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					The Roaring 20’s
  America After WWI
       “A Return to Normalcy”
• This became Warren
  G. Harding’s
  campaign slogan
  when he accidentally
  messed up the word,
• Americans loved it
  and elected him
Fighting the Recession
           • After WWI, 2 million
             soldiers were looking
             for work
           • Factories were
             closing because they
             were no longer
             getting orders for
             wartime goods from
             European nations
    Republicans Rule the 1920s
                                              Warren G.
                                              Harding 1921-
• “HARD”-”COOL”-”HOOV”                        1923 (died in
• All the presidents of the
  1920s were Republican
• The names of the 3
  presidents are Harding,
  Coolidge, and Hoover
• Warren G. Harding died in
  office, probably due to                       Calvin
  shock                                         1923-1929

                              Herbert Hoover 1929-1933
    President Harding’s Corrupt
• Secretary of the Treasury: Andrew Mellon,
  a wealthy financier
• Secretary of Commerce: Herbert Hoover,
  famous for his food raising efforts during
• “Ohio Gang”: Harding’s old friends from
  Ohio who were corrupt and stole money
  from the government
                Charles Forbes
• One of Harding’s old buddies
• Head of the Veteran’s Bureau
• Stole millions of dollars from the bureau

“I can take care of my enemies all right, but
   my…friends, they’re the ones that keep me
   walking the floors at night!” –Hoover

Herbert Hoover was very hard-working and honest, but his
   friends were not
After a bunch of betrayals, Harding died of a heart attack in
   August, 1923
    The Teapot Dome Scandal
• Secretary of the
  Interior, Albert Fall
  accepted a bribe to
  lease government
  land to oil executives
• One of these areas
  was called “Teapot
  Dome” in Wyoming
• Fall was sent to
   Vice President Calvin Coolidge
        Becomes President
• “Silent Cal” spoke and spent little (Harding
  loved to throw parties and give long

• He forced corrupt officials to resign

• He was re-elected in 1924 with the slogan
  “Keep Cool With Coolidge”
From War Goods to Consumer
           • Coolidge cut regulations
             on businesses
           • Americans’ incomes rose
           • People began to buy
             refrigerators, radios,
             vacuums, and other
           • Businesses began to
             advertise their products
         “Coolidge Prosperity”
   “The business of America is business.
    The man who builds a factory builds
    a temple. The man who works there
    worships there.
    • Calvin Coolidge

    What does President Calvin Coolidge
     believe American Prosperity rests on?
            Buying on Credit
• Installment Buying= Buying on Credit (Buy
  now, pay later)
• Demands for goods jumped, but so did
  Americans’ debt
“If we want anything, all we have to do is go
   and buy it on credit. So that leaves us without
   any economic problems whatsoever, except
   that perhaps some day to have to pay for
      –Comedian Will Rogers
        Soaring Stock Market
• By the late 1920s, more
  people were investing in
  the stock market
• People became rich
• Bull Market: Period of
  rapidly increasing stock
• Prices of stocks rose
  more quickly than the
  value of the companies
   American Foreign Policy in the
• Most all Americans (including Harding and
  Coolidge) wanted to remain “isolationist”
1. The U.S. still needed to protect economic
  interests in Mexico
2. The U.S. gave $10 million in aid to Russia
  during a famine
3. The U.S. still signed the “Kellogg-Briand Pact”
  with 61 other nations (which outlawed war)
“Hopeful that, encouraged by their example,
all the other nations of the world will join
in this humane endeavor and by adhering
to the present Treaty as soon as it comes
into force bring their peoples within the
scope of its beneficent provisions, thus
uniting the civilized nations of the world
in a common renunciation of war as an
instrument of their national policy”
        -Section of the Kellogg-Briand Pact
 Women Gain the Right to Vote
• 19th Amendment in
  1920 gave women the
  right to vote
• Carrie Chapman Catt
  set up the League of
  Women Voters
• This group tried to
  educate voters and
  ensure the right of
  women to serve on
Ana Roque de Duprey
                  Fought for the right to
                   vote for women in
                   Puerto Rico
                  Puerto Rican women
                   got the right to vote in
     Life Changes for Women
• Women were told to go back home when the
  men came home to the factories after WWI
• Many women stayed in the workforce as typists,
  cleaners, cooks, servants, seamstresses,
  teachers, secretaries, and store clerks
• Many women bought ready-made clothing
  instead of making their own
• Many women bought appliances to help them
  with housework after working a full day outside
  of the home
      Impact of the Automobile
• Car sales grew
  rapidly in the
  1920s because
  Henry Ford’s
  assembly line
  made them so
• General Motors
  also became a
  popular seller of
   Changing Lifestyles Due to the
• Millions of jobs were
  created through
  factories, oil refineries,
  roads, highways, truck
  stops, gas stations,
  restaurants and tourist
• Many Americans began
  to move to the suburbs
  to escape crowded
  conditions in cities
           Mass Culture
• Radio

• Movies

                 (Above, lines outside a movie theatre)
                 (Left, family listening to the radio
             The Jazz Age
• Fashion Fads,    • Marathon Dancing
                  More Fads
   Flagpole sitting:
    Where young people
    would sit for hours
    and even days on top
    of a flagpole. (The
    record: 21 days!)
 The Dance Craze
• The Charleston
• Has a quick beat
• Dancers kick out
  their feet
• Popular dance for
  Flappers: Women
  who wore short
  skirts (to the
  knees), bright red
  lipstick, hair cut
  short, smoked
  and drank in
  public, and drove
  fast cars
              New Music
Jazz: Born in New Orleans, created by
  African Americans, combination of West
  African rhythms, African American songs
  and spirituals, European harmonies

Listen to the song “Heebie Jeebies- What
  different rhythms can you recognize?
Famous jazz musicians: Louis Armstrong,
  Bessie Smith, “Jelly Roll” Morton
   A New Generation of American
• Depressed about their awful experiences
  in World War I
• Criticized Americans for being obsessed
  with money and fun
• Many became expatriates (people who
  leave their own country to live in a foreign
  land) and moved to Europe
          Ernest Hemingway
• Wrote about
  experiences of
  Americans during
  WWI and in Europe
• Wrote A Farewell to
  Arms, The Sun Also
  Rises, The Old Man
  in the Sea
F. Scott Fitzgerald

                 Wrote about wealthy
                  young people who go
                  to constant parties
                  but cannot find
                 He wrote The Great
                 His characters had
                  bootleggers, and
                  movie makers
             Sinclair Lewis
 Grew up in a small
  town in Minnesota
  and moved to New
  York City
 He wrote books about
  rural people from a
  city person’s
  perspective (making
  them look stupid)
 Wrote Main Street
  and Babbitt
     The Harlem Renaissance
• In the 1920s, many
  African American
  artists settled in
  Harlem, New York
• Black artists,
  musicians, and
  writers celebrated
  their African and
  American heritage
  Harlem Renaissance Poets
Claude McKay: From
  Jamaica, wrote the
  poem, “If We Must
  Die” that condemned

Countee Cullen: Taught
 high school in
 Harlem, wrote of the
 experiences of African
           Zora Neale Hurston
   Write novels, short
    essays, short stories
   Traveled throughout
    the South in a
    battered car
    collecting folk tales,
    songs, and prayers
    of black southerners
   Published these in
    her book, “Mules
    and Men”
Langston Hughes
• Most well-known of
    the Harlem
    Renaissance poets
•   Also wrote plays,
    short stories, and
•   First poem, “The
    Negro Speaks of
•   Encouraged African
    Americans to be
    proud of their
•   Protested racism and
    acts of violence
    against blacks
         “The night is beautiful,
        So the faces of my people.
         The stars are beautiful,
         So the eyes of my people.
        Beautiful also, is the sun.
Beautiful also, are the souls of my people.”
      -Langston Hughes, “In My People”
     Heroes of the 1920s
– Bobby Jones: Won nearly every golfing
– Jack Dempsey: Heavyweight boxing
  champion for 7 years
– Bill Tilden and Helen Willis: Tennis
– Gertrude Ederle: 1st woman to swim the
  English Channel
                Babe Ruth
• Grew up in an
• Often in trouble as a
• Hit 60 homeruns in
  one season, and 714
• Called the “Sultan of
             Charles Lindbergh
• The greatest hero of the
• The first person to fly an
  airplane across the
  Atlantic Ocean alone
• Flew from New York to
• Called “Lucky Lindy”
  because he had to fly for
  33 ½ hours and didn’t
  carry a parachute, a
  radio, or a map
 “The Noble Experiment”


How did Prohibition help
   lead to organized

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