Unit Two Test (Chapters 7,8,9,10,12,13)
1) What was the fictional account of life at the court of the Caliph al-Rashid?
2) What accounts for the disruption of the agricultural economy of the Abbasid Empire?
A) The government ordered regions of the empire populated by Shi'as abandoned.
B) The decline of the cities led to a fall in the demand for food supplies and consequent drops in agricultural prices.
C) Cropping patters were abandoned.
D) Progressive desiccation of the region led to a diminution of the land available for agriculture.
E) Spiralling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works, and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction and
abandonment of many villages.
3) What was the innovation of the Abbasid court with respect to women?
A) the legislation of multiple marriages for women B) more equality of rights
C) legislation against concubinage and prostitution D) the creation of Islamic nunneries
E) the establishment of the harem
4) What was the attitude of the Abbasid's towards the institution of slavery?
A) The dynasty permitted slavery of Muslims, but forbade the enslavement of members of other religions.
B) The Abbasid elite demanded growing numbers of both male and female slaves for concubines and domestic service.
C) The Abbasid dynasty forbade slavery in general.
D) The dynasty forbade all slavery except for the mercenary armies loyal to the Abbasids.
E) The local custom determined the status of slavery.
5) Why were the practices of seclusion and veiling seen as essential in Islamic society?
A) Veiling was seen as a means of halting the practice of concubinage.
B) Women were believed to be possessed of insatiable lust from which men had to be protected.
C) Veiling allowed women to hide their identities and to avoid the rash of dynastic strife.
D) Women were only permitted to engage in business if their identities were hidden.
E) Veiling discouraged contacts between Muslim women.
6) Which of the following statements concerning women during the Abbasid era is most accurate?
A) Women often practiced polygamy.
B) Women often married at puberty, set at age nine.
C) Rich women had many career outlets in Islamic cities.
D) Abbasid women had vastly greater freedom than did women in the first century of Islam.
E) No Islamic women engaged in labor.
7) Who was the Muslim leader responsible for the reconquest of most of the territories belonging to the Christian
A) Umar B) al-Ghazali C) Saladin D) Muhammad ibn Qasim E) Firdawsi
8) What accounts for the success of the First Crusade?
A) Muslim political fragmentation and the element of surprise
B) the power of the Byzantine Empire
C) the contemporary emergence of the Christian Seljuk Turks in Baghdad
D) the overwhelming military superiority of western military technology
E) the support and cooperation of the Jewish community of the Holy Land
9) What was the impact of the Crusades on the Christian West?
A) The Crusades interrupted the trade of the Mediterranean and cut off the West from Islam until 1293.
B) The crusades led to an extension of Feudalism.
C) Christians adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and Arabic numerals among other things.
D) Christians rejected most Muslim influence, although they did gain a taste for Muslim wines and liquors.
E) There was no Muslim influence on the Christian West.
10) What was the primary written language of the later Abbasid court?
A) Arabic B) Greek C) Latin D) Cyrillic E) Persian
11) Which of the following statements concerning the Sufi movement within Islam is most accurate?
A) The Sufi movement stressed withdrawal from other believers and isolation into monastic communities.
B) The Sufi movement incorporated mysticism with a trend toward evangelism.
C) Sufism was a rationalistic movement.
D) The Sufi questioned the Islamic interest in the Greek traditions in science.
E) The Sufi movement stressed an increasingly restrictive conservatism within Islam.
12) What was the difference between the Islamic invasions of India and previous incursions of the subcontinent?
A) The Muslims were rapidly able to unify all of India into a single empire.
B) The Muslims, unlike previous invaders, bypassed the Gangetic plain in preference for southern India.
C) With the Muslims, the peoples of India encountered for the first time an invasion from the west rather than the east.
D) With the Muslims, the peoples of India encountered for the first time a large-scale influx of invaders with a civilization
as sophisticated as their own.
E) Islam had no lasting effect on India.
13) How did Islam and Hinduism differ?
A) Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism was more rigid in terms of orthodox belief.
B) Hinduism was monotheistic, while Islam was polytheistic.
C) Hinduism stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Islam was more rigid in terms of orthodox belief.
D) Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system.
E) Hinduism stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Islam embraced a caste-based social system.
14) What was the most critical cultural advance as a result of the increased contact between Muslims and Indian
A) Muslim commerce was increasingly dominated by the merchant caste of India.
B) Muslims adopted the system of mathematical notation later referred to as Arabic numerals.
C) India adopted Islamic science.
D) Muslims adopted the highly stratified social system common in Indian civilization.
E) Muslims adopted the Hindu pantheon of gods.
15) What groups were responsible for the conversion of Indians to Islam?
A) traders and Sufi mystics B) the Mongols and Seljuk Turks
C) soldiers and Shi'a exiles D) and Sunni evangelists E) Delhi Sultans
16) Why were the Sufis effective missionaries within the Indian subcontinent?
A) In both style and message they shared much with Indian mystics and wandering ascetics.
B) Their message was totally new to India.
C) They rejected low caste Hindus in preference for converts among the brahmin elite.
D) They were supported by huge armies of Arabs who migrated to India in search of land.
E) They enjoyed the support of the Hindu princes because of their support for brahmin ritual.
17) What groups in India were most likely to convert to Islam?
A) brahmins and merchants B) members of the administrative machinery of the Islamic kingdoms
C) Sikhs and sultans D) raja and warriors E) Buddhists and low caste Hindus
18) Between 800 and 1500 as the frequency and intensity of contact with the outside world increased, what was the most
significant impact on sub-Saharan Africa?
A) the arrival of Chinese merchants B) the arrival of the Portuguese C) the arrival of the Mamluks
D) the arrival of Christianity E) the arrival of Islam
19) Which of the following statements concerning political and religious universality in Africa is most accurate?
A) Neither universal states nor universal religion characterized Africa, but both Christianity and Islam did find adherents
B) There were no similarities in the various African religious beliefs.
C) During the post-classical period, Africa was politically united under a single government but remained religiously
D) Although a universal empire did not develop in Africa, Islam provided a principle of universality in the continent.
E) Universal religions found no adherents in Africa ¹ a fact that helps to account for the failure of a universal political
system to develop.
20) African societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political
power and authority were referred to as
A) stateless. B) proto-Empires. C) Islamic tribes. D) hunting and gathering bands. E) Bantu conical clans.
21) Which of the following statements best describes the indigenous religion of much of sub-Saharan Africa?
A) Animistic religion ¹ belief in the power of natural forces personified as deities ¹ characterized much of Africa.
B) Sub-Sharan groups were influenced by Hindu beliefs.
C) Uniquely, African societies lacked religious principles prior to the arrival of the Christians and Muslims.
D) African religion prior to the arrival of the Muslims was typified by an independent form of monotheism characterized
by worship in monumental temple complexes.
E) Much of sub-Saharan Africa was Christian.
22) Which of the following was NOT a belief shared by practitioners of many indigenous African religions?
A) the view that the land had religious significance B) the idea of a creator deity C) well-developed concepts of good
and evil D) the basic tenets of Coptic Christianity E) the veneration of ancestors
23) What was the major drawback to African trade with other civilizations?
A) International trade resulted in the conquest of all of Africa by the Muslims.
B) Despite the significance of international trade, Africa failed to urbanize.
C) Such trade was entirely in the hands of foreign merchants.
D) Trade was not handled by professional merchants.
E) Africa tended to exchange raw materials for manufactured products and failed to develop an industrial technology.
24) What region of Africa was first converted to Islam by 700 A.D.?
A) East Africa B) South Africa C) West Africa D) North Africa E) Central Africa
25) What does the phrase "equality before God and inequality within the world" mean?
A) It refers to the powers exercised by the African rulers.
B) It refers to the equality that all clan heads enjoyed within African society.
C) It refers to the Islamic emphasis on equality of all believers, but the continued acceptance of social stratification.
D) It refers to the indigenous African religion's emphasis on social equality.
E) It means that Africans favored a variety of socialism.
26) What was the most important Christian kingdom in Africa?
A) Egypt B) Kongo C) Songhay D) Ethiopia E) Mali
27) The Sahel refers to the
A) East African coastline that became the primary point of contact for Muslim merchants from India and Southeast Asia
and African traders.
B) grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara that served as a point of exchange between the forests of the south and
C) series of trading ports that rapidly developed along the Atlantic coast to support the trade in African slaves.
D) that part of the Sahara that extends onto the Arabian peninsula.
E) forest zone of Central Africa that remained free of Islamic influence largely because of the inability of the camel to
withstand the climate of the region.
28) What was the geographical location of the empire of Mali?
A) between the Niger and Senegal Rivers B) in the Atlas mountains of North Africa
C) between the cities of Mogadishu and Mombasa D) between the Zambezi and Congo Rivers
E) along the Nile River valley
29) What monarch is credited with beginning Malinke expansion and creating the Mali Empire?
A) Sunni Ali B) Takrur C) Sundiata D) Mansa Kankan Musa E) Mahmud of Ghur
30) What was the nature of urbanization within the Mali Empire?
A) The "cities" of Mali were essentially religious and palace complexes that lacked populations of specialists other than
men devoted to religious observances.
B) Mali failed to develop cities prior to its fall.
C) Few mosques were ever built in Malinke cities.
D) Mali possessed "port cities" along the Niger River such as Jenne and Timbuktu that flourished both commercially and
E) As a conquest empire, Mali possessed garrison cities for its soldiers, but failed to develop commercial centers.
31) What was the social and political function of the griots?
A) Griots were religious diviners whose function was to foretell the future and guide the decisions of kings.
B) Griots were Islamic church leaders in African empires.
C) Griots were Malinke merchants who served as trade middlemen throughout Africa.
D) Griots were the classes of people of the conquest states of the Mali kings who were consigned to labor within the
E) Griots mastered the oral traditions of the Malinke and by knowing the past were considered excellent advisors of kings.
32) What accounted for the downfall of Songhay?
A) the collapse of the irrigation system on which the agricultural economy depended
B) invasion by a Moroccan Muslim army equipped with firearms
C) defeat and incorporation within the Mali Empire
D) the rise of the Swahili coast
E) invasion by the Portuguese
33) Why was Islam so readily adopted by rulers within the Sudan?
A) The Muslim concept of a ruler who united civil and religious authority reinforced traditional ideas of kingship.
B) The Muslim concept of religious equality allowed rulers to dispose of the traditional clans and lineages of Africa.
C) As a monotheistic religion, Islam was much like the traditional religions of Africa.
D) Their conversion had been prophesied for many years by the griots.
E) They were all conquered by overwhelming Muslim armies and forcibly converted to Islam.
34) How did contact with the Muslim world affect the African slave trade?
A) Because of the Muslim emphasis on equality of all believers, early Muslim rulers suppressed the slave trade.
B) Muslims forced southern Africans to give up slavery.
C) Despite the Muslim acceptance of slavery and its widespread use in Islamic society outside of Africa, Muslims
generally refused to accept black slaves.
D) Slavery was unknown in African society until the Muslims introduced it.
E) With the Muslim conquests of North Africa and commercial penetration to the south, slavery became a more widely
diffused phenomenon and the slave trade developed rapidly.
35) How was the institution of slavery viewed in Muslim society?
A) Slaves could never be used as eunuchs or concubines.
B) Slavery was believed to be a permanent condition that rendered the enslaved incapable of entering heaven.
C) Slavery was seen as abhorrent in Islamic society because of the emphasis on the equality of all believers.
D) In theory slavery was seen as a stage in the process of conversion of pagans to Islam.
E) Slavery was viewed as so demeaning that those who were enslaved were good for nothing beyond labor in the fields or
36) What was the common cultural trait of the urbanized trading ports of the East African coast?
A) a single ruling family from the Malinke tribe B) membership in the Soninke tribe
C) descent from shiraz in Persia D) the artistic style of the Nok culture
E) Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili language
37) The study of population is referred to as
A) populism. B) demography. C) geography. D) political science. E) positivism.
38) Many African societies unaffected by either Christianity or Islam developed states without
A) systems of writing. B) much success. C) borders. D) monumental architecture. E) systems of government.
39) Which of the following statements concerning Great Zimbabwe is NOT correct?
A) By the fifteenth century, a centralized state had begun to form centered on Great Zimbabwe.
B) Great Zimbabwe was both the capital of the kingdom and a religious center.
C) Sofala was the entrepot for Zimbabwean goods.
D) "Zimbabwe" actually refers to the stone buildings that were typical of the culture.
E) Great Zimbabwe was constructed by Arab Muslims who were trading with the Bantu residents of the region.
40) Which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct descendant of the Roman Empire?
A) Byzantine Empire B) Holy Roman Empire C) Ottoman Empire D) Frankish Empire E) Abbasid Empire
41) The Byzantine Empire lasted from
A) 200 to 1200. B) 700 to 1650. C) 300 B.C.E. to 600 C.E. D) 500 to 1450. E) 300 to 1700.
42) What was the most important "stepchild" of the Byzantine civilization?
A) Italy B) the Middle East C) Poland D) Greece E) Russia
43) The capital of the Byzantine Empire and its commercial center was located at
A) Constantinople. B) Athens C) Nicaea. D) Baghdad. E) Rome.
44) The emperor responsible for the initial construction of Constantinople was
A) Justinian. B) Constantine. C) Diocletian. D) Heraklius. E) Procopius
45) What was the great church built in Constantinople by Justinian ?
A) The Cathedral of St. Dimitri B) St. Peter's C) St. Basil D) Sts. Cyril and Methodius E) Hagia Sophia
46) Starting with the reign of Justinian, what was the official language of the eastern empire?
A) Latin B) Arabic C) Persian D) Aramaic E) Greek
47) The name normally given to the form of Christianity that emerged in the Byzantine Empire was
A) Roman Catholicism. B) Solafideanism. C) Nestorianism. D) Coptic Christianity. E) Orthodox Christianity.
48) All of the following were outcomes of Justinian's wars of reconquest EXCEPT
A) military successes in North Africa and Italy. B) weakening of the empire's defenses on its eastern frontiers.
C) establishment of a key artistic center at Ravenna. D) the permanent addition of Rome to the Byzantine Empire.
E) increased tax pressures on the government.
49) Which of the following was a result of the conflict between the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Muslims?
A) The Arabs lost their position as the leaders of the Islamic world.
B) The Arab threat to the Byzantine Empire was permanently removed.
C) The Byzantine Empire was able to recover the provinces of Syria and Egypt, thus regaining valuable agricultural land
and increased wealth.
D) The commercial significance of Constantinople was destroyed by the eighth century, forcing the Byzantine Empire to
depend increasingly on trade with the West.
E) The position of small farmers in the Empire was weakened as a result of heavy taxation, resulting in greater aristocratic
50) Byzantine cultural life centered on the secular traditions of
A) Confucianism. B) Islam. C) Ancient Egypt. D) Hellenism. E) Norse Legends.
51) In which of the following ways were the Byzantine bureaucracy and the Chinese bureaucracy similar?
A) They were driven by the authority of the church. B) Emperors played little role in either government.
C) There was no linkage of the bureaucracies to local administration.
D) Both bureaucracies were open to talented commoners, not just aristocrats.
E) There was an extensive state exam system in both.
52) Which of the following statements concerning the Byzantine bureaucracy is NOT accurate?
A) Provincial governors kept tabs on the military. B) Many of the officials closest to the emperor were eunuchs.
C) Bureaucrats were trained to be literate, but lacked the formal training in Greek classics and philosophy.
D) An elaborate system of spies maintained loyalty to the central government.
E) Aristocrats predominated, but there was some openness to talent.
53) The religious controversy over the use of religious images in worship that broke out in the eighth century was called
A) the Filioque controversy. B) the Christological controversy. C) the Trinitarian controversy.
D) the Reformation. E) the iconoclastic controversy.
54) What was the result of the conflict over the use of religious images in the Orthodox Church?
A) Because of the strong resistance of the monks, icon use was restricted to those regions of the empire where the
monasteries had little influence.
B) Like the Muslims, the Orthodox Church banned subsequent use of religious images in favor of non-representational
C) Because of the popular reaction in favor of icons, the Orthodox Church restored their use; but the close relationship
between church and state was broken.
D) After a long and complex battle, icon use was gradually restored, while the tradition of state control over church affairs
was also reasserted.
E) The use of icons was sanctioned in both the Eastern and Western churches.
55) Which of the following issues was a cause for the split between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches after
A) the Roman Catholic practice of requiring celibacy for its priests B) the insistence of the patriarch of Constantinople
on supremacy within church councils C) the Orthodox church's lack of bishops
D) the absence of monasticism in Roman Catholicism E) polygamy among Orthodox priests
56) What was the outcome of the Western crusade of 1204?
A) The Holy Land was restored to the Jews. B) The crusaders succeeded in temporarily pushing back the Turks and
restoring the Asiatic provinces of the Byzantine Empire. C) The crusade resulted in the establishment of a Western
kingdom of Bulgaria in the Balkans. D) The crusade succeeded in establishing a Western kingdom in the Holy Land, but
failed to relieve the Asiatic provinces of the Byzantine Empire.
E) The crusaders attacked and conquered Constantinople, temporarily establishing a Western kingdom there.
57) The Slavic alphabet created by Orthodox missionaries to the Slavs is called
A) Sanskrit. B) cursive. C) Cyrillic. D) Constantinapolitan. E) Russo-Slavic.
58) Which of the following countries was converted to Orthodox Christianity?
A) Hungary B) Poland C) Czechoslovakia D) Lithuania E) Russia
59) Why did Vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism?
A) He rejected the Roman Catholics' emphasis on the sacraments.
B) He did not believe in clerical celibacy which was required of the Roman Catholic priesthood.
C) He believed that Roman Catholicism implied papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the control of the church
by the state.
D) He was not familiar with Roman Catholicism, because the Western form of Christianity had not penetrated into eastern
E) He preferred to avoid the pitfalls of the veneration of icons.
60) The post-classical period in Western history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the fifteenth century is
referred to as the
A) Baroque. B) Middle Ages. C) Renaissance. D) Age of Discovery. E) Modern Era
61) Which of the following statements concerning the impact of Christianity on polytheistic religions in western Europe
is most accurate?
A) Few polytheistic religions existed in Europe during the Middle Ages, but their influences grew.
B) The process of conversion produced a religious amalgam in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted
C) Christianity eradicated all traces of those earlier religions as the new religion became universal in western Europe.
D) Small islands of polytheistic belief remained, but Christianity eradicated belief in magic and spirits wherever the new
religion was accepted.
E) Although Christianity made inroads, many areas of Europe retained polytheistic beliefs and rejected the new religion.
62) Which of the following was NOT a sign of vitality in the medieval western culture following the Roman Empire's
A) the development of the university B) the strong current of spirituality C) the development of new political forms
and social organization D) the development of a purely secular society E) population growth
63) Who were the invaders who disrupted the development of political institutions in the medieval West until the tenth
A) Muslims B) Mongols C) Turks D) Vikings E) Chinese
64) Which of the following statements concerning the intellectual activity of the medieval West prior to the eighth
century is most accurate?
A) Universities rapidly created a new intellectual climate in which logic was applied to matters of Christian doctrine.
B) Classical rational traditions were actively united with Christian mysticism to carve out a new intellectual world.
C) Roman scholars achieved more during this period than their Islamic counterparts.
D) All literacy and contact with the ancient culture was lost in the centuries following the fall of Rome.
E) With the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts.
65) The system that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers was called
A) manorialism. B) monasticism. C) slavery. D) capitalism. E) feudalism.
66) Agricultural laborers under the jurisdiction of aristocratic landowners were called
A) artisans. B) fiefs. C) guilds. D) serfs. E) bourgeoisie.
67) Which of the following statements concerning the agricultural laborers of the medieval West is NOT true?
A) They retained essential ownership of their houses. B) They had heavy obligations to their lords.
C) They were slaves. D) They were obligated to turn over part of their goods to remain on the land.
E) They received protection and the administration of justice from their landlords.
68) The moldboard was
A) the peasant council that determined the division of land and labor in a peasant village.
B) a technological innovation¹a plow that allowed deeper turning of the soil.
C) a system of justice common to the manorial regime of the medieval West.
D) a cutting board used by peasants to make bread.
E) a technological innovation¹a water-driven mill for grinding grain.
69) Relationships between members of the military elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for military service and
loyalty were called
A) feudalism. B) the guild system. C) capitalism. D) manorialism E) monasticism.
70) The members of the military elite who received land in return for military service in the bands of the greater lords
A) vassals. B) serfs. C) benefices. D) lords. E) fiefs.
71) What Frankish king was responsible for the conversion of his people to Christianity in order to gain a vague
domination over the Franks?
A) Pepin III B) Charles Martel C) Charlemagne D) Louis IX E) Clovis
72) What belief did the conversion of Germanic kings create among western religious leaders, particularly the pope?
A) that such conversion represented a danger to the papal hierarchy
B) that the Church should avoid conversion of northern Germanic kings
C) that the Church had a legitimate authority separate from and superior to the secular rulers
D) that the Church was subordinate to the secular monarchs
E) that the church should fear powerful kings
73) In what year was Charlemagne able to establish a substantial, if temporary, empire in France and Germany?
A) 800 B) 1100 C) 1000 D) 500 E) 900
74) In what year did Pope Urban II call for the first crusade?
A) 1066 B) 1095 C) 1130 D) 1453 E) 1236
75) Pope Gregory VII decreed the practice of investiture invalid. What was investiture?
A) the state's power to tax the clergy B) the practice of state appointment of bishops
C) loaning money at interest D) the practice whereby aristocrats dressed in bishop's robes and attempted to rule in their
place E) the practice of trying clerics in secular courts
76) In what way was the educational system of the medieval West different than that of China?
A) The universities were not tied into a single bureaucratic system. B) University education was literacy-based.
C) In the West, there were no state bureaucracies to hire university graduates. D) The West lacked a formal system of
education. E) The West abandoned their classical heritage.
77) The leading figure in the synthesis of classical rational philosophy with Christian theology was a teacher at the
University of Paris in the thirteenth century,
A) William of Ockham. B) Peter Abelard. C) Thomas Aquinas. D) Geoffrey Chaucer. E) William of St.Thierry.
78) Because of its base in the universities of western Europe, the dominant medieval philosophical approach was referred
A) corporate theology. B) Hellenistic. C) social contract theology. D) existentialism. E) scholasticism.
79) During the eleventh century, what new architectural style featuring pointed arches and flying buttresses became
dominant in western Europe?
A) Romanesque B) Gothic C) Baroque D) Turkic E) Structuralism
80) Which of the following developments was NOT a result of the improved economy of the High Middle Ages?
A) Rising trade permitted the redevelopment of commerce within the Mediterranean and beyond.
B) Conflicts between peasants and the landlords became rare, if they did not disappear altogether.
C) Some peasants were able to throw off the most severe constraints of manorialism, becoming almost free farmers.
D) A money economy began to replace the traditional barter system.
E) Urban growth allowed more specialized manufacturing and commercial activities, including banking.
81) All of the following were functions of the merchant and artisan guilds EXCEPT
A) giving its members a voice in local government.
B) regulation of apprenticeship. C) limitation of membership. D) ensuring a free market economy.
E) guaranteeing good workmanship.
82) Which of the following statements concerning the situation at the end of the Qin-Han period is most accurate?
A) Non-Chinese nomads ruled much of China and a foreign religion, Buddhism, eclipsed Confucian teachings.
B) Aristocratic families rapidly lost ground to the growing influence of the scholar-gentry.
C) The central authority of the imperial government was rapidly reestablished under the Chou dynasty.
D) Patterns of life established during the Qin-Han era faded rapidly.
E) Despite the disappearance of imperial unity, the centralized bureaucracy continued to function as before in the capital
83) The dynasty that ended the period of political chaos after the fall of the Qin-Han was the
A) Chou. B) Tang. C) Song. D) Qing. E) Sui.
84) Which of the following statements concerning the period after the fall of the Han is NOT true?
A) With mainly Buddhist exceptions, thought degenerated into the quest for magical cures.
B) Despite the political chaos, the Great Wall continued to serve as a barrier to the penetration of nomadic peoples.
C) Chinese technology stagnated during this time.
D) Trade and city life declined as the central government dissipated.
E) Nomadic peoples raided and conquered across the north China plain.
85) What made possible the rapid revival of empire under the Tang?
A) the brevity of the period of political dislocation
B) the willingness of the Tang to abandon traditional approaches to government
C) massive grain imports
D) the abandonment of Confucianism in favor of the more widely practiced Buddhism
E) the preservation in the many kingdoms of the Confucian traditions that had been central to Chinese civilization
86) The man responsible for the creation of the Sui dynasty was
A) Yang Guifei. B) Wendi. C) Li Yuan. D) Xuanzong. E) Li Bo.
87) What was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first Sui emperor?
A) the creation of granaries to relieve the threat of famine B) the destruction of the Great Wall
C) the construction of the Grand Canal D) persecution of the Buddhists
E) the reconstruction of the Confucian scholar-gentry
88) What led to the downfall of the Sui dynasty?
A) excessive expenses associated with grandiose building projects and military campaigns
B) widespread Buddhist rebellion C) a deranged emperor D) the dissatisfaction of the Confucian scholar-gentry
E) nomadic invasions
89) What ministry of the central imperial government was responsible for the administration of the examination system?
A) Education B) Rites C) Justice D) War E) Public Works
90) Which of the following statements concerning entry into the Chinese bureaucracy is most accurate?
A) Only candidates in law were judged solely on their exam scores.
B) Although the examination system continued to be monitored, almost all official received positions as a result of family
C) The examination system was eliminated during the Tang dynasty, and only members of the imperial family served in
D) Under the Tang family connections ceased to be of significance, as all candidates received office based on their score
in the examination system.
E) Although a higher percentage of candidates received office through the examination system than during the Han
dynasty, birth continued to be important in securing high office.
91) What Tang ruler actually attempted to have Buddhism recognized as a state religion?
A) Yangdi B) Empress Wu C) Wendi D) Empress Wei E) Gaozu
92) What proved to be the most damaging attack on Buddhism's popularity with the people during the early Tang
A) the challenge from Daoism B) the Buddhists' insistence on rebellion against the emperor
C) the Confucians' successful campaign to convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic establishment represented an
economic threat D) the aristocracy's concern that the growing Buddhist monastic establishment was monopolizing land
that otherwise would belong to them
E) the entry of nomadic invaders who were Islamic during the ninth century
93) What was the impact on Confucianism of the Tang repression of the Buddhists?
A) Confucianism, like Buddhism, declined in popularity, and its place was taken by Daoism.
B) Because Confucian scholar-gentry were associated with the persecution, Confucianism failed to generate much popular
support outside the imperial government.
C) Confucianism emerged in a strengthened condition, but still remained behind Buddhism in the sense of providing a
basis for the intellectual rationale of Chinese civilization.
D) Confucianism was blended with Buddhism to form a new philosophy.
E) Confucianism emerged as the central ideology of Chinese civilization until the twentieth century.
94) What accounts for the relative weakness of the Song empire?
A) Lack of agricultural productivity produced a general failure of the Chinese economy during the Song dynasty.
B) The scholar-gentry quickly lost influence under the Song, and the bureaucracy ceased to function effectively.
C) The military was weakened by the struggle with the Buddhists.
D) The military was subordinated to the civilian administrators of the scholar-gentry, leaving the dynasty vulnerable to
nomadic dynasties on the frontier.
E) It never succeeded in achieving the degree of centralization that had typified the Tang empire.
95) Why was the construction of the Grand Canal necessary?
A) Peasants moving from the countryside to the urban areas.
B) Chinese population was increasingly concentrated along the northern plains along the Yangtze River.
C) The canal connected the Tang capitals of southern China¹Changan and Loyang¹with the newly acquired regions in the
D) Major river systems in China ran from north to south, and the canal was necessary to connect the coastal regions with
the western frontier.
E) The Yangtze River valley was becoming the major food-producing region of China by the late Tang era.
96) Which of the following was NOT an economic development during the period of commercial expansion during the
Tang and Song dynasties?
A) enlarged market quarters found in all cities and major towns
B) growing sophistication in commercial organization and forms of credit
C) military domination of the seas
D) trade increasingly carried by Chinese ships and sailors
E) a series of technological breakthroughs
97) In what way did foot binding serve to diminish the independence of Chinese women by the end of the Song era?
A) Because foot binding could only be afforded by the elite, poorer women were assigned to a lower social status.
B) As foot binding was required in order to practice certain professions, Chinese women found that occupational
alternatives were diminished.
C) Foot binding sufficiently crippled women to effectively confine their mobility to their household.
D) Upper-class women considered it high status and hoarded money to pay for it.
E) Foot binding, although considered socially attractive, was condemned by Neo-Confucians who used the practice as a
means of relegating Chinese women to subordinate roles.
98) Which of the following was NOT a technological innovation of the Tang-Song era?
A) coal used for fuel B) gunpowder C) paper D) complex bridges E) abacus
99) Which of the following intellectual schools was responsible for the production of most literary and artistic works
during the Tang-Song era?
A) Confucian B) Daoist C) Pure Land Buddhist D) Legalist E) Chan Buddhist
100) What was the primary difference between marriages of the upper and lower classes in Tang-Song China?
A) Among members of the lower classes marriages tended to be consummated at an earlier age than among members of
B) Members of the elite often married before the age of puberty. C) Households of the lower classed tended not to be
patriarchal. D) Upper class men rarely married foot bound women. E) In the upper classes, males frequently married
females of a younger generation.
101) What artisan was responsible for the development of movable type?
A) Zhu Xi B) An Lushan C) Bi Sheng D) Gaozu E) Li Bo
102) What regions of Asia were most drawn to Chinese cultural and political models?
A) western Islamic provinces B) the nomadic societies on the north C) the island societies of the Pacific rim
D) Indianized peoples of Southeast Asia E) the agrarian societies on the east and south
103) What religion played a key role in the transmission of Chinese civilization to Japan?
A) Daoism B) Hunduism C) Buddhism D) Christianity E) Islam
104) What group so threatened the security of the Japanese imperial court in the eighth century that the imperial family
moved to Heian?
A) the scholar-gentry B) the aristocracy C) Buddhist monks D) the peasantry E) nomadic invaders from Manchuria
105) Life in the imperial court at Heian was described in the what Japanese novel?
A) B) C)
106) Warrior leaders in the tenth century in Japan who controlled provincial areas and ruled from small fortresses in the
countryside were called
A) . B) . C) D) . E) .
107) Mounted troops owing loyalty to the military elite were called
A) . B) . C) . D) . E)