained intact.
The Peace of Paris in 1783 thus rectified the dominance of Great Britain, i.e., the disturbance of the balance of
6. Europe in the 1780‟s was a tinderbox. A century of warfare had drained royal treasuries and depleted state
resources; and many of the Dynastic, Territorial States were in severe financial straits. To obtain money, many of
the monarchs turned to the emerging middle class. This class, well versed in the ideas of the Enlightenment and of
liberalism, was willing to provide funds for the various monarchs. They would do so, however, only for a price –
7. Some “philosophes” did hope for a better future within the existing system of European monarchy. A short cut to
utopia, one that did not involve war, was hoped to be through “enlightened despotism.” Obviously, since the
personal interests of the hereditary monarch could not conflict with those of his people, the monarch, therefore, had
to be convinced to work for a national interest. Some eighteenth-century monarchs seemed to respond, for it gave
them the chance to pose as the defenders of reason and progress while in most cases, they were fighting to win more
power for themselves and to bring every aspect of the national life under their control. While they were in the
minority, a very few of the monarchs were truly enlightened persons, but even in these instances the whole structure
of enlightened despotism was weakened by the problem of succession. As long as kings came to the throne simply
as the result of the accident of birth, there was no way to prevent the mediocrity or worse from succeeding the
enlightened despot and undoing all of the work. So often, this is precisely what happened.
8. Some Questions:
During the 17th and 18th centuries, each of the great monarchies of Western Europe, in terms of the social and
political requisites of modern statehood, possessed a professional diplomatic service, a professional military force, a
degree of national awareness, and a governmental bureaucracy.
18th Century governments were dominated by the middle class. [F]
The style of warfare of the period between 1660 and 1789 can be characterized as total, that is, a king would fight
with another king with the intent of destroying of the other DTS and annexing the territory and enslaving the
Which of the following would not be an example of a power vacuum in the 18th Century?
A. the Balkans
B. the Italian peninsula
E. the German states [D]
The bitter rivalry among European nations for colonial empires in the 17 th and 18th centuries is best explained by the
prestige gained from controlling empires. [F]
The bitter rivalry among European nations for colonial empires in the 17 th and 18th centuries is best explained by
mercantilism as colonies assisted a country in becoming self-sufficient.
As an economic policy, mercantilism meant that:
A. the government sought to increase national wealth by encouraging imports and discouraging exports
B. emigration was discouraged because of the need for a large labor supply at home
C. the state directed all economic activities within its borders, subordinating private profit to public good (self-
D. the state remained aloof from private economic activity, preferring to allow free competition that would result in
the greatest private good [C]
The goal of making a nation independent of any need to import goods from another nation is one basic part of:
The main aggressor in the great wars of the 17th and 18th centuries was France.
The most persistent and most power rivals in the numerous and complex struggles for overseas empires during the
17th and 18th centuries were the
A. English and the Spanish
B. French and the Dutch
C. English and the Dutch
D. French and the English [D]
Era of Limited War:
War of the League of Augsburg - 1689-1697
War of Spanish Succession - 1700-1713
War of Austrian Succession - 1740-1748
Seven Years‟ War - 1756-1763
American Revolution - 1776-1783
French Revolution - 1789-1792
Poland‟s internal weakness, as demonstrated by the Liberum Veto, was exploited by several major powers, and, by
1795, Poland had disappeared from the map of Europe. These powers were all of the following except:
A. Germany B. Russia C. Prussia D. Austria [A]
Who of the following was not an example of an “Enlightened Despot”?
A. Frederick the Great of Prussia
B. Joseph II of Austria
C. Catherine II of Russia
D. Louis XIV of France [D]
The Declaration of Independence relied on the philosophy of John Locke in affirming all except:
A. the powers of the republican English Parliament over the monarchy
B. the origin of government in the consent of the governed
C. life, liberty, and property as natural rights of man
D. the obligation of any people to overthrow a government that infringed on its citizens‟ natural rights
James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson; Thomas Paine
Locate the four power vacuums, Silesia, America, and homes of the major monarchs listed above on a map. Know
also where the European wars were fought.
Origins of the French Revolution. Causes – (a) economic: bankruptcy of the French state, agrarian distress, tax
system, inflation; (b) political: absolutism, Louis XVI; (c) social: three estates, lack of social mobility; (d)
intellectual: Enlightenment and liberalism; Estates General, Tennis Court Oath, Bastille, Declaration of the Rights of
Man, Flight to Varennes, Edmund Burke, Jacobins, nation-state, Madame Guillotine, Maximilian Robespierre,
The Era of the French Revolution:
1. Although the immediate cause of the outbreak of the French Revolution was a financial crisis brought on both by
long-continuing insolvency and the more recent participation in the American Revolution, the underlying causes
went very deeply into the discontent of almost every strata of the French population. Weakness and decay were
apparent at the very top of the structure. Louis XVI was dull, incapable, and irresolute, subject particularly to the
pressures of Marie Antoinette (his frivolous wife), and the most parasitic elements of the upper classes. At each
critical moment, Louis made the wrong decision and in a manner as to further lose prestige and respect.
2. In 1789, when Louis XVI summoned the Estates-General, which had not met since 1614, there was immediate
friction between the Three Estates. The First Estate, or clergy and officials of the Gallican Church of France, was
indeed powerful; but it was a house divided against itself. The lower clergy, coming as they did from the third estate,
identified as such; the bishops and abbots, who controlled the church, came exclusively from the nobility, or Second
Estate, and identified as such. They refused, almost to the end, to accept any proposal that might infringe on their
privileges – especially their immunity from taxation – even if it resulted in the bankruptcy of the government. Not
only were the nobility as jealous of their prerogatives as the clergy; many among them, especially such as the rich
judges of the parliaments and some of the great nobles of the sword, looked upon the convocation of the Estates-
General as a means of increasing their power and privileges. They, too, though virtually exempt from taxation, were
of no mind to make any sacrifice in order to help the government overcome the financial crisis in which it found
itself. The Third Estate, comprising ninety-eight percent of the population, entertained ideas, desires, and goals as
complex and varied, as its composition would suggest. As might be expected, the peasants wanted land or more
land, lower taxes, relief from feudal dues, higher prices for the products they offered for sale, and lower prices for
the products they bought. The urban working men and artisans felt with particular sharpness the pinch of rising
prices and taxes. The middle class itself was composed of many divergent elements, but it was united in its
implacable hostility toward the privileged classes, its fervent desire to attain social and political rights that would
reflect its economic importance, and its receptiveness to the ideas and propaganda of the “philosophes,” who had
clearly expressed the demands and aims of this dynamic segment of French society (liberalism).
3. Several factors combined to transform a potential revolutionary situation into a revolution. The Estates-General
was convened during a time of acute economic crisis and mass misery. The delegates of the Third Estate, armed with
thousands of “cahiers,” were exceedingly capable men imbued with the ideas of the Enlightenment and determined to
settle for nothing less than a transformation of the very character of the French government. The American
Revolution, while not itself a cause of the French Revolution, by its example fired the imagination of French
revolutionaries. The laboring classes of the cities and the peasants of the countryside were prepared to employ mass
violence to achieve their ends. The revolution matured very rapidly. Within the first few months there occurred a
series of events that demonstrated clearly the fact that the Old Regime was dead. Before the end of June the Estates-
General, which had always been dominated by the first two estates, was transformed into a National Assembly
controlled by the middle classes. In July, the Bastille, symbol of the Old Regime, was captured and demolished. The
Great Fear in the countryside struck terror into the hearts of the ruling classes and made fundamental change
4. Before the winter of 1789, France had undergone a revolution. By August 5, the whole system of feudalism was
abolished. By August 26, the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen. By
October 6, both royal family and National Assembly were in Paris, under the watchful eye of the revolutionary
commune. But this was a moderate revolution. It is important to remember that the Declaration of the Rights of
Man reflected the aspirations of the middle classes of France. Apart from its emphasis on fundamental human rights,
the greatest stress was placed on the “inviolable and sacred” rights of property. Even the confiscation of church
lands in November 1789, was justified on the ground that it was institutional property and therefore fell outside the
bounds of “inviolable” property. That these lands were then sold largely to prosperous businessmen and well-to-do
peasants, leaving the poor and landless peasants without land, and that the Le Chapelier Law (outlawed both trade
unions and strikes in June 1791) was passed, indicate how essentially middle class the revolution was. The Civil
Constitution of the Clergy, enacted in June 1790, was similar for it embodied the long pent-up feeling among
intellectuals and middle class leaders that the inordinate power of the church had to be broken.
5. Doomed before it even began to function, however, was the limited monarchy established by the Constitution of
1791. It was attacked from the right, by the king and most of the aristocracy, who found it too radical; it was
attacked from the left by those in the new Legislative Assembly who were turning towards republicanism. The King
himself attempted to flee in June 1791, and his capture and arrest only miles from freedom meant that he would be
under the close scrutiny of those who opposed the monarchy. Many others abandoned the country, and the
extremists were able to squeeze out the moderate elements in the center. Plotting by the emigres (nobles in exile) to
destroy the revolution, the outbreak of war against Prussia and Austria, the ill-considered “Brunswick Manifesto” –
all helped to bring about the uprising of August 10, 1792, the September Massacres, and the eventual execution of
the king. Even in the new National Convention, which began to function in September 1792, the extremist Mountain
group were in what might have been a helpless minority. But events were to decide otherwise. By the spring of 1793,
France was at war with practically all of Europe, and under conditions of revolutionary national emergency it became
possible for the minority to assume control of the positions of power. To its victims and opponents the Reign of
Terror was unmitigated and wanton cruelty; to Robespierre it was “the despotism of liberty against tyranny.”
6. The Thermidorean Reaction of 1794 was launched with the execution of Robespierre. It was both a reaction
against the life of fear that the extremists had created and a conservative middle class counter-revolution against men
who were moving dangerously to the left and who had become a menace to the continuance of middle-class power.
By its very nature the conservative government that was set up under the Directory was only temporary. It lacked
popular support; it was thoroughly corrupt; both left and right attacked it; and it would collapse the right dictator
came along. This was Napoleon Bonaparte.
7. Overview: The outbreak of the French Revolution stirred the hopes of Europeans and inspired confidence in the
power of human intelligence to shape a future free of oppression and misery. It seemed that a new era was forming
that promised to realize the ideals of the Enlightenment. For a number of reasons the French government was forced
in 1789 to summon the Estates General, a medieval representative assembly that had last met in 1614. Each estate
brought with them lists of grievances and suggestions called cahiers. Even before the assembly met, it became
apparent that the goals of the reformers of the Third Estate would clash with those of the other estates. In June 1789
the delegates of the Third Estate expressed their determination not to disband until France had a written constitution.
Their statement was known as the Indoor Tennis Court Oath. In July tensions in Paris were so high (caused by the
soaring price of bread and the fear of an aristocratic plot to crush the revolution) that the symbol of the Old Regime,
the Bastille was attacked and captured. This led many nobles to flee and convinced the frightened king to give in to
the mob. In August the Declaration of the Rights of Man, a document which summarized the principles upon which
the French government of the post-1789 era should be based, was issued. Over the next two years the middle class
revolution continued: the privileges of the first two estates were taken away, administrative and economic reforms
were passed, and the rights of the people were extended. However, this moderate phase moved into a more radical
phase when outside aggressors and counterrevolutions threatened the revolution. The state was then made the focal
point of the revolution (nationalism), and all citizens were subjected to the Levee en Masse which made everything
and everyone part of the state. The Marsaillaise became the new national anthem. A more radical group called the
Jacobins, under the leadership of Robespierre, took power and immediately began to purify the revolution. Using
tight discipline, strong measures were adopted; and the guillotine was used to crush opposition. Although the
Jacobins had many achievements, the Reign of Terror frightened many others; and a revolution against them
occurred in 1794. Leadership passed back to the middle class, and a republican government called the Directory
ruled France for five years. In 1799 Napoleon seized power and pushed the Revolution into yet another stage. His
domestic policies showed the influence of both 18th century enlightened despotism and the Revolution. It affected
every aspect of society and had an enduring impact on French, as well as European, history. Despite the wide
support his domestic policies gained him, his popularity and power ultimately rested upon his military success.
Using the mass or national army surprise and speed, and personal determination & leadership, he swiftly defeated
Austria, Prussia, and Russia, extending his domination over Europe. The one exception was Britain and the Battle of
Trafalgar assured a stalemate as the elephant and the whale could not get at each other. His methods of exploitation
and repression of conquered lands aroused intense nationalism throughout Europe as the peoples of those lands
determined to throw out the invaders. Moreover, the liberals of those lands felt that he had betrayed the sacred
principles of the Revolution, and they began to work against him. His greatest mistake came when he invaded
Russia, and his Grande Armee was virtually wiped out. In 1813 he was decisively defeated at Leipzig, and was
forced to abdicate to Elba. In 1815 he staged a brief comeback (the 100 Days), but his desperate gamble to regain
power ended at Waterloo in June 1815. He spent the rest of his life in exile on St. Helena in the South Atlantic. As
for the ideals of the French Revolution, they were everywhere suppressed. This reaction was known as
conservatism, and was to dominate for the next thirty years.
Characteristics of the old regime in the eighteenth century included a mobile society, marked national and regional
differences, a population explosion, and an agrarian economy. [F]
When Louis XVI convened the Estates-General in 1789, he was primarily interested in the:
A. carrying out of the reforms suggested by the philosophes of the Enlightenment
B. solving the government‟s financial crisis
C. pacifying the rebellious peasants
D. abolishing all the special privileges of the clergy and nobility [B]
Cahiers were statements of grievances against the absolute powers of the French king which were brought to Paris
for the first meeting of the Estates-General in 1789.
The Third Estate represented everybody but nobility and clergy.
When they were not granted rightful representation or a constitution, members of The Third Estate made a
declaration known as:
A. the Manifests of the Third Estate
B. the Declaration of the Rights of Man
C. the Indoor Tennis Court Oath
D. the Agreement of the Third Estate [C]
Members of the Third Estate, by declaring their grievances and by acting in concert, assumed the right to create a
The symbol of the fall of the Old Regime was the beheading of Louis XIV. [F]
The document that summarized the principles upon which the French government of the post-1789 era should be
based was the Declaration of Independence. [F]
The program of the Jacobins was:
A. the restoration of the monarchy and its absolutism
B. the creation of a limited monarchy, i.e. constitutional monarchy
C. the abolition of the monarchy and greater justice and opportunity for the masses, i.e. democracy **
D. the installation of the leadership of the lower classes, especially the workers, in the government, i.e. socialism
A significant denunciation of the French Revolution was written by Edmund Burke. Who was he and what did he
The Reign of Terror was directed against the political rivals of the Jacobins, was used against rivals within the
Jacobin Party, and was carried out in the name of patriotism.
The most important leader of the Jacobins was Maximilian Robespierre.
The two social groups that lost the most as a result of the French Revolution were the
A. clergy and nobility
B. clergy and peasantry
C. bourgeoisie and peasantry
D. bourgeoisie and nobility [A]
The Reign of Terror was controlled completely by the Jacobins. [F]
A conservative reaction developed against the Reign of Terror and a new government came into power. This
government was called the Committee of Public Safety. [F]
On a map locate items such as the site of the Bastille, home of Edmund Burke [and later material - site of Trafalgar,
Spanish sore, Goal of Napoleon in 1812, Elba, Waterloo, Congress of Vienna met here, etc.]
Napoleon Bonaparte and Nationalism: new warfare, Code Napoleon, Trafalgar, Continental System, Nationalism,
Invasion of Russia, Waterloo; Romanticism & Nationalism, national consciousness, J.G. von Herder & Giuseppe
Mazzini, significance of a state to nationalists & conservatives
1. In terms of domestic policy, Napoleon was neither a child of the Revolution nor was he an absolute dictator. He
gave lip service to the Republic while subverting republican institutions, introducing that which was called
“Bonapartism.” This meant that he imposed centralized authority on France, effectively wiping out all local
autonomy. Yet these reforms were often those very reforms called for by the philosophes. His law code (equality
before the law) and some of his educational reforms were truly enlightened. The metric system was implemented,
thereby standardizing the system of weights and measures throughout France. He maintained the distribution of land
set up in the first years of the revolution. But his reform of local government, of the tax structure, and of the law also
gave him more control of the citizenry. Moreover, he scorned free speech and utilized every avenue of expression to
mold public opinion. He structured a society that was based upon the making of war, which under his rule became a
permanent fact of life. He thus regimented and twisted the Revolution without entirely destroying it.
2. Even before the appearance of Napoleon, the dynamics of war had forced France to repudiate its 1791 pledge
never to undertake a war of conquest. With Napoleon, however, the character of the state under went fundamental
change. Earlier French governments organized the total mobilization of the nation (Levee en masse) to win a
specific conflict; Napoleon made total war a permanent aspect of French life. Earlier governments conquered
territory; Napoleon attempted to conquer all of Europe and to reshape it in his own image. Earlier governments
fought mainly to defend the Revolution; Napoleon fought mainly to spread the revolution and his power. As in
France, so it was to be in the rest of Europe as Napoleon‟s armies marched forward. Wherever Napoleon went, the
power of the church was curbed, serfdom was abolished, roads were built, the metric system was introduced, and the
new French law codes replaced medieval legal structures. But heavy taxes were exacted and subservience to France
was demanded. This resulted in the emergence of nationalism throughout conquered Europe. It also resulted in
coalition after coalition being formed by Great Britain against Napoleonic hegemony. This apparently insatiable
imperialistic drive of Napoleon that finally led him to attempt his ill-fated attempt to invade and conquer Russia in
1812, during which he suffered the destruction of an army of half a million men. It was this that forced French
withdrawal from Spain and from northern Italy and led to his abdication in 1814. Although he briefly emerged to
threaten Europe again, the 100 Days, his final defeat at Waterloo ended the French effort to subordinate Europe to
French mastery. Although both the Revolution and Napoleon were defeated, the legacy remains. From the former
came the great revolutionary slogan: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity,” a slogan destined to inspire revolutionaries in
many lands. From the latter came a legend, with hero worship and belligerent nationalism as its main ingredients,
which paved the road to power for other would-be Napoleons – dictators who would rule and conquer.
3. The excesses of the French Revolution led to powerful intellectual reactions against the “so-called” Age of
Reason. In religion an evangelical movement which rejected the lifeless formality of organized religion emerged
(Methodism was one such). In philosophy men like Immanuel Kant and Frederich Hegel introduced a new
philosophical inquiry which resulted in dialectical idealism. Political ideology looked to Edmund Burke for
inspiration. A former liberal of the 1780s, Burke became the spokesman for conservatism for he protested against
the oversimplification of man and society and insisted that both were intricate and complex. He strongly denounced
change for the sake of change, insisting that institutions that were the product of generations of evolution should not
be discarded at will. Tthe romantic revolt against reason was most evident in the arts, and especially in the field of
literature. Fear, frustration, and despair were the dominant emotions of the Romantic writers who called for a
literary renaissance and a rebirth of feeling and imagination. In Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, whose Faust begins
as a statement of reason and ends as a romantic statement of values, the reaffirmation of Christian values can be see.
William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Shelley, Lord Byron, and John Keats spoke to the emotions
and of nature. Whereas the men of the Age of Reason analyzed it and attempted to derive laws from it, romantics
insisted that nature was a mysterious, vitalizing force that could be understood only if it were experienced. In place
of Newton‟s “World Machine,” Romantics found inexplicable and frightening beauty; in place of reason and
perfectibility, Romantics sought to feel the spirit of the individual.
4. Romanticism also turned to the past; not to the classical age as had been done during the Renaissance, but to the
Middle Ages with its preoccupation with mystical religion. Romantics sought to locate and describe national myths
and legends in their tales, ballads, and literature of the national past. Nationalism also emerged as a significant
emotional force. Nationalism is the spirit of belonging together (or corporate will) that seeks to preserve the identity
of the group by institutionalizing it in the form of a State (nation-state). Common racial, linguistic, historical and
religious ties can intensify nationalism. It is usually associated with a particular territory. Nationalism may also be
thought of as the ability of a particular group to communicate among itself more effectively than with outsiders
(uniqueness). Mass nationalism arose during the French Revolution and came to be identified with the common
man. Nationalism was and is an emotion which, when accepted by the masses, was and is the most powerful political
force operative in the world. The State becomes the ultimate focus of the citizen‟s loyalty. This loyalty is enhanced
by the manipulation of a variety of symbols – national heroes, national uniforms, national pledges, songs, flags,
national holidays (holy days), et al. As a mass social phenomenon, Nationalism can promote solidarity and a sense
of belonging. It can also lead to hostility, tension, and/or war between rival Nationalist groups or states. Self-
Determination is the belief that a nation of people has the right to determine its own destiny. This destiny can occur
only when the nation is embodied in a State. Therefore, a nation-state is the ultimate goal of a group of nationalists.
Among the first peoples in Western Europe to feel the surge of nationalism were the Germans. From Johann
Gottfried von Herder and Johann Gottlieb Fichte to Adolph Hitler, one can trace a direct line of romantic
nationalism. It has spread in all directions, taking on a wide spectrum of hues and intensities – from a simple
supporting of the state to fanatical devotion to the state and its leader. During the nineteenth century, art and politics
were enmeshed with war and revolution.
5. Some Questions:
The seizure of power by Napoleon in 1799 meant that France had failed to develop an effective republican
The reforms of Napoleon that had the most lasting influence outside France were those affecting the legal system.
Napoleon viewed religion as
A. worthless and irrelevant
B. necessary for personal salvation
C. a force promoting political and social cohesion
D. suited for controlling a nation‟ s educational system [C]
Napoleon‟s military policy after 1799 was aimed at extending the revolution throughout Europe and extending his
own power throughout the same area.
The battle of Trafalgar was significant because it limited Napoleon‟s conquests to the continent of Europe.
The most important obstacle in the way of Napoleon‟s complete mastery of Europe was:
A. the Spanish rebellion
B. the Pope‟s opposition
C. Russian opposition
D. British sea power [D]
Napoleon‟s greatest mistake was his invasion of Russia.
Napoleon‟s final defeat (and probably his worst battle as commander was at Waterloo.
After his defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon was tried for his war crimes by the allies at Vienna and was executed.
Nationalism is the spirit of belonging together (or corporate will) that seeks to preserve the identity of the group by
institutionalizing it in the form of a State (nation-state).
Common racial, linguistic, historical and religious ties can intensify nationalism.
Self-Determination is the belief that a nation of people has the right to determine its own destiny.
All of the following are contributory factors to nationalism except:
A. a historical tradition of unity
B. economic prosperity
E. territorial compactness and natural boundaries [B]
Idealism, revolution, and nationalism dominated Romanticism of the early 19th century.
One fundamental difference between nationalism and liberalism was that:
A. liberalism was the doctrine of the bourgeoisie whereas nationalism appealed to the aristocracy and the masses
B. liberalism‟s cosmopolitanism led it to oppose efforts by the nationalism of various ethnic groups to expel foreign
A. liberalism grew from the rational traditions of the West, whereas nationalism was rooted in the emotions
B. liberalism favored a rational rearrangement of the map of Europe, where as nationalists opposed tampering with
existing political boundaries [C]
Which of the following is not an example of the nationalism of the era of the French Revolution?
A. the Marseillaise and Conscript Francois-Xavier Joliclerc‟s letters to his mother
B. the 1812 Overture by Pytr Tchaikovsky
C. the writings of Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Johann Herder
D. the Declaration of Independence of the United States
E. the paintings of Francisco Goya [B]
The Industrial Revolution (IR) and its Consequences? Demographic shift, industrialism, urbanization,
Commercial Revolution, Agricultural Revolution, steam engine, railroad, Great Exhibition, Zollverein,
lower/working classes, middle classes; liberalism, Thomas Malthus, Jeremy Bentham, socialism, Robert Owen,
communism, Karl Marx, anarchism, workers, women‟s rights
1. The “Industrial Revolution” refers most explicitly to the rapid mechanization of industry and the accompanying
social consequences, which have taken place since about 1750, primarily in Western nations. The term refers
specifically to the shift from an agrarian, handicraft, labor-intensive economy to one dominated by machine
manufacturing, specialization of tasks, factories, a freer flow of capital, and the concentration of people in cities. By
the late eighteenth century the extraordinary economic development of Great Britain, and the later economic changes
in the rest of Western Europe, revolutionized society and politics throughout the continent. This change aggravated
old agrarian problems, created new labor problems, altered the nature of urban life, revolutionized the economic
systems, and transformed the political dynamics of all countries that experienced industrialization.
2. The landed aristocrats, who had dominated western European nations politically, socially, and economically for
centuries, were, as would be expected, opposed to this change. Their political philosophy was conservatism, but they
could do little to slow economic change, especially when it became clear that industrialized nations were more
powerful than agrarian ones. The middle classes – a diverse yet status conscious group – consisted of the great
bankers and industrialists, professional men, small shopkeepers, and clerks. They held liberal attitudes (liberalism)
about individual opportunity and legal equality and shared common values of hard work & self-reliance. They
believed that their status had been achieved through economic self-sufficiency, literacy, and respectability. They
were, however, divided as to the role of government. The controversy between advocates of free trade (Adam Smith
& the Physiocrats) and the supporters of a protective tariff system (mercantilists) split the liberals. Free Trade
liberals insisted on “laissez faire” and upon a government that optimized their gains. By the mid-nineteenth century
these liberals believed that the best government was the least government and embraced the doctrine of “Social
Darwinism” [see SG # 9]. Other liberals defended a newer concept of the rights of man wherein a “benevolent” or
“welfare” state assisted those who could not help themselves. This quickly fragmented into various groups, from
radical working class movements, rival schools of socialism, and other reform and revolutionary groups. The
working classes had little to say throughout much of the nineteenth century, as they were disenfranchised and
politically powerless. By the end of the century, however, the labor movement of Western Europe was becoming a
political factor, but the fragmentation of the movement (from simple labor unions to Syndicalism, Marxism,
Anarchism) meant that only basic reforms were accomplished before 1900. The Industrial Revolution thus
profoundly altered and shaped the course of human history just as much as the great political upheavals of the
3. Many elements entered into the preparation of Europe and America for the Industrial Revolution. Included were
Renaissance capitalism, the mercantilism and colonialism of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (commercial
revolution), the competitive state system, the Protestant work ethic, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries with its revolutionary concept of human progress, a population explosion, and the various
technological improvements without which no country emerge into the industrial age (transportation,
communication, and agricultural revolutions). All industrial change requires what economists call the four factors of
production: land (raw materials), labor (population explosion), capital (increase of money available for investment),
and management (coordination of land, labor, capital). Utilizing technological developments (based on
developments of the scientific revolution as well as practical mechanics) and the factory system (the large scale
production in factories using machines owned by the employer stimulated the growth of division of labor and of
mass production through standardization of processes and parts), Great Britain was the first country to undergo an
Industrial Revolution. Because of a fortuitous set of circumstances (raw materials, stable government based upon
limited government, island, leadership in colonial field), Great Britain came to dominate industry by 1850. The
United States and Germany experienced an industrial revolution in the post 1860 era, followed by France, Russia,
Japan, and Italy. Industrial prowess soon came to symbolize the power of a state, and a weak industrial power was
regarded as second tier whether it had a large military force or not. Thus, as shall be seen, industrial strength soon
came to be associated with military power, a fact which is evident from that time to today.
4. Socially, the most important social changes that flowed from the industrial revolution were the changes that
occurred in population make-up and composition. There was an enormous increase in the urban population, which
was dominated by the two social classes – the business class and the working class. These groups formed the
backbone of the new industrial society. The business classes (middle class, bourgeoisie) were heirs of the
Enlightenment, that is, the ideas of liberalism appealed to them. Liberalism advocated representative government,
legal equality, and constitutionalism; it supported public education and favored individual initiative (opposing guilds
and unions); and it argued against government interference in the economy which would do better if left to operate
under its own natural laws. The rising middle classes wanted to use Liberalism to increase its political power and to
consolidate its economic gains. In Britain, the Reform Bill of 1832 gave them a measure of political power, and the
Repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 the following decade gave them the free trade they had demanded. In France, the
bourgeoisie effected their revolution in 1830 and put their citizen-king into power. In Belgium, likewise, the
national revolution of 1830 brought great benefits to the middle classes. In the German lands demands for liberalism
were frustrated by the power of the conservatives, and the Revolutions of 1848 did little to change that frustration.
As for the working classes, they were exploited, ravaged by business cycles (alternations of employment and
joblessness), and had no political power whatever. In all countries, during much of the nineteenth century, labor
unions and strikes were illegal and outlawed; in all countries the full power of government was exerted in favor of
capital and against labor.
6. A variety of intellectual responses were offered regarding the Industrial Revolution. Those who were first
concerned with the problems are called the classical economists. These “fathers of the dismal science” (Thomas
Malthus and David Ricardo) studied population, rent, and wages and concluded that “suffering and evil are nature‟s
admonitions; they cannot be got rid of; and the impatient attempts of benevolence to banish them from the world by
legislation . . . have always been productive of more evil than good.” In short, faced by horrendous social evils, the
classical economists offered only more laissez-faire. They looked upon themselves as liberal advocates of natural
law, but their ideas won the praise of the industrial magnates, who were pleased to learn the suffering of the poor was
ordained by nature. In the early nineteenth century, the road leading away from laissez-faire was taken first by
Jeremy Bentham, a friend and patron of the classical economists. He based his ideas upon the ancient Epicurean
doctrine that the good life should be built upon the search for pleasure and the avoidance of pain (“the greatest good
for the greatest number). His theory of “Utilitarianism” favored private initiative and held that under normal
conditions government should play the role of “passive policeman.” He clearly stated that it was the moral
responsibility of the state to intercede when the pains suffered by the many exceeded the pleasures enjoyed by the
few. By the middle of the nineteenth century social liberalism was beginning to advocate a more active role for
government. John Stuart Mill saw that laissez faire liberalism had become an ideological weapon in the hands of the
status quo forces. He advocated basic human rights for all, including freedom of speech, universal suffrage,
universal education, equal rights for women, trade union organization, child labor legislation, rectification of the
evils inherent in a private system of wealth distribution, and the abandonment of laissez-faire as a shibboleth of the
middle classes. Yet Mill‟s “liberalism with a heart” – which he called socialism – was never focused upon a strong
central government, hence he could not be called a true socialist.
7. Socialism has one basic tenet – the ownership and control of the means of production are in the hands of the state.
Without public ownership there is no socialism, but because there are different approaches to the problem of public
ownership there have been and are different brands of socialism. The “Utopian Socialists” were children of the
Enlightenment who were visionaries dreaming dreams. They wanted to apply reason to the problems of modern
society and to permit the natural law of brotherhood to operate freely. Let society do those things and utopia would
be within their grasp. Saint-Simon envisioned a society based on science and a mystical application of the Christian
Golden Rule. Charles Fourier drew up an elaborate blueprint for model utopian communities, called phalanges,
which would prove to man how wonderful a cooperative life based on such principles could be. Several such
communities were established, but they all failed. The model communities set up by the Scotsman, Robert Owen, in
New Lanark (Scotland) and in New Harmony (Indiana) were similar to Fourier‟s phalanges but they failed. Louis
Blanc proposed that “national workshops” (sponsored by the state) be established throughout France with the aim of
replacing private enterprise. During the early days of the Revolutions of 1848, he was successful in getting the
government to look at his concept, but the defeat of the workers‟ movement doomed his project to failure.
8. With Karl Marx socialism took on a new form; it ceased to be utopian and became “scientific.” On the basis of
the philosophical dialectic developed by Hegel, Marx “discovered” three fundamental laws in the historical process:
economic determinism, the class struggle, and the inevitability of communism. With the aid of his friend and
collaborator, Friedrich Engels, Marx published in 1848 “The Communist Manifesto.” The Manifesto is a statement
of the basis principles of historical materialism, a condemnation of bourgeois or capitalist society, a prediction of the
“inevitable” overthrow of that society, and an emotional call to the oppressed of Europe to rise against their masters
and to take power (“workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains”). Marx could not foresee
the developments that were to take place within European society (governments and business were willing to reform
without revolution), which would invalidate some of his most important concepts. He failed completely to
comprehend the significance of nationalism. He never explained clearly how his dialectical explanation of history
would work after a communist society was established. Yet “The Communist Manifesto” did suggest the
tremendously important role that would be played by propaganda in the economic, social, and political struggles of
the future. It did make an important contribution to the strategy and tactics of revolution by indicating that great
emphasis would be placed in the future on the revolutionary party as the leader of the revolution. It did make clear
that, regardless of the theory about the eventual “withering away of the state,” the control and utilization of state
power would play a great role in revolutionary socialist planning. Finally, it foreshadowed, by its call for overthrow
of the entire bourgeois structure of society, an inevitable split in the world socialist movement and the development
of Marxism toward what is today called communism. Marx himself did join, in 1864, in the formation of the “First
International,” but the effort was a failure and the organization died in little more than a decade. The “Second
International,” organized in 1889, remained in existence until World War I. It was constantly plagued, however, by
the struggle between so-called “orthodox” Marxists and “revisionist” Marxists. Although the latter, emphasizing
evolution rather revolution, did gain control of the movement, it was split by the controversy arising out of the
positions taken toward the war, and the struggle between rival philosophies and groups within the socialists
movement has continued ever since.
9. There were other responses to the problems brought into existence by the industrial revolution. Anarchism
considered all forms of government evil and sought to abolish private property and the state. The Russian nobleman
Michael Bakhunin advocated the use of terror and assassination to achieve his goals. In France, Sorel became the
leading spokesman for anarcho-syndicalism, which suggested that the trade unions, by means of the general strike,
could take over control of society. Another Frenchman, Proudhon, is also generally listed as a representative of
anarchist ideology, but his emphasis on a “revolution of credit” through which he would make every worker an
owner or small businessman, puts him in the ranks of a petty bourgeois ideologist. The Christian Socialist movement
in England, led by a small group of reformers drawn from the clergy of the established Church, sought to mitigate
class antagonisms. But their reliance on private philanthropy and brotherly love was not the kind of response that
could go to the root of the problem and propose effective solutions.
10. It should be clear that the Industrial Revolution provides the foundation of our world today. The machine age,
world trade, and the international exchange of ideas are integral parts of the world in which we live On the other
hand, the Industrial Revolution presented new challenges to society that are still a part of what drives economics and
politics. Living conditions, unemployment (technological and business cycles), capital-labor conflicts, governmental
responses to all of these, and imperialism and national conflicts are issues that are critical to understanding the world
of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
11. Some Questions:
What is an industrial revolution? What factors must be present before an industrial revolution can take place? What
happens as the result of an industrial revolution? What are the advantages? the disadvantages?
The term “Industrial Revolution” refers most explicitly to the:
A. physical violence of the economic struggles of the nineteenth century
B. rapid mechanization of industry and the accompanying social consequences
C. rapid shift from agriculture to manufacturing
D. cyclical nature of industrial production under capitalism [B]
The term Industrial Revolution refers to the shift from an agrarian, handicraft, labor-intensive economy to one
dominated by machine manufacture, specialization of tasks, factories, a freer flow of capital, and the concentration of
people in cities.
The five factors of production, without which an industrial revolution cannot take place, are knowledge, land, labor,
capital, and management.
capital [see Commercial Revolution]
capitalism [see mercantilism; laissez faire & Adam Smith]
technological revolution [see also Scientific Revolution]
An agricultural revolution occurs when scientific farming methods, coupled with mechanization on the farms, results
in the production of far greater amounts of food by far fewer people.
If one single invention may be said to have been the key to the development of the Industrial Age, it would be
A. the spinning jenny
B. the mechanical loom
C. the railroad
D. the steam engine
E. the iron smelter [D]
The rise of great cities has been the result mainly of the:
A. pattern of industrial development
B. desire of Western peoples to live in large communities
C. requirements of national defense
D. advantages and attractions of “city life” [A]
With the rise of the factory system came a shifting of population from small agricultural villages to the cities.
During an Industrial Revolution, urbanization patterns almost always accurately reflect industrial development.
The impact of the Industrial Revolution was such that
A. from the beginning of the century middle-class politicians were equal to aristocratic politicians
B. the guilds found that they were still very much needed in the nineteenth century
C. the domestic system had ended by the nineteenth century
D. factory workers supplied the majority of people living in cities by mid-century [D]
The factory system, that is the large-scale production in factories using machines owned by the employer, stimulated
the growth of division of labor and of mass production through standardization of processes and parts.
The first nation in the world to undergo an industrial revolution was Germany because of a fortuitous set of
circumstances, i.e. natural resources, geography, and natural population increases. [F]
Key financial elements in an Industrial Revolution include a stable banking system, an investment system [usually
stock companies with limited liability], and an insurance system.
The American raw material that was crucial to the expansion of the English Industrial Revolution was iron. [F]
Liberalism based its support upon the ideas of the Enlightenment and upon the rising middle class that desired
political power to increase and consolidate its economic gains.
Liberalism advocates representative government, legal equality, and constitutionalism; supports public education and
favors individual initiative, thus opposing guilds and unions; and argues against government‟s interference in the
economy which would do better if left to operate under its own natural laws. It does not promote the solidarity of the
middle class and advocate a political party which will work towards that goal. [D]
The middle class may be described in all of the following ways except
A. were always able to act in unison in order to achieve their common goals of limited government and laissez faire
B. consisted of the great bankers and industrialists, professional men, small shopkeepers, and clerks
C. believed in individual opportunity and legal equality and shared common values of hard work & self-reliance
D. achieved their status through economic self-sufficiency, literacy, and respectability [D]
Hard Times, an English novel about the struggle for power between the middle class and the aristocracy, was written
by Charles Dickens. [F]
Answer the questions on Hard Times which appear on your syllabus.
A characteristic feature of the Utopian socialists was their emphasis on:
A. the cooperative nature of man
B. the necessity for violent overthrow of the bourgeois government
C. the necessity for removing all governmental and social restraints on man‟s activity
D. man‟s competitive spirit [A]
One negative aspect of the Industrial Revolution in Britain was the worsening condition of the urban working class,
that is, miserable living and working conditions emerged for the first time. [F]
Thomas Malthus, an English economist, wrote that the poverty of the working class was permanent because the
production and distribution of goods were in the hands of the exploitative middle class. [F]
Capitalism is a system of government controlled enterprise. [F]
The working classes after 1815 were organized into unions throughout the Continent by 1824 and could strike to
enforce their demands. [F]
The Communist Manifesto was written in 1848.
The lifelong collaborator of Karl Marx was
A. Robert Owen
B. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
C. John Stuart Mill
D. Friedrich Engels [D]
In the view of Karl Marx, the prevailing ideas and institutions of any society are chiefly the product of:
A. innate thoughts in the minds of the majority
B. concepts passed down through the centuries
C. conditions of material existence and production
D. the imagination of the proletariat [C]
Marxian analysis predicts all but which of the following
A. the overthrow of capitalism
B. the victory of the proletariat over the bourgeoisie
C. the triumph of nationalism
D. the withering away of the state after the necessity for repression had passed [C]
Europe (1815-1850): Congress of Vienna, Prince Klemans von Metternich, Concert of Europe, Conservatism versus
Liberalism, Nationalism; Greek Revolution, Monroe Doctrine, Revolutions of 1830, Great Reform Bill in England,
nationalism in Eastern Europe, Louis Napoleon, Frankfurt Assembly, Significance of the Revolutions of 1848-49
1. Edmund Burke‟s emphasis on tradition (Conservatism) was strongly reflected in the decisions of the Congress of
Vienna, which ushered in the Age of Metternich. In an effort to restore the status quo ante bellum, the principle of
legitimacy was followed when possible, and compensation was made where necessary. The Polish question was
temporarily resolved; France was quarantined; territories were reassigned to satisfy the various great powers without
regard to the nationalistic desires or interests of their inhabitants. From the Congress came the Quadruple Alliance
(Austria, Prussia, Russia, and England) – expanded later into the Quintuple Alliance (addition of France), which was
designed as both a watchdog against France and as a effort to guarantee the maintenance of the status quo. Although
revolution did break out again in Europe (Spain, Italian peninsula) within five years of the Congress of Vienna,
various “summit meetings” between the great powers resulted in military force being used to suppress them.
Congresses were held throughout the nineteenth century whenever the balance of power was threatened. There was
to be no major European conflict until the Crimean War, and no military struggle involving all of Europe until 1914.
2. Liberty and equality, equated with the term “liberalism,” opposed the counter-revolutionary (conservative)
alliance of “throne and altar,” (Monarchy and church). However, fraternity (nationalism) was rapidly coming to
signify the idea of national unity and national independence and became ever more important. Growing pressure for
unification of Germany and Italy, and increasing demands for freedom by the peoples living under the control of
foreign powers, dominated continental domestic actions. Only Great Britain would escape the political upheavals of
the first half of the nineteenth century, this occurring because of the Industrial Revolution and the willingness of the
upper class to compromise with the growing middle class.
3. The first revolutionary uprisings after 1815 occurred in Spain, Portugal, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
The reforms introduced by the inexperienced liberal leaders in Spain and Naples alienated substantial sections of the
population at home and, more importantly, alarmed the conservative leaders of the great power coalition. At the
Troppeau Conference of 1820, and under the terms of the Troppeau Protocol, an Austrian army overthrew the
government of Naples in 1821 and a French army crushed the revolution in Spain in 1823. Britain refused to support
these acts, broke with the Quintuple Alliance, and extended its protection to the Portuguese government, which
therefore managed to survive (although it lost Brazil in the process). Further divergence of British interests from
those of the continental powers (and the growing economic strength of Britain) was demonstrated by both the Latin
American wars of independence and by the Greek war of independence. In neither case did Britain support the
liberal or national dreams of the rebels, but Britain‟s interests were enhanced by support for them. Britain opposed
extending the Troppeau Protocol to cover the American wars and asked the United States to issue, with them, a
declaration opposing intervention in the former Spanish colonies. Although the United States had no navy worthy of
the name, the American President, Monroe issued a staunch warning to the great powers of Europe. Although these
same powers possessed a degree of military strength that far exceeded anything that the United States could possibly
put together, they abandoned the expedition. The reason: the redoubtable British fleet. Why? Economic penetration
of South America could be effected more easily if the Spanish government were replaced by numerous weak states
(power vacuum). In the Greek war of independence, the cruelty of the Ottoman Turks could not be overlooked, yet
the primary reason for Britain‟s support for the Greeks was similar to that of Latin America. By the Treaty of
Adrianople (1829), an independent Greece of a very modest size was created, but the crisis demonstrated that the
Balkans was clearly a nationalistic powder keg and was sure to become a source of imperialistic intrigue and almost
certain future conflict.
4. With the outbreak of the French Revolution political reform in Britain was immediately halted. Liberal reformers
either became conservative (Burke) or went into exile (Thomas Paine). Although the seventeenth century Test Act
(religious qualifications for political participation) was no longer enforced, it remained on the books. Catholics and
Jews were excluded from public life. The Crown had become largely decorative, but the House of Commons was
still essentially the oligarchy that had come to power with the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Its members were
unpaid, were recruited largely from the gentry and the wealthy businessmen, and were elected by less than one-sixth
of the adult male population of the kingdom. The largely rural south, with its “rotten boroughs”; the industrial
midlands was grossly under- represented. Reform was impossible during the years of the Napoleonic Wars and the
postwar period; any suggestion for reform was denounced as Jacobin. A workers‟ demonstration in 1819 was
violently dispersed (Peterloo Massacre). But, by the 1820‟s, under leadership of men like Lord Canning and Robert
Peel, restrictions on civil rights were lifted and the middle classes, appealing to and leading the lower classes, were
able to launch the campaign that culminated in the passage of the Reform Act of 1832. Even the broadest popular
support and favorable action by the House of Commons was not sufficient, however, to secure passage. It was
necessary for the Whig leader, Lord Grey, to persuade King William IV to threaten the creation of enough new peers
to put the reform through the Lords before the upper house yielded. Although the first reform bill did not bring
political democracy to England – only the upper most group from middle class received the franchise – and the lower
classes who had worked so ardently were sorely disappointed, a start had been made. During the remainder of the
1830‟s and 1840‟s the battle to extend the suffrage and effectuate additional democratic reforms was lead by the
Chartist movement. The Chartists, in spite of carrying through enormous demonstrations, failed to achieve their
objectives. But the seeds had been sown, and a ground swell of sentiment demanding reform continued to build up
and involve all segments of the political spectrum. So it was that in 1867, by one of the ironies of history, the Tory
party, which had traditionally opposed the broadening of the suffrage, put through the Second Reform Bill.
5. The revolutions of the 1830‟s struck first, as might have been expected, in France. Louis XVIII, who succeeded
Napoleon, tried, through ineffectually, to establish a moderately conservative government. He was succeeded in
1824, however, by his brother, Charles X, who became the tool and spokes-man for the most reactionary forces in
French life – those nobles who had never accepted any of the results of the French Revolution and who were
determined to turn back the clock to the pre-1789 days. They failed and Charles was overthrown, but the republican
forces were neither strong enough nor astute enough to have their way. A supposedly moderate, businessman‟s king,
Louis Philippe, succeeded to the throne of France. Inspired by the French example, the people of Belgium rose in
revolt against their Dutch rulers. Most important is the fact that this revolution made the first permanent breach in
the Vienna settlement. What probably made it possible was the fact that Metternich and Nicholas had other
revolutions on their hands at the time, and so a treaty was signed by the great powers (particularly Britain – yet
again) guaranteeing both the independence and neutrality of Belgium. It was this treaty that played an important role
during the opening days of World War I. An upper-class Polish revolt was doomed to defeat. Inspired by events in
the West, stimulated by hatred of the autocratic Nicholas, galvanized into action by dreams of a “greater Poland,” it
met with no response among the people. It was crushed and tens of thousands of Poles had fled the country. In Italy,
Metternich easily put down the revolt of the Carbonari. In Germany, the most revolutionary part of the populace –
professors and students – had already been muzzled by the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819. Several futile efforts at revolt
during the early 1830‟s failed as well, and Germans relapsed into inactivity. These revolutionary waves revealed two
important facts: that East and West (only in France and Belgium did the revolution succeed at all) were moving
further apart, and that revolution could have hope for success only where it was able to enlist the support of a large
segment of the population. The task of revolutionaries, therefore, was to obtain more wide-spread support, to
develop realistic plans, and to locate more capable leaders.
6. In general, the revolutions of 1848 contained three common denominators: nationalism, liberalism, and a severe
economic crisis that served to turn suffering into revolutionary action. In France, which led the way once again, the
government of Louis Philippe had grown progressively more indifferent and reactionary. It was opposed by almost
all segments of the population, and especially by the disappointed republicans and by the unorganized but potentially
powerful Bonapartists. This time, however, the abdication of the king was followed by serious violence, and the
reactionary forces under General Cavaignac repressed liberal groups. Although the revolution ended in the
organization of a republic, this was to be only temporary, for the accession of Louis Napoleon to power set the stage
for a second empire. The case of Italy was a classic example of how a nationalist movement, moving in three
separate and antagonistic directions, was doomed to inevitable defeat. Piedmont, assuming the leadership of the
national effort to throw off the Austrian yoke, was defeated twice. The Pope, fearing both his own radical population
and an anti-papal leader of the republican forces in Rome, called for help from the French and an army sent by
Napoleon crushed the movement. In the German states, the revolution was led almost entirely by upper class
businessmen and intellectuals who, divorced from and fearing their own people, put all their hope in a weak and
vacillating king who broke at the first pressure from external forces and betrayed and denounced the national
revolution he had himself hailed. Within the Hapsburg Empire there occurred almost every conceivable form of
revolution that was possible during the middle of the nineteenth century. A peasant revolt, a student uprising, a
socialist oriented working class insurrection, many nationalistic revolutions, and warfare between various subject
nationalities occurred within the borders of the Empire. Although this series of upheavals led to the downfall and
flight of Metternich, thus ending the Age of Metternich, the Austrian monarchy emerged victorious. Its secret
weapon was a judicious application of the principle, “divide and conquer.” Every conceivable antagonism that
served to divide its enemies was brought into play. In the end, delivering the final blow against the Hungarians,
there was a Russian army, anxious and eager to help stamp out the seeds and fruits of revolution. The Revolutions of
1848 brought the Romantic Age to an end, at least in politics, and ushered in the age of realism. Thereafter, nations
would achieve independence, but under the leadership of extraordinarily skillful politicians like Count Cavour and
Prince Otto von Bismarck.
7. Some Questions:
All of the following were principles of the Congress of Vienna in reestablishing the European political order except:
D. balance of power [C]
The Congress of Vienna convened in May 1814 to decide how to partition France and assess indemnities against
Metternich opposed nationalism because he:
A. knew that Russia would attack her if nationalism were allowed to develop in Austria
B. wanted to favor the Polish minority which also opposed nationalism
C. was a child of the Old Regime and did not understand the meaning of nationalism
D. knew that Austria would break apart and would lose influence over Germany and Italy if nationalism were not
Metternichism meant the support of political absolutism, the suppression of nationalistic ambitions, and the forcible
preservation of the status quo as established by the Congress of Vienna.
The Concert of Europe was:
A. a coalition of kings for maintaining harmony between nations and internal stability within nations
B. a forerunner of the United Nations in that international peace-keeping force were used to maintain the balance of
C. an international economic trade agreement whereby all participating nations agreed to lower tariff barriers
D. an international cultural exchange which promoted the free interchange of ideas [A]
In its attempt to restore Latin America to the control of the Spanish king, the Congress System (Concert of Europe)
ran into the sole opposition of the United States. [F]
Great Britain supported the Greek Revolution because of its support for the liberal ideas of the Greek revolutionaries
who were trying to free themselves from the autocratic Turks. [F]
The 1832 Reform Act gave the vote and the balance of political power to the industrial middle classes. [C]
Which of the following had little or nothing to do with any of the Revolutions of 1848?
D. economic crisis [C]
Which of the following best explains the Revolutions of 1848?
A. socialism, liberalism, and economic crisis
B. liberalism, nationalism, and economic crisis
C. communism, nationalism, and liberalism
D. socialism, conservatism, and economic crisis
E. nationalism, conservatism, and economic crisis [B]
One reason for the initial successes of the revolts in 1848 was the widespread nature of the revolts, which prevented
concerted action by the absolute powers.
The French Revolution of 1848 led to the election of Louis Napoleon as president.
The 1848 revolutions
A. were a series of revolts throughout Europe and occurred in Budapest, Vienna, Berlin, Milan, Venice, London,
and other cities
B. began in Paris, spread to the other areas, and followed widely different patterns of development but sought
C. were caused primarily by economic problems such as depression or recession, economic dislocation, and
scarcity of food
D. were successful in forcing all of the conservative governments to grant constitutional reforms to the middle
classes and nation-states to the minorities
E. were initially successful but quickly lost momentum and were overturned by the conservative governments
within months [B]
Which of the following is not true about the Frankfurt Assembly of 1848?
A. it was dominated by the conservative representatives from Prussia
B. it was divided over the definition of the united Germany that was going to be created (all Germans or some
C. it soon lost popular support because of its refusal to address the social grievances of the time
D. it offered the crown of a united Germany to Frederick William IV of Prussia who refused it saying that he would
not accept a “crown picked up from the gutter” [A]
The Revolutions of 1848 have been called “the turning-point at which modern history failed to turn” because
liberalism failed to satisfy the needs of either the nationalists or those who wanted social reform and liberalism
thereafter was discredited in Central Europe.
Which of the following statements concerning the Revolutions of 1848 is correct?
A. the revolution in France was very significant in establishing a model of democracy for later governments
B. the revolutionary movement of 1848 in Prussia resulted in the extraction of liberal concessions from the Czar
C. the revolutions in Austria brought about extensive alterations in government that led to democracy
D. the uprisings in the German states were successful at first but they resulted in no enduring gains for either liberty
or unification [C]
Nationalism as it developed in the nineteenth century:
A. was similar to liberalism and socialism in its predictions of sweeping historical change
B. contained economic, political, religious, cultural, and ethnic elements and stressed the need for general reform
C. had been politically moderate during the 1840s but became more militant during the Revolutions of 1848, after
which governments would try to use it to win popular support
D. all of the above [D]
Thought and Culture in the 19th Century: Charles Darwin, Friedrich Nietzsche, Herbert Spencer/Social
Darwinism, Arthur de Gobineau, Realism, Impressionism
1. Charles Darwin‟s book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, is one of the truly important
works of history. It was the end product of a long line of scientific contributions that sought to explain the nature and
genesis of man and his world. The men of the Enlightenment had already rejected the Biblical account of the
beginning and development of life, but they hadn‟t been able to explain how it had actually occurred. It was this that
Darwin undertook to do. In the Darwinian Theory are present several key concepts. The first is that there has always
existed, among living things, a struggle for existence. The second is that those creatures who survived were the ones
that were able to provide for them what the requirements of life demanded-the survival of the fittest. The third is
that, as a result of this process continuing over a long period of time, there took place an evolution of new species by
means of natural selection – the selection by nature of those fitted to live. Orthodox Darwinism holds that variations
in individuals are accidental and are transmitted through inheritance, but it rejects the idea of the inheritance of
“acquired characteristics.” Also emphasized by Darwinism was the theory that the changes were tiny and numerous,
extending over time, but later research has indicated that they are more rare and bigger, and rather suddenly. We call
them “mutations.” The conclusions reached by Darwin struck the world of religious fundamentalism like a bomb,
and the initial reaction was violent, indeed, for what was involved was an attack on the entire Biblical account of the
origin of life and of man. Although millions of Christians have come to accept Darwinism, it remains a fact that the
theory, taken as a whole, is a denial of supernatural intervention in the development of our world and gives powerful
support to a secularist philosophy of life.
2. For the historian, one of the most significant aspects of growth of Darwinist thought was the effort to use its
findings in order to buttress and lend support to an economic, social, and political philosophy known as “Social
Darwinism.” Although the “high priest” of this school of thought was an Englishman, Herbert Spencer, he gained
disciples throughout the western world, particularly in the United States where the successful middle class took
“Social Darwinism” as a scientific confirmation of most of its ideas about society and government. In essence,
“Social Darwinism” held that the “struggle for existence” and the “law of the jungle” were the very foundations of
the operation of nature. Competition was central to natural law, and success or failure in the race to accumulate
wealth correctly demonstrated who was and who was not fit to live. Above all, the state must not interfere in the
struggle – at least, it must avoid any measures designed to help the poor. It was, in short, a glorification of the old
and somewhat shopworn doctrine of laissez-faire. While the “Social Darwinists” did not advocate a policy of
genocide against the dispossessed, there was considerable support for Spencer, who advocated the shelving of the
“incompetent,” by discouraging their participation in the childbearing process. While some supported the idea of
private charity in spite of the fact that form a purely logical point of view charity violated the “laws of nature,” others
believed Eugenics to be the solution to the problem. Deliberate mating of the “fit” with the “fit” was to be the
answer, but in this respect man was still a “wild” animal and refused to cooperate. Just as important was the
influence of “Social Darwinism” in the arena of international affairs. Here, too, the struggle for existence was
supposed to reign supreme. According to the Social Darwinists, those who were victorious in war demonstrated their
superiority over the beaten group. They were the more fit and had not only the right, but the duty to impose
themselves on the defeated group, seize its lands, even eliminate it from the face of the earth. As suggested by Cecil
Rhodes, a world peopled exclusively by Anglo-Saxons would be the best of all possible worlds. This rationalized
not only colonialism in its most naked form, but genocide as well. Some “Social Darwinists,” inspired by the
“superman” concepts of the German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, developed a theory of a special caste known
as “elitism.” This meant that, although the superior beings were not necessarily limited to any one race or nation, it
was their right and duty to band together in order to rule the inferior masses. Generally, however, the blonde, blue-
eyed, long-headed individual who was typical of “the Volk” was assumed to possess these superior qualities, and it
was this type of thinking that inspired the anti-Semitic actions of the late nineteenth century through Hitler.
3. The formal culture of the second half of the nineteenth century had wide variety; it was eclectic. This is a great
period for the novel, particularly the type called “realistic,” although the approach of the twentieth century found it
being supplanted by the “naturalistic” (Darwinian) novel. Both forms, however, were primarily a literature of protest.
Writers of the “left” held out hope of betterment, but a powerful strain of pessimism was setting in. Much of this
writing – not at all limited to the Marxists – was hostile to the middle classes. This was heightened by a loss of
Christian faith in a starkly scientific age. But there was another cultural world that of the masses, and this was
dominated by the popular and conventional. Three descriptive generalizations can be made about the arts of the
nineteenth century. First, they possessed an unusual range and variety. Second, they gave evidence, particularly in
the latter years, of a very clear and apparently profound rift between the tastes of the few and the many, between the
intellectuals and the remainder of the people. And third, they reflected a tendency that might be described as the
revolt of one cultural generation against the tastes and values of its parent generation. In the formal philosophical
thought of the later nineteenth century, at least two common denominators were generally present. Based upon the
work of Hegel and Darwin in particular, the thought of the period reflected a dynamic historical and evolutionary
cast. Inspired by the conclusions of Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, William James, and Bergson, philosophy emphasized
“will,” a kind of life force that insisted upon the active nature of human response. At the same time, the “cult of the
will” contributed to the strengthening of another powerful tendency in the thought of the period – anti-intellectualism
or anti-rationalism. Its position was based upon the belief, a complete rejection of the thinking of the eighteenth
century, that the ordinary human being is not naturally a reasonable and thinking individual. There were, however,
two kinds of anti-rationalism. The moderates regarded human reason as a “flickering candle,” but they wanted to
keep it burning, and were disillusioned rather than anti-rational as such. The extremists, however, wanted to
extinguish the candle and held that human reason was a positive evil. Adolph Hitler seemed to believe that reason
was not an attribute of the “degenerate” French. It is clear that the extreme anti-rationalist, by the very fact that he
insists that men are and must be hopelessly irrational animals, has to be an enemy of democracy. In the words of
Nietzsche, democracy is the “means whereby cattle become masters.” The implication is, of course, that the “elite”
ought to rule, and it was inevitable that a number of different forms of elitism would come to be proposed. At the
same time, this was a century of hope. At least there were many that did believe that what they were doing would
make things better. They did have a belief in progress and, above all, a belief in the future.
4. Some questions:
Perhaps the most important challenge posed by Darwinism to the Bible was its denial that
A. there had been a great universal flood.
B. a man called Noah had gathered single pairs of each species.
C. God had created the universe and the world.
D. a Creator formed all life in the space of a week. [D]
The work of Charles Darwin was significant because of its impact upon religion, science, and the pseudo-science of
Perhaps the most important challenge posed by Darwinism to the Bible was its denial that God had created the
universe and the world. [F]
Charles Darwin work concluded that man descended from apes. [F]
In the area of world affairs, Social Darwinism has been used to advance the idea of
A. free and fair competition.
B. free enterprise under the rule of law.
C. imperialism and racism.
D. economic progress and brotherhood. [C]
The logic of the Social Darwinist position concerning the poor and the disinherited was that they should be left to
A negative aspect of extreme nationalism is its emphasis on “Volkish” thought, that is, an effort to define absolutely
a nation and to eliminate those who do not fit that definition.
A negative aspect of extreme nationalism is its emphasis on ______ thought, that is, an effort to define absolutely a
nation and to eliminate those who do not fit that definition.
D. clannish [B]
Regarding anti-Semitism, which of the following is true?
A. the ideas of the anti-Semites were virtually identical with those held by persecutors of Jews in the Middle Ages
B. as the ideas of anti-Semitism took root, it became milder and less systematic
C. the opposition of most Jews to liberal reforms generated by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution made
anti-Semitism more extreme
D. before the mid-19th Century hatred of Jews was based primarily on religious grounds, whereas anti-Semitism
was based upon irrational nationalistic and racial arguments ***
E. hatred of Jews and anti-Semitism were similar in that Christian churches gave total support to both groups
ISMS discussed to this point:
The Unification of Italy & Germany, (1850-1870): Crimean War, Napoleon III, Realpolitik, Camillo di Cavour,
Giuseppi Garibaldi, Ausgleich, Otto von Bismarck, Franco-Prussian War
1. Italian national unity was achieved between 1859 and 1870. Its architect was the superlatively capable practitioner
of Realpolitik, Count Camillo de‟ Cavour. He took Piedmont into the Crimean War and, with France, into war
against Austria. He annexed the smaller Italian states as he could, managed to handle the flamboyant republican
King of Italy before he died in 1861. Only Venice and Rome remained to be taken, and this was accomplished after
his death during the Prussian-Austrian [Six Weeks] War and the Franco-Prussian War.
2. The story of Prussia and Germany, from 1850 to 1870, is the story of a man, Prince Otto von Bismarck, and the
welding together of a great imperial structure. It is a classic example of the application of Machiavellian Realpolitik
to the problem of neutralizing, isolating, outmaneuvering, and defeating a host of potential or actual enemies in the
process of uniting many separate parts of a nation. Denmark, Austria, and France were in turn beaten and deprived
of territory and power. The mores and ideals of a militaristic, chauvinistic, and authoritarian Prussia were imposed
on all the other states of Germany. In the process, there occurred a dramatic and profound change in the European
balance of power, with the German Empire emerging as the strongest country on the continent.
3. The Germanies of the pre-French Revolution period was composed of over 300 separate and distinct entities. The
French Revolution lowered that number to around 40; but to the German romantic nationalists, that was not enough.
What was needed was a united Germany. The question was which would be the dominant state in this new
Germany? Would it be Prussia or Austria? And what group would dominate: the conservatives, liberals, or
nationalists? The failure of the 1848 Revolutions demonstrated that only a strong, conservative German state could
unite Germany - and that meant Prussia. This state had several qualifications for leadership. It had the strongest
army in Europe. It had the economic leadership of the northern German states because of the Zollverein and because
of the developing industrial revolution. It was also primarily composed of German speaking peoples. Sadly, this
state had been humiliated at Olmütz, where they had been forced to declare that there would be no attempt on their
part to unify Germany. All that was lacking was a leader who would wield the power that was actually available. In
1862 this man appeared; it was Count Otto von Bismarck. He understood that great decisions were made by blood
and iron and not by negotiations. His first goal was to remove his state‟s opponent from German affairs. In the 1864
war with Denmark, the Austria and Prussia fought on the same side. However, Bismarck engineered a dispute over
the conquered territory, and in 1866, Prussia decisively defeated Austria in a lightning campaign. In 1866 the North
German Confederation was created. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 completed German unification. By it was
created a nation that no other nation in Europe could match. The power vacuum that had existed in the German
states since the Thirty Years‟ War had been eliminated. This unfortunately upset the balance of power, but
Bismarck‟s primary goal for the newly united German Empire was consolidation. To do so he would need peace and
stability. He would fight no more wars.
4. Some Questions:
Both the German and the Italian unifications were ultimately achieved by the dispassionate calculations of practical
statesmen who exercised the art of diplomacy divorced from ethical considerations. This kind of statecraft is known
Realpolitik is the art of diplomacy divorced from ethical considerations. Two of the greatest practitioners of
Realpolitik in the second half of the 19th Century were Count Camillo Cavour and Otto von Bismarck.
All of the following factors were obstacles to the unification of Italy in the 19th Century except
A. the power and influence of Austria
B. economic and cultural differences between northern and southern Italy
C. the division of the peninsula into a number of separate states
D. the papacy
E. an expanding interest in Italy‟s history [E]
In Italy after 1830 the ideas and ideals of Mazzini‟s Young Italy movement took root, these being national
independence, democracy, social reforms, and the brotherhood of man.
In Italy after 1830 the ideas and ideals of Mazzini‟s Young Italy movement took root, these being all of the following
A. national independence
C. social reforms
D. the brotherhood of man
E. a war of national liberation [E]
In the drive for Italian unification the most important leader was:
A. Count Camillo Cavour
B. Guiseppi Mazzini
C. Guiseppi Garibaldi
D. Emilio Spaghetti [A]
The leader of the drive to bring southern Italy into the new Italian State was Guiseppi Garibaldi.
The unification of both Italy and Germany was achieved as the result of the defeat of the Austrians in the Six Weeks‟
In 1870 Italy achieved complete unification when
A. Italian troops occupied Rome during the Franco-Prussian War
B. Austrian troops withdrew from Venice
C. Naples was conquered
D. Sicily was added to the Italian kingdom [A]
Bismarck believed that major diplomatic decisions were made by careful bargaining and concessions. [F]
The major problem in the unification of Germany was the struggle for leadership of the German states between
Austria and Prussia.
Which of the following factors is least important in Prussia‟s becoming the leader of a united Germany?
A. Prussia had the economic leadership of the northern German states because of the Zollverein as well as “ his”
B. Nationalists looked to Prussian military strength for the power to terminate the influence of foreign powers like
C. Austrian interests in the Balkans allowed Prussia to develop influence in the German states, especially after the
Treaty of Olmütz authorized such activity
D. Prussia was primarily composed of German speaking peoples, a definite nationalist goal
E. Bismarck‟s leadership abilities far surpassed those of his rivals in terms of vision and drive [C]
A unified Germany was built around the nucleus of the kingdom of
A. Bavaria B. Austria C. Prussia D. Saxony [C]
Which of the following is true regarding the results of the Franco-Prussian War?
A. German unification was completed and Francis Joseph of the Austrian Habsburgs was crowned Emperor
B. the Third Republic collapsed in France, leading to the Second Empire of Napoleon III
C. France was assessed a huge indemnity and was forced to cede Alsace and Lorraine to Italy
D. it represented a major shift in the balance of military and political power in Europe [D]
ConMon in the 19th Century, 1870-1914: new industrialism; workshop of the world, Wm. E. Gladstone, Benjamin
Disraeli, Home Rule, Reform Act of 1867, People‟s Budget, revanche, anti-republicanism, Alfred Dreyfus, French
socialism, Italian problems
The Industrial Revolution Continues:
Which of the following was not a characteristic of the new industrialism of the post-1870 period?
A. New sources of energy, particularly electricity and the power produced by the internal combustion engine, were
B. New materials, including steel and a variety of lighter metals and alloys, were employed
C. Mass production methods involved the use of interchangeable parts, and the assembly line came into its own
D. industry increasingly allied itself with workers and intervention by the state in protection of unions became more
E. new and faster means of mass transportation provided a new capacity to disperse industry and decongest factory
Characteristics of activities occurring in the various constitutional monarchies during the period 1870-1914 would
include all of the following except
A. the development of representative government limited by law
B. the middle class is well represented, although the upper class is still a force, especially when the middle class
C. the Industrial Revolution is occurring only in the areas that have developed a strong constitutional monarchy
D. working class demands lead to the introduction of the basic ideas of socialism, that is state aid for those who
cannot help themselves [C]
Great Powers – Domestic Policy in the Constitutional Monarchies, 1870-1914.
1. Great Britain: As has already been discussed, by the early nineteenth century, political reform in Britain was long
overdue. Although the seventeenth century Test Act was no longer enforced, it was still on the books. Catholics and
Jews were excluded from public life. The Crown had largely decorative, but the House of Commons was still
representative of an oligarchy rather than a democracy. Its members were unpaid, were recruited largely from the
gentry and wealthy businessmen, and were elected by less than one-sixth of the adult male population of the
kingdom. The largely rural south, with its “rotten boroughs,” was greatly over-represented. Reform was impossible
during the years of the Napoleonic Wars and the postwar period; any suggestion for reform was denounced as
Jacobin. A peaceful demonstration by workers in 1819 was violently dispersed. But, by the 1820‟s under the
leadership of men like Canning and Peel, restrictions on civil rights were lifted and the middle classes were able to
launch the campaign that culminated in the passage of the Reform Act of 1832. Although the first reform bill did not
bring political democracy to England – only the balance of the middle class received the franchise – and the lower
classes who had worked so ardently were sorely disappointed, a start had been made. During the remainder of the
1830‟s and 1840‟s the battle to extend the suffrage and bring about additional democratic reforms was led by the
Chartists, who, in spite of carrying through enormous demonstrations, failed to achieve their objectives.
2. But the seeds had been sown, and a ground swell of sentiment demanding reform continued to build up and
involve all segments of the political spectrum. So it was that in 1867, by one of the ironies of history, the Tory party,
which had traditionally opposed the broadening of the suffrage, put through the Second Reform Bill. Although this
bill did not introduce universal manhood suffrage, Disraeli expected that the urban workers, who had been granted
the franchise, would vote for the party that had given them the vote. In this, the Disraeli forces were disappointed, for
they were turned out of office the following year. The next reform was up to the Liberals and, under the leadership
of Gladstone, almost complete and universal manhood suffrage was enacted in 1884 and 1885. Britain was now a
virtual democracy, although the veto power of the House of Lords was not really ended until 1911 and woman
suffrage had to wait until after World War I. During the nineteenth century, the hitherto oligarchic factions of Whigs
and Tories were gradually transformed into the modern mass Liberal and Conservative parties. Thus was born the
British two-party system, the equivalents of which are almost wholly confined to English-speaking lands: Britain, the
United States, and the British Commonwealth countries. As a consequence of, and side by side with, political reform,
substantial progress was made in other aspects of British life. Law enforcement, free trade, labor and factory
legislation, educational growth – all registered more or less positive development, although controversy continued
and proposals frequently reflected narrow class ideology and interest. Even more significant, however, was the birth
of the welfare state, a concept totally contrary to the classical laissez-faire philosophy and to which the Liberals
gradually became committed. The climax in the working out of the program came with the “People‟s Budget” of
1909, introduced by the new Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lloyd George. Once again it became necessary for the
king, this time George V, to threaten the House of Lords with the creation of new peerages before it yielded. This,
however, was the last time; the House of Commons had achieved absolute supremacy. Several important factors
were part of this development. The Liberal party, partly to forestall independent political activity by labor, switched
from advocacy of laissez-faire to support of government intervention in economic life. The Conservatives, partly in
response to the business community that supported it, had turned from advocacy of governmental activity to a policy
of laissez-faire. Labor, however, was determined to have its own party and, by 1905, had developed its political
organization to the point where it was able to command fifty-three seats in Commons. In time, it was destined to
replace the Liberal party as one of the Big Two.
3. Although, in foreign policy as a whole, there existed a basic unity among Britain‟s parties and the balance-of-
power role of the country received general support, there did exist two problems that literally tore to shreds the
political fabric of British life. These were the Irish question and the issue of free trade. With respect to the former,
the struggle saw the failure of British policy to build a formal union between the two countries, the splitting of the
Liberal Party, and, on the eve of World War I, the final passage of a Home Rule Bill that was destined never to take
effect – with revolution the outcome. With respect to the latter, a strong campaign was begun, toward the end of the
century, to get the government to abandon free trade in favor of imperial preference. The competition from Germany,
the United States, and other western countries was beginning to affect seriously Britain‟s economy. On this issue the
Conservative Party split. Although the policy of free trade was continued until the outbreak of war, it eventually had
to be abandoned.
4. Some Questions:
In Great Britain during the period 1871-1914, the aristocracy and the wealthy bourgeoisie controlled both the
Conservative and the Liberal Parties.
The Reform Bill of 1867 in Great Britain extended the franchise to city workers.
“Timely concession for ultimate control” would be a proper motto for the reforms of the 19th Century in Great
Two of the most important Prime Ministers of Great Britain during the 1860‟s and 1870‟s were Benjamin Disraeli
and Wm. E. Gladstone.
The coming of parliamentary democracy in Britain is significant for all of the following reasons except
A. the industry and commerce of Great Britain expanded greatly in the period, 1867-1914.
B. it broke down centuries old class distinctions.
C. it required the adoption of new techniques by political leaders.
D. it gradually forced the government to deal seriously with the complex problems of social reform. [A]
Home Rule for Ireland had as its stimulus all of the following except
A. the demands by Irish peasants for the land held by absentee landlords.
B. the persecution of Roman Catholics by the English.
C. the spirit of nationalism in Ireland.
D. the belief of most Englishmen that Irishmen had the right to govern themselves. [D]
5. France: Taking advantage of the legacy bequeathed by his uncle, and with a generous application of both
demagogy and “Bonapartism,” Louis Napoleon was able to set up an imperial dictatorship in France. Although
crumbs were thrown to the workers, it was the bourgeoisie that made the most out of the Second Empire. Napoleon
III‟s foreign policy and foreign adventures were almost unanimously failures. He participated in the Crimean War,
but got practically nothing out of it; he joined Sardinia in war against Austria and earned the enmity of both; he
attempted to establish a puppet empire in Mexico, but was forced by the United States to beat an inglorious retreat;
he sent troops to “protect” the pope, but had to remove them; he maneuvered into war against Bismarck‟s Prussia
and was destroyed. As the pressures of genuine party differences rose during the 1860‟s, reflecting genuine
economic and social group interests, Napoleon slowly and gradually abandoned the repressive and dictatorial
measures with which he had begun his regime, and he began to establish something like a constitutional monarchy.
But the disastrous defeat suffered by France in 1870 put an end to these experiments, and on September 4 of that
year the Third Republic was proclaimed.
6. The Third Republic was born in the midst of both foreign and domestic war. The citizens of Paris, refusing to
surrender to the Germans, suffered first the agonies of a siege by the foreign enemy. When finally forced by
starvation to yield the city, a peace treaty they refused to accept confronted them. This time their resistance was
overcome by French troops, and the slaughter that occurred during the “Bloody Week” of May 21-28, 1871, was
long remembered by the survivors of the Paris Commune. After five years of political squabbling, the Constitution
of 1875 was adopted. The republic was a kind of republican form of constitutional monarchy, with power centered
in the Lower House of the bicameral legislature. On the surface, with its numerous parties and frequent changes in
governmental leadership, it appeared quite unstable. But an outstanding corps of civil servants, supporting ministers
who revolved in office, kept policy on an even keel and government reasonably stable. Before the turn of the
century, the republic was compelled to face up to and surmount three crises. The first was a plot to use a foppish
general, Boulanger, as “the man on the white horse” in a coup d’etat to overthrow the government. He fled and
committed suicide. The second was a series of financial scandals, and the government was shaken. The third and
most serious was the Dreyfus Case. In each instance the country divided into pro and anti-republican sides. In the
Dreyfus case, however, with violent anti-Semitism thrown in for good measure, the emotional intensity of the
conflict reached its zenith. With the exoneration of Dreyfus, the republic achieved a victory and it proceeded to
move against its enemies. One consequence of this struggle was the abrogation of the 1801 Concordat with the
papacy. Although shaken by these incidents and expanding industrially at a far slower rate than the United States
and Germany, France was still a great power and succeeded in building up a worldwide empire second only to that of
Britain. She never lost sight of her goals in Europe, however, and by the end of the first decade of the twentieth
century had succeeded in forging a powerful alliance and in isolating Germany.
7. Some Questions:
Which of the following was not a major crisis or problem for the Third Republic?
A. the Boulanger Affair
B. the Dreyfus Affair
C. the Suez Canal Scandal
D. the Alsace-Lorraine issue
E. Syndicalism [C]
In France during the period 1870-1914 political dominance was maintained by the laboring classes, the first such
occurrence in Europe. [F]
Frenchmen who dreamed of la revanche were those who wanted a new war in which France would overwhelm and
humiliate Italy just as France had been humiliated in 1870. [F]
Albert Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was convicted of espionage in 1894; and a massive cover-up by
the Army followed as the Army attempted to retain its “honor”.
8. Italy: The new kingdom was beset with problems. It had no natural resources worth mentioning. It was torn
between the northern part that was industrializing and moving into the nineteenth century and a southern part that
was still locked in medieval ignorance, backwardness, and poverty. Its people were almost totally ignorant of
constitutional government and self-rule. Its politicians were largely inept and corrupt. Yet, in spite of such
difficulties, Italy sought to become and play the role of a great power.
The new Italian State faced enormous problems. Which of the following was not one of their problems?
A. lack of natural resources.
B. poverty and ignorance of the people.
C. lack of familiarity with representative government.
D. an intense national patriotism.
E. trouble with the Vatican [D]
Central European DTSs, 1870-1914: Characteristics, Kulturkampf, Social Democrats, German Industrial
Revolution, William II, Slavophils, Emancipation of the Serfs, Revolution of 1905, Gregory Rasputin, Nicholas II,
Serbia, nationalities conflict in Austria-Hungary, Sick Man of Europe
1. Although there were enormous differences between the three great powers of central and Eastern Europe
(Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia), they did have important characteristics in common. In varying degrees, all
were autocracies. All had entered upon the scene of modern world development later than the great powers of the
west. All were aggressive and expansionist, and all, in different measure, had national-minority problems. All
experienced unusual economic development during the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. All were
dominated, to a lesser or greater degree, by a reactionary landed nobility. All were confronted by demands for
constitutional development and reform, and all came to be faced with revolutionary movements of different kinds,
with different goals.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the autocracies of central and Eastern Europe?
A. all were aggressive and expansionistic
B. all had national minority problems
C. all were backward and feudalistic in social and political matters
D. all had potential for economic growth but lacked capital and a strong middle class
E. all were confronted by demands for constitutional reform [D]
2. Germany: Between 1870 and 1890, Bismarck attempted to mold the empire in his image. A constitution and a
parliamentary system were adopted, but beneath the covering was the power of the emperor-almost unlimited in
scope-and behind the emperor stood the Iron Chancellor. Yet, Bismarck had problems. During the first eight years
in the life of the empire he conducted a “Kulturkampf” against the Catholic Church, the greatest danger, in the eyes
of Bismarck, to the monolithic unity of the people behind the Crown. Toward the end of his period he was forced to
“go to Canossa,” however, and, from 1878 to 1890, turned his attention to making war against the socialists.
Although he failed to destroy them, his “welfare state” program did help to undermine their revolutionary fervor.
Bismarck did not neglect Germany‟s internal development. Every effort, particularly his later protective tariff
system, was exerted to stimulate German industry, with the result that by the time of his retirement in 1890 Germany
had become the greatest industrial power in Europe. But Bismarck was a militarist at heart, and, in terms of training,
size, and strategic planning – including the building of a railroad system entirely to army specifications – succeeded
in building the strongest armed force in the world.
3. Yet, Bismarck was not an imperialist. Concerned about the possibility of a French war of revenge, he constructed
a system of alliances that made Germany secure. Concerned about retaining the friendship of Britain, he made no
effort to challenge her in naval strength or colonial expansion. Bismarck was recognized as the leading statesman of
Europe; his limited goals had attained; Germany needed neither more territory nor war. When William II came to
the throne, however, the Iron Chancellor was ousted, and with him went his policies. Under William, Germany
embarked upon a program of building the greatest navy in the world, demanding its imperial “place in the sun,”
challenging Britain in the markets of the world, and, by its open and naked militarism, making enemies and losing
friends. By 1914, it was clear to the world that the absolute masters of Germany were the emperor, the reactionary
Junkers, and the expansionist militarists.
4. Some Questions:
Important elements in German history (1871-1914) were all of the following except
B. a reactionary form of government
C. social legislation
D. industrial backwardness
E. colonial aggressiveness [D]
Between 1870 and 1890 Bismarck‟s primary goal for the newly united German Empire was
A. the repression of all nationalist groups other than Prussian.
B. the consolidation of the Empire.
C. the further expansion of the Empire, especially in the Balkans
D. the further expansion of the Empire, especially in Asia and Africa. [B]
In attempting to establish the supremacy of the state, Bismarck tried to control the Catholic Church and later tried to
destroy the Socialist Party in the 1870s and 1880s.
The major reason for Bismarck‟s policy of social reform was
A. to provide the federal government with revenue
B. to remove the causes upon which socialism was developing
C. to show his true concern for the working classes
D. to demonstrate to the world that Germany was a true democratic state [B]
A major characteristic of German domestic policy between 1870 and 1914 was the political use of a dynamic foreign
policy, which made the military important and led to successful appropriation demands at regular intervals
throughout the period.
5. Austro-Hungary: Austria emerged form the trials of the 1848 revolutions shaken but apparently resolved to
maintain the old system intact. With Russian support, she was able to force Prussia to accept the “humiliation” of
Olmütz which appeared to reflect the continued domination of German states by Austria. Internally, the Austrian
government concentrated on the “Bach system,” a program of repression that continued for a decade, accompanied
by stagnation and unrest throughout the empire. Several approaches to the problems of a multi-national dynastic
state were attempted, but no genuine solution was found. It required the defeat and humiliation at the hands of
Prussia in 1867 to awaken the Austrian power structure to at least a partial realization of its problems and
weaknesses. The result of this was the famous Ausgleich, which established the dual monarchy, unique both in
Europe and probably in world history. Essentially, the agreement provided for the division of the empire between
Austria and Hungary, with provision for unity at the top through the emperor-king and a system of joint
responsibilities and institutions. Within Austria there developed a pan-German group standing for the destruction of
the empire, Protestantism, and the union with Germany. Opposed to it was the dominant Christian “Socialist”
movement – loyal to the Hapsburgs, strongly Catholic, and ardently in favor of the empire. In the cities, particularly
Vienna, a working class movement, strongly oriented toward socialism, was emerging. And, scattered through the
country, with a similar concentration in Vienna, was a substantial Jewish population, prosperous, well educated, the
object of an almost paranoid and fierce anti-Semitism.
6. In Hungary, the power structure and national drives were somewhat different. The greater variety of religious
beliefs prevented the same degree of clerical control as in Austria, and the smaller Jewish and working class
populations retarded the development of the same types of problems as existed in Austria. Since Hungary was not the
dominant element in the partnership with Austria, political life and struggles revolved around this relationship, and
two trends dominated. One was basically pro-Ausgleich and wished simply to improve the power position of
Hungary in the Ausgleich; the other demanded complete independence. The struggle between the two groups
virtually paralyzed the Hungarian parliament, and the Austrian emperor was compelled to rule largely by decree
during the last years before the outbreak of World War I.
7. On paper, in their respective statutes, both Austria and Hungary promised equal rights to their subjects‟
nationalities, but in practice neither respected their own laws. Of the two, however, the Austrians were less onerous
masters. True, the Czechs had developed a strong nationalist movement and wanted privileges equal to those of the
Hungarians. But the Poles were satisfied; they were the landlord class in Galicia and dominated and oppressed their
peasants, the Ruthenians. Among the South Slavs, the Slovenes were the most contented. Amongst those anxious to
get out of the empire altogether, the Italians stood at the head of the line, but only the Ruthenians and Jews suffered
real discrimination and hardship. In Hungary, minority problems were more acute. With the passage of time,
Magyar behavior toward other national groups became ever more oppressive. Hungary‟s basic approach was a
deliberate policy of Magyarization, with the Slovaks, Rumanians, Serbs, and Croats the worst victims of the policy.
The method was as simple as it was brutal – the use of every available weapon and technique to destroy and finally
obliterate the national languages, the most prized possession of the subject peoples, the living proof of their national
identity. Bosnia-Herzegovina was a special case. Occupied by the Austrians following the Congress of Berlin of
1878, the area was to remain technically a part of the Ottoman Empire. Some day, said the Serbs, the proclaimed
their annexation and precipitated a crisis that eventually became the spark that set the world aflame.
8. Some Questions:
The most stable and cohesive state in central Europe was the Austro-Hungarian Empire. [F]
Which of the following was the dominant nationality in the Austrian Empire?
A. 12 million Germans B. 10 million Magyars C. 24 million Slavs D. 4 million Latins [A]
The 1867 constitution of Austria, known as the Ausgleich, made Austria into a Dual Monarchy.
Via the Ausgleich, equality in power was granted by the Austrians to the
A. Czechs B. Slovaks C. Magyars D. Slovenes [C]
From 1871 to the outbreak of World War I, the biggest problem confronting the government of Austria-Hungary was
A. rivalry with Italy on the Adriatic and in the Balkans
B. the threat of bankruptcy due to the loss of the war with Prussia
C. the discontent of numerous language groups within the borders of Austria-Hungary
D. the fear the Germany would annex Austria-Hungary [C]
The South Slavs are located in a geographic area of Europe known as the Balkans.
The Balkan nation posing the greatest threat to Austria-Hungary was
A. Serbia B. Rumania C. Albania D. Germany E. Russia [A]
The self-proclaimed “big brother of the Slavs” was
A. Austria B. Russia C. Prussia D. France [B]
The two great powers whose interests in the Balkans clashed the most seriously were
A. Great Britain and Russia B. Great Britain and Germany
C. Austria-Hungary and Germany D. Austria-Hungary and Russia
E. Germany and Russia F. Italy and Austria-Hungary [D]
The Ottoman Empire was also known as “The Sick Man of Europe.”
9. Russia: The case of Russia between 1815 and 1914 is the story of a vast country that was beginning to undergo
the transformation called industrialization, but which seemed to be determined to maintain a social and political life
that was essentially medieval. Reforms there were, but each time they came as a direct result of catastrophic war and
each time the power structure continued to claim for itself the same despotic rights as had belonged to their
autocratic forebears. Under Czar Nicholas I (1825-1855), Russia was a police state founded upon the slogan,
“Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationality.” The Decembrist revolt in Russia in 1825, in spite of its ineffectiveness
and defeat, was an important event in the history of the country. It probably helped to convince Czar Nicholas I to
follow a completely reactionary policy throughout his thirty-year reign. But the Decembrists became a symbol, for
they were the first of a long line of modern Russia‟s political martyrs, and the revolutionary tradition they helped to
establish culminated in the successful overthrow of the Czar in 1917. Defeat in the Crimean War, the demands of
industrial development, and the fear of revolution led the new czar, Alexander II (1855-1881), to decree the
liberation of more than forty million serfs, an act that has been called the greatest single statute in history. In
addition, since emancipation altered the entire fabric of Russian society, it became necessary to proceed with reform
in every area of social and political life. Ardent hopes were not, however, to be realized. From the 1830‟s on, an
intense political development had occurred within the ranks of the Russian intelligentsia. Westerners and Slavophiles
debated their theories with passionate enthusiasm. From the ranks of the young nihilists had arisen the populist
movement, and from this the “Land and Liberty” society. They went to the peasants, but were rejected. To those who
joined the Peoples Will movement it seemed that only terror could bring the autocracy and, after many failures,
Alexander was finally assassinated in 1881.
10. With this murder, all reform in Russia came to an end. From 1881 to 1905, under Czars Alexander III and
Nicholas II, reaction ruled the roost. Both Czars were sworn enemies of every liberal idea, movement, or institution.
All of the subject peoples and nationalities suffered from discrimination or oppression, ranging from the destruction
of the Finns‟ own institutions to government massacres of Jews. Within the country, especially from 1892 on, when
Witte became the Finance Minister, there took place a tremendous spurt of industrial development and a concomitant
growth of revolutionary organizations, including the two Marxist movements (Bolsheviks and Mensheviks), the
peasant-based Social Revolutionaries, and the liberal Constitutional Democrats or Kadets. Confronted by this
opposition, the government stepped up its measures of suppression and apparently came to the conclusion that a
“jolly little war” was all it required to unite the country. The resultant conflict, started by a surprise Japanese attack,
was to a considerable degree, a Russian disaster. Although the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed rather quickly and
the armed forces remained loyal, a revolution did break out. But the government‟s resources were not yet exhausted.
Massacres of thousands of Jews by the “Black Hundreds” united the forces of reaction; the October Manifesto,
which promised full civil liberties and a legislative assembly (Duma) elected by universal suffrage blunted the further
progress of revolution. Although a Duma was finally convened, it became little more than a mockery. The first two
Dumas, which the Czar could not control, were dismissed; the last two, which he did control, became agents of the
reactionary imperial government. During the last few years before the world war, Stolypin‟s land policies appeared
to be developing a promise of a better future, but the madness of Rasputin seemed to be draining the regime of any
ability to cope with Russia‟s manifold problems.
11. Some Questions:
Reforms seemed to be generated in Russia, prior to 1914, primarily as a direct result of:
A. financial catastrophes. C. opposition of the Russian intellectuals to Czarism.
B. pressures of revolutionary elements. D. military defeat. [D]
What event was primarily responsible for the attempts by various Russian leaders to modernize and westernize
A. the Decembrist Revolt C. the Crimean War
B. the Russian radical movement under [Lenin] D. the Pan-Slav movement [C]
The Crimean War brought about all of the following except:
A. led to the development of industry in Russia
B. gave Constantinople to Russia
C. determined Russia to weaken Austria whenever possible
D. demonstrated British and French determination to maintain the Ottoman Empire [B]
The Czar who freed the serfs was
A. Alexander I B. Nicholas I C. Alexander II D. Alexander III E. Nicholas II [C]
At the turn of the 20th Century, the great power with the least industrialization and modernization was
A. Austria-Hungary B. Germany C. France D. Italy E. Russia [E]
The disastrous defeat by the Russians at the hands of the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 resulted
directly in the Revolution of 1905.
A leader of the Communist movement in Russia in the 19th and early 20th Centuries was
A. Leon Trotsky
B. Joseph Stalin
C. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
D. Michael Bakunin
E. Fydor Dostoyevsky [C]
The Age of Neo-Imperialism, (1780-)1870-1914: Definitions; Earl of Durham, Indian Mutiny of 1857, opium,
spheres of influence, Meiji Period; New Imperialism, Rudyard Kipling, Boer War, Spanish American War, dollar
diplomacy, Consequences of New Imperialism
1. Although the word, “imperialism,” is relatively new, what it stands for is almost as old as the human race. During
the nineteenth century, this idea of conquest was a vital part of the lives of those concerned with national policy in
practically every major country of the world and became a subject of universal debate. While economic elements
had been present in all earlier forms of imperialism, the great nineteenth century powers were confronted with new
problems and pressures resultant from their industrial revolutions. The need to find new markets for surplus
commodities and, especially, surplus capital which could not be marketed at home demanded solutions.
2. Nineteenth century imperialism may be divided into two periods. The first, up to about 1870, was rather passive
and had not yet put its stamp on the countries and the times. The second, from about 1870 onward, witnessed a
rather frenzied drive by every great power to acquire control of alien peoples, territories, and resources. The
consequence of all this was the fact that almost every conflict between the powers during this period – except for the
mid-century struggles involving France, Prussia, and Austria – revolved around imperialist rivalries outside Europe.
Almost every area of the world was an area of conflict. From Latin America, to Africa, to the Middle East, to
Southeast Asia, to the islands of the Pacific, to China – the struggle raged for raw materials, markets, military and
naval bases, and imperial status. By the end of the century, the world had been fairly well divided amongst the great
powers. Great Britain had by far the greatest empire, but France emerged in second place. Russia had expanded
greatly, but largely into areas contiguous with its own territories. Germany and Italy had arrived late on the scene
and had succeeded only in acquiring a few second-rate pieces of land. Even Japan (the only Asiatic power to build
an empire) and the United States joined the expansionist drive.
3. It was said that the sun never set upon the British Empire. In Africa British possessions extended in an almost
unbroken line from the Cape of Good Hope to Alexandria and westward to the Atlantic Ocean. In the process of
ruling these heterogeneous peoples the British developed most of the possible forms of administration, from the
“commonwealth” in South Africa, to the “protectorate” in Egypt, to the outright colony, such as Nigeria, that was
governed by a system called “indirect rule.” Generally, it was British policy, insofar as there was not great conflict
with western standards, to maintain native law, religion, and traditions. The British had very important interests in
China, which were developed from the privileges they secured as a result of the Opium War and the Treaty of
Nanking (1842). They also held some important possessions in and around the Caribbean region in the Western
Hemisphere. However, the richest of their possessions, the center and symbol of their empire, was India. After the
bloody Sepoy Rebellion (1857), the British government took over from the East India Company the task of
governing the vast subcontinent and divided it into those regions – the richest – that were put directly under British
rule and the so-called native areas, which were ruled indirectly as in Nigeria. In spite of considerable progress, India
was never fully reconciled to British rule, and the British never fully adjusted to life in India.
4. In Africa, France promoted European settlement and adopted a policy of assimilation. They hoped to create an
empire of one hundred million Frenchmen. Basically, however, the policy succeeded even partially only in Algeria
(where it was ultimately destined to fall, too); in the rest of her territories France was compelled, without admitting
it, to copy British methods. In Asia, France was able to establish control over Indo-China and, from there, extend
her influence over southern China proper, where her policies were similar to those of the other great powers that
were moving in to exploit the Chinese potential. Germany entered the imperial scramble rather late. She was able to
obtain several large tracts of land in Africa, some islands in the Pacific, and a sphere of influence in China, but this
was as nothing compared to the ambitions of William II. His push into the Middle East and his raucous demands for
a greater “place in the sun” alarmed Britain and helped to create the atmosphere that led to World War I. Italy‟s loss
of Tunis to France and her defeat in Ethiopia/Abyssinia led her to become one of the discontented powers. Her
seizure of Tripoli from Turkey did not bring any material advantages, but it did help prepare for war. During the
latter years of the nineteenth century, three powers that were quite new to the imperialistic game proceeded to
establish empires. Tiny Belgium managed to acquire almost a million square miles in the heart of Africa (Congo –
the Heart of Darkness). The United States, somewhat in contradiction with its heritage and proclaimed principles –
and to the horror of some and delight of others – destroyed the Native Americans of the Great Plains, then joined the
other great powers and acquired an overseas empire (Hawaii, Puerto Rico, & the Philippines). Finally, Japan,
opened to the outer world only in 1853, succeeded first in conducting her own domestic revolution and, after a
generation of development, managed to wage two successful wars – against China and Russia – and become one of
the great imperial powers in the Far East.
5. A period of empire building such as this, the greatest the world had ever seen, was not destined to mature without
evoking the most serious and emotional debate. In defense of imperialism were cited the Social Darwinist claim that
it was the duty of the Caucasian race to educate and civilize the heathen [“White Man‟s Burden”]. It was also
essential to possess colonies for the defense of the country against rival powers and the white race against inundation
by non-whites. Arguments against imperialism stated that the Social Darwinist conception of the world was all
wrong because it attempted to apply laws governing plant and animal behavior to the human race. Moreover,
colonies did not pay for themselves and benefited only the privileged minority profited personally from imperialist
exploitation. Imperialism also sought to satisfy irrational needs (nationalism, jingoism, and chauvinism). In any
event the colonies would eventually seek and attain their freedom. One of the most striking things about this period
of expansion is that it involved an actual migration of vast numbers of Europeans into areas around the globe that
were suitable for white settlement. In Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the southern half of South America, and
North America many millions of Europeans found new homes. Significantly, few Europeans chose to migrate to
African and Asian areas where large numbers of natives already lived.
6. Apart from the United States and Latin America, almost all of the lands mentioned were developed as part of the
British Empire. Their relationship to the mother country had to evolve, however, over a period of time. Here Canada
led the way. Starting with the Durham Report, a form of government was created that has come to be called the
dominion. Adopted for Canada in 1867, the plan was applied before World War I to Australia, New Zealand, and
the Union of South Africa. Although the exact relationship of the dominion to the mother country has never been
entirely clear, and is still less so today, all of the dominions went to war against Germany during World War I.
7. There were many consequences of European expansion up to 1914. The process affected the whole world and
almost all peoples of the world. The expansion of Europe was accompanied by a great numerical growth of the
world‟s population. Initially, colonials imitated their new masters; habits of living changed, new modes of dress
were adopted, and an improved standard of living [roads, hospitals, and public services] was introduced. However,
Europeans rarely accepted these people as equals, and few natives were allowed to participate in the important
organs of colonial government. As natives saw European contact rapidly undermine old faiths, customs, tribal
loyalties, and social institutions, many native leaders rejected white supremacy and a strong spirit of nationalism
began to grow among the subject peoples. The countries of Europe had become wealthier [although not the national
governments]. The rivalries amongst the great powers had become greatly intensified, resulting in tension between
the great powers.
8. Some Questions:
What were the following?
Colonies of Settlement; Colonies of Conquest [who went where]
Direct Rule; Indirect Rule [Form of Government]
Formal Empire; Informal Empire [Occupation]
According to Edward Gibbon Wakefield, British colonial theorist of the early 19th Century, colonies are like apples
on a tree: when they are ripe they will fall away from the tree.
The Durham Report of 1839 proposed that British colonies be prepared for independence for, like apples from a tree,
when ripe, they will fall away.
Reasons for the Pax Britannica include all of the following except
A. industrial strength
B. financial strength
C. stable government
D. military power
E. tacit acceptance of the situation by other powers [D]
What is New Imperialism? What factors brought it about? How is it different from the Imperialism of the 17th-18th
Centuries? What were the consequences of the New Imperialism?
Which of these is not thought to be a cause of the acquisition of new colonies in Africa and Asia during the era of
A. militant nationalism (jingoism)
B. competition for markets that were sources of raw materials and areas of investment.
C. the search for adventure.
D. a place for excess population.
E. missionary zeal/white man‟s burden [D]
The new European imperialism began about 1870.
Africa was known as the “Dark Continent.”
Which of the following continents was least affected by the neo-colonialism of the 1870-1914 era?
A. Africa B. Asia. C. Europe. D. South America. [D]
European imperialism in Africa may be described by all of the following except
A. began with the involvement of the British in South Africa and Egypt, the French in North Africa, and Belgium‟s
Leopold in the Congo.
B. was formalized in 1884 when interested nations met in London and set up international rules for expansion
C. resulted in most of the continent divided among seven European powers between 1875 and 1895.
D. only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free on conquest by 1912. [B]
The Boer War was a conflict between the British Empire and two tiny, agricultural republics located in
A. South Africa.
B. North Africa.
C. West Indies.
D. East Indies. [A]
The idea that best expressed the aim of most of the great powers in China was the establishment of
A. spheres of influence
B. open door policy
C. indirect rule
D. annexation and assimilation [A]
A sphere of influence, during the era of neo-colonialism, was where one nation controlled the military and
government of another nation and permitted no third nations to interfere in the affairs of the second. [F]
The first Asian country to utilize European technology and to become a modern industrialized nation was Japan.
By 1914 the British Empire controlled one-fourth of all the land and people on the earth.
According to Heart of Darkness the results of imperialism include all of the following except
A. the exploitation of the colonial economy for the benefit of the colonial power.
B. the introduction of medicine and hospitals reduce infant mortality although this is done solely to increase the
number of workers available to exploit
C. the destruction of the native social and political structure
D. the destruction of humanitarianism in whites due to their ruthlessness and greed [B]
Heart of Darkness, by Joseph Conrad, is a novel about the exploitation of natives by cruel colonial masters during
the neo-colonialism era of the late 19th Century. Answer the questions which appear on your syllabus.
Imperialism brought to Africa and Asia the benefits of improved sanitation, hospitals, railroads, and the concept of
Colonialism did not result in
A. nationalism among the lands penetrated by Europeans
B. great profits for European nations in Africa
C. heightened tension between European powers
D. the spread of Western ideas, industry, and technology [B]
Which of the following is not true regarding colonial areas in the neo-colonial era?
A. the colonials had to obey the laws and regulations of their new masters, the white administrators, as well as those
of their tribal councils and chiefs
B. habits of living changed, new modes of dress were adopted, and an improved standard of living [roads,
hospitals, public services, et al.] existed
C. contact with European modes of life rapidly undermined old faiths, customs, tribal loyalties, and social
D. many natives were allowed to participate in the important organs of colonial government [D]
Do not forget:
Expansion into the Balkans, into Alsace-Lorraine, into Asia, into the Caribbean by the US - all are examples of
What were the negatives?
1. territories were often taken by fraud
3. most positives were for colonial masters, not natives
4. large scale death of natives and destruction of native culture
5. white culture was greedy, exploitative, and arrogant [all true]
The Road to World War I (1870-1918): Causes of World War I; Germany as a world power, Dreikaiserbund,
Congress of Berlin, Triple Alliance, Triple Entente, Imperialism & world politics, Alfred T. Mahan, Arms Races,
Balkan Wars, Francis Ferdinand, Mobilization Means War/Schlieffen Plan; Nationalism
1. World War I was the first general conflict, involving all of the major nation-states of the world, since the ending of
the Napoleonic Wars one hundred years earlier. Great numbers of people felt, because of the insanity of such a
struggle and because of the steps toward international cooperation that had been taken, that such a war was
impossible, or, if one did break out, that it could last only a very short time. But, the war did start, it did last four
bloody years, and it did destroy more human lives and property than any other war in history. When it ended,
Germany was forced to sign a treaty admitting its “war guilt.” Later, historians played at a game called “parceling
out” varying portions of guilt among the great powers. But the real causes lay within the very nature of western
political life, and the entire history of Europe after 1870 prepared the ground for the great catastrophe.
2. During the entire period, international life could better be described as “international anarchy.” Only the delicate
balance of power had previously maintained a very precarious and partial peace. Even the unification of Germany
and Italy had altered and disturbed this balance. Their entrance upon the world scene was bound to have
repercussions within the highly organized rivalry that existed. Europe itself was no longer a region within which
territorial adjustments could be made. The one area not yet definitely organized, the Balkans, was not only the object
of a profound Austro-Russian rivalry; within the area, smaller nations were clamoring for their places in the sun.
Everywhere else, the world had already been partitioned. There was not enough land to go around.
3. The change of character of nationalism in the mid-19th century occurred all over Europe. The new spirit of
violence, of glorification of heroic deeds, of the revival of a dim past and of its use as an inspirational source -
phenomena which came to darken the horizon of the 20th century - was first noticeable in 1848. A growing popular
impatience made violence and revolt in the service of the nation appears as highest moral values: nationalist self-
sacrifice replaced the martyrdom of saints. Nationalist aspiration were realized by the pre-nationalist governments
and in their interests, not by the people on the barricades nor by votes in Parliaments, but on battlefields of regular
armies and by the wiles of international diplomats. After 1848, nationalism entered the age of Machtpolitik and
Realpolitik, policies based on power and self-interest. Eastern Europe was especially complex, with its large number
of nationalities with intensifying cultural nationalism, but without national states of their own and subjected to one or
another of three surviving empires - the Russian, the Ottoman, or the Austrian. The issue was clearly between an
older empire and a newer national state. The imperial order would survive or it would succumb in Eastern Europe, as
it had in the West, to national states. National states, such as Serbia, had just won out against the Ottoman Empire.
The issue of the nationalities within the Habsburg Empire of Austria-Hungary would precipitate W.W.I.
4. The Industrial Revolution served to spread and intensify nationalism. It increased wealth and power, accentuated
economic rivalry and contributed to competitive imperialism. Imperialistic revival and expansion began in a big way
in 1874. The new imperialism was a nationalistic phenomenon. `Reasons‟ for imperialism‟s spread: protection of the
flag and honor of one‟s nation; protection of fellow nationals (traders, missionaries, etc.); humanitarian movement,
“the white man‟s burden.” Nationalism was a major European export. The imperialism caused by European and
American nationalism from 1870-1910 eventually produced nationalist reactions among subject people.
5. To the Germans and Germany, there was one enemy Britain. All ambitions, fears, frustrations, and hatreds of
Germans were focused on Britain. “Der Tag” was the day that Germany could launch the “holy war” against the
British enemy. The symbol of these passions was the flamboyant emperor, William II. Although the British came to
recognize the fact that they and the Germans were taking opposite positions in almost every international crisis that
arose, they continued to retain an almost sublime confidence both in the rectitude of their position and in their ability
to maintain that position. While the left-socialist movement was strong in France and it had taken an unequivocal
stand against war, the all-encompassing passion of most Frenchmen was the desire for revenge against Germany.
This was an obsession for this, France was ready to fight. With respect to the remaining members of the two alliance
systems that emerged, the situation was as follows. The Russians were positive that God was on their side; the
Austrians and Hungarians wanted an opportunity to give the Slavs a good beating; the Italians saw in war an
opportunity to seize the Italia Irredenta.
6. Bismarck had recognized the fact that the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian war would lay the basis for
future wars. He therefore embarked upon a two-fold program: to salve the wounds France had suffered by
encouraging her to expand her empire outside Europe and to isolate France within Europe by building a strong
system of alliances with Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia. The accession of William II to the throne of Germany,
however, changed all this. All of Bismarck‟s work was undone and, in a relatively short time, William succeeded in
bringing his potential enemies together in a series of “dual ententes” directed against Germany. Between 1904 and
1914, the world was rocked by one crisis or war after another: 1904, the Russo-Japanese War; 1905, the Russian
Revolution; 1906, the first Moroccan crisis; 1907, the Japanese-American crisis; 1908, the Austrian annexation of
Bosnia-Herzegovina and the “Young Turk” revolution in Turkey; 1911, the Italian seizure of Tripoli from Turkey
and the second Moroccan crisis; 1912, the first Balkan war; 1913, the second Balkan war. In short, the world was
ready for an explosion, and only a match was needed to light the fuse. On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian
nationalist supplied that match by assassinating Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne. This
assassination would trigger the outbreak of the First World War; yet if the men in power had willed it otherwise, war
would not have come. It was not inevitable. But the Austrians wanted to use force against Serbia and couched their
ultimatum to Serbia in such manner as to guarantee war. The Germans were not compelled to grant Austria their
infamous “blank check,” but did so, fully aware of probable consequences. And, while it may not be true that all the
Entente powers were actively seeking war, it is true that none did anything serious (with the possible exception of
Great Britain) to prevent its outbreak.
7. Outline of Causes of World War I:
a. Go back to 1870. The humiliation of France by Germany and the peace terms (reparations and loss of Alsace
and Lorraine) and the French feeling of revanche plus German determination to hold on to what had gained
(Alsace and Lorraine). Hatred and fear.
b. German industrial dominance and rising birth rate plus French industrial weakness and falling birth rate. French
c. The French military, in spite of the debacle, emerged from the war with almost sacrosanct responsibilities
(civilian and Napoleon were blamed) and powers between 1870 and 1888. 19 governments rose and fell. No
effective opposition to the military and their preparations - France rearmed and worried Germany - constant
d. Division of Europe into two camps. By 1871, Bismarck was satisfied with expansion and wanted only
consolidation (ally Germany with everyone except France = peace). 1879 – partnership with Austria (met with
opposition of many Prussians including the Emperor Wilhelm I). 1881 – Dreikaiserbund. 1882 – Italy joins
Austria-Hungary and Germany to form the Triple Alliance. 1887 – Reinsurance Treaty replaces the
Dreikaiserbund but dropped in 1891 (8b). 1894 (8c) – Russia and France agreed to mobilize if any member of
the Triple Alliance took that step [Mobilization means declaration of war (7f) – A belief that pervaded military,
and then civilian thinking]. 1904 (8g) – England joined the Entente. 1907 (8l) – England and Russia as friends.
German naval planning (8e & 8k) [Alfred Mahan]
e. Wilhelm II - wanted to play Bismarck himself but was inept, impetuous, saber-rattler. His image spread alarm
almost as much as German armament programs (especially the buildup of the German Navy.
f. The place of the army in politics - and General Staff plans (such as the Schlieffen Plan) that, once in motion,
could scarcely be reversed [mobilization means war].
g. Nationalism (pan-Slavism and pan-Germanism – multi-national Empires) and Imperialism [see the last lesson].
8. Events leading to World War I:
a. Bismarck 1870-90 - saber-rattling, Europe tense - successive crisis make Europe immune to war - imperialism
keeps things tense.
b. Dismissal of Bismarck removes steady hand.
c. 1894 - Russian and French military alliance – mobilize
d. 1895 - Kruger Telegram 1899-1902 Boer War
e. 1898 - First naval law in Germany
f. 1902 - Anglo-Japanese Alliance
g. 1904 - Anglo-French Entente (settle official disputes)
h. 1905 - Japanese beat Russians, Russian Revolution-nationalism
i. 1905 - 1st Moroccan Crisis (Wilhelm II to Tangiers, French sphere of influence)
j. 1906 - Algerians Conference in Morocco - British supported France position
k. 1906 - Dreadnought launched (arms race)
l. 1907 - Anglo-Russian Entente
m. 1908 - Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina – Serbs in arms (pan-Serbism; must have war to get it,
South Slavs), but no help.
n. 1910 - 2nd Moroccan Crisis - Panther – Settled but not amicably
o. Alliances throughout Balkans - nationalism and imperialism
p. 1912-13 - 1st Balkan War Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece vs. Turkey. Turkey out of Europe.
q. 1913 - 2nd Balkan War Bulgaria vs. Serbia, Greece, Rumania, Turkey. Bulgaria humiliated.
r. 1914 - Assassination of Francis Ferdinand
9. Some Questions:
The major factors that led Europe to war in 1914 were all of the following except:
A. nationalism. B. imperialism. C. militarism. D. socialism. [D]
The unification of Germany and Italy helped to bring on World War I because from the very beginning the delicate
balance of power in Europe was altered.
Bismarck‟s diplomacy between 1870 and 1890 was designed to achieve stability in Europe, maintain peace, and
Under William II, Germany‟s relations with Britain were most embittered by Germany replacing Britain as the
number one industrial power. [F]
Germany‟s closest ally in Europe in the period 1870-1914 was Russia. [F]
Which of the following is not true regarding the European alliance system that existed before World War I?
A. it divided Europe into two main camps.
B. there was created an international balance of power which allowed the nations of Europe to decrease their
annual expenditures on armaments.
C. it was the result of aggressive, expansionistic nationalism.
D. it was based on faith in military power rather than in international law. [B]
The German Schlieffen Plan
A. called for the quick defeat of France followed by war on the eastern front against Russia
B. made it mandatory that Germany declare war on Russia as soon as Russia mobilized her troops
C. eventually drew Great Britain into the war on the side of France
D. all of the above [D]
Triple Entente [be able to locate on a map]
Industrial Revolution and War Making Potential; Mobilization
As the Industrial Revolution occurred in Russia, many European, especially German, statesmen became worried
because it was believed that no power in Western Europe could withstand Russia if she ever developed her potential
Relative to the European situation in 1914, which of the following is not true?
A. Russia wished to recover Polish territory taken by Germany
B. Italy wished to recover Italia Irredenta
C. France wished to recover Alsace-Lorraine from Germany
D. Austria-Hungary wanted to crush the Serbs
E. Germany wanted her “Place in the Sun” [A]
Which of the following is not true regarding the mounting of tension in the Balkans between 1905 and 1912
A. Russia and Austria-Hungary competed for influence
B. nationalism throughout the Balkans grew
C. Serbia became more militant
D. Germany and Italy developed interests in the area.
E. Turkey again became a power and sought to reassert the Ottoman claims to the area [E]
Which of the following states did not experience a drastic change in government or social structure as the result of
defeat in war prior to 1914?
E. Turkey [B]
The effect of the successive Balkan Crises was to leave Europe tense and expectantly waiting for war.
The assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, crown prince of the German Empire, provided the spark that
started World War I. [F]
Where is Sarajevo?
The scientific development of the early twentieth century that was to have the most dramatic impact was Freud‟s
work in psychoanalysis. [F]
The scientific development of the early 20th Century, which was to have the most dramatic impact, was Einstein‟s
work in physics.
Some late 19th Century thinkers repudiated the Enlightenment ideas of human rationality and praised violent
outbursts of the irrational. All of the following are examples of Irrationalism except
A. Friedrich Nietzsche
B. Fedor Dostoevski
C. Henri Bergson
D. Georges Sorel
E. Sigmund Freud [E]
Impressionistic art of the late-19th Century attempted to capture a moment in time exactly as a photograph would do
World War I and Its Aftermath/myth: total war, trench warfare, submarines, 14 Points, Paris Peace Conference,
Treaty of Versailles, reparations, Article 231/War Guilt Clause, League of Nations
1. With respect to the war itself, all that need be said is that the side that was better prepared (the Central Powers)
won most of the initial battles, while the side with the greatest amount of strength in terms of population and
resources (the Allied Powers) achieved the ultimate victory. The loss of Russia to the Allies during the war did not
constitute an irreparable loss, for the United States entered the war as the Russian were forced out, and the Allies‟
overwhelming superiority was successfully maintained. In almost all countries, fervent nationalism replaced the pre-
war resolutions of working class and other internationalist groups. Even in the most democratic countries there was a
severe clamping down on all the customary libertarian freedoms, and few who dared to voice their opposition to the
war were dealt with severely.
2. After the war four great empires – the Russian, German, Austro-Hungarian, and Turkish – collapsed as a
consequence of the war. None of the governments that came to power in these countries was represented at the peace
conferences. The first, although, previously an ally, was now under the control of the dreaded Bolsheviks, who were
looked upon as outlaws and enemies. The others were the defeated enemy, who had their full responsibility for
starting the war, and who were going to be forced to accept a treaty the terms of which would be dictated to them.
President Wilson of the United States, had not anticipated such a state of affairs. He may have thought that the war
was fought “to make the world safe for democracy,” and he may have felt that his Fourteen Points constituted a
sound and practical basis for peace, but the facts of international life were destined to bury a good number of his
hopes and dreams.
3. All of the diplomats gathered at Versailles were determined to use the peace conference for the purpose of
furthering the policies and goals of their own countries. Compromises, many of them distastefully, had to be made.
And, as finally structured, the Treaty of Versailles was a document drawn up largely by the “Big Three” and dictated
to a defeated Germany. It was a model for similar treaties that were written for the other defeated powers and was
designed to provide for a certain amount of reshuffling of territory. It also included a certain amount of “self-
determination,” a system of reparations payments, a limit on armed forces, a war-guilt clause, and a provision for the
establishment of a League of Nations to help maintain the peace for the world. The Treaty of Versailles was far from
perfect. It did contain the seeds of future conflict; it was both too lenient and too severe; it did not satisfactorily
resolve the problem of subject peoples and areas that arose form the ashes of the destroyed empires; it may have
helped to create a “Balkanized Europe.” It was not, however, the worst peace settlement of modern history and
might have survived as well as long as the others if it had been given adequate support. Its flaws were many. The
strongest power on earth, the United States, rejected the treaty and the League of Nations and retired into its
isolationist shell. The potentially second strongest power on earth, Russia, had been turned into a wasteland as a
consequence of civil war and foreign intervention and was still an outcast. Germany, still the most powerful country
in Europe, had been checked in her attempt to dominate the continent and the world but the humiliating treaty left her
an enemy of the Versailles system. That system was left to be defended by two greatly weakened powers (Britain
and France) that were not strong enough to make the system work. They did use it for a short time, primarily to
further their own narrow interests in imperial matters, but their own domestic weaknesses left them opposed to a
strong and effective League..
4. The costs of World War I were appalling. The total number of battle deaths was nearly 10 million with another
20 million wounded. Russia alone had almost 7 million casualties. The dead were:
Russia - 1,700,000 Austria-Hungary - 800,000
Germany - 1,600,000 Italy - 460,000
France - 1,385,000 Turkey - 325,000
British Empire - 900,000 U.S. - 49,000
The economic costs were staggering. The total direct cost was over $180 billion (1914 dollars), and the total real
economic losses were estimated at $270 billion. In 2000 dollars the cost was in the trillions.
5. World War I was a total war in which civilians were bombed by planes and zeppelins, and mass slaughter with
machine guns, artillery, poison gas, and tanks occurred on the battlefields. One-third of all those who flew were
killed. World War I introduced and passed on the phenomenon of total war. It ended the ascendance of European
liberal democracy. It expanded and gave vigor to movements with inclinations toward total solutions. The political
results were many. Germans were left with the burden of guilt for the war (war guilt clause in Treaty of Versailles).
Many nationalistic Germans believed that the Jews and the leaders of the Weimar government, which signed the
Treaty, had betrayed them. They said the collapse of Germany was not through her own policy or exhaustion in the
face of an enemy, but by betrayal by the „November criminals‟ who had “stabbed Germany in the back.” Seeds of
trouble for the next twenty years were sown in those articles of the treaty that Germany most resented. The map of
Europe changed dramatically with Europe being Balkanized. Austria-Hungary became Austria and Hungary, as well
as became the successor states of Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Poland [self-determination]. Other
successor states were created from the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. The old empires (Ottoman, Austro-
Hungarian, German, and Russian) were destroyed. Sadly, by World War II, only Czechoslovakia was not a military
dictatorship. Militant nationalism dominated the politics of this continuous belt of small independent states that
separated Germany from Russia. The League of Nations, part of Wilson‟s Fourteen Points, eventually failed for it
had no “teeth” to enforce resolutions, embargoes, etc.
6. Some Questions:
The main reason that the conflict of 1914 got out of control was
A. the alliance systems
B. the inflexibility of war plans [mobilization means war]
C. German hatred of France
D. French hatred of Germany. [B]
During the first year of World War I, all of the following were true except
A. public opinion on the home fronts supported the conflict, and the declaration of war led to a sense of domestic
unity and purpose.
B. both sides expected quick victory: the French intended to retake Alsace-Lorraine, and the Germans followed the
C. the Germans quickly over-ran Holland, Belgium, and northern France; but the Russian invasion of eastern
Germany which nearly reached Berlin, forced the Germans to transfer troops from the west to the east.
D. the line which would form the Western Front was established, to be little altered during the next four years. [C]
Throughout World War I the most effective basic new weapon for infantry was the
A. machine gun B. tank C. submarine D. airplane E. trench [A]
In World War I the most effective weapon was artillery.
It is generally agreed that the western allies were able to hold out during the first two years of World War I because
A. Germany was compelled to fight a two-front war
B. of the massive supplies sent to them by the United States
C. the British navy still controlled the seas
D. the French had stopped the Germans at the Marne and at Verdun
E. the Italians refused to participate, depriving the Central Forces of much needed men and material [A]
As the war placed added demands on domestic governments, by late 1916 Britain and France were the only countries
that did not need to regulate their economies since both nations had more than enough raw materials, food, and
military supplies because of their vast empires. [F]
One new weapon that might have effectively countered the advantage enjoyed by the defense in trench warfare was
A relatively new feature of World War I was the widespread use of organized propaganda by all the governments,
both for the purpose of maintaining popular support at home and of influencing foreign opinion.
All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque was written as a description of the glory of war and of the
heroism of sacrifice and of dying for one‟s country. [F]
One motif that is presented time and again in AQOTWF is, in war, the only thing that matters is who survives and
who does not.
The Russian Revolution of March 1917 was caused by all of the following except
A. disasters on the battlefield
B. economic conditions in Russia deteriorated to where there were food riots and widespread suffering
C. revolutionary leaders such as Lenin gained popularity by advocating peace, land, and bread
D. the czar and his government were incompetent and inept [C]
Historically there is very little doubt that the fall of the Provisional Government in Russia in 1917 was the result of
its determination to continue the war.
As a result of the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917, Russia became a communist dictatorship.
By the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Germany demonstrated its willingness to deal constructively with the issues that
caused the war and to offer peace terms that were fair. [F]
With regard to World War I, the real significance of the Russian Revolutions is that it provided Germany with the
opportunity to fight a single-front war and gave Germany an opportunity to win the war.
President Wilson‟s famous “Fourteen Points” made no mention of the disarmament of Germany.
Georges Clemenceau of France, David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Woodrow Wilson of the United States, and
Nicolai Lenin of the Soviet Union dominated the Conference at Versailles in 1919. [F]
World War I triggered political revolutions in all of the following except
A. Russia B. Austria-Hungary C. Germany D. Ottoman Empire E. France [E]
As a result of World War I, which of the following empires was not broken up?
A. Russian. B. Austro-Hungarian. C. German. D. Ottoman. E. British. [E]
The Versailles Treaty resulted in all of the following except
A. returned Alsace-Lorraine to France.
B. reduced German‟s army and armaments to a small fraction of what it had been prior to World War I.
C. blamed Germany for the war and stated that Germany would have to pay for the war.
D. divided Austria-Hungary into its nationalistic components, that is, from A-H came all or part of Austria,
Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland, Rumania, and Italy. [D]
Under Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty, Germany accepted full responsibility for having started the war, and, by
implication, agreed to pay for the costs of the war.
The League of Nations was an organization
A. that was chartered after World War I to maintain peace, to promote solution to international disputes, to reduce
armaments, and to lead the way to international cooperation.
B. that was created in order to prevent Germany from threatening European security ever again.
C. that was established to prevent the spread of communism.
D. of nations with soccer teams and was established to set up the World Cup play-off rules. [A]
John Maynard Keynes
PAGE 57: Postwar Malaise: Culture in the Interwar Period: BRAVE NEW WORLD, AQOTWF, Einstein &
Physics; Democracies in the Interwar Period, 1919-1939: Security, Disarmament, economic & social effects of WWI
on France & Britain; Weimar, Ruhr Crisis, Adolf Hitler & Mein Kampf, Gustav Streseman, Locarno & Fulfillment,
Kellogg-Briand Pact, Dawes & Young Plans, Normalcy, Depression, New Deal; Leon Blum, Balfour Declaration,
Mohandas Gandhi, Chaing Kai-shek vs Mao Zedong, Ho Chi Minh
1. Intellectual ideas and concepts:
Which of the following was not one of the new technological developments enjoyed by great numbers of people
during the 1920‟s?
A. automobile transportation
B. radio entertainment
C. motion-picture entertainment
D. air transportation [D]
As a result of the communications revolution of the 20th Century, non-scientific, religious thought has lost its
The most outstanding literature and painting of the period between the two great wars expressed disillusionment and
The scientific development of the early 20th Century, which was to have the most dramatic impact, was Einstein‟s
work in physics.
2. Of all of the participants in WWI, France emerged proportionately the heaviest loser. Two million young
Frenchmen were either killed or rendered useless. Some 13,000 square miles of French territory had been laid waste.
France did regain Alsace-Lorraine and acquired territory in Africa and Syria, but these did not compensate for her
losses in the war. Some figures might make the enormity of the French losses understandable. Of Frenchmen
between 20 and 32 (in 1914), more than 1/2 were killed. Property damage in the war zone included 300,000 houses
destroyed and as many more damaged; 6000 public buildings and 20,000 workshops and factories were destroyed;
1,360,000 head of livestock killed or confiscated; thousands of acres of farm land and forest ravaged by shell fire.
Since many Frenchmen believed Germany to be solely responsible for the war, France wanted Germany to pay for
the costs of war and to be permanently weakened. French diplomacy in the interwar period was thus designed to
achieve the twin goals of reparations and security. There were many conferences that dealt with the problems of
reparations, but none were very successful. In 1923, French armies invaded the Ruhr in an effort to force Germany
to pay reparations, but this resulted in even more hatred for France by the Germans. The Dawes Plan (1925) and the
Young Plan (1928) did result in a repayment schedule acceptable to France, but it was all based upon American
loans to Germany. The Depression ended American loans to German, and reparations payments soon ceased, this
time forever. For her security, France sought allies and a strong League of Nations, but nothing of significance
materialized. In the 1930s France opted to build the Maginot Line, which was a series of fortifications similar to
those built during World War I, along the Franco-German border as a defense against Hitler‟s Germany.
3. Some Questions:
All but one of the following statements concerning France‟s World War I wounds are true. Which is not?
A. The city of Paris was seriously damaged by German bombardment.
B. France suffered more casualties per capita than any other combatant.
C. The most productive 10 percent of her area was devastated.
D. The retreating Germans deliberately laid waste much that had not been destroyed in battle. [A]
France‟s post-World War I recovery suffered from all but which one of the following problems?
A. the necessity of maintaining a large military force for French security
B. inability to collect the expected reparations from Germany.
C. inability of her small-scale family-owned industries to compare with the mass production of American, British,
and German corporations.
D. war devastation in what had been the most industrially productive area of France [A]
4. Britain after World War I was in dire straits. Almost one million young men from Britain and the Empire had
died. Britain‟s industrial plant was old and worn out. Her supremacy in world industrial trade had been taken over
by others, especially the U.S. and Japan. Britain was saddled by an enormous national debt. The strain of the war
had caused a psychological collapse of both army and civilian personnel, leading to a move towards isolation and
pacifism in Great Britain. In the post-war era, Britain could not give work to her unemployed, and the dole became a
fixture of British life. She did not experience even the brief prosperity of the 1920s that other nations enjoyed.
During this period politics were as confused as economics. The Liberal Party died and was replaced by the Labour
Party. Conservatives and Labour attempted to resolve Britain‟s economic miseries, but neither succeeded. The
Depression led to ineffectual coalitions. Britain did attempt to bring the Empire more closely together by creating
the British Commonwealth of Nations by the Statute of Westminster (1931), but this merely recognized that the
autonomous and self-governing nations of the Empire were going their own way, whether Britain wanted it or not.
5. Some Questions:
Britain experienced grave economic difficulties in the 1920‟s because British industry had more antiquated
techniques and machinery than more recently industrialized countries.
Great Britain‟s Empire was gradually broken up, but the ties between many of the former colonies and the mother
country were retained. These economic, social, and political ties were expressed by the organization of the British
League of Nations. [F]
6. The United States after World War I retreated behind its moats, the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. As many
Americans wanted only a “return to normalcy,” the United States refused to ratify the Versailles Treaty, which
included participation in the League of Nations. While some Americans enjoyed the “Roaring Twenties,” most
Americans lived a comfortable, yet precarious life. Livelihoods derived from farming, factories, and construction
faced difficulties during the 20s, and the Depression was an economic and social disaster. Franklin D. Roosevelt‟s
New Deal, a modest socialism in today‟s terms, but a political revolution in the 1930s, restored stability, but not
prosperity. Only World War II did that.
Most Americans after World War I wanted simply to return to “Normalcy.”
Which event triggered the “Great Depression”?
A. the slump in farm prices bankrupted many American farmers
B. the decline in housing starts left the construction industry in dire straits
C. the collapse of the stock market on Wall Street in October 1929
D. the election of Herbert Hoover to the presidency [C]
7. Following World War I there emerged in Central Europe a veritable myriad of small, independent, and non-viable
states. Faced with numerous internal and external problems, most failed to develop democratic forms of
government. Only Czechoslovakia and Austria maintained representative governments until 1938, when Germany
under Hitler dismembered both. Finland, Poland, Rumania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia had become
dictatorships by 1939.
Which of the following was not a problem for the small states of Eastern Europe?
A. a lack of democratic tradition made the establishment of dictatorships easier
B. the intense internationalism that existed made it difficult for the developing nations to develop their own
C. the smallness of most of the countries meant that needed raw materials were not available in abundance
D. the populace was, in large measure, illiterate and poverty-stricken [B]
A central European country that emerged after World War I in which parliamentary democracy functioned well was
Totalitarianism: Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin), Bolshevik Revolution, communism, New Economic Policy, Josef
Dzugashvali (Stalin), Leon Trotsky, Five Year Plans (agricultural & industrial), purges; Fascism, Benito Mussolini,
“Believe, Obey, Fight”; Nazi-ism, Adolf Hitler, Nazi racism
1. Totalitarianism is a term of the 20th Century. It refers to the form of government that emerged in Stalinist
Russia, Mussolini‟s Italy, and Hitler‟s Germany, among others. While it is a new term, it is an old reality, i.e., divine
right monarchs shared many of the same characteristics of the leader of one of these states. The primary differences
occur in the style of state that emerges: single party rule, industrialized & urbanized populations, police states, et al.
The major difference between a totalitarian state and a dictatorship is merely one of scale.
Totalitarianism, in its drive to create a new monolithic and highly industrialized state, did all of the following except
A. used a system of a single political party to assure that no other group could become an effective opposition.
B. usually adopted an official revolutionary ideology.
C. employed techniques of mass communications, economic control, and policies of force and terror.
D. relied upon a broad base of support from the masses. [D]
The concept of totalitarianism
A. applies to Nazism but not communism.
B. refers to minority rule by force.
C. means the same as absolutism.
D. applies to dictatorships in all ages. [B]
Which of the following was not a modern totalitarian state in the 1930‟s?
A. Germany B. Italy C. the Soviet Union D. France [D]
2. For Russia World War I was a disaster. Home front miseries and political scandals compounded battlefield
losses. Czar Nicholas II was incompetent, and his advisors were inept. In March 1917 a revolution resulted in the
abdication of the Czar and the establishment of a Provisional Government (PG) made up of middle class
revolutionaries. The PG was not, however, interested in the two major reforms desired by most Russians: peace and
land. The PG continued the war and refused to advocate reforms. In October Lenin returned to St. Petersburg, via a
“sealed train” which the Germans had provided, and immediately organized a second revolution. The October
Revolution established a Bolshevik dictatorship that called for “ peace, land, and bread.” Russian participation in
World War I was ended by the punitive peace of Brest-Litovsk; but a civil war took its place. Beset by invasions
from its former allies, by attacks from other Russian groups, and by internal dissension, Lenin and the Bolsheviks
barely held on. Under the leadership of Trotsky, the army was reorganized and began defeating the “White Armies”
of the opponents of the Bolsheviks and the “Red Army.” By 1921 Lenin was in control of the new Soviet Union.
The country was in shambles, however, and Lenin introduced the “New Economic Policy” which was a partial return
to capitalism in an effort to rebuild the economy. In 1925, following the death of Lenin, a power struggle developed
between Trotsky‟s moderate communist wing and Stalin‟s ruthless communist wing. Within three years, Stalin had
won and Trotsky was in exile. In 1927 the NEP was ended and the first of the “Five Year Plans” was introduced.
The aim of the program was to “build socialism in one country” through a series of five-year plans, the most massive
program of industrialization and collectivization of agriculture that the world had seen up to that time. Although the
collectivization of the farms was a disaster, resulting in widespread famine and death, the industrialization of the
Soviet State was accomplished. Sadly, this movement resulted in the death of millions of Soviet citizens. No
opposition to Stalin‟s plans was permitted, and the secret police killed or transported to Gulags millions of Russians.
The Communist Party was purged of any potential opposition to Stalin. By 1939 the Soviet State was, in truth,
Lenin allowed a modification of the communist state in 1921. This called for the restoration of certain capitalistic
practices in order that the Soviet State would not collapse. This plan was called the New Russian Plan. [F]
Upon the death of Lenin a power struggle for control of the Communist Party in Russia began. Leon Trotsky won
this struggle. [F]
The Five-Year Plans succeeded primarily in building the basic elements of heavy industry.
Stalin consolidated his control of the Soviet Union through terror and purges.
3. Fascism has been called the revolution of the middle classes. It fed on unresolved national problems: depression,
inflation, political instability, nationalistic grievances, and anti-Semitism. It has also been described as extremism of
the right, utilizing radical or reactionary phrases that appeal to people fearful of revolution from the left
[socialists/communists]. Its financial and military support has always come from the power structure of the right: big
business, great landowners, the military and police, and even the church. Fascism is violently opposed to
democracy; it is totalitarian, racist, and chauvinistic; it uses propaganda and 20th Century media to control the minds
of the populace. The first fascist state was that of Italy. In 1922 inflation, depression, unemployment, strikes,
peasant unrest, and problems stemming from World War I beset Italy. Mussolini, a rabble-rousing lover of violence
and power, was viewed by the threatened power structure as a pawn for bringing the state under their control.
Industrialists, landowners, and military leaders supported inviting Mussolini to become Prime Minister. Once in
power, Mussolini gradually destroyed all democratic institutions and created a totalitarian state. The state was
glorified; freedoms were abolished; the state controlled everything; il Duce symbolized the state. Mussolini also
dreamed of reestablishing the Roman Empire and was aggressively expansionistic.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of fascism?
A. solidarity of the working class and popular sovereignty.
B. personal dictatorship and expansion of government.
C. racial intolerance and forcible suppression of dissent.
D. intense nationalism and large scale propaganda. [A]
In every single instance of a fascist movement coming to power in any country the fascists have received the help
and support of the peasant and farm movements. [F]
Which of the following would a fascist, whether Mussolini or any other, never urge upon his followers?
A. “think” B. “believe” C. “fight” D. “obey” [A]
4. In Germany the ground for Hitler was prepared for Hitler as early as 1918. Germany was never invaded, and the
information control of war led Germans to believe that they were on the verge of victory right up to November 11,
1918. Out of this emerged the myth of the “stab in the back” which contended that Germany had not lost the war on
the battlefield but had been betrayed by the November criminals who later became the Weimar government. These
criminals - variously described as liberals, socialists, pacifists, communists, and Jews - also signed the Versailles
Treaty, which embarrassed and humiliated Germany further. That the government had no choice was irrelevant to
these extremists; and extremists of both the left and the right sought to destroy the new state. The international
problems of reparations and security further exacerbated the domestic problems of post-war Germany. The Ruhr
Crisis virtually bankrupted Germany and Germans, and led to intense resentment by Germans against foreigners and
those who consorted with foreigners. One group that emerged during this period was the Nazi [Nationalist-Socialist
German Workers Party], which was under the leadership of Hitler. During the Ruhr Crisis he attempted a coup
against the Bavarian government, but failed. That he was not considered to be a major threat may be seen in the
sentence he received for his revolution: five years of which he served only thirteen months. Nazism was not as
popular in the 1925-1930 period, in large measure due to Stresemann‟s policy of fulfillment and to economic
prosperity; but the onset of the Depression restored hope for the Nazis. By 1933 the Nazis were the single largest
party in Germany, and in January 1933 their leader was asked to become the Chancellor of Germany. Political
opposition was eliminated after the Reichstag fire of 1933, and in June 1934 the leader purged his own party of any
opposition. He became chief of state in August 1934, upon the death of Hindenburg, and was known as der Führer.
Anti-Jewish decrees were a major aspect of Nazism. The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 prohibited Jews from any
activity that other “pure” Germans could perform. In essence, Jews were encouraged to emigrate; that failing, Jews
were to be rounded up and concentrated. The Final Solution would be applied during World War II when Jews were
faced with genocide.
While in prison after the abortive Munich Putsch, Hitler dictated Mein Kampf, a rambling and turgid work that
contained the essence of his world-view.
The most central and fundamental of all the principles of Hitler‟s National Socialist ideology was the German
The successes of the Nazi Party from 1923 to 1932 were a fairly accurate barometer of Germany‟s international
status and economic condition.
Adolph Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power in 1933 because
A. an economic collapse, which was part of the world depression, threw millions of Germans out of work.
B. political instability in Germany made possible the rise of Hitler.
C. many wealthy German industrialists as well as military leaders viewed Hitler as a person they could control and
therefore strongly supported his efforts.
D. all of the above.
E. A and B above. [D]
A. never had any success with the problem of unemployment
B. allowed a free economy to find its own level of prosperity
C. nationalized all private business firms
D. used rearmament to reduce unemployment [D]
In Germany they first came for the communists and I didn‟t speak up because I wasn‟t a Communist. Then they came
for the Jews, and I didn‟t speak up because I wasn‟t a Jew. Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I didn‟t
speak up because I wasn‟t a Trade Unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn‟t speak up because I was
Protestant. Then they came for me - and by that time no one was left to speak up. - Pastor Martin Niemoeller
World War II: Failures of Versailles, der Führer & Nazi-ism, Hitler comes to power, anti-Semitism, Rearmament,
Ethiopia, Francisco Franco, Japan as aggressor, Appeasement, Nazi-Soviet Pact; Poland, Blitzkrieg, Winston
Churchill, Stalingrad, Pearl Harbor, Unconditional Surrender, Yalta, Potsdam, A-Bomb, United Nations, “New
Order”, Final Solution
1. Following World War I the German Empire was dissolved and the Weimar Republic took its place. This
government was forced to sign the Peace Treaty of Versailles, which had as one of its clauses Article 231, which
blamed Germany for the war. As Germany had not been invaded and conquered, many Germans believed that the
Weimar Government had “stabbed Germany in the back”, the myth of the Dolchstoss that Hitler was to use with
great effectiveness in his campaign against the Weimar Government. This bitterness was to lead ultimately to the
Nazi successes later. As for France, her major concerns were security and reparations. Germany had to pay for the
war and Germany could not be permitted to invade France again. When Germany stopped war damage payments in
1923, France invaded the Ruhr in an effort to force Germany to pay. The result of this was an agreement on the part
of the Germans to pay their debts in full and to agree to accept the Treaty boundaries as permanent. This policy of
fulfillment was to lead to a period in the 1920s when the hope that there would never be another was appeared to be
a reality. But the Depression, which was an economic collapse of the western capitalistic system, led to the
emergence of militaristic, imperialistic dictators.
2. Some questions:
In the post-World War I era the two major international issues were security and reparations.
In international relations the period between World War I and World War II is often called the Twenty-Year Truce.
One of the most serious blows to the successful functioning of the League of Nations came in 1919 when Soviet
Communism triumphed in Russia. [F]
One of the most serious blows to the successful functioning of the League of Nations came in 1919 when the United
States refused to join the League of Nations.
The country most interested in the strict implementation of the Treaty of Versailles was Great Britain. [F]
The reason given for 1923 French occupation of the German Ruhr region was to
A. crush the communist uprising that had broken out.
B. force Germany to pay full reparations.
C. compel the German government to act against Hitler.
D. guarantee the cessation of German rearmament.
E. all of the above. [B]
A new spirit of hope was brought to Europe as the result of a 1925 conference at which Germany demonstrated her
willingness to fulfill the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Where was this conference held?
E. Berlin [C]
The effects of the Great Depression included a drop in farm prices, a dwindling farm labor supply, and a serious
decline in foreign trade. [F]
Factors leading to unsettled international relations between 1919 and 1939 [Interwar Years] include all of the
A. fear of Bolshevism.
B. Fascism and Nazi-ism
C. the balkanization of western Europe.
D. aggression of the dictators.
E. the Depression.
F. unresolved issues arising from WWI
G. security and reparations issues [all but C]
3. The first major, overt [remember the events of 1914-1930 played a major role as well in setting the stage] event
leading to World War II was the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in an effort to obtain needed raw materials for her
war machine. In Germany Hitler came to power and immediately denounced the Treaty of Versailles. In 1935 he
announced rearmament and German industries geared for war. In the same year Mussolini‟s armies invaded
Ethiopia, and the League of Nations did little to stop the aggression against a League member. While this attack was
taking place, Hitler announced the remilitarization of the Rhineland; the western democracies again did nothing. In
1936 the Fascist revolt against the republican government of Spain was begun; and the revolutionary armies, under
Franco, with the aid of the Fascist dictators, destroyed the republic. In the next year Japan launched her full-scale
war against China; the west again did nothing. The western world did nothing when the Anschluss took place;
Austria became part of the Third Reich. In the summer of 1938, Hitler started his all-out campaign to destroy
Czechoslovakia. At Munich France and Britain gave Hitler what he wanted; appeasement was to be the way that
dictators were to be treated. This was not enough; on 1 September 1939 Poland was invaded and World War II
began. For the first two years the Fascists were everywhere successful, but in 1941 the Germans attacked the Soviet
Union in June and the Japanese attacked the Americans at Pearl Harbor in December. The Axis – as Germany,
Japan, and Italy were called – now had the world‟s biggest powers arrayed against them. These powers agreed in
1943 upon a policy of unconditional surrender, which meant that the Axis was to be totally defeated. No more gentle
treatment of defeated peoples! If the Germans thought that Versailles was harsh, then let them see the terms now.
For two and a half more years the conflict dragged on, and the Axis was finally overwhelmed. Over 40 million
military and civilians were dead, including six million Jews in concentration camps and elsewhere who had died in
the Holocaust. Untold human suffering was the result of the mass displacement of populations. Politically and
economically, Europe was shattered. The victors hoped that the United Nations (UN), the successor to the League of
Nations, would bring peace and stability to the war-torn world. Sadly, it did not. Instead, a new worldwide conflict,
the Cold War which was the competition between the two super-powers, the United States (US) and the Soviet
Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – USSR), merely took the place of European wars.
4. Total Cost of World War II:
a. military and civilian dead - 40 million [some say as many as 70]: Soviet Union - 7,500,000 battle deaths [total
20 million+]; Germany - 3,500,000 battle deaths [total ?]; China - 2,200,000 [total ?]; Japan - 1,500,000 [total
?]; British Empire/Commonwealth - 452,000; Italy - 300,000; USA - 295,000; France - 210,000; other
nationalities – no way to tell
b. total direct and indirect cost – trillions
c. human suffering and misery as the result of displacement [refugees]; starvation; social, political, and economic
5. Political Results of WWII:
a. Europe was weakened and overshadowed by the military power of the US and the USSR. Most European
powers were weak and second rate. Europe no longer dominated the world. The search would be for a new role
for Europeans and for a new Balance of Power.
b. Bipolarization and a move towards European unity emerged.
c. Colonial nationalism received a great impetus. Not only had Europeans been decisively defeated by non-whites
[Japanese], which destroyed the myth of white supremacy, but Europeans could no longer afford to maintain and
control their empires.
7. Some Questions:
The Road to World War II: On September 1, 1939, World War II began; but the causes of that war began much
earlier. What were the causes of that war? What events led to World War II? What was, and is, the significance of
World War II?
As early as 1931 the world witnessed portents of the type of aggressiveness that would eventually lead to World War
II when Japan attacked Manchuria.
The term, Axis when applied to diplomatic developments refers to
A. the reunion of the contiguous territories of Germany and Austria
B. forces opposed to Hitler‟s Germany in World War II
C. the combined land forces of Hitler and his satellite states
D. an agreement between Rome and Berlin which later included Tokyo [D]
The formation of the Axis was brought about by the alliance of all of the following except:
A. Italy. B. Germany C. Soviet Union . D. Japan [C]
The League of Nations responded to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia by doing nothing that would have had military
significance to Italy. T]
A civil war in Spain served as a dress rehearsal for World War II. The leader of the Spanish Fascists was Franco
At the Munich Conference Neville Chamberlain of Great Britain tried to gain peace through appeasement of Hitler.
[result: containment in post WWII era]
When Stalin agreed to the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, he doubtless had come to the conclusion that it was not
possible to defeat Germany militarily. [F]
The immediate cause for the outbreak of World War II in Europe was the German conquest of Czechoslovakia. [F]
The Second World War differed from the First World War in that
A. Britain and France fought on different sides
B. the First World War was more mechanized
C. scientific planning was used more in the Second World War
D. more people died in the First World War [C]
The great wartime leader of England who inspired his people to victory was Winston Churchill.
In 1941 Germany turned against its former partner, the Soviet Union, and invaded in order to acquire Lebensraum
and needed raw materials.
Hitler‟s reason for attacking Russia was a disagreement over the division of Poland. [F]
The United States entered the war in 1941 as the result of a Japanese sneak attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl
Harbor in the Philippines. [F]
Propaganda is a manipulation of the psychological symbols having goals of which the listener is not conscious. [F]
A propagandist is wise if, in addition to reiterating his support of ideas and policies that he knows the citizens
already believe in, he/she includes among his/her images a variety of symbols associated with parents and parent
Propaganda uses stereotypes, which serve to dehumanize the enemy.
Propaganda teaches that the “Enemy” is something not quite human and therefore OK to kill.
Like World War I, government propaganda directed at Japan by the allies during World War II
A. created tremendous ethnic and cultural conflicts.
B. resulted in flagrant violations of civil liberties.
C. led to the persecution and censorship of Japanese Americans.
D. all of the above [D]
Under the Nazis approximately six million Jews were exterminated. The atrocities of the Nazis were disclosed to the
world at the Nuremberg Trials of 1945-46.
The term “Holocaust” refers to
A. the barbaric practice of terror bombing defenseless cities, resulting in the deaths of at least 25 million civilians
between 1939 and 1945
B. the race war between the Russian Slavs and the Nazi Germans which resulted in the death of over 20 million
Soviet citizens between 1941 and 1945
C. the effort by the Nazis to implement its goal of genocide against European Jewry, resulting in the death of two-
thirds of the Jews in Europe between 1939 and 1945
D. the dropping of the A-bomb on Japan in August 1945, initiating the age of nuclear weapons and the threat of
Thou shalt not live [Holocaust] with us [to 1941] as Jews. [1930s]
Emigrate concentrate exterminate
The World War II weapons that changed the nature of war were rocket weapons (V-1 & V-2). [F]
Which of the following best justifies the allied decision made at the end of the war against Japan in 1945?
A. Truman dropped the atom bomb to end the conflict before the Soviet Union could enter it for its gains
B. Truman believed that dropping the atom bomb would save the lives that would have been lost in an invasion
C. Japan was self-sufficient and a naval embargo would never have produced significant results
D. the dropping of the atom bomb was not an exclusively American decision but a mutual command decision made
by the Allies [B]
Robert Oppenheimer, director of the Manhattan Project, said, as he viewed the A-bomb explosion, that he was
reminded of a Hindu proverb: “I am become death, the destroyer of worlds.”
After a revolt in 67 CE, the Romans expelled the Jews from Palestine. This Diaspora left few Jews in the
area until the 20th Century. How and why did Jews reestablish themselves in the Middle East? Who
supported them and why? Who opposed them and why? Why is this situation so volatile and why is
there no easy solution to the problem?
The Cold War - 1945-1962: US vs USSR, M.A.D./nuclear and conventional arms race, East vs. West Germany,
containment, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, N.A.T.O., Israel, Communists vs. Nationalists in China, Korean War,
Soviet Nuclear Weapons, Nikita Khruschev, peaceful coexistence, One Day In The Life Of Ivan Denisovich, Soviet
satellites in Eastern Europe behind the Iron Curtain, Sputnik, U-2, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis
1. The term “Cold War” refers to the struggle between the communist and democratic powers that began after World
War II. During WWII the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union were allied in a fight for survival
against the Axis powers. From the beginning there were differences in strategy, aims and ideology, accompanied by
a mutual distrust. Nevertheless, the alliance held together. After the war, the Cold War grew out of the interactions
between traditional power politics and the nature of the Soviet regime. The power vacuum created by Germany‟s
defeat provided the opening for Soviet power to fill, and the Communist ideology made clash inevitable. The United
Nations was thought to be the hope that would maintain peace and harmony. But within a few years, hopes for
friendship and cooperation had been dashed, and the world was divided into two hostile armed camps. The Cold
War began in the mid-1940s and raged in varying degrees to 1990 [and possibly beyond]. At first people in the west
had little doubt that the Soviet Union, led by Stalin, was to blame. His insistence on Soviet domination of Eastern
Europe through satellite governments, his refusal to cooperate with the Baruch Plan for controlling atomic energy,
the communist coup that brought Czechoslovakia behind the Iron Curtain – all seemed evidence of an intransigent
Soviet attitude that made continued friendship impossible and conflict inevitable. From this point of view, all the
measures taken by the United States to oppose communism were merely responses to aggressive challenges. The
Truman Doctrine was thus aimed at preventing the fall of Greece and Turkey to international communism; the
Marshall Plan and NATO, efforts to prevent Western Europe from falling under communism and therefore Russian
domination: and, the whole policy of containment merely a necessary reply to aggressive Soviet communism. This
can be interpreted another way, however. The United States ceased Lend-Lease in 1945, and the atomic bomb
frightened the Soviet leadership. The Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO might be construed, not as
defensive responses, but as hostile actions aimed at gaining or preserving American spheres of political and
economic influence. The Cold War has had a tremendous effect in the world. It has been a primary base for
American and Soviet foreign policy since World War II. The Cold War has shadowed the lives of people all over
the world since 1945. It has been used to rally popular support for policies which, unless under the guise of fighting
the Cold War, would not have received the support needed to carry them out. A glance at the international crises and
tensions since 1945 should clarify the importance of the Cold War.
2. Representative International Crises and Tensions Since 1945
Year Crisis or Point of Tension
1945-46 Italian-Yugoslav feud over Trieste
French Indochina War, Revolt of Viet Minh communists
1946-48 Civil war in Greece
1947-48 Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan
Containment, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan
1948 Czech communist coup d’etat
Marshall Plan rejected by Stalin
1948-49 Berlin Blockade
Arab Israeli War I
Chinese Communists defeat Nationalist Chinese
1949 Cold War divides Germany
Chaing Kai-shek driven to Formosa
Soviets explode A-Bomb
1950-53 Korean War
1952 Revolution in Egypt
Hydrogen Bomb exploded by US at Bikini atoll
1952-60 Mau-Mau terrorists in Kenya and civil war
1953 Death of Stalin; collective leadership tried
Russians announce hydrogen bomb test
1954 Vietnam partitioned at 17th parallel
1955 German rearmament
Failure of Geneva Conference; competitive co-existence
1956 Hungarian Uprising; Poland outs Stalinists
Suez Crisis; Anglo-French-Israeli attack on Nasser
1957 Syria-Lebanon Crisis
1958 Tibet Uprising
Castro revolution in Cuba
Formation of United Arab Republic
US troops in Lebanon; British in Jordan
Chinese bombard Quemoy; attack Tibet, invade India
1960 U-2 Incident
1961 Berlin Wall
Bay of Pigs
1962 Cuban crisis over Soviet missiles; Kennedy quarantine
1962-74 US participation in Vietnam War
1963 Soviet split with China intensified
1964 Overthrow of Khrushchev
1966 Chinese Red Guard; Cultural Revolution begins
1967 Arab-Israeli War III
Nigerian Civil War
Chinese nuclear tests; Chinese sponsor wars in SE Asia
1968 Tet Offensive
Soviets invade Czechoslovakia
World wide student demonstrations
Treaties of Russia with Egypt and India
1973 Arab-Israeli War IV
1975 Detente and SALT
North Vietnam annexes South Vietnam
1976-80 Southeast Asian Wars
1976-80 Carter and Human Rights
1979-87 Nicaragua; US support Contras, USSR/Cuba support
1979-86 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
1980-88 Iran-Iraq War
1980-89 US President Reagan vs. “The Evil Empire”
1982 Falklands War
Israel invades Lebanon
1983 Grenada, Lebanon
1985-89 Perestroika in Soviet Union under Gorbachev
1986 US bombs Libya
1987 Iran-Contra Hearings
1989-90 Collapse of Soviet Union and Soviet Empire, Warsaw Pact – No More Cold War
1991 Gulf War
2003 US invasion of Iraq
3. Some Questions:
What was/is the Cold War? What factors brought it about? Why was/is it so dangerous to world peace? Or was it
dangerous? What ended the Cold War? Or has it ended?
What is the military-industrial complex? Why is it so important? Why is it so powerful? In an era of military
downsizing, what is the significance of the MIC?
What was the arms race? Describe the arms race of the period 1945-1990. Why did it make the world poorer, and
not safer? What was the need for conventional weapons in today‟s world? Why were so many needed? Where were
a large percentage of conventional weapons located by the 1980s? Why? What is the Nuclear Nightmare? What
are the possible scenarios wherein a nuclear war could take place? What are the possible results of such a war?
Describe life in the post-nuclear war world. Use specific examples from your reading and watching.
The segment of history most crucial to understanding the nature of trends and transformations in contemporary world
politics is the period since:
A. the Vietnam War
B. the Second World War
C. the Soviet acquisition of nuclear weapons
D. the beginning of modern warfare
E. the rise of the nation-state [B]
The victors hoped that the successor to the League of Nations, the United Nations, would bring peace and stability to
the war-torn world.
According to current views, the Cold War was the result of:
A. aggressive Soviet policies of expansion in the postwar years
B. an American commitment to maintaining an “ open door” in world markets
C. America‟s use of its nuclear monopoly to threaten and intimidate the Soviet Union
D. natural and almost inevitable tensions between the world‟s two most powerful nations [D]
The cold war was the result of bipolarization, or the struggles between _____________ in their efforts to dominate
A. Germany and France
B. Germany and the Soviet Union
C. the United States and the Soviet Union
D. the United States and Germany [C]
In the post-World War II world, the bipolar distribution of power:
A. led to the creation of sharply divided alliance systems
B. contributed to the crisis-ridden world political atmosphere
C. created an environment conducive to intense competition between the superpowers
D. contributed to the belief that peace was not possible
E. all of the above [E]
Crises have become recurrent phenomena in contemporary international politics because:
A. crises are substitutes for war
B. foreign policy decision makers cannot act rationally
C. crises rarely escalate into war
D. the relative frequency of war has become stable and is perhaps declining
E. terrorism has become a characteristic mode of government-to-government interactions [A]
Immediately after World War II the attitude of the United States towards Soviet expansionism was called:
A. containment C. brinkmanship
B. detente D. mutually assured destruction [A]
The concept of mutual deterrence, based on the principle of mutual assured destruction, has led to the military
stalemate between the superpowers best described as:
A. overkill D. balance of power
B. nuclear concert E. mutual antagonism and belligerence [C]
C. balance of terror
The idea of containment involved:
A. drawing a fixed line separating free and communist states in Europe
B. applying counterforce at shifting geographical and political points
C. using military force at every place Soviet-backed forces are trying to take control
D. all of the above [B]
The advanced levels of technology associated with modern weapons of destruction are indicated by:
A. Einstein‟s belief that the war after the next world war will be fought with “sticks and stones”
B. the capability of the warheads on a single Trident submarine to destroy more than 240 targets
C. the possibility in the event of a nuclear exchange of immediate death for more than 200 million Russian and
American (or other) citizens
D. the near bull‟s-eye accuracy of missiles traveling thousands of miles
E. all of the above [E]
The basic trend in global expenditures for military hardware between 1945 and 1990 was downward, because
developed nations were already armed and developing nations could not afford to become armed. [F]
Between 1945 and 1990, the basic trend in global expenditures for military hardware:
A. was neither upward nor downward, since most nations are already sufficiently armed
B. was downward, because developed nations are already armed and developing nations cannot afford to become
C. was rising continually because of a worldwide commitment to military preparedness
D. was spiraling upward at a pace equal to worldwide inflation
E. was declining because of a growing belief that weapons provoke hostilities without guaranteeing security [C]
Given a high level of conflict between nations, which nations were the most war-prone in the international system
that evolved in the 1945-1990 period?
A. newly independent developing nations
B. democracies who fight to make the world more peaceful
C. the superpowers
D. industrialized nations seeking to maintain their standards of living
E. communist nations intent upon world domination [A]
An analysis of military spending in the period 1945-1990 indicates that, relatively speaking, the most burdened by
military expenditures were the least economically developed nations, because they spent a greater proportion of their
GNP for the military than most other countries.
Some have argued that a balance-of-power system will never work in the contemporary world because:
A. alternative methods of solving international disputes, such as the World Court, have become more acceptable by
the great powers
B. the ability of policymakers to forge flexible foreign policies is constrained by domestic political considerations
C. treaty commitments, like SEATO and the Warsaw Pact, have become relatively binding and alliances relatively
D. military power cannot be effectively used against states possessing nuclear weapons
E. all of the above [B]
After 1945, the Soviet Union staked out a new colonial area in:
A. Africa B. Asia C. the Pacific D. Eastern Europe [D]
Europe became the great object of U.S.-U.S.S.R. rivalry in the early postwar years because:
A. the Second World War left it in ruins
B. even in ruins, it possessed one of the world‟s leading industrial plants
C. Europeans wanted to be rescued by one or the other of the superpowers
D. its population losses made it incapable of helping itself [B]
World War II devastated Europe. The long-range coordinated and integrated program that aided Europe in
rebuilding Europe was the:
A. United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
B. North Atlantic Treaty Organization
C. Warsaw Pact
D. Marshall Plan
E. Truman Doctrine [D]
The city behind the iron curtain over which there were periodic confrontations between Cold War opponents was
A. Berlin B. Prague C. Vienna D. Belgrade [A]
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed to:
A. rebuild western Europe
B. protect western Europe from a Soviet military threat
C. repulse communism in Turkey
D. promote cultural exchange [B]
The Soviet answer to NATO was
A. the Warsaw Pact
B. the Cominform
C. the Comintern
D. the Outer Seven [A]
In 1950 war on a limited scale broke out in:
A. Vietnam B. Formosa C. Hungary D. Korea [D]
The United States got United Nations approval of the military measures it undertook in support of South Korea in
1950 because the Russians were absent when the Security Council voted.
The bipolarity of the post-1945 world has been affected by all of the following except
A. Western Europe‟s economic resurgence and economic union
B. the more than ninety nonaligned nations
C. the economic and political changes on the Pacific rim
D. the break-up of the Soviet Union and the lessening of tension in central Europe
E. the population explosion that has more than doubled the world‟s population in the last 30 years
F. the increase in the number of nuclear powers from one to 1945 to 12 in 1992 to ? in 2000 [E]
The most dramatic change in the Soviet Union between World War II and 1985 came with the death of Stalin and
then Khrushchev‟s denunciation of Stalin and the “cult of personality” in 1956.
Peaceful coexistence was the term used to describe the attitude of the Soviet government toward foreign policy after
Khruschev came to power in 1956.
Liberalism and the Soviet Empire
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich was first published in 1962 in Novy Mir and was purported to be a
courageous and truthful description of the “unhealthy phenomena” of Stalin‟s perversion of the Soviet dream.
Ike and the U-2 
JFK and the Bay of Pigs 
The Berlin Wall - “Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we never had to put up a wall to
keep our people in.” - JFK, June 26, 1963.
The Spy Who Came in from the Cold was written by John LeCarre, who himself had been a British spy and wrote
from experience. [F]
At a time when Ian Fleming‟s James Bond was riding high, The Spy Who Came In From the Cold rejected the
fantasy world of super-agents, offering instead a powerful antihero character-study that turns a skeptical eye on the
basic premises of the cold war.
The most serious cold war crisis occurred in 1962 over:
A. the Berlin wall
B. the Arab-Israeli War
C. Soviet missiles in Cuba
D. the suppression of democratic Communism in Czechoslovakia [C]
The Cold War, 1963-1980: Vietnam War, Ho Chi Minh, Viet Cong, Tet, Vietnamization, Watergate, Detente,
Brezhnev, Afghanistan & Jimmy, Reagan and the Evil Empire, Nicaragua. By this point in the semester, the world
has become the battleground. Only questions will be offered as points of reference for the remainder of the semester.
War of National Liberation (Viet Nam)
Looking specifically at the post-1945 period, what was the Vietnam War? Why did the United States become
involved in that war? What kind of war was it, for each of the combating groups [North and South Vietnamese; US
armed forces (different levels); anti-war demonstrators - among others]? Could the United States have won the war?
Why or why not?
Which of the following is not true of Vietnam, 1945-1975?
A. it did not gain independence immediately after World War II and succeeded in throwing out its French colonial
rulers only in 1954.
B. North Vietnam‟s first experiment in government after throwing off colonial control involved setting up a
C. after the Americans withdrew from the ground fighting in Vietnam, the North Vietnamese immediately attacked
Cambodia, China, and Laos.
D. it was once known as Indochina. [C]
U S involvement in Southeast Asia resulted, in part, from a fear that if one area fell to the communists, the others in
the region would also fall. This theory is known as the domino theory.
In retrospect, all the following appear to have been major factors underlying American escalation in Vietnam except:
A. the dependence of American capitalism on export markets in Southeast Asia
B. the direct pressures of the military establishment to pursue the battle
C. the rigid anticommunist ideology of containment carried over into the 1960‟s from the Cold War era.
D. American past experiences in instructing, rebuilding, and “ democratizing” other nations [A]
There was a significant shift in American public opinion against the Vietnamese war as a result of the 1968 Tet
The term “Vietnamization” referred to the policy of:
A. shifting the burden of actual combat to the South Vietnamese
B. training United States troops to understand Vietnamese social customs
C. shifting the emphasis of the United States military to guerilla-type combat
D. developing American public support for the war through government propaganda [A]
The final result of American participation in the Vietnam War was American withdrawal followed by victory for
Three of the following occurred in the aftermath of the American withdrawal from Vietnam. Which is the
A. North and South Vietnam were united under a communist government.
B. Communist China invaded Communist Vietnam.
C. Communist Vietnam invaded Communist Cambodia.
D. Communist Cambodia invaded Thailand. [D]
The impact of the Vietnam War on American life included all of the following except
A. battle deaths exceeding those suffered in the American Civil War
B. decreased respect for the presidency and Congress
C. decreased respect for the military
D. inflation caused by enormous government deficits
E. over 50,000 battle deaths and innumerable others scarred emotionally and physically [A]
Czechoslovakia - 1968
A. is the policy of maintaining the distance between East and West blocs
B. refers to the Soviet treatment of political prisoners
C. is the Soviet equivalent of Manifest Destiny
D. refers to improved relations between the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1970s [D]
The Soviet invasion of which country in 1979 increased tensions with the West?
E. Czechoslovakia [D]
The End (?) of the Cold War - 1980 to the Present: Gorbachev, Glasnost, Perestroika, Collapse of the Soviet
Union, Collapse of the Soviet Empire in Central Europe, Collapse of Soviet initiatives around the world; the Chip,
Cultural Illiteracy, The Computer, pacificism
Détente (early 1970s) refers to the improvement of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States.
Reagan & the Evil Empire; Arms Race
With reference to the Cold War strategy by NATO, the trouble with “forward defense” as a military strategy was that
it didn‟t make military sense at all.
Which of the following statements reflected “conventional wisdom” regarding a conventional war in Central Europe?
A. “Come as you are war.” (both sides)
B. “Use it or lose it.” (both sides)
C. “Keep it simple and build a lot of them.” (Warsaw Pact)
D. “Fulda Gap Killing Zone.” (NATO)
E. “Defense in Depth.” (both sides) [E]
Flexible Response meant that an absolute pre-planned conventional NATO response to a Soviet attack in central
Europe did not exist, for NATO planned to use everything in its military arsenal, including nuclear weapons, in order
to stop a Soviet attack.
The term nuclear winter refers to
A. the aftermath of nuclear warfare
B. arms limitation including a freeze on placing nuclear warheads on ballistic missiles
C. stabilizing nuclear weaponry at a particular level
D. evacuation plans in the event of a meltdown [A]
Following Mikhail Gorbachev‟s accession to power in the Soviet Union on March 11, 1985, he attempted reforms,
A. the rehabilitation of Stalin as a Russian hero
B. devoting a greater part of the GNP to the arms race
C. tougher police state methods in dealing with dissidents
D. the restructuring of the economy and more open discussion of issues [D]
A. started in power by emphasizing strict Marxist doctrine, but then realized it didn‟t work
B. encouraged reforms privately because he realized the Congress of the Communist party would never be ready to
hear such plans
C. was interested in industrial growth but believed that agricultural development needed little interference because
it would respond to the natural demands of the economy
D. believed that rigid economic planning retarded innovation, change, and growth [D]
Gorbachev failed because
A. he was unwilling to give in to the revolution even though it was obvious that the revolution was unstoppable
B. Boris Yeltsin engineered a constitutional challenge through the Supreme Soviet which resulted in the resignation
of Gorbachev in 1991
C. he was responsible for the United States winning the Cold War at the expense of the Soviet Union
D. he was responsible for the loss of the Soviet empire in central Europe
E. he was assassinated during a coup d’etat in 1991 [B]
Between 1945 and 1990 he chief weakness of the Soviet system seemed to be the problem of nationalism within the
The breakup of the Soviet Empire in Central Europe:
1989 was called the “year of liberation” because of the massive number of changes that occurred in central Europe.
The developments of 1989 were remarkably peaceful because of all except which of the following?
A. Boris Yeltsin, premier of the Soviet Union, believed that the former satellite countries of the Soviet empire had
the right to self-determination
B. Eastern European‟s believed that Marxist-Leninist ideology had been a failure
C. Eastern Europeans‟ accepted the idea that governments following Western models would offer not only freedom
but also prosperity
D. there was fine leadership by intellectuals and clergy [A]
Which of the following is not a result of the breakup of the Soviet Union following 1990?
A. the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and the emergence of at least 15 changed states in eastern Europe
B. the reappearance of violent nationalisms which had been under close control by the Soviet military and secret
C. the emergence of democracy and of a market-driven economy in the former Soviet system
D. political instability as the result of the loss of central control over the weapons of war that had been built during
the Cold War [C]
The most dramatic change in the Soviet Union after 1950:
A. was Stalin‟s replacement in 1951 by Brezhnev and Kosygin
B. came with the death of Stalin and then Khrushchev‟s denunciation of Stalin and the “ cult of personality” in
C. was the assassination of Khrushchev after the Cuban missile crisis in 1958
D. was the break-up of the Soviet state in 1991 [D]
In August 1991 an attempted military coup against Gorbachev resulted in the rise of Boris Yeltsin as leader of the
Former Soviet spies are now engaged in “industrial espionage” as they attempt to acquire western technology for the
struggling Russian economy.
The disintegration of the Soviet Union should be celebrated as a simple victory of capitalism over communism. [F]
Is the Cold War really over? Did the US really win the Cold War?
The demise of the Soviet Union loosed wars in Europe as the stabilizing force of military occupation was ended.
A major challenge for modern societies is to promote international cooperation and to maintain a rising standard of
living that comes from economic interdependence and technological advancement, while allowing various ethnic
groups to achieve greater satisfaction from their national identities.
Because ethnic groups maintain imaginary homelands in their mind and use history to promote their agendas, once
the Soviet Union had collapsed, the call of the tribe resurrected itself and loosed wars throughout the region.
Serb Slobodan Milosevic advocated unification of all Serbs in a Greater Serbia as well as ethnic cleansing of non-
Serbs in regions Serbs occupy.
In the 1999 crisis over ethnic cleansing in Kosovo, NATO bombing of Serbia eventually forced Slobodan
Milosevich to end his attacks on the Kosovars after which NATO agreed to the establishment of zones of protection
for the Serbs in Kosovar territory. False
Western Europe: Economic & social effects of WWII on each European nation, Northern Ireland, Commonwealth
of Nations, Charles de Gaulle, French nationalism, the German Miracle, E.E.C., Falkland War, Maastricht Treaty,
the End of Empires
Contributing to the transition from Cold War to Coexistence were
A. the rise of the Third World and the Revival of Europe
B. the decline of Chinese power
C. large scale cooperative work on world population problems
D. the continued decline of European influence [A]
The organization that aimed to increase industrial and agricultural production, eliminate tariff barriers, aid the free
flow of goods among its members, and decrease political tensions in Europe was the ______________, established
A. European Economic Community
B. European Free Trade Association
C. Council of Europe
D. Organization for European Economic Recovery [A]
It was hoped that complete economic integration of Europe could be accomplished by the end of 1992.
Complete economic integration of Europe was accomplished by the end of 1992. [F]
By 1995 there were 12 states in the European Union [Germany, France, Italy, BeNeLux, the UK, Spain, Portugal,
Ireland, Greece, & Denmark], with Sweden, Finland, & Austria voting in 1994 to join as soon as possible].
In November 1994 Norway rejected European Union membership because, as opponents noted, membership would
mean submitting to rule from Brussels (headquarters of the EU) and that open borders would bring immigrants,
illegal drugs, and crime.
By 2005 there were 27 states in the European Union, stretching from Russia in the east to Ireland in the west and
from Sweden in the north to Malta in the south. False
The European Union is the world‟s largest Zollverein.
As Prime Minister of Great Britain Margaret Thatcher proved her strength in all of the following except:
A. leading the British in a war against Argentina
B. supporting the power of organized labor
C. maintaining close ties with the United States
D. supporting increased efficiency by employers and workers [B]
Overwhelmed by defeat in 1940, France owed its resurgence primarily to:
A. Georges Pompidou
B. Charles de Gaulle
C. Giscard d‟Estaing
D. Francois Mitterand [B]
The “German economic miracle” refers to the rebuilding of the German State after the devastation of World War II
into a position of power and wealth.
The great moment in post-World War II German history came in 1990 with the reunification of the two German
states into a new Federal Republic of Germany.
The Berlin Wall was removed in 1991.
The greatest problem facing the reunited German State is that of integrating the backward economy of the East with
the vibrant economy of the West without arousing animosity and without weakening the economy of the new
German unification has provided a major psychological test for the European Community as old fears of Germany
coupled with the economic power of the new state have many Europeans concerned.
Italy: Mafia, Red Brigade, and political corruption
Wars and unrest in Eastern Europe have resulted in a flood of immigrants from war-torn or economically depressed
areas, and a concomitant rise in anti-foreign elements in various European states.
A major challenge for modern societies is to promote international cooperation and to maintain a rising standard of
living that comes from economic interdependence and technological advancement, while allowing various ethnic
groups to achieve greater satisfaction from their national identities.
Decolonization and The World Today: Winds of Change, Third World, Frantz Fanon, AK-47, Mohandas Gandhi,
the Middle East, Israel, Arab-Israeli Wars, Islamic Revolution, 100 Hour War, Cultural Revolution, Southeast Asia,
Latin America, Black Africa, Biafra, apartheid, Marxism in the Third World; World Problems today: population
explosion, pollution, hunger, human rights
Contributing to the transition from Cold War to coexistence was the revival of Europe and the rise of the “Third
Most historians would probably agree that the most important reason for the development of such strong nationalist
and anti-imperialist movements in the colonies during the twentieth century was the:
A. influence of western education and western ideals
B. intensified exploitation and suffering of the colonial peoples
C. example of equal treatment established by the Japanese in their colonies
D. elimination of tribal differences [A]
In the post-World War II era over 150 nations have achieved their independence. How has this altered the nature of
world stability? By giving examples from the four corners of the globe, demonstrate how the principles of power
vacuums, militarism, imperialism, and nationalism continue to threaten peace in the world.
The First World often describes the United States and countries that have democratic governments; the Second
World describes communist countries such as the Soviet Union and the People‟s Republic of China; the Third World
refers to developing countries; and the Fourth World refers to peoples, such as the Kurds and Palestinians, who do
not have a country.
The Third World refers to non-aligned states in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
The concept of the “Third World”:
A. refers to developing, but not necessarily poor countries
B. includes only the northern hemisphere
C. includes only small countries
D. represents a well-organized league of underdeveloped states [A]
Which ideology had the widest appeal during Decolonization?
A. Third World unity
D. Marxism-Leninism [B]
Statistics on Third World wealth and poverty show that:
A. there are no wealthy Third World countries
B. the poorest countries are in Asia and Africa
C. the low income countries are mostly in South America
D. the countries with greatest production increase are in Africa [B]
The most acute problem for the less developed countries is
A. the absence of mechanized agriculture
B. their vast growth in population
C. uneven food distribution
D. the lack of birth control devices [B]
For population programs to be effective in most less developed countries, it is not necessary to change
A. attitudes based on cultural or religious outlook
B. attitudes derived from economic dependence on grown children
C. attitudes based on political power
D. people‟s dependence on grain or rice [D]
– – - The Middle East
During the 19th and 20th centuries, Western industrialization and military strength spearheaded Western control of
most of the Middle East. Moslems felt victimized and dehumanized, their national identities suppressed and their
cultural heritage and contributions to Western civilization itself denigrated.
Which type of state is least common in the Islamic Middle East?
A. parliamentary democracy
B. traditional monarchy or sheikhdom
C. revolutionary republic
D. regimes based upon military dominance along with the introduction of western technology and ideas
E. regimes based upon religious law and authority [A]
[A-0; B-Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Shah of Iran, etc.; C-Yeman, Iran; D-Iraq; E-Iran = fluctuates]
Like other countries emerging from colonial rule of discarding the old order, the modern Islamic nation-states had to
borrow heavily from the West to build political and social institutions and run increasingly complex societies.
In a famous statement, the British government welcomed Jewish settlers to Palestine and the creation of a Jewish
state. This statement was:
A. the Balfour Declaration
B. the Geneva Accords
C. Lloyd George‟s Declaration
D. the Asquith Doctrine [A]
Judaism in the years after 1945 was haunted by:
A. the Nazi attempt at genocide, the Holocaust
B. Israel‟s wars with its Arab neighbors
C. persecution of Jews in Eastern Europe and Soviet Russia
D. increased assimilation to a secular society [A]
The basic issue between Israel and the Arab states, from 1948 until the late 1980s, has been:
A. Arab insistence that Israel renounce all claim to Jerusalem
B. the Arab demand that Israel accept the 1947 UN-designated boundaries
C. Arab insistence on the total destruction of Israel
D. the Arab demand that Israel provide for all Arab refugees [C]
Apart from the constant Arab threat, the main difficulty that has faced Israel has been:
A. its inability to do anything with the Negev desert
B. its utter failure to solve the problem of water supply
C. its total inability to assimilate the African and Asian Jews
D. its continued dependence on outside economic aid [D]
One reason Israel has survived among Arab neighbors is:
A. support both from the US and the USSR
B. more advanced industry and technology
C. large amount of oil production
D. larger population [B]
The publicly state aim of the Palestinian Liberation Organization was:
A. the return of the west bank to Jordan
B. the establishment of a Palestinian state in the Sinai Peninsula
C. the establishment of a Palestinian state in part of Lebanon
D. the establishment of a Palestinian state in the west bank area and the Gaza Strip [D]
The 1979 Revolution in Iran resulted from widespread Iranian:
A. opposition to Soviet influence in the Middle East
B. resentment against the repressive, authoritarian tactics of the Shah
C. disillusionment with the fanatical policies of the Ayatollah Khomeini
D. desires to modernize and Westernize their country [B]
The Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini:
A. established a secret police organization where none had existed before
B. condemned the Shah and the Americans for “ satanic” modernism
C. instituted strict separation of religion and politics in Iran
D. followed the principles of Gandhi and Martin Luther King [B]
The seizure of the American embassy and hostages by Iranian militants in November 1979 was provoked by the
A. support of Iraq in its war with Iran
B. refusal to recognize the revolutionary regime in Iran
C. efforts to restore the Shah to power
D. allowing the Shah‟s entry into the United States for medical treatment [D]
The so-called “Carter Doctrine” was a pledge that the United States would oppose, by force if necessary, any further
A. the Caribbean
B. the Persian Gulf
C. the Mediterranean
D. the South China Sea [B]
Iran-Iraq War, 1980s
In Islam there is virtually no separation between the religious and the secular.
U.N. Resolution 660 (August 2, 1990):
A. Condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
B. Demanded that Iraq withdraw immediately and unconditionally all its forces to the positions in which they were
located on 1 August 1990
C. Called upon Iraq and Kuwait to begin immediately intensive negotiations for the resolution of their differences
and supports all efforts in this regard, and especially those of the League of Arab States
D. Decided to meet again as necessary to consider further steps to ensure compliance with the present resolution
E. all of the above [E]
Just War and the Gulf War [January 16, 1991 - February 28, 1991]
The most quoted phrase of the 100-hour war is taken from a speech made by Saddam Hussein on January 20, 1991,
in which he said, “when they begin to die and when the message of the Iraqi soldiers reaches the farthest corner of
the world, the unjust will die and the „God is Great‟ banner will flutter with great victory in the mother of all battles.”
The war against Iraq to stop Saddam Hussein from making weapons of mass destruction has not solved the problem
of nuclear proliferation in the world.
– – - Sub-Saharan Africa
All but one of the statements concerning post-World War II Africa is true. Which one is not?
A. Many of the boundaries of the newly freed nations are artificial and unrealistic
B. The European colonial power that clung most tenaciously to her African territories was Portugal
C. Both Great Britain and France voluntarily surrendered most of their huge African holdings after World War II
D. Because of serious tribal wars that have frequently followed the granting of freedom, many Africans have
indicated their preference for progressive colonial rule rather than freedom
E. The most serious problem facing the countries is over-population [D]
Somalia and the United Nations
In sub-Saharan Africa the serious tribal wars that frequently followed the granting of freedom often resulted in many
African countries reverting to progressive colonial rule rather than independence. False
Apartheid refers to the policy of harsh white supremacy in the state of South Africa. It was ended as the result of
negotiations between Afrikaner Frederik W. de Klerk and African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela.
Regarding the state of Nigeria, which of the following is not true?
A. modern Nigeria is the result of an arbitrary consolidation of a multitude of ethnic and religious groups by the
colonial power, Great Britain
B. independence from Great Britain was peacefully achieved in 1960
C. modern Nigeria is “Africa‟s Giant” because of its enormous population and its large deposits of raw materials
D. civil war erupted in 1967 as the Ibos proclaimed the independent state of Biafra
E. because the British did an excellent job of preparing Nigeria for statehood, modern Nigeria is one of the few
democratic states in sub-Saharan Africa [E]
– – - Latin America
Since 1948 the countries south of the Rio Grande have been aligned with the United States in an agreement to
prevent Communist elements from acquiring control in Latin American countries. This alignment, dominated by the
“Colossus of the North” is:
A. the Organization of American States
B. the Alliance for Progress
C. the Central Intelligence Agency
D. the Organization of the Western Hemisphere [A]
The greatest threat to the United States in the Western Hemisphere was long been considered to be Cuba under Fidel
Grenada, 1982 Iran-Contra, 1980s Panama, 1990 Haiti, 1995
The ratification of a free trade treaty between Mexico and the United States [NAFTA] was most endangered by the
fear of large numbers of Mexicans entering the American labor market. False
– – - The Far East
Under Mao Zedong, China:
A. developed quietly and steadily
B. had the most conservative social policy in Asia
C. refused to change the system of Chiang Kai-shek
D. attempted rapid change in industry and culture [D]
After the death of Mao Zedong radicals were replaced by more practical leaders.
In 1989 tumultuous events in Beijing
A. showed the determination of the Chinese to unite with Taiwan and Hong Kong using the principle of self-
B. included a state visit by U. S. President George Bush, who called for freer trade with China
C. illustrated that the Communist leadership would do everything possible to curry favor with the West
D. led to Western dismay as Chinese advocates for democracy were massacred [A]
Events of the last decade have shown that Chinese leaders are interested in all of the following except
A. a determination to unite with Taiwan, by force if necessary
B. freer trade with the United States, especially if it means that technology and industrial secrets can be obtained at
virtually no cost to China
C. doing everything possible to curry favor with the West to protect China from Russian expansionism
D. maintaining at all costs the totalitarian state that has existed, as evidenced by the 1989 Tiananmen Square
massacre of Chinese student advocates for democracy
– – –
All but one of the following factors had a major impact on the dominant thought of the Western world in the
twentieth century. Which one?
A. the continued influence of the Christian religion
B. the depersonalizing effects of science
C. the two world wars
D. industrialization and urbanization [A]
Late twentieth century science and scholarship:
A. have produced greater knowledge and more public confusion
B. have declined because of worldwide failure of education
C. have been completely dominated by American intellectuals
D. closely integrate popular culture and sophisticated science [A]
The peaceful use of nuclear power was:
A. never undertaken in the Soviet Union
B. initiated by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter H. Brattain
C. restrained in the Soviet Union by excessive safety precautions
D. compromised by accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl [D]
It may be said that the symbol of our age is the computer.
Music, art, et al.
If current trends continue, the twenty-first century world will:
A. be dominated by the West to a greater extent than ever
B. increase its population and reduce the relative influence of the West
C. witness greater economic security and more pleasant quality of life
D. bring Third World equality with developed industrial countries [B]
Will humankind survive?
Which of the following is not one of the “three slender reeds upon which the ultimate fate of human survival in this
nuclear age” may depend?
A. how well we prepare ourselves for the war that is to come
B. how well we understand the lessons of our past
C. how well we understand the nature and culture of humankind
D. how well we can express our concerns through our institutions [A]
SPRING 2007 – USCA
AHST A102 TTh – INTR WORLD CIVIL FROM 1750 – 3 CREDIT HRS
H&SS 210 – PROF WILLIAM S. BROCKINGTON, JR.
COURSE OBJECTIVES & ASSESSMENT
COURSE OBJECTIVES. It is anticipated that AHST A102 will assist the student:
1. to learn that history is not merely a chronological series of cold facts, but a drama of personalities, places, and
events, each with greatness and pettiness, and each with a variety of interpretations and points of view [the
student will learn how and why specific events and persons impacted upon their and later times; the student will
also learn how to relate those specifics to broader themes];
2. to learn that an understanding of history will enhance one‟s awareness of the modern world [the student will gain
perspective, that is, will be able to understand how present institutions, conditions, and events relate to earlier
3. to learn how better to communicate one‟s thoughts and ideas [analytical and critical thought is essential to the
development of communication skills and is one of the primary goals of a university education];
4. to learn that history can be informative, useful, and (occasionally) entertaining [history can be almost anything –
films, novels, and dull, boring texts; this class will only rarely be dull & boring].
ASSESSMENT. The following will assist in ascertaining whether these objectives have been reached.
1. History is a chronological study, which focuses upon cause and effect and upon the interconnectedness of the
past and present. One major objective will be to learn “facts” which can then be connected. This will be
assessed on two major tests, that is, your “fact” knowledge will be tested. A second objective of the tests will be
to assess your ability to synthesize material (connect) and to present conclusions cogently (communicate). This
will be done when you answer identification and essay questions [see EXAMINATIONS]. Your ability to
perceive different points of view [POV] and various interpretations will be assessed when you write your film
analyses [see WRITING ASSIGNMENTS]. It is anticipated that, as the term progresses, your ability to think
critically and to communicate effectively will improve measurably.
2. Learning that an understanding of history will enhance one‟s awareness of the modern world is often a difficult
task for the history student. From the beginning of the class, themes that demonstrate continuity, cause & effect,
and relevance are emphasized. As connections are integral to an understanding of historical themes and trends,
students who utilize these themes effectively demonstrate that learning (and not simple memorization) has taken
place. All writing assignments, including identifications and essays on tests, require an understanding of these
themes. Your ability to communicate this understanding will be assessed. [see WRITING ASSIGNMENTS]
3. In all writing assignments the ability to communicate ideas clearly and accurately will be assessed. Proper usage
of English is a component of this assessment. [see WRITING ASSIGNMENTS]
4. By the end of the term, all students will have been exposed to lectures, as well as numerous media presentations
and films. Examples of current events, which are relevant to the themes of the course, will be introduced and
discussed. Your ability to do the same (that is to introduce and incorporate outside materials into discussions
and written work) will be assessed. [see WRITING ASSIGNMENTS and TESTS/EXAMINATIONS]
5. At the end of the term, students may assess your instructor as to whether he has met these objectives. As we
progress through the term, you should note what he does well and what he does not do as well. Praise the
former, but be prepared to offer constructive criticism regarding the latter. Criticism for the sake of criticizing
helps no one. An explanation of how and why something is not working pinpoint a shortcoming, making it
easier to correct.
CONSULTATION. You may contact your instructor via e–mail (firstname.lastname@example.org). If special assistance is needed,
see him either immediately before or after class in his office [H&SS C–1]. Office hours are posted on his door, but
he is often available at other times. An appointment can be made, if needed.
TEXTS. The text [A History of World Societies, 6th Edition] that you purchased at the bookstore is required. The
supplemental texts [Hard Times, Heart of Darkness, and The Reader] are also required.
COURSE ORGANIZATION and CONTENT. See ASSIGNMENTS SCHEDULE.
SCHEDULE OF MAJOR ASSIGNMENTS. See ASSIGNMENTS SCHEDULE. See also EXAMINATIONS as well as
GRADE. Your final grade is based upon a 500-point scale, which includes:  three test/examination scores (300);
 three writing assignments (150); and daily homework scores (50). For a numerical average during the term,
divide the sum of your achieved scores by the total points available at that point in the term. At the end of the term,
divide your total number of points by 5. Grades will not be rounded off or up.
A=90–100 B+=85–89 C+=75–79 D+=65–69 F=59 & below
B =80–84 C =70–74 D =60–64
The following scale is a numerical representation of the grade scale.
450–500=A 425–449=B+ 375–399=C+ 325–349=D+ 299&below=F
400–424=B 350–374=C 300–324=D
Remember that extra points may be earned on all writing assignments, daily quizzes, and tests/examinations.
A. Tests/Examinations. Scores achieved on three tests/examinations administered during the term are part your
grade. Each test/examination contains components of each of the following: objective (multiple choice, true/false,
maps); short identification (5W’s: who, what, where, when, significance of), and essay (define, discuss and analyze,
significance of). Each test has a value of at least 100 points. For each test you will need a Scantron Answer Sheet,
Form 886E (mini-essay booklet), which you may purchase at the USCA Book Store. You should purchase at least
three as soon as possible. For those who do not purchase their own, mini-essay booklets are offered for sale at 50¢
each on test day [illustrating the principle of entrepreneurship which is an important historical theme; profits are used
to provide Test III munchies]. For test dates see ASSIGNMENTS SCHEDULE.
B. Writing Assignments based upon Parallel Reading Assignments (150 points). There are three parallel readings
for this course: Hard Times, Heart of Darkness, and The Reader. You will write out answers to a series of questions
(see below for instructions) posed in the syllabus for each of the reading assignments. On the day on which a book is
to be analyzed in class [see ASSIGNMENTS SCHEDULE], you will write an essay in class [answering questions
posed by me] on the book assignment (see below for instructions).
1. Home Writing Assignment. You are to write out (this means: hand written – in your handwriting; only students
with a qualified disability [see LEARNING DISABLED STUDENTS] may use a mechanical device to prepare the
home writing assignment) complete answers to the questions that appear below. Computer generated answers
will not be accepted; anything printed via a computer is considered to be computer generated. When writing
your answers, you must use the book; you may also use your text, the SG, material from the Internet,
information from compendia such as Masterplots, Cliff’s Notes, Spark Notes, or any other source you can find.
Written answers must include source and page numbers as part of the answers [see ACADEMIC HONESTY
POLICY; note especially the definition of plagiarism]. Answers must demonstrate critical thinking and a reading
awareness of the book. These written answers will be turned in on the scheduled day [see ASSIGNMENTS
SCHEDULE] and will be valued at 30 points each. Do not turn in any photocopied or downloaded/printed
materials. [90 points total]
Home Writing Assignments: [See ASSIGNMENTS SCHEDULE for due dates]
Charles Dickens, Hard Times
a. Who was Charles Dickens [brief biography]? What was his political philosophy? Why?
b. How does Hard Times reflect the social problems of the I.R.? According to Hard Times, what will happen if
steps are not taken to alleviate the misery caused by the I.R.?
c. According to The Communist Manifesto (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, what must happen as the
result of middle class exploitation of the working class? What does Dickens believe must happen if this is to be
avoided? Does Hard Times show a possible awareness of The Communist Manifesto? What might be a clue?
d. Does Dickens like labor unions? Why or why not? How do you know?
Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness:
a. Who was Joseph Conrad [brief biography]? Upon what actual event(s) did Conrad base Heart of Darkness?
b. What colony is Conrad describing? What horrible things does he have Marlow describe?
c. Who was Kurtz? What was his task? How do his decisions reflect the lie that imperialism brings civilization to
d. According to Conrad, the coast is where civilization thrives; the farther one is from the coast, the more
civilization is stripped away. At the Inner Station, the most primitive of human actions are revealed. What is
Conrad saying about Europe and Europeans? About Africa and Africans? About their interrelationship?
[Think Lord of the Flies]
Bernhard Schlink, The Reader
a. Bernhard Schlink, a German jurist (lawyer), is well qualified to write about the legal issues regarding the
Holocaust. He chooses instead to write of a moral dilemma. What exactly is a moral dilemma?
b. How and why is Hanna‟s behavior at the burning church a clear example of a moral dilemma? [Include some
research of your own regarding the movement of Jews from Concentration Camps from Poland to Germany
during early [www.remember.org/carpati/VoicesSite/Voices/BookContents/VoicesGlossary.html] AND
information on what Nazi fanatics did to those not following orders.
c. Hanna is NOT a brutal beast. Why is this characterization necessary? How does it fit with the discussion about
ordinary Germans caught up in extraordinary circumstances and their guilt for actions committed during that
d. Hanna is portrayed as illiterate. This may mean that she cannot read; it may also mean that she is a “willing
unknowing” because she chooses to ignore reality or she refuses to investigate. After all, “she was only
following orders.” What does she finally realize? When? What helps her to learn about her own responsibility
for the Holocaust? Why does she execute herself?
2. In-class essays. An essay question (or questions) based upon the homework assignment will be given. The first
in-class essay will be written on your choice of either Hard Times or Heart of Darkness; the second in-class
essay will be written on The Reader. For the first in-class essay, you will be turning in your homework answers
from Hard Times and Heart of Darkness. When you write your essay, you may use the book and your
homework in the writing of your essay. You may not use photocopied hand–written notes; but you may use
photocopied material from other sources, or computer generated materials such as Internet data or other notes.
You will have 60 minutes to write your essay. [60 points total]
3. The total number of points for the writing assignments is 150 points. Bonus points (a maximum of 10 points per
assignment) may be awarded for exemplary work on homework. If you are absent on the day the essay is to be
written, see MISSED ASSIGNMENTS.
C. Daily Homework. So that you can comprehend historical context more fully, there is a daily assignment [see
ASSIGNMENTS SCHEDULE], which will be accompanied by a study question based upon the readings. You must
answer the study question and turn in your answer as homework at the beginning of class. Your answer(s) must
relate to AHST A102 and to the time period being studied. Doing these study questions and turning them in on time
should: encourage you to read and think about the material, should help you on the tests, and will reward you for
punctual attendance. You should be able to answer a question in several paragraphs or so; it should rarely require
more than a page. You may use a mechanical device to prepare an answer to the homework question(s).
1. On the day that the question is due, you are to place your answer [this may be computer generated] on the desk
at the front of the room before class. I will accept daily papers only if you are in class that day and if you turn it
in when you get there [don‟t bother to turn it in at the end of the period]. Your instructor will return your work
from the previous class at the beginning of class.
2. A paper will be given one of four grades: “S+” for exemplary work (worth 3 points) – meaning you really got
the information AND analyzed it based upon isms and themes discussed in class; “S” for satisfactory (worth 2
points) – meaning you made an honest effort that indicated you had read and thought about the material, even if
you got it wrong, and it was neat and readable and had no major grammatical flaws; “M” for marginal (worth 1
point) – meaning that it was a token effort indicating you didn‟t do much reading or thinking; or “U” for
unsatisfactory (0 points) – meaning that you probably did not turn it in, or that it was so bad as to deserve no
credit at all, or you were not there that day [NOTE: I use homework for my attendance; if you are present, you
MUST turn in a sheet which states that you are present but did not turn in your homework].
3. At the end of the semester homework points a student has accumulated are added together. There are a total of
25 homework assignments; you could score a possible total of 75.
4. “2” is considered to be a very satisfactory score; hence 50 points would equate an “A+” score. “3” means
exemplary work and is rewarded accordingly. These are possible bonus points! [NOTE: homework is used for
attendance records; if you are present, you MUST turn in a sheet stating that you are present but did not turn in
your homework]. Daily homework assesses your preparedness for class.
5. I do not distinguish between excused and unexcused absences; if you are not here, I do not accept the papers –
period. If there is a valid reason why you must miss a class, you may turn your homework in early (or you may
e-mail it to me); please do not turn in homework late.
D. Extra Credit. Please do not request extra credit, as either everyone or no one has an opportunity. Bonus points
may be awarded for superior work on homework. Bonus points are available on examinations and on writing
assignments. Bonus points are available for a student who analyzes a “current event” by “writing up” using the
following format: provide a synopsis of the item [may be a movie, a television program, a news article (newspaper,
TV news, or news magazine)]; show a specific connection to something studied in 102; and analyze how the item
and this class are connected. Depending upon the type of “outside work”, a student may earn up to 10 points per
effort. A maximum of 15 points per test period is available; no Extra Credit points are awarded retroactively.
FINAL GRADE. The fastest method of learning your grade at the end of the term is to use the USCA VIP system.
Federal regulations make it unwise for an instructor to post grades at the end of the term; USCA administrators state
that grades will not be posted. If you do not wish to use VIP, you may provide your instructor with a self–addressed,
stamped envelope so that your grade can be mailed to you. USCA regulations prohibit giving grades orally over the
phone or via e-mail. USCA (and federal) regulations prohibit giving grades to anyone other than the student.
ATTENDANCE. As stated already, homework is used to determine attendance. If you are present, you MUST turn
in a sheet stating that you are present but did not turn in homework.
EXCESSIVE ABSENCES. An excessive number of absences, defined by your instructor as more than five (5)
unexcused absences in a class which meets daily for 1.25 hours per class meeting, will result in an automatic failing
grade (F) for the course. Attendance is taken from your homework. If you now have a specific physical condition
(or if you develop a physical condition during the term) that will prevent you from meeting these requirements, you
should seriously consider withdrawing from the class either now or as soon as it develops. If an excessive number of
absences is marked before the official USCA drop date, the student may withdraw (W), without penalty, from the
course by following official USCA withdrawal procedures. If an excessive number of absences is marked after the
official USCA drop date, the student will receive a failing grade (F) unless the student withdraws from school due to
extenuating circumstances (WP) [check with the Registrar for possibilities]. An alternative to withdrawal from
school is that of an incomplete (I) for a course. An incomplete can be granted only if the following conditions are
met: (1) there are extenuating circumstances, (2) most of the requirements for the course are completed, and (3) there
are valid reasons for the student not wishing to withdraw from school. A grade of incomplete (I) may be assigned
only following consultation between the instructor, the department head, and the student. [see Withdrawal from the
University and Incomplete in the USCA Undergraduate Bulletin]
A. Unexcused Absences. An unexcused absence on a test or writing assignment day will result in a 0.
B. Excused Absences Resulting In Late Assignments or a Need for A Make–Up Assignment. If for school reasons
(athletic or student government event) you cannot attend a test or a writing assignment, and you have a proper
excuse, you may take a test or writing assignment early. A test or writing assignment missed for a valid reason
[written reasons from an appropriate authority: doctor, mechanic, public safety person, university official, etc.,
may be made up, but the make–up will be at my convenience. Because of the difficulty in finding a time
convenient for all, it is likely that make-up assignments will be made up at one of three possible times: at 1 p.m.
on the Friday following an assignment, at a specified time when no classes are being held, or at the regularly
scheduled examination period at the end of the term. The following will be adhered to closely.
1. Tests/Examinations. It is probable that a make–up test will be entirely essay, which will include
identification and discussion. It is possible that a make-up test will have objective questions.
2. Parallel Reading Assignments. You will be allowed to write an essay only if you have a valid reason for
missing class. You may turn in homework for partial credit, but only if done prior to the return of corrected
materials to other students.
3. Daily Homework. There is no make-up homework. Those who are absent or tardy will have fewer
opportunities to acquire bonus points.
ACADEMIC HONESTY POLICY. The USCA Academic Code of Conduct, which is described in the USCA
Student Handbook, provides a detailed statement of the policy. You are responsible for familiarizing yourself with
the essence of academic integrity. The USCA Student Handbook provides definitions [e.g., for plagiarism] and
procedures for academic honesty violations. The USCA Academic Code of Conduct will be followed in this class.
HONOR CODE. The USCA Honor code is in effect in this course for all written assignments and for exams. I
believe in it and will enforce it. On all work you must write the word “pledge” [or you can write out the entire
pledge which appears later in this section] and sign your name. This means that you adhere to the following: On my
honor as a USCA student, I have completed my work according to the principle of Academic Integrity. I have neither
given nor received any unauthorized aid on this assignment/examination.”
LEARNING DISABLED STUDENTS. If you have a physical, psychological, and/or learning disability which might
affect your performance in this class, please contact the Office of Disability Services, 126A B&E, (803) 641-3609,
as soon as possible. The Disability Services Office will determine appropriate accommodations based on medical
JUNIOR WRITING PORTFOLIO. Your instructors value good writing in this course. Please remember that the
written work that you produce in this class can be included in your rising junior writing portfolio. For further
information on the portfolio requirement, please contact your USCA Undergraduate and Graduate Studies Bulletin
or visit Dr. Lynne Rhodes, Director of Writing Assignment, or Karl Fornes, Director of the Writing Room.
STUDY GUIDE [SG]. A SG for my World Civilization class is available at the USCA History Department website.
To access the SG, go to http://www.usca.edu/polisci/ahst102b/ . Download the file and print it at your own expense.
It is used in class as a course guide and a basis for discussion of world issues.
AHST A102 ASSIGNMENTS SCHEDULE:STUDY QUESTION AND TERMS..
ASSIGNMENTS SCHEDULE. Study question(s) follow(s) the date [see DAILY HOMEWORK instructions]. Locate
the listed terms in your text, in the SG, or in an alternative research source. Think in terms of the 5 W‟s [see
Tests/Examinations]. Use the SG to assist you in preparing for class. You are to bring your syllabus, SG and text
with you to class each day. The schedule for assigned tests and for classroom exercises follows:
Tuesday, January 16
Introduction (syllabus, contract for the course); “Point of View”; terms & maps
Thursday, January 18: How did the Japanese power structure deal with European contact? 
The World of 1750 – Foundations: Definitions and Maps – Africa and Asia. Map: The World of 1750. Terms:
reasons for European expansion; Africa, Islam, slave trade; Ottoman Empire, Balkans, reasons for decline;
India, British East India Company; China, foreign pressures; Japan, isolationism.
Tuesday, January 23: Choose one “Seed of Change” and discuss how it altered societies between 1500 & 1700. 
The World of 1750 – Foundations: Definitions and Maps – the Americas. Terms: Seeds of Change (horse, potato,
sugar, disease, gold), Native Americans, slavery, Creolization.
Thursday, January 25: Compare absolutism in France with constitutionalism in England. 
The World of 1750 – Foundations: 18th Century European Monarchies and the Enlightenment. Terms: social
overview of Early Modern Europe; origins of the Industrial Revolution; France, Eastern Europe, England: State,
balance of power, power vacuum, absolutism & constitutionalism, mercantilism, Versailles, Social Contract/John
Locke; Age of Reason; Scientific Revolution: Scientific Method, Isaac Newton, technology & the Industrial
Revolution; Enlightenment: philosophes, Voltaire/Candide; Adam Smith, Madame du Châtelet.
Tuesday, January 30: Look ahead to the definition of nationalism [see SG 23]. How did the American Revolution
reflect the ideas of nationalism? 
The World of 1750 – Foundations: The Age of Limited Warfare & Balance of Power. Terms: Ancien Regime: War
of Austrian Succession, Seven Years War, Peace of Paris, Enlightened Despotism, Partitions of Poland; American
Revolution: Causes, Declaration of Independence, Adam Smith, Constitution.
Thursday, February 1: What did the “Declaration of the Rights of Man” say? How did it reflect the ideas of the
The Age of Revolution. Terms: French Revolution: Causes – (a) economic: bankruptcy of the French state,
agrarian distress, tax system, inflation; (b) political: absolutism, Louis XVI; (c) social: three estates, lack of social
mobility; (d) intellectual: Enlightenment and liberalism; French Revolution, 1789-1799: Estates General, Tennis
Court Oath, Bastille, Declaration of the Rights of Man, Edmund Burke, Jacobins, nation-state, Madame Guillotine,
Maximilian Robespierre, Directory; Napoleon Bonaparte and Nationalism: new warfare, Code Napoleon,
Trafalgar, Nationalism, Invasion of Russia, Waterloo; Latin America: Toussaint L‟Ouverture, Simon Bolivar,
Tuesday, February 6: What are the five factors of production? Explain one by defining it, providing examples of it,
and showing how it interacted with the others. 
The Industrial Revolution [IR] and Changing Europe. Terms: science & technology, mercantilism or capitalism,
Commercial Revolution, demographic shift, Agricultural Revolution, urbanization, steam engine, railroad,
Zollverein, lower/working classes, middle classes; liberalism, socialism, communism, Karl Marx, women‟s rights.
Thursday, February 8: What is romanticism and what did it have to do with Nationalism? 
Isms of History: Absolutism, Conservatism, Constitutionalism, Liberalism, Romanticism, Nationalism, Industrialism,
Socialism, Communism, Militarism, Imperialism, Social Darwinism; Creolization. Terms: Romantic Nationalism,
national consciousness (imagined homelands), J.G. von Herder & Giuseppe Mazzini, Goethe; Science as the New
Religion – Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer/Social Darwinism, anti-Semitism.
Hard Times HomeWriting Assignment due.
Tuesday, February 13: How can Social Darwinism be used as a political weapon? 
Europe, 1815-1850. Terms: Age of Metternich: Congress of Vienna, Prince Klemans von Metternich, conservatism
versus liberalism & nationalism; Greek Revolution, Revolutions of 1830, Great Reform Bill in England,
nationalism in Eastern Europe; IR spreads: Zollverein; Revolutions of 1848: Louis Napoleon, Frankfurt
Assembly, Significance of the Revolutions of 1848-49.
Thursday, February 15 – TEST/EXAMINATION I – Be able to answer the following questions:
Be able to discuss the following. Begin by defining the parameters of your answer (who, when, where, what,
significance of – tell me what you‟re going to tell me). Continue by explaining your answer, using numerous
illustrations with analysis (tell me what you‟re telling me). Describe the significance of whatever it is you are
discussing (tell me what you‟ve told me and explain why it is significant). Do not skimp on your answer. Assume
nothing; tell me everything I need to know in order to understand what you are describing. Do not provide a
rehash/repetition of objective questions. You may/should refer to ID answers if you intend to answer an ID
1. Two concepts that are critical to an understanding of modern World History are “creolization” and “adapt &
adopt.” Define each concept. Using examples from a specific area and time, explain how the processes work.
What are the significances of these processes?
2. What was the French Revolution? List and explain the major factors that caused it. Cite examples. What is the
significance of the French Revolution?
3. What is an industrial revolution? What factors must be present before an industrial revolution can take place?
Why was Great Britain first? What was the significance of Great Britain‟s being first?
4. What is self-determination? Using examples from a specific area and time, explain how a revolution for self-
determination occurs. What are the significances of this process?
Tuesday, February 20: How is Realpolitik different from the international politics that we have studied so far? 
Italian & German Unification – Crimean War, Napoleon III, Realpolitik, Camillo di Cavour, Giuseppi Garibaldi,
Ausgleich, Otto von Bismarck, Franco-Prussian War; 2nd IR: characteristics.
Thursday, February 22: How did nationalism affect the domestic politics of Austria-Hungary between 1870 &
Europe, 1870-1914. Terms: Western States (Constitutional States): characteristics, workshop of the world, Home
Rule, Reform Act of 1867, revanche, Alfred Dreyfus, French socialism, Italian problems; Central Europe
(Absolute States): characteristics, Kulturkampf, Social Democrats, William II, Magyarization, Emancipation of the
Serfs, Revolution of 1905, Serbia, nationalities conflict in Austria-Hungary, Sick Man of Europe.
Tuesday, February 27: How does the Boer War illustrate the nature of imperialism? 
Europe and the World: 1800-1914. Terms: Pre-1870: direct and indirect colonies, colonies of settlement and
colonies of conquest; Earl of Durham, Indian Mutiny/Rebellion of 1857; New Imperialism, Suez Canal, Belgian
Congo, Rudyard Kipling, Boer War, Indo-China, Spheres of Influence, Spanish American War, Consequences of
Thursday, March 1: If you were a non-white person in a European colony in 1890, why might you accept the idea
that you were inferior? 
Heart of Darkness HomeWriting Assignment due.
In-class Essay on either Hard Times or Heart of Darkness (see syllabus for questions; follow instructions).
Tuesday, March 6: What had changed prior to 1914 that made World War I as deadly as it was? 
Road to World War I & World War I, 1870-1918. Terms: Causes of World War I: Germany as a world power,
Triple Alliance, Triple Entente, Alfred T. Mahan, Arms Races, Balkan Wars, Francis Ferdinand, Mobilization
Means War/Schlieffen Plan, militant nationalism; World War I: total war, trench warfare, submarines.
Thursday, March 8: Why did reparations fail to rebuild Europe after World War I? 
Peace and the Consequences & Interwar Culture. Terms: Settlement: 14 Points, Paris Peace Conferences, Treaty of
Versailles, reparations, Article 231/War Guilt Clause, League of Nations, J. M. Keynes; Postwar Malaise:
Culture in the Interwar Period: Brave New World, All Quiet on the Western Front, movies, radio, Göttingen and
Mathematics, Albert Einstein.
Friday, March 9: Last Day to Drop a Class without Penalty
March 13 & 15 – Spring Break
Tuesday, March 20: What made Mohandas Gandhi become an Indian nationalist leader? 
Nationalism in the World in the post WWI Era. Terms: Middle East: Balfour Declaration, T.E. Lawrence; India:
Amritsar Massacre, Mohandas Gandhi; China: Chaing Kai-shek vs. Mao Zedong; Indochina: Ho Chi Minh;
Americas: Big Brother of the North (Yankee Imperialist).
Thursday, March 22: What did Hitler say in Mein Kampf that he proposed to do? 
Interwar Europe. Terms: Democracies in the Interwar Period, 1919-1939; Security, Reparations, Weimar, Ruhr
Crisis, Mein Kampf, Locarno & Fulfillment, Kellogg-Briand Pact, Dawes Plans, Normalcy, Depression, New Deal;
WWI issues: reparations, security, isolationism, economic nationalism.
Tuesday, March 27: How does Stalin personify all of the negative characteristics of totalitarianism? 
Dictators and WWII. Reading: (Rise of Totalitarianism). Terms: Totalitarianism: Communism, Vladimir
Ulyanov (Lenin), Bolshevik Revolution, New Economic Policy, Josef Dzugashvali (Stalin), Five Year Plans
(agricultural/industrial), purges; Fascism, Benito Mussolini; Nazi-ism, der Führer, Nazi racism, Nuremberg Laws.
Thursday, March 29 – TEST/EXAMINATION II
Be able to discuss the following.
What is imperialism? How did continental events prior to 1871 spark a new interest in imperialism by European
nations? Using examples from a specific area and time (use only one place & one colonial power), describe the
social and political consequences of this movement between 1870 and 1914 [Creolization, et al.]?
How did the ethnic problems in the Balkans help bring on World War I? [Provide identified examples to explain
How did the unresolved problems left by World War I help bring on World War II? [Provide identified examples to
explain your answer]
Describe totalitarianism in either the Soviet Union or Germany between 1930 and 1939. Why was it totalitarianism
and not just authoritarianism?
Tuesday, April 3: Should the atomic bomb have been used against Japan in 1945? Why or why not? 
World War II and the Beginning of the Cold War. Terms: Road to World War II: Hitler comes to power,
Rearmament, Ethiopia, Francisco Franco, Japan as aggressor, rearmament as solution to Depression,
Appeasement, Nazi-Soviet Pact. WWII: Poland, Blitzkrieg, Winston Churchill, Stalingrad, Pearl Harbor,
Unconditional Surrender, Yalta, Potsdam, Manhattan Project & the A-Bomb, United Nations, “New Order”, Final
Thursday, April 5: Give two reasons for the Cold War with an explanation for each reason. 
Cold War Polarization, 1945-1964. Terms: The Cold War Begins: US v USSR (political, economic, & military
struggle); East vs. West Germany, containment; Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Berlin Airlift, N.A.T.O.,
Communists vs. Nationalists in China, Korean War, Soviet Nuclear Weapons, Nikita Khrushchev, peaceful
coexistence, Soviet satellites in Eastern Europe behind the Iron Curtain, Sputnik, U-2, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile
Crisis; brushfire wars, Vietnam War, Ho Chi Minh, Viet Cong.
Tuesday, April 10: How has education been a significant part of the hatreds that plague the world in which we live?
The Reader HomeWriting Assignment due.
In-class Essay on The Reader (see syllabus for questions; follow instructions).
Thursday, April 12: How did nationalism fuel the Cold War? 
Cold War: Hearts & Minds, the Arms Race and “The Evil Empire”, 1965-1989. Terms: Lose Vietnam, Tet
Offensive, Vietnamization, Watergate, Detente, Brezhnev, Afghanistan & Jimmy, terrorism; Reagan and the Evil
Empire, Mutual Assured Destruction: nuclear and conventional arms race, spying (arms races against ourselves?),
Weinberger Doctrine [look it up on the internet].
Tuesday, April 17: How do anti-Western attitudes affect the world in which we live? 
The End of European Empires, 1945-1970 & Third World and Non-Aligned Nations. Terms: Decolonization, Wars
of National Liberation [brushfire wars], Third World, Frantz Fanon & Wretched of the Earth, AK-47, Israel, Arab-
Israeli Wars, Viet Nam; Islamic Fundamentalist Revolution, Chinese Cultural Revolution, Latin America and
Uncle Sam, Sub-Saharan Africa, apartheid (Mandela and de Klerk), Nigeria & Biafra, Marxism in the Third
Thursday, April 19: How and why have Europeans agreed to “bury the hatchet” and to live together in the modern
Western Europe and the End ( ?) of the Cold War. Terms: Europe since 1945: Economic & social effects of WWII
on each European nation, Falklands War, French nationalism continues, the German Miracle, European
Community, Fall of the Wall, Maastricht Treaty, Euro/2002, NAFTA; Soviet Collapse: Gorbachev, Glasnost,
Perestroika, Solidarity, Year of Liberation (1989), Collapse of the Soviet Empire, Collapse of Soviet initiatives
around the world, Vladimir Putin, Chechnia
Tuesday, April 24: How and why has the end of the Cold War made the world a more dangerous place instead of a
safer place? 
The 1990s. Terms: Gulf War, Balkans & Serbia, NATO and Milosevic, Somalia, India/Pakistan, the Chip, Cultural
Illiteracy, The Computer, pacifism.
Thursday, April 26: Define on problem facing the world in which we live and offer an intelligent solution to that
problem – based upon what we have discussed in class this term. 
World Problems Today, 2006. Terms: militant nationalism, population explosion, pollution, hunger, energy, water,
human rights. Terrorism (find a definition), 9/11/01, NATO today, War in Afghanistan, United Nations and
Saddam Hussein, Korean nuclear threat, what else? Bush and the World; Three Slender Reeds.
May 1-2: Reading Days (study, study, study)
TEST/EXAMINATION III (regularly scheduled examination time):
Be able to discuss the following.
After a revolt in 67 CE, the Romans expelled the Jews from Palestine. This Diaspora left few Jews in the
area until the 20th Century. How and why did Jews reestablish themselves in the Middle East? Who
supported them and why? Who opposed them and why? Why is this situation so volatile and why is
there no easy solution to the problem?
What was the Cold War (who, what, where, when)? What caused it? Choose two major events from the
Cold War, identify (who, what, where, when) them, and explain how each was a part of the Cold War.
How & why did the Cold War end? Why is the world that followed it neither a better place nor a safer
place? How does the Weinberger Doctrine of 1984 fit into this new world?
Define “terrorism.” What causes it? Choose two major examples of terrorism from the post-World War II
era, identify (who, what, where, when) them, and explain how each personifies the ideas proposed by
Frantz Fanon in Wretched of the Earth.
The following maps are similar to the maps used on your tests. Be able to locate items discussed on these maps.
You should photocopy the maps below and write on the photocopy. Or you can go to the website, download, and