Unit_7_Test_for_website by 2rwZZG


									AP US History Unit 7 Test (Chapters 24-26)                                          November 13, 2008

Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or
            completions. Select the best answer and write down that letter choice on answer sheet.

    1. The Depression of the 1890s and episodes like the Pullman Strike made the election of 1896 become
       A) a battle between down-and-out workers and farmers and establishment conservatives.
       B) a conflict between the insurgent Populists and the two established political parties.
       C) a sectional conflict with the West aligned against the Northeast and South.
       D) a contest over the power of the federal govn’t to manage a modern industrial economy like the US.
       E) a clash of cultures between ordinary middle-class Americans and European-oriented radicals.

    2. As president, William McKinley can best be described as
       A) cautious and conservative.                              D) a person willing to buck the majority.
       B) a man of little ability.                                E) a skillful negotiator.
       C) an active reformer.

    3. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was at first primarily used to curb the power of
       A) manufacturing corporations.                             D) railroad corporations.
       B) labor unions.                                           E) banking syndicates.
       C) state legislatures.

    4. The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of
       A) Jay Gould.                                              D) Thomas Edison.
       B) Henry Bessemer.                                         E) Alexander Graham Bell
       C) John P. Altgeld.

    5. The first major product of the oil industry was
       A) kerosene.                                               D) natural gas.
       B) gasoline.                                               E) heating oil.
       C) lighter fluid.

    6. Cities like Denver and San Francisco did serve as a major “safety valve” by providing
       A) a home for new immigrants.                               D) none of the above.
       B) recreational activities for its inhabitants.             E) all of the above.
       C) a home for failed farmers and miners.

    7. William Jennings Bryan gained the presidential nomination of the Democratic party primarily because
       A) he had already gained the nomination of the Populist party.
       B) he had the support of urban workers.
       C) he possessed a brilliant political mind.
       D) he eloquently supported the farmers' demand for the unlimited coinage of silver.
       E) he was backed by the Democratic Party establishment.

    8. The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect public interest from business practice was the
       A) Federal Trade Commission.                                 D) Federal Anti-Trust Commission.
       B) Interstate Commerce Commission.                           E) Federal Communications Commission.
       C) Consumer Affairs Commission.
 9. By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage
    A) acknowledged that women were biologically weaker than men but felt they deserved the vote.
    B) temporarily abandoned the movement for the vote.
    C) formed strong alliances with African Americans seeking voting rights.
    D) argued the vote would enable women to extend roles as mothers and homemakers to the public.
    E) insisted on the inherent political and moral equality of men and women.

10. The Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection affected American religion by
    A) turning most scientists against religion.
    B) creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and “accomodationists” who
        supported it.
    C) raising awareness of the close spiritual kinship between animals and human beings.
    D) causing a revival of the doctrine of original sin.
    E) sparking the rise of new denominations based on modern science..

11. During the 1892 presidential election, large numbers of southern white farmers refused to desert the
    Democratic Party and support the Populist Party because
    A) they did not think the Populists represented their political interests.
    B) they were not experiencing the same hard times as Midwestern farmers.
    C) the history of racial division in the region made it hard to cooperate with blacks.
    D) they believed that too many Populists were former Republicans.
    E) they could not accept the Populists' call for government ownership of the railroads, telegraph, and

12. Most New Immigrants
    A) eventually returned to their country of origin.
    B) tried to preserve their Old Country culture in America.
    C) were subjected to stringent immigration restrictions.
    D) quickly assimilated into the mainstream of American life.
    E) converted to mainstream Protestantism.

13. After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States
    A) helped to build the nation into an industrial giant.
    B) was unable to find employment in technologically demanding industries.
    C) came almost exclusively from rural America.
    D) increasingly found work in agriculture.
    E) was almost entirely native born.

14. The Dawes Severalty Act was designed to promote Indian
    A) prosperity.                                         D) culture.
    B) annihilation.                                       E) education.
    C) assimilation.

15. Black leader Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois
    A) demanded complete equality for African Americans.
    B) established an industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama.
    C) supported the goals of Booker T. Washington.
    D) was an ex-slave who rose to fame.
    E) none of the above.
16. In the election of 1896, the major issue became
    A) restoration of protective tariffs.
    B) enactment of an income tax.
    C) government programs for those unemployed as a result of the depression.
    D) the rights of farmers and industrial workers.
    E) free and unlimited coinage of silver.

17. In the last decades of the nineteenth century, the volume of agricultural goods __________, and the
    price received for these goods __________.
    A) increased; decreased                                      D) decreased; also decreased
    B) decreased; increased                                      E) increased; stayed the same.
    C) increased; also increased

18. The Morrill Act of 1862
    A) established women's colleges like Vassar.
    B) required compulsory school attendance through high school.
    C) established the modern American research university.
    D) mandated racial integration in public schools.
    E) granted public lands to states to support higher education.

19. The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the
    A) New York Central.                                       D) Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe.
    B) Northern Pacific.                                       E) Great Northern.
    C) Union Pacific.

20. As a leader of the African American community, Booker T. Washington
    A) helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
    B) advocated social equality.
    C) discovered hundreds of uses for the peanut.
    D) promoted black self-help but did not challenge segregation.
    E) promoted black political activism.

21. Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits
    were called
    A) pools.                                                 D) interlocking directorates.
    B) trusts.                                                E) holding companies.
    C) rebates.

22. President Cleveland justified federal intervention in the Pullman strike of 1894 on the grounds that
    A) the union's leader, Eugene V. Debs, was a socialist.
    B) strikes against railroads were illegal.
    C) the strikers were engaging in violent attacks on railroad property.
    D) shutting down the railroads threatened American national security.
    E) the strike was preventing the transit of U.S. mail.
23. The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880
    A) had experience with democratic governments.
    B) arrived primarily from Germany, Sweden, and Norway.
    C) were culturally different from previous immigrants.
    D) received a warm welcome from the Old Immigrants.
    E) represented nonwhite racial groups.

24. Among the following, the least likely to migrate to the cattle and farming frontier were
    A) eastern city dwellers.                                    D) blacks.
    B) eastern farmers.                                          E) Midwestern farmers.
    C) recent immigrants.

25. Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way
    as to favor
    A) labor unions.                                            D) individual entrepreneurs.
    B) corporations.                                            E) independent workers and craftsmen.
    C) state regulatory agencies.

26. Which of the following sports was not developed in the decades following the Civil War?
    A) basketball                                             D) college football
    B) bicycling                                              E) baseball
    C) croquet

27. The Indians battled whites for all the following reasons except to
    A) rescue their families who had been exiled to Oklahoma.
    B) avenge savage massacres of Indians by whites.
    C) punish whites for breaking treaties.
    D) defend their lands against white invaders.
    E) preserve their nomadic way of life against forced settlement.

28. In the new urban environment, most liberal Protestants
    A) believed that a final Judgment Day was coming soon.
    B) were driven out of mainstream seminaries and colleges.
    C) welcomed ecumenical conversations with Roman Catholics.
    D) sharply criticized American society and American government.
    E) rejected biblical literalism and adapted religious ideas to modern culture.

29. Settlement houses such as Hull House engaged in all of the following activities except
    A) child care.                                             D) instruction in socialism.
    B) instruction in English.                                 E) social reform lobbying.
    C) cultural activities.

30. Which of the following was not among the major new research universities founded in the post-Civil
    War era?
    A) Harvard University                                   D) the University of Chicago
    B) the University of California                         E) Stanford University
    C) Johns Hopkins University
31. During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons
    A) rejected government assistance.
    B) built their railroads with government assistance.
    C) relied exclusively on Chinese labor.
    D) refused to get involved in politics.
    E) focused on public service.

32. In the warfare that raged between the Indians and the American military after the Civil War,
    A) Indians were never as well armed as the soldiers.
    B) the U.S. army was able to dominate with its superior technology.
    C) there was often great cruelty and massacres on both sides.
    D) Indians proved to be no match for the soldiers.
    E) Indians and soldiers seldom came into face-to-face combat.

33. The South's major attraction for potential investors was
    A) readily available raw materials.                          D) cheap labor.
    B) a warm climate.                                           E) ethnic diversity.
    C) good transportation.

34. Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil rights for African Americans was
    A) the vote.                                               D) to directly challenge white supremacy.
    B) rigorous academic training.                             E) economic independence.
    C) the rejection of accommodationist attitudes.

35. In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted
    _______________ manufacturing to the “new South.”
    A) textile                                                   D) electrical appliance
    B) steel                                                     E) farm equipment
    C) machine tool

36. In the decades after the Civil War, college education for women
    A) became more difficult to obtain.                         D) resulted in the passage of the Hatch Act.
    B) was confined to women's colleges.                        E) blossomed especially in the South.
    C) became much more common.

37. John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry
    A) employing spies.                                           D) pursuing a policy of rule or ruin.
    B) extorting rebates from railroads.                          E) using high-pressure sales methods.
    C) using federal agents to break competitors.

38. “Sooners” were settlers who “jumped the gun” in order to
    A) pan gold in California.
    B) stake claims in the Comstock Lode in Nevada.
    C) claim land in Oklahoma.
    D) drive the first cattle to Montana and Wyoming.
    E) grab town sites in the Dakotas.
39. One problem with the Homestead Act was that
    A) the government continued to try to maximize its revenue from public lands.
    B) 160 acres were inadequate for productive farming on the rain-scarce Great Plains.
    C) midwestern farmers had to give up raising livestock because of stiff competition with the West.
    D) the railroads purchased most of this land.
    E) it took several years to earn a profit from farming.

40. The growing prohibition movement especially reflected the concerns of
    A) the new immigrants.                                    D) middle class women.
    B) big business.                                          E) industrial labor unions.
    C) the poor and working classes.

41. The Farmers' Alliance was formed to
    A) provide help to northern farmers.
    B) provide opportunities for higher education.
    C) end the rise of tenant farming.
    D) help landless farmers gain property.
    E) take action to break the strangling grip of the railroads.

42. American newspapers expanded their circulation and public attention by
    A) printing hard-hitting editorials.
    B) crusading for social reform.
    C) repudiating the tactics of Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst.
    D) focusing on coverage of the local community and avoiding syndicalized material.
    E) printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal.

43. In the decades after the Civil War, most American farmers
    A) became attached to their family farms.
    B) diversified their crops.
    C) became increasingly self-sufficient.
    D) saw their numbers grow as more people moved west.
    E) grew a single cash crop.

44. The root cause of the American farmers' problem after 1880 was
    A) urban growth.                                          D) the shortage of farm machinery.
    B) foreign competition.                                   E) overproduction of agricultural goods.
    C) the declining number of farms and farmers.

45. The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was the
    A) National Labor Union.                                  D) Knights of Columbus.
    B) Knights of Labor.                                      E) Congress of Industrial Organizations.
    C) American Federation of Labor.

46. The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was
    A) the development of the skyscraper.
    B) the availability of industrial jobs.
    C) the compact nature of those large communities.
    D) the advent of new housing structures known as dumbbell tenements.
    E) the lure of cultural excitement.
   47. The original purpose of the Grange was to
       A) get involved in politics.
       B) support an inflationary monetary policy.
       C) stimulate self-improvement through educational and social activities.
       D) improve the farmers' collective plight.
       E) support the Homestead law.

   48. The oil industry became a huge business
       A) with the building of kerosene-fueled electric generators.
       B) when the federal government granted a monopoly to Standard Oil.
       C) with the invention of the internal combustion engine.
       D) when diesel engines were perfected.
       E) when oil was discovered in Texas.

   49. The Homestead Act assumed that public land should be administered in such a way as to
       A) raise government revenue.
       B) conserve natural resources.
       C) favor large-scale “bonanza” farms.
       D) guarantee shipments for the railroads.
       E) promote frontier settlement.

50.   Most immigrants to the Chesapeake colonies in the seventeenth century came as
        A. indentured servants.
        B. slaves from Africa.
        C. yeomen farmers.
        D. urban artisans.
        E. refugees from European wars.

51.   Despite the benefits of the mercantile system, the American colonists disliked it because of which of the
      following ideas?
          A. It forced the South into a one-crop economy.
          B. It favored the northern over the southern colonies.
          C. It inhibited the colonial economy’s ability to mature and develop.
          D. It forced economic initiative on the colonists.
          E. The colonial merchants had a guaranteed overseas market for their goods.

52.   Alexander Hamilton’s financial program was favorable to
         A. western farmers.
         B. war veterans.
         C. southern planters.
         D. eastern merchants.
         E. state bankers.

53.   The Northwest Ordinances did which of the following?
         A. Provided for the annexation of the Oregon Territory.
         B. Established reservations for Native Americans.
         C. Granted settlers to California a free homestead of 160 acres.
         D. Banned slavery north of the 36° 30’ line.
         E. Established terms for settlement and admission of new states.
54.   The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions and the Hartford Convention were similar in that all involved a
      defense of
          A. freedom of the seas.                                 D. states’ rights.
          B. freedom of speech.                                   E. presidential power in foreign affairs.
          C. the institution of slavery.

55.   One of the major criticisms of the Constitution as drafted in Philadelphia was that it
         A. was too long and detailed.
         B. was far too short and required more detail.
         C. failed to guarantee neutrality for all Americans.
         D. failed to provide a mechanism for amendments.
         E. did not provide guarantees for individual rights.

56.   The United States finally negotiated a peace settlement with France in 1800 mainly because Napoleon
         A. had also reached a peace agreement with Britain.
         B. had been removed from power.
         C. had been convinced by the Democratic-Republican pleas for cooperation.
         D. wanted to concentrate on gaining more power in Europe.
         E. realized the French could not win a military victory over the American forces.

57.   War Hawks were most likely to be characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
        A. being from the South and West.                            D. being members of the Senate.
        B. wanting to invade Canada.                                 E. having a powerful voice in Congress.
        C. being rich industrialists.

58.   Which of the following is true of the case of Marbury v. Madison?
        A. It established that Congress had the sole right to formulate national legislation.
        B. It supported Thomas Jefferson in his claim to have “executive review.”
        C. It backed William Marbury in his request for a bank charter.
        D. It affirmed the principle of judicial review.
        E. It determined the Senate’s right to “advise and consent.”

59.   The Republican Party originated in the mid-1850s as a sectional party committed to which of the
          A. Opposition to the further extension of slavery into the territories
          B. Immediate emancipation of the slaves
          C. Repeal of Whig economic policies
          D. Restriction of immigration
          E. Acknowledgement of popular sovereignty as the basis for organizing federal territories

60.   The majority of white families in the antebellum South owned
         A. more than 100 slaves.                                  D. 5 to 10 slaves.
         B. 50 to 100 slaves.                                      E. no slaves.
         C. 10 to 50 slaves.

61.   Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens were members of
         A. Abraham Lincoln’s cabinet.
         B. the Freedmen’s Bureau.
         C. the Radical Republicans.
         D. the Confederacy.
         E. the Andrew Johnson Administration.
62.   Which of the following principles was established by the Dred Scott decision?
        A. Congress could abolish slavery at will.
        B. National legislation could not limit the spread of slavery in the territories.
        C. The rights of all people are protected by the Constitution.
        D. Slaves residing in a free state automatically became free.
        E. Through squatter sovereignty, a territory had the sole right to determine the status of slavery
            within its territorial limits.

63.   Which of the following best describes the position on slavery of most northerners during the sectional
      crisis of the 1850s?
          A. They were willing to accept slavery where it existed but opposed further expansion to the
          B. They were active supporters of complete abolition.
          C. They favored continued importation of slaves from Africa.
          D. They advocated expansion of the slave system to provide cheap labor for northern factories.
          E. They advocated complete social and political equality for all races in the United States.

64.   The American Colonization Society was established in the early nineteenth century with the goal of
         A. encouraging immigration from Ireland and Germany.
         B. encouraging Chinese contract laborers to emigrate to the United States.
         C. settling White Americans on western lands.
         D. settling American Indians on reservations.
         E. transporting African Americans to Africa.

65.   Which of the following was a serious constitutional question after the Civil War?
        A. The restoration of the power of the federal judiciary
        B. The legality of the national banking system
        C. The political and legal status of the former Confederate states
        D. The relationship between the United States and Britain
        E. The proposed annexation of Columbia

66.   Which of the following statements about African American soldiers during the Civil War is correct?
      (Read your answer choices very carefully!)
         A. They were primarily engaged in military campaigns west of the Mississippi River.
         B. They were limited to non-combat duty.
         C. They were barred from receiving awards for valor in combat.
         D. For the most of the war, they were paid less than White soldiers of equal rank.
         E. For the most of the war, they were led by African American officers.

67.   In adopting the Fourteenth Amendment, Congress was primarily concerned with
          A. protecting the powers of the southern state governments established under Andrew Johnson.
          B. protecting legislation guaranteeing civil rights to former slaves.
          C. ending slavery.
          D. guaranteeing all citizens the right to vote.
          E. establishing the Freedmen’s Bureau.
68.   Why did Congressional Reconstruction end in 1877? (1988 #5)
        A. the freed slaves had been successfully integrated into Southern society.
        B. the treaty ending the Civil War had set such a time limit.
        C. most of the politically active Black people had left the South for Northern cities.
        D. the Republican and Democratic parties effected a compromise agreement after the 1876
            presidential election.
        E. the United States needed the troops stationed in the South to confront the French in Mexico.

69.   In 1861 the North went to war with the South primarily to
          A. liberate the slaves
          B. prevent European powers from meddling in American affairs
          C. preserve the Union
          D. avenge political defeats and insults inflicted by the South
          E. forestall a Southern invasion of the North

70.   All of the following led Congress to impose Radical Reconstruction measures EXCEPT the
          A. enactment of Black Codes by southern legislatures
          B. outbreak of race riots in New Orleans and Memphis
          C. massive exodus of former slaves from the South
          D. election of former Confederates to Congress
          E. response of southern legislatures to the Fourteenth Amendment.

71.   Of the following, the most threatening problem for the Union from 1861 through 1863 was
          A. possible British recognition of the Confederacy
          B. Spanish intervention of Santo Domingo
          C. French objections to the Union blockade
          D. British insistence of the abolition of slavery
          E. British objections to the Union position of “continuous voyage”

72.   After the Civil War, when a newly freed slave saw a group of white men dressed in red shirts, he would
      assume which of the following?
          A. They were advocates of the Freedmen’s Bureau.
          B. They were supporters of Andrew Johnson.
          C. They were working to promote the power of blacks to vote.
          D. They were part of an organization very similar to the Ku Klux Klan.
          E. None of the above.

73.   Which of the following saw rapid growth among the African-American community following the Civil
        A. The Episcopal Church
        B. The Catholic Church
        C. The Seventh-Day Adventists
        D. The Huey Newtononian Societal Seminary
        E. The African Methodists Episcopal Church

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74.   The Tenure of Office Act required which of the following?
         A. Judges were appointed for life.
         B. The President had to seek Congressional approval to fire an appointee approved by the Senate.
         C. Congress was now given the authority to fire the President’s cabinet members without consulting
         D. Cabinet members were now appointed for life.
         E. The tenure of each member of Congress could be changed by a majority vote.

   75. The Black Codes provided for all of the following except
       A) a ban on jury service by blacks.                        D) punishment of blacks for idleness.
       B) voting by blacks.                                       E) fines for blacks who jumped labor contracts.
       C) a bar on blacks from renting land.

   76. Andrew Johnson was named Lincoln's second-term vice president because
       A) he championed a strong federal government.
       B) he would politically attract War Democrats and pro-Union southerners.
       C) he would appeal to the hard-drinking anti-temperance vote.
       D) he had been an effective Republican leader for years.
       E) President Lincoln admired his personal integrity and courage.

   77. When it was issued in 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation declared free only those slaves in
       A) the Border States.
       B) slave states that remained loyal to the Union.
       C) United States territories.
       D) states still in rebellion against the United States.
       E) areas controlled by the Union army.

   78. The Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed
       A) citizenship and civil rights to freed slaves.
       B) land for former slaves.
       C) voting rights for former Confederates who had previously served in the U.S. Army.
       D) freed slaves the right to vote.
       E) education to former slaves.

   79. In his 10% Plan for Reconstruction, President Lincoln promised
       A) rapid readmission of Southern states into the Union.
       B) former slaves the right to vote.
       C) the restoration of the planter aristocracy to political power.
       D) severe punishment of Southern political and military leaders.
       E) a plan to allow 10% of blacks to vote.

   80. The white South viewed the Freedmen's Bureau as
       A) a meddlesome federal agency that threatened to upset white racial dominance.
       B) an agency acceptable only because it also helped poor whites.
       C) a valued partner in rebuilding the South.
       D) more helpful in the North than the South.
       E) a threat to state social service agencies.

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Answer Key
   1.   A
   2.   A
   3.   B
   4.   B
   5.   A
   6.   C
   7.   D
   8.   B
   9.   D
  10.   B
  11.   C
  12.   B
  13.   A
  14.   C
  15.   A
  16.   E
  17.   A
  18.   E
  19.   E
  20.   D
  21.   A
  22.   E
  23.   C
  24.   A
  25.   B
  26.   E
  27.   A
  28.   E
  29.   C
  30.   B
  31.   A
  32.   D
  33.   D
  34.   E
  35.   A
  36.   C
  37.   C
  38.   C
  39.   D
  40.   B
  41.   E
  42.   E
  43.   E
  44.   E
  45.   C
  46.   B
  47.   C
             Page 2
48. C
49. E

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