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									                                                                                                                                      MORBIDITY AND           TREATMENT AND                                             DIFFERENTIAL                  INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                        MORTALITY                CONTROL                         DIAGNOSIS                DIAGNOSIS    DISTRIBUTION      PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells

                                                                                                                                                            Fluid therapy, good
                                                                                                                                                            nursing care, limit food
                                                                                                                                                            slows
                                                                                                                                                                                          Clinical signs, leukopenia,
                                                                                                                                                            diarrhea/decreases
                                                                                                      Fever, inappetance, rough                                                           red INIBs,
                                       Direct contact, foamites,                                                                                            intestinal epithelial
                                                                 Panleukopenia, cerebellar            coat, repeated vomiting,                                                            hemagluttination, samples
                                       body secretions,                                                                                                     mitosis; broad spectrum
  Feline Panleukopenia All felids                                hypoplasia, enteritis; division      profuse persistent bloody       25-90% mortality                                    from pharynx, rectum,                        Worldwide      2-10 days
                                       human/flea mech. vector,                                                                                             antibiotics; strict enviro.
                                                                 in mitotic cells                     diarrhea, dehydration,                                                              spleen, ileum, mesenteric
                                       transplacental                                                                                                       Hygene, quarantine of
                                                                                                      permanent ataxia                                                                    lymphnodes; FAT/ELISA,
                                                                                                                                                            new cats, attenuated
                                                                                                                                                                                          seroconversion
                                                                                                                                                            live (cerebellar
                                                                                                                                                            degeneration) and
                                                                                                                                                            inactivated vaccines



                                                                                                                                                                                          Clinical signs, leukopenia,
                        Domestic                                                                                                                                                          red INIBs,
                        and wild                                    Myocarditis,                                                      Lower                                               hemagluttination, samples
                                       Transmission is same as                                                                                              Attenuated live or
    Canine Parvovirus 2 canids,                                     panleukopenia/enteritis,                                          morbidity/mortality                                 from pharynx, rectum,                        Worldwide
                                       cats                                                                                                                 inactivated vaccines
                        subclinical in                              general neonatal dz                                               than FPV                                            spleen, ileum, mesenteric
                        cats                                                                                                                                                              lymphnodes; FAT/ELISA,
                                                                                                                                                                                          seroconversion


                                                                                                                                                                                          Lung of mummified fetus
                                       Oronasal, transplacental, SMEDI, abortion, neonatal                                                                  Vaccination and               for sample, FAT,
     Porcine Parvovirus Pigs                                                                          Subclinical after birth
                                       venereal                  death, and boar infertility                                                                commingling of gilts          Hemagglutination
                                                                                                                                                                                          inhibition
Papoviridae - nonenveloped, circular dsDNA, may be oncogenic, ether/acid/thermostable, necessary skin trauma to infiltrate
                                                            Fibropapillomas (1, 2, 5),                                                                      Topical podo-phyllin,         Characteristic lesions,
  Bovine papillomavirus               Husbandry equipment,                               Warts, type 4 can be
                         Cattle                             Cutaneous papillomas (3, 4,                                                                     salicylic acid, DMSO,         histopath of biopsy                                         4-8 weeks
               types 1-6              foamites, venereal`                                ongogenic
                                                            6)                                                                                              vaccine                       material
                                                                                                                                                            Surgical resection,      Characteristic lesions,
 Equine Papillomavirus                 Husbandry equipment,
                       Horses                                       Sarcoids (bovine type (1&2)       Warts                                                 hyperthermia, radiation, histopath of biopsy
          types 1and 2                 foamites, venereal`
                                                                                                                                                            cryosurgery              material

                                                                                                      Difficulty eating, halitosis;                         Autogenous formalin
                                                                                                      warts on conjunctiva,                                 killed vaccine; if severe     Characteristic lesions,
                                                                    Warts in oral cavity and on
  Canine Papillomatosis Canines        Direct contact                                                 cornea, eyelid margin;        Highly contagious       enough, euthanasia;           histopath of biopsy
                                                                    eyelids, pharynx
                                                                                                      spontaneous regression (3-5                           recovered animals are         material
                                                                                                      months)                                               refractory

Adenoviridae - 12 pentamers, linear dsDNA, basophilic INIB, hemagluttination, uses endonucleases, susceptible to protease inhibitors
                       Ruminants      Asymptomatic, mild URT
Mastadenoviruses
                       and pigs       dz, and enteritis


                                                                                                                                                            Fluid therapy, blood
                                                                                                                                                            transfusions, hypertonic
                                                                    Initial localization in tonsils                                                         glucose; recovered
                                                                    and spread to lymphatics.                                                               animals are immune to
                                                                                                      Pups<6mos: sudden death;                                                            Laboratory tests: viral
                        Wild and       Droplet inhalation and       Targets macrophages,                                                                    systemic form; CAV2
     CAV-1: Infectious                                                                                fever, vomiting, bloody                                                             culture, IFA,
                        Domestic       fecal-oral; respiratory      hepatic parenchymal cells,                                                              cross protects CAV1;
 Canine Hepatitis (ICH)                                                                               diarrhea, pale mucous           Highly contagious                                   hemagglutination                             Worldwide      5-8 days
                        Canids (less   secretions, feces, saliva,   and vascular endothelium.                                                               inactivated or modified
        (Rubarth's DZ)                                                                                membranes, juandice;                                                                inhibition and
                        than 1 year)   urine                        Hepatic necrosis/fibrosis,                                                              live (mild subclinical
                                                                                                      subclinical; fox encephalitis                                                       lymphopenia/neutropenia
                                                                    corneal edema,                                                                          interstitial nephritis and
                                                                    glomerulonephritis, DIC                                                                 persistent viral
                                                                                                                                                            shedding, <1% develop
                                                                                                                                                            corneal edema


     CAV-2: Infectious
                                                                    Laryngitis, tonsilitis,      Dry, unproductive cough,                                   self-limiting within 2
               Canine                                                                                                                 Highly contagious;                                  Tracheal palpation-dry,
                        Canines        Contact and Inhalation       bronchitis, pharyngitis,     retching, rhinitis w/nasal                                 weeks; CAV2 cross
Tracheobronchitis (ITB)                                                                                                               self-limiting                                       unproductive cough
                                                                    tracheitis; NO corneal edema discharge                                                  protects CAV1
         Kennel Cough
                                                                                                                                      MORBIDITY AND         TREATMENT AND                          DIFFERENTIAL                      INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                        MORTALITY              CONTROL             DIAGNOSIS         DIAGNOSIS       DISTRIBUTION       PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells
                                                                                            Foals<3 mos- URT dz, fever,
                       Horses
     Equine Adenovirus                                        Bronchiolitis and pneumonia coughing,                                                                                                                 Worldwide
                       (Arabians)
                                                                                            dyspnea/conjunctivitis
                                                                     IB hepatitis/egg drop
                         Chickens,
                                                                     syndrome; duck hepatitis;       Sudden death, soft/thin-
Aviadenoviruses          ducks, quail, Vertical transmission
                                                                     bronchitis; hemorrhagic         shelled eggs
                         turkeys
                                                                     enteritis, marble spleen dz
Asfarviridae - enveloped, linear dsDNA, acidophylic ICIB, stable
                                                                                            Edema, hemorrhage, fever,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (enzootic):
                                                                                            inappetance, dyspnea,                            No vaccination;                                      Hog cholera, acute
                                      Argasid ticks (sylvatic),  Multiplies in endothelium,                                                                                                                          Africa, Western
                        Domestic                                                            leukopenia, abortion,                            quarantine and            No hemagluttination, but   salmonellosis,
    African Swine Fever               contact and aerosols       impaired coagulation,                                  95-100% mortality                                                                            Spain,          4-10 days
                        and wild pigs                                                       necrotic skin lesions,                           slaughter, prohibition of hemadsorbs                 acute erysipelas,
                                      (domestic), transplacental thrombocytopenia                                                                                                                                    Portugal,
                                                                                            arthritis, pneumonia, black                      importation                                          and pseudorabies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Sardinia
                                                                                            friable spleen
Poxviridae - largest and most complex, brick-shaped (ovoid), barbell-shaped core, linear dsDNA, lateral bodies, eosinophylic ICIBs, cross-protection within genera, highly resistant
                         Monkeypox,
                                     Skin abrasions, aerosol,
Orthopoxviruses          horsepox,                                                                                                                                     Hemagluttination
                                     arthropods
                         rabbitpox
                        Cattle,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bovine Vaccina
                        wild(F)/dome                                                                 Erythema and papules
                                     Direct contact and                                                                                                                                           Mammillitis,
                        stic felids,                                                                 surrounded by edema,                                Long lasting immunity
                 Cowpox              mechanical arthropod                                                                                                                                         Pseudocowpox,      Europe         3-7 days
                        rodents(R),                                                                  vessicles, pustules, thick red                      from recovered animals
                                     vector                                                                                                                                                       Bovine Mammillitis
                        humans,                                                                      scabs, ulcerations
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (herpesvirus 2)
                        elephants

                         No natural                                  Laboratory strain of vaccine    Erythema and papules
        Bovine Vaccinia infections in                                that can cause incidental       surrounded by edema,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Worldwide
             Mammillitis domestic                                    infections from vaccinated      vessicles, pustules, thick red
                         animals                                     humans                          scabs, ulcerations

                         Cattle,
                         sheep,                                      All pathogenic species are
Parapoxviruses
                         goats, and                                  zoonotic
                         camels

                         Dairy cattle    Direct contact of                                           Horshoe/ring scabs-(PTG)
                                                                     Generally mild infections.                                       Morb: up to 100%
                         and humans;     improperly disinfected                                      around teats, udder and                              Temporary immunity (4-
         Pseudocowpox                                                "Milker's nodule" is zoonotic                                    (10-15% at a time);                                                           Worldwide
                         occasionally    teats, fly mechanical                                       perineum; nursing calfs                              6 months)
                                                                     form (human)                                                     Mortality
                         in beef herds   vector                                                      develop mouth lesions

                                                                                                     Anorexia, excess salivation,
                                                                                                     raised papule with central
                         Mostly in       Nasal secretions and
        Bovine Papular                                                                               necrosis on the                  Morb: 10-100%;
                         beef cattle     saliva via direct contact, Self-limiting, zoonotic                                                              Immunity <6 mos                                            Worldwide
        Stomatitis (BPS)                                                                             internal/external mouth,         Mort: low
                         (some dairy)    latent infections may exist
                                                                                                     nose, esophagus and
                                                                                                     forestomach

                                                                                                                                                         2nd exposure is less
                                         Indefinite survival in                                      Painful lesions of the mouth
                                                                     Flystrike give rise to                                                              severe; Immunity <
   Contagious Ecthyma Sheep and          scabs. Skin abrasions,                                      and lips lead to anorexia;
                                                                     vesiculopapular eruptions,                                                          1year; vaccine (ground                                     worldwide       4-7 days
    (CE); Scabby mouth Goats             foamites, nursing, latent                                   mortality due to secondary
                                                                     yellow-brown crust                                                                  scabs, abnormal portal
                                         infections                                                  infections
                                                                                                                                                         of entry), colostrum

                                                                                                     Non-proliferative prurulent
                                                                                                     ulcer on lip, chin, nose, and
  Ulcerative Dermatosis                                              Ulcers around mouth, nose,
                                                                                                     lower limb; phimosis                                Doesn't cross-protect
  of Sheep; Lip and Leg Sheep            Skin abrasion, venereal     on legs, or venereally on
                                                                                                     (obstruction) in rams;                              with CE; self-limiting
                     (N)                                             prepuce and penis or vulva
                                                                                                     edema, scabs of vulva in
                                                                                                     ewes
                         Sheep and
Capripoxviruses                                                                                                                                          Cross-protection
                         goats
                                                                                                                                  MORBIDITY AND          TREATMENT AND                                        DIFFERENTIAL                        INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                    MORTALITY               CONTROL                    DIAGNOSIS                DIAGNOSIS       DISTRIBUTION         PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells

                                                                                              Fever, salivation,
                                                                                              lacrimation, hyperpnea,
                                                                                              conjunctival edema, serous          Morb: up to 75%;
                                                                                                                                                       Lifetime immunity from
                                                                 Systemic disease, leukocyte- nasal discharge, cutaneous          Mort: 80-100%
                                                                                                                                                       recovered animals,
                                                                 associated viremia, severe   nodules; (malignant form)           (malignant form,
                                      Aerosolization, direct                                                                                           colostrum. Importation                                                   Middle East,
          Sheeppox (N) Sheep                                     necrotizing vasculitis       lesions occur on skin, in           usually due to                                                                                                  4-7 days
                                      contact, foamites                                                                                                prohibited, quarantine                                                   Asia, Africa
                                                                 (immune response), ischemic mouth, respiratory tract, and        2ndary
                                                                                                                                                       and slaughter,
                                                                 necrosis of dermis/epidermis digestive tract, caseous            complications), 5-
                                                                                                                                                       vaccination
                                                                                              nodules and catarrhal               10% (benign form)
                                                                                              pneumonia; (Benign) skin
                                                                                              lesions, mild systemic rxn.


                                                                 Systemic disease, leukocyte-     Fever, salivation,
                                                                 associated viremia, severe       lacrimation, hyperpnea,                              Lifetime immunity from
                                      Aerosolization, direct                                                                                                                                                                    North Africa
                 Goatpox Goats                                   necrotizing vasculitis           conjunctival edema, serous      Mort: 5%             recovered animals,
                                      contact, foamites                                                                                                                                                                         and Middle East
                                                                 (immune response), ischemic      nasal discharge, cutaneous                           colostrum
                                                                 necrosis of dermis/epidermis     nodules

                                                                                                  Vasculitis, thrombosis,
                                                                                                  infaction, flat-topped dermal
                                                                 Leukocyte-associated             nodules, fibrinous exudation
                                                                 viremia, lymphadenopathy,        of lungs inverted conical                                                                                  Psedolumpy Skin
                       Cattle and                                                                                                 Morb: 80-90%;        Attenuated vaccination
   Lumpy Skin Disease                 Mechanical arthropod       multiplication in                necrosis (sit-fast), edema of                                                                              Disease (BHV-2),
                       buffalo                                                                                                    Mort: 1-2%, due to   (neethling strain) and                                                   Africa            2-5 weeks
                 (LSD)                vector                     macrophages, endothelium,        brisket and legs, persistent                                                                               and
                       (reservoir)                                                                                                2ndary infection     from goat/sheeppox
                                                                 skeletal muscle, fibrocytes,     fever can lead to abortion,                                                                                dermatophilosis
                                                                 keratinocytes                    weight loss, increased
                                                                                                  salivation and nasal
                                                                                                  discharge
Suipoxviruses

                                                                                                  Transient low grade fever,                           Insecticides for lice,
                                      Skin abrasions,
                                                                                                  papules-umbilicated                                  recovered pigs are                                    Swine vaccina
                Swinepox Swine        hematopinus suis                                                                                                                                                                          Worldwide         3-7 days
                                                                                                  pustules (1-2 cm) on                                 solidly immune,                                       virus
                                      mechanical vector
                                                                                                  abdomen and inner thigh                              colostrum

Avipoxviruses
                                                                                                  Dry form: skin/cutaneous
                         Chickens,                                                                                                                    Recovered birds are
                                      Skin/mucosal abrasions,                                     form; Wet form: diptheric
                         turkeys,                                                                                                 Mortality up to 50% solidly immune,           Bollinger inclusion bodies
                 Fowlpox              mechanical mosquitos                                        form, blockage of                                                                                                             Worldwide         4-14 days
                         pheasants,                                                                                               with Wet form       vaccination, control of   with inner borrel bodies
                                      and other vectors                                           larynx/pharynx leads to
                         others                                                                                                                       insects
                                                                                                  suffocation
                        rabbits,
Leporipoxviruses        hares,
                        squirrels
Herpesviridae - enveloped, linear dsDNA, acidophylic INIBs(owl's eye), fragile, latent infections, alpha, beta, gamma subfamilies and viral replication steps
Alphaherpesviruses

                                                                                                  IBR (Rednose, necrotic
                                                                                                  rhinitis) - fever, depression,
                                                                                                  inappetance, profuse
                                                                 Viral dissemination via cell-    mucopurulent nasal
                                                                 associated viremia, latent       discharge, conjunctivitis
    Bovine herpesvirus
                                                                 infection (trigeminal and        (bilateral); abortion
   1(BHV-1): Infectious
                                                                 ischiatic nerves) reactivated    (w/respiratory); general
 Bovine Rhinotracheitis, Cattle,      Aerosol, nasal and                                                                         IBR - Morb: 100%;     Vaccination to reduce
                                                                 with corticosteroids or stress   neonatal disease                                                              Clinical signs, viral                                             1-3 days post
     Infectious Pustular goats,       ocular secretions(IBR),                                                                    Mort: <10%( by        incidence of disease,                                                    Worldwide
                                                                 resulting in viral shedding;     (respiratory distress and                                                     isolation, FAT, histopath                                         coitus in cows
         Vulvovaginitis, wildebeast   coitus and A.I. (IPV, IPB)                                                                 2ndary infection)     not prevention
                                                                 diffuse hemorrhages and          above); encephalitis; pain
              Infectious
                                                                 erosions in the turbinates,      dysuria, frequent urination,
         Balanoposthitis
                                                                 nasal mucosa and gums,           tail swishing, edema of vulva
                                                                 necrosis of larynx,              and discharge, bright red
                                                                                                  pustules that may form
                                                                                                  fibrinous pseudomembrane
                                                                                                  (genital form)
                                                                                                                                        MORBIDITY AND           TREATMENT AND                                            DIFFERENTIAL                          INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                          MORTALITY                CONTROL                        DIAGNOSIS                DIAGNOSIS           DISTRIBUTION       PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Bovine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mammillitis:
  Bovine Herpesvirus 2                                                                                 Mammillitis - intermittent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cowpox,                BM -
       (BHV-2) Bovine                     Arthropod mechanical                                         mastitis, ulcers, 10% milk
                                                                                                                                       Recovered animals                                                                pseudocowpox,          worldwide;      PLSD: 5-9
          Mammillitis, Dairy Cattle       vector, skin trauma,                                         yield. PLSD - mild fever,
                                                                                                                                       are carriers                                                                     vesicular              PLSD -          days
    Pseudolumpy Skin                      milking machine,                                             sudden skin nodules over
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        stomatitis, foot and   Southern Africa
              Disease                                                                                  entire body, no scarring
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        mouth; PLSD:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        lumpy skin disease


                                          Swine - nasal secretions,                                    Pigs: abortion (50%),
                           Swine,
                                          saliva, milk,                                                sneezing, coughing,
 Porcine Herpesvirus-1     cattle,                                     Virus disseminates through                                                             Colostrum, vaccination      Exposure to pigs, death
                                          transplacental, semen.                                       encephalitis and death in
            (PHV-1)(R)     sheep,                                      the cranial nerves to the                                       Up to 100%             doesn't prevent             following intense pruritis,
                                          Dogs/cats - ingestion of                                     piglets. 2ndary Hosts: self                                                                                                             Worldwide
    Pseodrabies(Canine-    goats, dogs,                                brainstem, ganglioneuritis of                                   mortality in piglets   infection or latency of     viral isolation, FAT,
                                          infected pig carcasses.                                      aggression due to intense
feline)"Mad itch" (Cows)   cats, and                                   vital fxns.                                                                            wild-type                   ELISA, latex agglutination
                                          Ruminants - direct                                           pruritis, paralysis of pharynx,
                           rabbits
                                          contact (oral-nasal)                                         salivation, dyspnea, death

                                                                       Regional lymph node,            Abortion storm not
                                                                       circulating lymphocytes, and    preceded by maternal
                                                                       endothelial localization;       illness, interstitial
                                                                       macrophage-associated           pneumonia,
  Equine Herpesvirus-1                    Aerosolization, direct                                                                       Abortion storm is      Vaccines that convey 6
                       Horses                                          viremia in pregnant             rhinopneumonitis, foal                                                             Viral isolation, histopath                           Worldwide
              (EHV-1)                     contact                                                                                      10-90%                 month immunity
                                                                       maresvasculitis, hypoxic        death, encephalitis, paresis,
                                                                       degeneration and                slight hind limb
                                                                       hemorrhage in adjacent          incoordination to
                                                                       neural tissue, malacia          quadriplegia and death,
                                                                                                     Pustular and ulcerative                                                              Clincal signs and viral
         Equine Coital                                                 Acute and mild, healing in 14 lesions of the genitalia,                                Sexual rest, cleaning of    isolation from vaginal
                       Horses             Venereal                                                                                                                                                                                                            2-10 days
    Exanthema (EHV-3)                                                  days                          teats, lips, and respiratory                             lesions, antibiotics        swabs producing synctitia
                                                                                                     mucosa                                                                               and Ibs
                                                                                                       Fever, anorexia, profuse
  Equine Herpesvirus-4 Horses over                                     Respriatory dz and abortion,                                    High morbidity, low                                INIB, nasal swab and viral
                                                                                                       nasal discharge becoming                            Colostrum and
             (EHV-4) - 2 mos of      Aerosolization                    can be fatal                                                    mortality (2ndary                                  isolation, weak Ab                                   Worldwide
                                                                                                       mucopurulent, enlarged                              prophylactic vaccine
      Rhinopneumonitis age, wealings                                   bronchopneumonia                                                infections)                                        response
                                                                                                       submandibular ln
                                                                                                       Pups: painful crying,
                                                                       Affects the thermoregulation
                                                                                                       abdominal pain, soft,
                                          Birth canal, inhalation,     of the brain, 33 degrees C is
                                                                                                       odorless yellow-green stool,                                                       Post mortem diag:
                                          ingestion, contact with      optimum for viral growth,                                                              Raise body temp, so
 Hemorrhagic Diseas of                                                                                 anorexia, dyspnea, can          Low pup mortality,                                 ecchymotic hemorrhages
                       Puppies            infected littermates;        primary viremia in                                                                     that rectal temp is 38.4-
   pups (Fading puppy                                                                                  develop neurological signs      mild disease in                                    in kidney, adrenal and                               Worldwide      3-8 days
                       <4wks              venereal, saliva, urine,     reticuloendothelial cells,                                                             39.5 degrees, isolation
    syndrome) (CHV-1)                                                                                  (rare); Dogs: genital           dogs                                               GIT, IB with histopath.,
                                          nasal secretions for older   parenchyma of multiple                                                                 of infected animals.
                                                                                                       discharge with focal nodular                                                       viral isolation
                                          dogs                         organs, rare
                                                                                                       lesions, mild respiratory
                                                                       meningoencephalitis
                                                                                                       disease

                                                                                                       Neonates: sneezing,
                                                                                                       coughing, profuse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Feline
                                                                                                       oculonasal discharge, frothy
                                          Aerosol of oculo-nasal                                                                                                                     Ocular/pharyngeal swab,            Rhinotracheitis,
   Feline Herpesvirus 1                                                                                salivation, dyspnea,            70% Ab presence     Combo or solo vaccine,
                                          secretions, birth canal,                                                                                                                   histopath and gross, type          Feline Calicivirus,
         (FHV-1) Feline Felids                                         Acute respiratory disease       anorexia, weight loss, fever,   in colony cats; 50% reduces disease but                                                              Worldwide         24-48 hours
                                          intermittent shedding                                                                                                                      A INIBs and multinucleate          Feline pneumonitis
          Rhinotracheitis                                                                              keratitis, punctate corneal     in house cats       doesn't prevent infection
                                          from recovered animals                                                                                                                     giant cells                        (Chlamydia
                                                                                                       ulcers, fatal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        psittaci)
                                                                                                       bronchopneumonia; Cats:
                                                                                                       mild/subclinical


                                                                       Severe tracheitis, necrosis,    Dyspnea, extension and
                                                                                                                                                              Vaccination of
   Avian Herpesvirus 1                                                 hemorrhage, ulceration and      slinging of neck during                                                            Clinical signs and
                                                                                                                                                              replacement pullets,
   (AHV-1) - Infectious Chickens,         Introduced by carrier        diphtheric membrane             inspiration, open mouth         Morb: 100%; Mort:                                  necropsy lesions, FAT,
                                                                                                                                                              depopulation and                                          Fowl Pox               Worldwide      2-8 days
      Laryngotracheitis Pheasants         birds, inhalation            formation; death from           breathing, resting on keel      20-70%                                             viral isolation from nasal
                                                                                                                                                              disinfection of
     (chicken influenza)                                               asphyxiation (chicks 4-18       during expiration, coughing                                                        mucosa, syncitia
                                                                                                                                                              nonenzootic areas
                                                                       months                          up blood and mucus
                                                                                                                                        MORBIDITY AND          TREATMENT AND                                           DIFFERENTIAL                       INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                          MORTALITY               CONTROL                      DIAGNOSIS                 DIAGNOSIS       DISTRIBUTION        PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells


                                                                                                       Droopy wings, unthriftiness.
                                                                                                        Neural lesions - nerve
                                                                       Virus multiplies in respiratory tumors cause lameness and
                         Chickens                                      epithelium, macrophage-         paralysis; Ocular lesions -                                                      Clincal signs, viral
    Avian Herpesvirus 2                  Inhalation of feather                                                                                               Heterotypic vaccine,
                         (pheasants,                                   associated viremia, infection "Gray eye", irregular shaped                                                       isolation from buffy coat,
       (AHV-2) (Marek's                  dander, chicken house                                                                                               prevents tumor
                         quali, and                                    of lymphoid tissues leads to    pupil and blindness; Visceral                                                    gross(yellow striated         Botulism           Worldwide
        Disease)(Range                   dust, infected birds are                                                                                            formation but not
                         other game                                    immunosuppression via           lesions - infiltrative heart,                                                    nerves) and histopath,
              Paralysis)                 carriers for long time                                                                                              infection
                         fowl)                                         transformation of T-cells       liver, spleen, kidney X10;                                                       FAT, IFA
                                                                       (oncogenic)                     Skin lesions - enlarged
                                                                                                       feather follicles, bleeds
                                                                                                       when feathers pulled


                                                                       Respiratory and generalized
Betaherpesviruses                                                      disease, slow growing,
                                                                       cytomegally

                                                                                                        Sneezing, coughing,
                                                                                                        shivering, serous to
                                                                    Pigs 2-10 wks, but most
                                                                                                        mucopurulent oculonasal
  Porcine Herpesvirus 2                                             severe in piglets less than 3                                                                                       Basophilic INIBs and
                                                                                                        discharge, depression,                               Immigration control at
     (PHV-2) - Inclusion   Fetal pig and                            wks;Replicates in nasal                                                                                             cytomegaly; clinical signs,
                                         Inhalation, transplacental                                     interferes with suckling        Carriers up to 90%   reproductively critical                                                     Worldwide
  Body Rhinitis, Porcine   piglets                                  mucosa; petechiae and                                                                                               gross, histopath, viral
                                                                                                        leading to weight loss and                           periods
        Cytomegalovirus                                             edema in thoracic cavity and                                                                                        isolation, ELISA/IFA
                                                                                                        possibly death;
                                                                    subcutaneous tissues
                                                                                                        transplacental transmission
                                                                                                        causes SMEDI

                                                                       Replicates in lymphocytes
                                                                       and may cause
Gammaherpesviruses
                                                                       transformation of infected
                                                                       cells

   Ovine Herpesvirus 2                                                                                  Profuse salivation, fever,
                                                                       Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis,
     (OHV-2), American     Cattle (DE                                                                   depression, leukopenia,                                                         History and clinical signs
                                                                       edema, generalized
    Malignant Catarrhal    hosts), deer, Close contact between                                          profuse oculonasal              Morb: very low;      Break contact between      (esp. bilateral opthalmia);
                                                                       lymphadenopathy, extensive                                                                                                                                        U.S. and
   Fever (MCF); Bovine     rabbits,      cattle and sheep during                                        discharge, bloody diarrhea,     Mort: extremely      reservoir and              bloody intestinal lesions                                         2-8 weeks
                                                                       GIT erosion, severe oral                                                                                                                                          Europe
  Herpesvirus 3 (African   Sheep (Res) lambing                                                          photophobia, corneal            high                 susceptible hosts          (zebrastripes), viral
                                                                       cavity ulcerations, bilateral
     form) - Alcelaphine   (subclinical)                                                                opacity, blindness, stupor or                                                   isolation from buffy coat
                                                                       opthalmia, CNS
           Herpesvirus 1                                                                                excitement

Picornaviridae - nonenveloped, linear (+) ssRNA, characteristic CPE (rapid), little cross-protection, stable with high humidity and low UV levels
Apthoviruses

                                                                                                                                                            Intralingual                                              Vesicular
                                                                       Viremia leads replication in     Swine and cattle show more
                       All cloven-       Inhalation, direct contact,                                                                                        innoculation, recovered     Clinical signs, vessicular    Stomatitis,
                                                                       epithelia cells of mucos and     severe signs; fever anorexia,   Morb: high; Mort:
                       hoofed            foamites/environment,                                                                                              animals are immune for      fluid, ELISA,                 Vesicular                           Cattle: 2-8
        Foot and Mouth                                                 skin, hyperemic areas            depression, profuse             high in calves less                                                                              Asia, Africa,
                       domestic          contaminated animal                                                                                                a year, quarantine and      neutralization,               Exanthema, Swine                    days; course 3
         Disease (FMD)                                                 develop into vessicles filled    salivation, lip smacking,       than 6 months, less                                                                              South America
                       and wild          products; carried by                                                                                               slaughter in FMD-free       complement fixation,          Vesicular Disease,                  weeks
                                                                       with clear yellow fluid, tiger   dehydration, lameness,          than 5% in adults
                       animals           birds, rodents, arthropods                                                                                         countries, importation      precipitin test               Bluetongue,
                                                                       heart, necrotic infarcts         vessicles, abortion, mastitis
                                                                                                                                                            control                                                   Rinderpest

                           Swine and
Enteroviruses
                           poultry
                                                                                                                                        Not of great
                           Swine and     Skin abrasions, ingestion Viremia and excretion of             Vessicles around coronary                            Notifiable, slaughter                                    Indistiguishable   Europe and
Swine Vesicular Disease                                                                                                                 economic
                           Humans        of uncooked garbage       large quantities                     band, snout, lips, tongue                            program                                                  from FMD           Asia
                                                                                                                                        importance

  Porcine Enterovirus 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Czech
                                                                                                        Tremors and incoordination
(PEV-1) Teschen/Talfan                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Republic;
                                                                       Disease in pigs less than 12     beginning with hindlimbs,
  Disease (poliomyelitis                                                                                                                                     Vaccines-abroad;           Histopath of brainstem,                          Milder form in
                                                                       weeks, replication in GALT       paralysis, prostration,
                 suum, Swine             Ingestion                                                                                      Mort: up to 75%      quarantine, disinfection   cerebellum and spinal                            Europe, North    14-21 days
                                                                       and general GIT, viremia         convulsions, coma, and
 polioencephalomyelitis,                                                                                                                                     of US herds                cord grey matter                                 and South
                                                                       spreads to CNS                   death; (mild form) - ataxia,
   and benign epizootic                                                                                                                                                                                                                  America,
                                                                                                        hindlimb paresis
                paresis                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Australia

Porcine Enteroviruses 2-
                         Swine                                         Pericarditis                     SMEDI, diarrhea
                     11
                                                                                                                                      MORBIDITY AND           TREATMENT AND                                           DIFFERENTIAL                        INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                        MORTALITY                CONTROL                       DIAGNOSIS                DIAGNOSIS         DISTRIBUTION       PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells

                                                                                                     Dullness, progressive ataxia,
                        Chickens,                                                                                                                           Depopulation or vaccine
                                                                                                     tremors of head and neck,
Avian Encephalomyelitis Turkeys,       Vertical/transovarial and                                                                                            administered to drinking Perivascular cuffing, IFA,
                                                                                                     blindness, paralysis and      Mort: 5-12%                                                                                            Worldwide       1-7 days
     (Epidemic Tremors) quail and      horizontal/fecal-oral                                                                                                water for breeding hens, virus isolation from brain
                                                                                                     death; recovered birds have
                        pheasants                                                                                                                           maternal Abs
                                                                                                     CNS def.
Cardioviruses

                       Swine                                                                                                                                                        Pathognomionic cardiac
                                                                                                                                                          Rodent control,
                       (severe),      Ingestion of rodent fecal                                                                                                                     lesions (small gray-white
  Encephalomyocarditis                                             Myocardial failure,               Sudden death, anorexia,          Mort: up to 100% in immunity in surviving
                       rodents (R), contaminated food,                                                                                                                              foci in the right ventricle);
               (EMC)                                               encephalomyelitis                 depression, dyspnea              young piglets       animals, killed vaccines,
                       primates,      transplacental                                                                                                                                viral isolation from heart
                                                                                                                                                          comingling gilts
                       horses, cattle                                                                                                                                               and brain, FAT

Reoviridae - nonenveloped, two concentric capsids, segmented dsRNA , large perinuclear ICIBs, subviral particle
Orbiviruses

                                                                   Congestion, hemorrhage,
                                                                                                     Abortions, fetal
                                                                   edema, ischemic necrosis;
                        Sheep, cattle                                                                abnormalities, fever, mouth                            Serotypes cross protect,
                                                                   replicates in hematopoetic                                                                                          Late summer, early fall,
                        (reservoirs), Arthropod (culicoides)                                         ulcers and excess salivation,                          vector control, live                                     FMD, Contagious
       Ovine Orbivirus,                                            cells and endothelium leads                                     Morb: up to 80%;                                    clinical signs in sheep,
                        white-tailed biological vector,                                              frothing seromucopurulent                              vaccine can be reverted                                  ecthyma,             Worldwide
            Bluetongue                                             to degenerative and necrotic                                    Mort: up to 50%                                     viral isolation from heart,
                        deer and      transplacental                                                 nasal discharge, lameness,                             to virulence in                                          photosensitization
                                                                   changes, coronitis, vasculitis;                                                                                     FAT
                        other wild                                                                   cyanosis of tongue, marked                             transmitting vector
                                                                   hydrancephally,
                                                                                                     loss of conditioning
                                                                   porencephaly, glial nodules


                                                                                                     Respiratory: fever,
                                                                                                     hyperpnea, spasmodic
                                                                                                     cough, profuse sweating,                               Notifiable, polyvalent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Respiratory
                                                                   Replicates in ln, viremia,        frothy nasal discharge,          Respiratory:          vaccine, vector control,                                                      Sub-Saharan
       Equine Orbivirus - Equids and                                                                                                                                                                                                                      form: 3-5
                                                                   Reticulo epithelial system,       pulmonary edema; Cardiac:        Mortality up to       US 60 day quarantine of Virus isolation, serum                                Africa, Spain
 African Horse Sickness dogs; Gray's Culicoides vector                                                                                                                                                                                                    days; Cardiac
                                                                   vaculitis of small/medium         edema of supraorbital fossa,     95%; Cardiac:         imported horses from     neutralization                                       Portugal,
                   (AHS) zebra (R)                                                                                                                                                                                                                        form: 7-14
                                                                   vessels                           eyelids, lips, tongue,           Mortality up to 50%   Africa, Asia, and                                                             Morocco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          days
                                                                                                     intermandibular space, and                             Mediterranean
                                                                                                     subQ in chest,
                                                                                                     hydropericardium, colic


                                                                   Subclinical to death;
                                                                                                                                                            Santiation practices,
                                                                   intestinal villous atropy,        Major cause of diarrhea,                                                          Feces and intestinal
                                                                                                                                                            provision of colostrum,
                         Mammal and                                reduced absoptive cuboidal        white scours, reduced            Morb: 100%; Mort:                                segments for viral
Rotaviruses                            Fecal-oral route                                                                                                     innoculation of dams,
                         bird neonates                             cells, reduced enzymatic          intake, chilling, dehydration,   0-50%                                            isolation, EM, ELISA,
                                                                                                                                                            antibiotics for 2ndary,
                                                                   activity, undigested milk         2ndary bact. Infections                                                           Latex agglutination, FAT
                                                                                                                                                            fluid therapy
                                                                   resuts in metabolic acidosis

Orthoreoviruses

                          Mostly in                                                                  Recumbant on hocks,
                                       Fecal contaminated                                                                                                                                                            E.coli, staph,
                   Viral broilers,                                                                   reduced growth, and feed                                                          Cloacal and tracheal
                                       surfaces, verticle (minor), Swollen and ruptured tendons                                                             Vaccination of breeders                                  strep, mycoplasma
  Arthritis/Tenosynovitis some layers,                                                               efficiency, fixed joints,                                                         swabs for virus isolation
                                       carrier birds                                                                                                                                                                 induced arthritis
                          turkeys                                                                    swelling of foot pads

Coronaviridae - pleiomorphic, enveloped, linear (+) ssRNA, NO Inclusion bodies, E2 and HE proteins induce neutralizing Abs. In the host, Mammalian groups I and II, Avian groups III and IV

                                                                                                                                                          1 month quarantine of
                                                                                                 Epizootic: inappetance,
                                      Within a herd - fecal-                                                                                              infected pigs, all-in/all-
                                                                                                 lethargy, diarrhea, vomiting
                                      oral; between herds -                                                                           Morb: up to 100%; out management,
                                                                                                 Enzootic: diarrhea and 10-                                                            Winter months, clinical
  Porcine Coronavirus -               introduction of infected                                                                        Major cause of      disinfection of
                         Swine, dogs,                              Villous atrophy, accumulation 20% mortality. Lactating                                                              signs and herd history,
         Transmissible                animals, mechanical                                                                             death in young      environment,                                                                    Worldwide
                         cats                                      of fluid in intestines        sows develop anorexia and                                                             viral isolation,
  Gastroenteritis (TGEV)              transmission, carrier                                                                           piglets under 2 wks vaccination for high
                                                                                                 agalactia. Respiratory form                                                           ELISA/IEM/IF, Ab titers
                                      dogs, cats, foxes, and                                                                          approaching 100% levels of maternal Abs
                                                                                                 (PRCV) - mild respiratory dz
                                      starlings                                                                                                           in colostrum **can use
                                                                                                 without diarrhea.
                                                                                                                                                          modified live**
                                                                                                                                         MORBIDITY AND            TREATMENT AND                                            DIFFERENTIAL                    INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                           MORTALITY                 CONTROL                       DIAGNOSIS                 DIAGNOSIS      DISTRIBUTION      PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells


                                                                      Infection of monocytes and       Sporadic, anorexia, chronic
                                                                      macrophages, acute immune        fever, depression,
                                                                      complex-mediated vascular        progressive debilitation. Wet
                          Wild and
                                                                      and perivascular lesions,        form(diptheric type):
                          Domestic                                                                                                       Morb: <10%; Wet
                                                                      escape of fibrin-rich serum to   abdominal and pleural                                    Vaccination intranasally    History and clinical signs,
   Feline Coronavirus - Canids                                                                                                           form has mortality
                                                                      interstitium; multiple gray-     effusion, abdominal                                      induces cell-mediated,      biopsy,
       Feline Infectious (mostly       Fecal -oral route                                                                                 of 100%; Dry form                                                                                 Worldwide       4 months
                                                                      white nodules to chronic         distension, ascites, allergic                            not Ab immunity;            hypergamaglobulinemia,
        Peritonitis (FIP) young adult                                                                                                    has mortality of 80-
                                                                      pyogranulomatous lesions of      rxn. Dry form                                            quarantine                  IFA/ELISA
                          cats 6 mos-2                                                                                                   85%
                                                                      peritoneum, omentum, liver,      (parenchymatous):
                          yrs)
                                                                      lungs, spleen, kidney, pluera,   meningoencephalitis, ataxia,
                                                                      pericardium, meninges,           tremors, convulsions,
                                                                      brain, uvea                      paralysis



                                                                                                       Young: depression,
                                                                                                       sneezing, coughing, tracheal
                                                                      Trachea is primary viral                                                               Recovered chickens are
                                                                                                       rales; layers: mild respiratory
                                                                      target, lungs, kidneys,                                                                immune for 6-8mos,             Clincal signs, necropsy:
      Avian Coronavirus                   Foamites, aerosol,                                           signs, decreased egg              Highly contagious,
                                                                      ovaries, oviducts, lymphoid                                                            increase ambient               catarrhal tracheitis, edem Newcastle
        Avian Infectious                  ingestion of feces-                                          production, soft-shelled,         persistent
                          Chickens                                    tissues, chicks less than 2                                                            temperature, avoid             of lungs, caseous plugs in disease, infectious Worldwide       18-36 hours
    Bronchitis - Gasping                  contaminated food and                                        misshaped, rough-shelled,         shedding. Mort: 25-
                                                                      weeks have permanent                                                                   overcrowding, vaccines         the lungs, viral isolation laryngotracheitis
                  Disease                 water                                                        watery                            75%
                                                                      damage to oviducts - false                                                             in drinking water or           from tracheal swab
                                                                                                       albumen;nephropathic
                                                                      layers                                                                                 aerosols
                                                                                                       strains: enlarged kidney with
                                                                                                       urate filled tubules

                                                                                                                                                                                            Viral isolation from fresh
 Bovine Coronavirus 1 -                                               Destruction of LI absorptive                                                              Dam immunization to                                       Rotavirus
                                          Orofecal - contaminated                                      Severe diarrhea, 2ndary           Morb: up to 100%;                                  feces, IFA/IEM,
      Calf Coronavirus Cattle                                         epithelium and SI villous                                                                 elevate colostrum Ab                                      (diarrhea with
                                          teats and feed; carriers                                     colliobacillus infections         Mort: 0-50%                                        hemadsorption inhibition
              Diarrhea                                                atrophy                                                                                   levels                                                    anorexia)
                                                                                                                                                                                            test
                                                                                                                                                                Recovered animals
    Canine Coronavirus                                                Mild gastroenteritis, occuring
                       Canine                                                                                                                                   seem completely
        (CCV) Diarrhea                                                comonly with parvo
                                                                                                                                                                immune
                                                                                                       Acute: anorexia,                  Acute: morb/mort
      Hemaggluinating                                                 Mostly subclinical, limited to
                          Swine; 1-                                                                    hyperesthesia, muscle             may reach 100%;        Good husbandry
Encephalomyelitis Virus                                               URT and tonsils. Occasional                                                                                                                         Teschen disease,
                          3wk old                                                                      tremors, ataxia, collapse,        death within 24 hrs    practices, exposure
   (HEV): Encephalitis-                   Inhalation and direct       CNS invasion. If ingested,                                                                                                                          pseudorabies, and US, Canada,
                          pigles are                                                                   nystagmus, paddling,              of clinical            before farrowing,           Histopath - no                                                 4-8 days
 Vomiting and Wasting                     contact                     replicates in the intestines                                                                                                                        transmissible     Europe
                          most                                                                         vomition. Chronic (VWD) -         presentation.          colostral Abs, self
   Disease Complex of                                                 and invades the neurons of                                                                                                                          gastroenteritis
                          susceptible                                                                  anorexia, vomition,               Chronic - 100%         limiting in older pigs
                  Swine                                               GIT
                                                                                                       emaciation                        mortality
Arteriviridae - enveloped, linear (+)ssRNA, NO Ibs, horizontal spreading, persistent infections, replicate in macrophages, fragile

                                                                      Replication in alveolar          40-80% abortion, fever,
                                                                      macrophages, viremia and         depression, anorexia,
                           Horses         Aerosolyzed
                                                                      replication in endothelium,      lacrimation, petechiae of                                Vaccine produces long
                           (mainly in     nasopharyngeal                                                                                                                                    Viral isolation from
Equine Arterivirus (EAV)                                              necrosis of smooth muscle of     nasal mucosa and                                         lasting immunity,
                           standardbred   secretions, blood, feces,                                                                                                                         nasopharyngeal swab,
  - Equine Viral Arteritis                                            small arteries, edema,           conjunctiva, skin rash,                                  vaccination of stallions                                                   Worldwide       3-15 days
                            and           urine, tears, venereal,                                                                                                                           urine, aborted fetus,
                    (EVA)                                             hemorrhage, vasculitis,          edema of limbs, head, trunk                              annually before the
                           thoroughbred   carrier stallions,                                                                                                                                semen, blood, FAT
                                                                      conjunctivitis, necrotizing      and external genitalia,                                  breeding season
                           )              transplacental
                                                                      myometritis and placental        diarrhea, congestion of
                                                                      detachment                       mucus membranes


                                                                                                 Adults: short term fever and            Sow morbility 3-
                                                                                                 anorexia; Pregnant sows:                80%; Piglet
     Porcine, Arterivirus                                                                        late term abortion, stillbirths,        mortality up to        Prophylactic antibiotics,
                                                                      Reproductive failure,                                                                                                 Nasal swabs, blood,
    (Lelystad) - Porcine                                                                         premature farrowing, birth of           100%; Adults low       30 day isolation, obtain
                                          Aerosol, direct contact,    pneumonia, and pre-weaning                                                                                            serum, lung tissue,                            U.S. and
      Reproductive and Pigs                                                                      weak piglets; Piglets:                  mortality;             clean (no PRRS)                                                                            2-7 days
                                          foamites, semen             mortality, interstitial                                                                                               aborted fetuses samples                        Europe
  Respiratory Syndrome                                                                           depression, severe                      secondary bact.        breeding stock from
                                                                      pneumonia                                                                                                             for viral isolation, IFA,
  (PRRS), SIRS, PEARS                                                                            respiratory distress,                   Infections may         other farms, vaccine
                                                                                                 coughing, sneezing,                     contribute to
                                                                                                 conjunctivitis, poor growth             mortality

Togaviridae- enveloped, linear (+)ssRNA, NO Ibs, cytoplasmic replication, alpha/arboviruses and rubiviruses, fragile, E1 and 2, C structural proteins
                                                                                                                                      MORBIDITY AND        TREATMENT AND                                            DIFFERENTIAL                      INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                        MORTALITY             CONTROL                       DIAGNOSIS                 DIAGNOSIS      DISTRIBUTION        PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells
                                                                                                     No CNS involvement:
                        Accidental                                  Invasion of RE tissues,          subclinical or fever,
                                         (Mosquito - Culex
                        disease of                                  muscle, CT, myeloid and          anorexia, depression;                               Highlands J virus (rarely
                                        tarsalis)Not considered                                                                                                                      Seasonal - June-October,
    Equine Alphavirus - Equids and                                  lymphoid tissues; CNS -          Severe: depression,                                 virulent) cross protects                                                                     1-3 weeks;
                                        contagious disease in                                                                                                                        viral isolation from blood,
       Western Equine humans;                                       replication and destruction of   anorexia, tachycardia,           Mort: 20-40%       from WEE in eastern                                                         Americas         course 2-4
                                        horses and man, due to                                                                                                                       brain, IFA,
     Encephalomyelitis normally wild                                neurons (gray matter of          occasional diarrhea, fever,                         USA, vaccine, vector                                                                         days
                                        low blood titer. Least                                                                                                                       hemagluttination inh.
                        birds and                                   cerebral cortex, thalamus,       lip and tongue protrude,                            control
                                        virulent;
                        rodents                                     hypothalamus, medulla, SC        paresis, paralysis,
                                                                                                     disorientation.

                                                                                                     No CNS involvement:
                                                                    Invasion of RE tissues,          subclinical or fever,
                        Horses,         Dead end host, low
                                                                    muscle, CT, myeloid and          anorexia, depression;
                        humans,         titer;More virulent and                                                                                                                      Seasonal - June-October,
                                                                    lymphoid tissues; CNS -          Severe: depression,
        Eastern Equine pheasants;       most severe infections;                                                                                                                      viral isolation from blood,
                                                                    replication and destruction of   anorexia, tachycardia,           Mort: 90%          Vaccine, vector control                                                     Americas
      Encephalomyelitis (wild birds     North/South American                                                                                                                         brain, IFA,
                                                                    neurons (gray matter of          occasional diarrhea, fever,
                        are             varieties;(mosquito -                                                                                                                        hemagluttination inh.
                                                                    cerebral cortex, thalamus,       lip and tongue protrude,
                        reservoirs)     Culiseta melanura)
                                                                    hypothalamus, medulla, SC        paresis, paralysis,
                                                                                                     disorientation.

                                                                                                     No CNS involvement:
                                                                    Invasion of RE tissues,          subclinical or fever,
                                      Viremia can reach
                       Horses and                                   muscle, CT, myeloid and          anorexia, depression;
                                      transmissible levels                                                                                                                           Seasonal - June-October,
                       humans;                                      lymphoid tissues; CNS -          Severe: depression,                                                                                                             Americas (only
    Venezuelan Equine                 (oral/direct); 6 serotypes,                                                                                                                    viral isolation from blood,
                       rodents and                                  replication and destruction of   anorexia, tachycardia,           Mort: 50-80%       Vaccine, vector control                                                     South FL, for
     Encephalomyelitis                only ABC cause                                                                                                                                 brain, IFA,
                       mosquitos                                    neurons (gray matter of          occasional diarrhea, fever,                                                                                                     US)
                                      disease;(mosquito -                                                                                                                            hemagluttination inh.
                       are reservoirs                               cerebral cortex, thalamus,       lip and tongue protrude,
                                      Culex tarsalis)
                                                                    hypothalamus, medulla, SC        paresis, paralysis,
                                                                                                     disorientation.
Flaviviridae - enveloped, linear (+)ssRNA, cytoplasmic replication, NO IBs, Flavivirus/Pestivirus/Hepatovirus
Pesitviurses


                                                                    NY, OR (most virulent and
                                                                                                                                                         Homologous vaccine
                                                                    highest CPE), IN serotypes;
                                                                                                     Ulcerations of muzzle,                              from OR strain (trivalent                                 Rinderpest,
                                                                    gastroenteritis, may be
                                                                                                     nasal/oral cavities, stunting,   BVD: Morb: up to   - IBR, BVD,                 Virus isolation from buffy    Malignant
  Bovine Viral Diarrhea- Wild/Domesti                               persistent infection, specific
                                      Aerosol, fecal-oral,                                           early death, fever, anorexia,    100%, Mort: 5%:    Parainfluenza 3);           coat, feces, nasal, etc.      Catharric Fever,
      Mucosal Disease c Ruminants                                   immunotolerance; <100 days                                                                                                                                       U.S.
                                      vertical (transplacental)                                      watery diarrhea, erosive         MD: Morb: 5-10%,   quarantine; recovery        FAT, ELISA, Ab titer, IFA,    Infectious Bovine
               (BVDMD) and Swine                                    fetal death and
                                                                                                     stomatitis, lamness,             Mort: up to 100%   yields lifelong immunity,   VN, CFT                       Rhinotracheitis,
                                                                    mummification, >100 days
                                                                                                     pneumonia                                           Colostral Ab persists for                                 Foot and Mouth Dz
                                                                    abortion, cerebellar
                                                                                                                                                         5-9 months
                                                                    hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia



                                                                    Replication in the tonsils,                                                                                 Button ulcers in lrg. Int.,
                                                                                                     Sudden death of young
                                                                    invasion of regional lns.,                                                                                  submucosal/serosal
                                                                                                     swine (peracute); high fever,
                                                                    primary viremia into                                                                                        petechial hemorrhages,
                        Economicallyt                                                                depression, anorexia,                                                                                                           Worldwide
                                        Ingestion, inhalation:      hematopoetic and vascular                                                                                   congestion/infarc of
                        he most                                                                      conjunctivitis, vomiting,                           Enzootic: quarantine                                                        (eradicated
                                        lacrimal, nasal, saliva,    tissues, degeneration of                                                                                    spleen and liver, necrotic
    Hog Cholera (Swine important                                                                     diarrhea and/or constipation,                       and immunization; Non-                                    African Swine     from US, Can,
                                        urine, feces, tissues;      endothelium of small vessels,                                                                               ulceration of L.I. Mucosa;                                            2-4 days
                 Fever) contagious                                                                   CNS: P/P, lethargy, circling,                       Enzootic: eradication                                     Fever             Aus, many
                                        argassid ticks (mech.       thrombosis, edema,                                                                                          virus isolation from
                        disease in                                                                   tremors, occasional                                 (U.S.)                                                                      European
                                        Vector), in utero           generalized hemorrhages,                                                                                    mandibular ln, tonsils,
                        swine                                                                        convulsions (acute);                                                                                                            countries
                                                                    some may be lifelong                                                                                        spleen, blood, little/no
                                                                                                     abortion, fetal death, mumm,
                                                                    shedders, immunologic                                                                                       CPE, FAT/ELISA, agar
                                                                                                     cong. Anom.,
                                                                    tolerance                                                                                                   precip.


                                                                    Dz of fetus and embryo, post
                                                                    natal infections are usually     D46-80 - abnormal lambs
                                        Contact with infected
                                                                    subclinical: d16-45 -            with hairy fleece, congenital                                                   Flock history, clinical
                                        secretions, excretions                                                                                           Normal, subclinical                                                         New Zealand,
                                                                    embryonic and fetal death;       tremors (tonic-clonic), may                                                     signs, virus isolation from
  Border Disease (BD) -                 and tissues (urine,                                                                                              infections result in                                                        Australia,
                         Sheep                                      later: dysplastic development    not be able to stand or          Morb: 50%                                      heparinized blood, brain,
  Hairy Shakers, fuzzies                saliva, placental fluids,                                                                                        recovery and good                                                           Europe, U.S.,
                                                                    of hair follicles,               suckle; later infections may                                                    hemopoetic organs; FAT,
                                        viremic carriers for two                                                                                         immunity, leave it be?                                                      Canada
                                                                    dysmyelinogenesis and white      produce weak lambs with                                                         histopath of white matter
                                        years w/no clin. Signs.
                                                                    matter hyperplasia;              lesser clincal signs
                                                                    immunosupression
                                                                                                                                  MORBIDITY AND          TREATMENT AND                                           DIFFERENTIAL                      INCUBATION
      TAXONOMY          SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                    MORTALITY               CONTROL                       DIAGNOSIS                DIAGNOSIS      DISTRIBUTION        PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells
Flaviviruses
                                                                                                   Biphasic fever (2nd peak                            Vector control (dip
                        Sheep;
               Ovine                                                                               corresponds with CNS signs;                         sheep in residual           Clinical signs, Viral
                        occasionally
    Encephalomyelitis -                Ixodes ticks                 Viremia                        Leaping gait, cerebellar     Mort: 10-15%           ascaricides),               isolation from brain and                       Europe
                        in horses,
            Louping Ill                                                                            ataxia, tremors,                                    immunization of lambs       SC
                        cattle, deer
                                                                                                   hyperexcitability, paralysis                        with inactivated vac.
                                                                                                   Fever, depression, juandice,
                                                                                                   subcutaneous edema;          Mortality is high in   Immunization of lambs                                                      Sub-Saharan
   Wesselsbron Disease Sheep           Aedes mosquitos              Hepatitis
                                                                                                   pregnant ewes may die or     newborn lambs          with live vaccine                                                          Africa
                                                                                                   abort
                                                                                             Abortion, fetal
                          Swine and                                                                                                                                                                                               Japan?, not in
  Japanese Encephalitis                Mosquitos                    Encephalitis             mummification; death in
                          Humans                                                                                                                                                                                                  U.S.
                                                                                             piglets
Paramyxoviridae - pleiomorphic, lipoprotein envelope, linear (-)ssRNA, cytoplasmic replication, syncitia formation and ICIBs, heat sensitive, HN, F, M, and NP structural proteins

                                                                    Local infections of the
Paramyxoviruses                                                     respiratory tract, usually
                                                                    subclinical unless 2nd bact.

                                                                                                   Young: fever, lacrimation,                          Multi/polyvalent killed     Nasal swab, lung, paired
                                                                  Primary contributor to
  Parainfluenza-3 Virus Cattle and                                                                 serous nasal discharge,                             and attenuated              serum samples, CPE -
                                       Aerosol, contact, foamites shipping fever; mild
                  (PI-3) Sheep                                                                     depression, dyspnea and                             vaccines; antibiotics for   syncytia and ICIBs, viral
                                                                  respiratory condition
                                                                                                   coughing                                            2ndary bact. Infections     neurtalization, HI, FAT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bordetela
  Canine Parainfluenza
                        Canine                                      Mild, short duration URT Dz    Kennel cough                                                                                                 bronchiseptica,
                  Virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                CAV-II


                                                                                                   Fever, weakness, ataxia,
                                                                                                   muscle tremor, prostration,
                                                                                                   unilateral/bilateral corneal
                                                                                                   opacity, and conjunctivitis;
                                                                                                                                                     Elimination of infected
                                                                                                   older animals may show        12-15d piglets:                                   Clinical signs, virus
Porcine Paramyxovirus-                 Direct contact with          CNS disorders, reproductive                                                      animals, disinfection,
                        Swine                                                                      anorexia, fever, sneezing,    mobidity is 20-50%;                               isolation from tonsils and                     Central Mexico
 blue-eye disease (BEP)                subclinical (carrier) pigs   failure                                                                          herd isolation, sentinel
                                                                                                   coughing, corneal opacity all Mortality is 87-90%                               brain; HI, ELISA, VN, IFA
                                                                                                                                                     pigs, all in/all out
                                                                                                   to a lesser degree; Pregnant
                                                                                                   sows - SMEDI; Boars -
                                                                                                   orchitis, testicular atrophy,
                                                                                                   epididymitis




                                                                                                                                                       Maternal Abs protect for
                                                                                                   Viscerotropic (exotic VVND-
                                                                                                                                                       3-4 wks, neutralizing HI
                                                                                                   Doyle's) peracute, lethal
                                                                                                                                                       Abs dected 4-6 days
                                                                                                   chicken dz of all ages,
                                                                                                                                                       and persist for 2 years;
                                                                                                   hemorrhagic and ulcer-like
                                                                                                                                                       IgG prevents viremia,
                        Gallinaceous   Direct contact, aerosols,    Virus replication in URT and   lesions in the GIT; Velogenic
                                                                                                                                                       but not resp. inf.; IgA     Viral isolation from
                        birds,         dust, ingestion of           GIT epithelial mucosa.         (pneumoencephalitis-
                                                                                                                                                       protects RT and Int.        tracheal or cloacal swabs,
Avian Paramyxovirus 1 - pheasants,     contaminated food/water,     Primary viremia to spleen      Beach's)acute, lethal         VVND: mortality is
                                                                                                                                                       Notifiable,                 spleen, brain, or lung;
     Newcastle Disease quail,          4 wks shedding in            and bone marrow producing      infection of all chickens, RT 50-100%
                                                                                                                                                       quarantine/depopulation.    Hemagluttination/hemabso
                        partridges,    secretions, psittacines      2nd viremia to lungs,          and CNS lesions; Mesogenic
                                                                                                                                                         Lentogenic: B1 and        rption
                        pigeons        are persistent carriers      intestine and CNS              (Beaudette's) acute
                                                                                                                                                       LaSota booster (side
                                                                                                   repiratory, occasional CNS
                                                                                                                                                       effects) are both live;
                                                                                                   of young chickens;
                                                                                                                                                       Inactivated NDV
                                                                                                   Lentogenic (Hitchner's) mild
                                                                                                                                                       water/oil emulsion -
                                                                                                   respiratory, rarely fatal
                                                                                                                                                       breeders/layers IM


Morbiliviruses
                                                                                                                                        MORBIDITY AND           TREATMENT AND                                              DIFFERENTIAL                        INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                          MORTALITY                CONTROL                       DIAGNOSIS                   DIAGNOSIS         DISTRIBUTION       PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells

                                                                       Necrosis and erosion of URT
                                                                                                         Fever, erosive stomatitis,
                                                                       and GIT epithelial mucosa, ;
                                                                                                         lacrimation, serous nasal                                                       Viral isolation from urine,
                                         Higly contagious:             inhalation-palatine tonsils-
                          Cattle,                                                                        discharge to mucopurulent,                           Recovered animals          buffy coat, nasal
Bovine Morbilivirus     -                aerosols, secretions,         regional ln-viremia to ln,                                      Usually fatal.                                                                                          Asia, Sub-
                          buffalo,                                                                       abdominal respiration with                           have lifelong immunity,    discharge, feces, spleen;
      Rinderpest                         excretions; early             spleen, bone marrow,                                            Morbidity very high;                                                                                    Saharan Africa, 3-9 days
                          sheep,                                                                         coughing, profuse salivation,                        vaccination in enzootic    AGID, IPS, FAT, CFT.
          (cattle plague)                shedding of virus during      mucosa of URT/GIT-                                              Mortality 90%                                                                                           and Middle East
                          goats, swine                                                                   bloody diarrhea,                                     countries                  **Histopath - IN/IC Ibs is
                                         incubation period             destruction of T&B
                                                                                                         dehydration, terminal                                                           pathognomonic**
                                                                       lymphocytes-increased
                                                                                                         hypothermia and death
                                                                       susceptibility to other inf.


                                                                                                                                                              On day 8-9, if Ab titer
                                                                    Immunosuppresive (cell-
                                                                                                                                                              >1:100 leads to
                                                                    mediated); replication in
                                                                                                                                                              subclinical infection,
                                                                    macrophages, epithelial
                                                                                                                                                              recovered dogs have
                                                                    cells, T&B lymp, and nervous
                                                                                                                                                              immunity for up to two
                                                                    tissue (initially in Resp. epith.
                                                                                                                                                              years; passive immunity
                                                                    and alveolar macro., then
                                                                                                         Sudden death is rare;                                last up to 8 weeks;
                                                                    spreads to oropharyngeal                                                                                             ELISA, VN, CFT; IHC,
                         Canids,         Highly infectious;                                              severe respiratory dz due to                         hyperimmune serum or
                                                                    lymph tissue; mononuclear                                                                                            FAT, IPO; samples from
                         procyonids,     inhalation, virus is shed                                       2ndary inf. With B.                                  IgG can be used                                             Infectious Canine
  Canine Morbillivirus -                                            cell viremia. If Ab titer is                                                                                         conjunctiva or peripheral
                         mustelids,      in all excretions and                                           bronchiseptica, permanent      Mortality 30-80%      prophylactically;                                           Hepatitis (ferrets   Worldwide       3-7 days
Canine Distemper (CDV)                                              <1:100 by day 14, viremia                                                                                            blood lymphocytes; lung,
                         exotic (only)   secretions after day 5 for                                      CNS sequelae (Snider Hill                            attenuated live can be                                      are resistant)
                                                                    will occur and can lead to                                                                                           stomach, intestine,
                         felids          up to 90 days                                                   and R252 strains) for                                given at 8 wks, annual
                                                                    demyelinating                                                                                                        bladder
                                                                                                         surviving dogs                                       revaccination is
                                                                    encephalomyelitis after a
                                                                                                                                                              recommended;
                                                                    month; late complications -
                                                                                                                                                              encephalitis reported as
                                                                    hard pad dz of feet and nose
                                                                                                                                                              side effect from MLV
                                                                    (pathognomonic), old dog
                                                                                                                                                              distemper vaccine;
                                                                    encephalitis 2 yrs after
                                                                                                                                                              measle vaccine share
                                                                    recovery
                                                                                                                                                              common F (fusion) Ag

Pneumoviruses

                                                                       Complete loss of ciliated                                                                                         Winter months inside
                                         Aerosol from respiratory
                                                                       epithelium, compromised                                                                                           enclosed areas; fragile,
 Bovine Pneumovirus -                    tract secretions; cattle of                                     Fever, lethargy, rhinitis,
                                                                       pulmonary clearance                                                                                               should not be frozen;
    Bovine Respiratory Cattle and        all ages and breeds are                                         nonproductive cough,           Morbidity high,       Attenuated live vaccine
                                                                       resulting in secondary                                                                                            produces syncytia and                                 Worldwide       5-7 days
Syncytial Virus Disease Sheep            susceptible, incidence is                                       severe bronchopneumonia        mortality low         for cattle
                                                                       infection from Pasteurella                                                                                        ICIBs; FA; viral isolation
                 (BRSV)                  highest in weaned/young                                         may result in death
                                                                       haemolytica; interstitial                                                                                         is difficult due to fragility;
                                         cattle
                                                                       pneumonia and emphysema                                                                                           VN, ELISA

Orthomyxoviridae - Pleomorphic, enveloped, HA/NA proteins, linear (-)ssRNA, segmented, NO IBs, fragile, cap snatching, influenza viruses ABC, genetic reassortment

   Influenza A Viruses                                                 Antigenic shift/antigenic drift


                                                                                                                                                              Separation and
                                                                                                                                                              quarantine, stress
                                         One of the most                                                 Fever, rhinitis, nasal                               reduction speeds
                                                                       Pure virus infection results in
                                         contagious (area-wide                                           discharge, sneezing,           Mortlity is 1% with   recovery, good nursing
    A/swine/Iowa/15/30 Swine,                                          mild disease, 2ndary bact.
                                         and explosive via stock                                         conjunctivitis, anorexia and   virus alone; with     and dry, clean bedding;
(H1N1) Swine Influenza humans,                                         Inf. By Haemophilus parasuis                                                                                      Late Fall and Winter, herd,                                           1-3 days
                                         introductions): aerosol,                                        weight loss. Paroxysmal        2ndary infection is   recovered animals have
   (Swine Flu, Hog Flu) turkeys                                        and ascarid suum migrating
                                         contact, fomites;                                               cough, rapid/labored           higher                1yr immunity; not
                                                                       in lungs
                                         Infection within 24 hours                                       breathing, prostration                               routinely vaccinated
                                                                                                                                                              (not very effective), live
                                                                                                                                                              and inactivated vacc.
                                                                                                                                       MORBIDITY AND          TREATMENT AND                                             DIFFERENTIAL                         INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                         MORTALITY               CONTROL                        DIAGNOSIS                 DIAGNOSIS       DISTRIBUTION          PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells

                                                                                                                                                              Quarantine infected
                                                                                                                                                            stables for at least 4
                                                                                                                                                            wks, exposed persons
                                                                                                        Sudden onset, high fever,
                                                                                                                                                            should limit contact with
                                                                                                        reddening of nasal mucosa,
                                            Aerosolized infectious                                                                                          non exposed animals,
     Equine Influenza -                                                   Rapid spread, no viremia,     conjunctivitis, increased
                            Equids,         exudate. virus is exceted                                                                                       disinfection of all
  A/equine/Prague/1/56                                                    2ndary bacterial infections   nasal and conjunctival
                            especially      during incubation period                                                                                        holding and transport                                                         South America,
           (H7N7) and                                                     produce purulent nasal        exudates, transient swelling                                                                                                                     1-3 days
                            those that      and horses remain                                                                                               equipment; Bivalent                                                           US, and Europe
     A/equi/Miami/2/63                                                    exudate and catarrhal         of pharyngeal ln, muscle
                            travel a lot    infectious for 5 days after                                                                                     inactivated vaccine
                 (H3N8)                                                   bronchopneumonia              soreness and occasional
                                            clinical signs begin.                                                                                           admin 3 times (8-12
                                                                                                        myocarditis, dry hacking
                                                                                                                                                            weeks apart, and 6
                                                                                                        paroxysmal cough
                                                                                                                                                            months later);
                                                                                                                                                            revaccination in 9-
                                                                                                                                                            month intervals


                            Mainly
                                                                                                                                                          Quarantine and
                            turkeys (less                                                             Coughing, gasping, blood-
                                                                                                                                                          eradication; cleaning
                            frequently      Contact with respiratory,                                 staind oral and nasal
   Avian Influenza (Fowl                                                                                                                                  and disinfection; time
                            chickens);      conjunctival secrections,                                 discharges, diarrhea,                                                                                            Newcastle                             variable: few
     Plague, Fowl Pest) -                                                 H5N2 and H7N7 are HPAIs;                                                        and sentinel birds
                            migratory       feces, mechanical                                         cyanotic comb and waddle,        Variable morb/mort                                                              disease, Eimeria   Worldwide          hours to a few
Highly Pathogenic Avian                                                   some are zoonotic to humans                                                     before repopulation;
                            waterfowl       spread via birds,                                         edema of the head, air                                                                                           tenella                               days
    Influenzavirus (HPAI)                                                                                                                                 vaccination not used for
                            especially      humans, water, food                                       sacculitis; drop in egg
                                                                                                                                                          HPAI outbreaks, none
                            ducks are                                                                 production in layers
                                                                                                                                                          approved for U.S.
                            reservoirs)

Rhabdoviridae - bullet-shaped, enveloped, linear (-)ssRNA, cytoplasmic replication, N, M1 and 2, G proteins, DI particles

                                                                                                                                                            6 month quarantine;
                                                                                                                                                            minimum host
                                                                          Infection starts in striated                                                      inflammatory and
                                                                          muscle and/or subepithelial                                                       specific immune              Suspect any mammal
                                            Bite or scratch of rabid      tissues at bite site; shed from                                                   response; stray and          displaying encephalitis,
                                            animal; aerosolization of     myocites and bind to Ach                                                          ferral carnivore control;    paralysis of unknown                             Worldwide*         Usually 14-90
                         All warm-
                                            excretion of virus in         receptors, travel up                                         Most lethal of all   wildlife bait live vaccine   origin. FA test of medulla,                      (Australia,        days. Site of
                         blooded
                                            enclosed spaces (caves        peripheral nerves to CNS                                     infectious           for foxes; pre-exposure      cerebellum, and                                  Japan, Great       entry and
                         animals to
                                            and shaded roosts); 1/2       (limbic system) extensive       Furious and Dumb forms;      diseases; up to      vaccine in the U.S.;         hippocampus; ICIBs in                            Britain, Hawaii,   innervation
     Lyssavirus - Rabies varying
                                            of dogs/humans bitten         replication; centrifugal mov't Variable clinical signs       100% fatality rate   post-exposure in             large ganglion cells in                          Alaska, and        influences
                         degrees;
                                            get dz; transplants;          down peripheral nerves to                                    in humans and        humans, wash                 pyramidal layer of                               most of the        incubation;
                         bats are
                                            period of viral shedding      adrenal cortex, pancreas,                                    domestic animals     thoroughly. Vaccine (5)      cerebral cortex and                              Caribbean are      travels@ 8-16
                         reservoirs
                                            before clinical signs         and the salivary glands via                                                       d0, 3, 7, 14, 28             purkinje cell layer of                           rabies free)       mm/day
                                            (prodromal period)            CNs; interference with neural                                                     (optional 6th dose @         cerebellum (negri bodies) -
                                                                          transmission, asphyxiation                                                        90days); Rabies               not all dz shows these
                                                                          and death                                                                         immune globulin 1/2 at
                                                                                                                                                            entry site, 1/2
                                                                                                                                                            systemically

Vesiculoviruses
                                                                                                                                     MORBIDITY AND           TREATMENT AND                                            DIFFERENTIAL                    INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                       MORTALITY                CONTROL                        DIAGNOSIS                DIAGNOSIS     DISTRIBUTION       PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells


                                                                                                                                                           No cross protection;
                                                                                                                                                           supportive therapy, soft
                                                                                                                                                           foods, rest, water, tx of
                                                                                                                                                           2ndary infections;
                                                                                                                                                           reportable; quarantine,
                                                                    Indiana, NJ, and Isfahan
                                                                                                                                                           vaccination
                         Cattle,       Contact from milking         serotypes; vessicular                                                                                              Viral isolation from
                                                                                                      Vesicular lesion on tongue,                          (autogenously killed
         Vesiculovirus - horses,       machine, fomites,            formation and epithelial                                                                                           vesicular fluid, epithelial   Foot and Mouth    Primarily
                                                                                                      lips, gums, teats, coronary                          vaccines during
    Vesicular Stomatitis mules,        arthropods (mosquitos,       denudation, systemic/viremic                                                                                       tissue covering vesicle;      Dz, VE, SVD, BVD- Western        2-5 days
                                                                                                      bands, profuse salivation,                           outbreaks) - horses
            Virus (VSV) swine, deer,   leaf hoppers, sand flies     infection in swine; zoonotic                                                                                       complement fixation,          MD                Hemisphere
                                                                                                      anorexia                                             have trouble traveling,
                         raccoons      are biological vectors)      form causes mild respiratory                                                                                       serum neutralization
                                                                                                                                                           because natural
                                                                    infection
                                                                                                                                                           infection and vaccinated
                                                                                                                                                           animal cannot be
                                                                                                                                                           differentiated
                                                                                                                                                           serologically; vector
                                                                                                                                                           control;


Ephemeroviruses


                                                                    Site of replication unknown;      Sudden onset of
                                                                    serofibrinous polyserositic       inappetance and pyrexia                              Anti-inflammatory
                                                                    lesions of the joints, pleural    (biphasic), lameness which                           drugs, Ca boroglutinate
                                                                    and peritoneal surfaces; lung     may lead to recumbancy,                              to combat P/P; vector       Viral isolation from buffy
     Bovine Ephermeral                 Noncontagious;               edema and atelectasis;            immediate, severe drop in                            control; Attenuated         coat; seasonal occurance;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Africa, Asia,
    Fever (BEF) - 3-day                arthropods (possibly         effusion fluids have high         milk production, excess                              virus vaccine in            FAT during viremia; 4-fold                                     2-4 days
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Australia
               sickness                culicoides)                  numbers of PMNs; increased        salivation, lacrimation,                             enzootic areas,             rise in Ab titer with
                                                                    permeability of serosal           serous nasal discharge,                              recovered animals           VN/ELISA
                                                                    vessels; immune complex           dyspnea, abortion in 5% of                           develop long lasting
                                                                    hypersensitivity rxn similar to   cows; recovery is dramatic                           immunity
                                                                    blue eye and FIP                  and complete in 3 days (2-5)


Retroviridae - enveloped, 3-layered, segmented, linear (+)ssRNA, , may carry oncogene, latent/persistent infections, cell transformation, gag/pol/env genes,
                        Cattle, cats,                          Major cause of leukemias,
Oncogenic
                        apes, mice,                            lymphomas, and sarcomas
Retroviruses
                        chickens                               by affecting c-onc genes

                                                                    Systemic, malignant
                                                                    neoplasia of RES;
                                                                    aggregations of neoplastic                                                                                         Clinical history, and
                                       Requires close               lymphocytes. B-lymphocytes                                                             No vaccination. genetic     histopath of infected
 Bovine Leukemia Virus                 prolonged contact -          are target cells, permanent                                      Highly fatal; U.S.    resistance is possible;     tissues, viral isolation
(BLV) - Enzootic (adult)               blood (.1 ml), milk, tumor   infection/persistent                                             10-50% morbidity      testing herd and            from blood, lymphoid
                         Cattle                                                                                                                                                                                                       Worldwide
 Bovine Leukosis (EBL,                 masses, insects,             lymphocytosis with 30% of                                        of dairy cattle; 1-   removal of infected         tissues, bone marrow
Bovine Lymphosarcoma)                  iatrogenic, in utero,        animals; <1% develop                                             20% in beef cattle    animals in 3 month          aspirates; syncitia
                                       latent carriers              lymphosarcoma between 4-                                                               intervals                   formation; RIA, ELISA,
                                                                    8yrs of age in ln, heart,                                                                                          agar diffusion
                                                                    abomasum, kidney, spleen,
                                                                    uterus, lumbar S.C.


                                                                    Lymphosarcoma: Calf form:
                                                                    <6mos - multiple ln
                                                                    enlargement; Thymic form -
                                                                    6mos-2yrs - swelling of the
       Sporadic Bovine
                       Cattle                                       neck causing bloat and                                                                                                                                            Worldwide
              Leukosis
                                                                    edema; Cutaneous form - 1-3
                                                                    yrs develop nodes and
                                                                    plaques in the skin (rare).
                                                                    Calf/Thymic are fatal
                                                                                                                                       MORBIDITY AND        TREATMENT AND                                         DIFFERENTIAL                      INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                         MORTALITY             CONTROL                       DIAGNOSIS              DIAGNOSIS        DISTRIBUTION      PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WAS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  OUTSIDE>>Feline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  fibrosarcoma - 6-
                                                                                                     FeLV: lymphosarcoma
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12% of all feline
                                                                                                     (malignant lymphoma) - 30%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  tumors. <5 years
                                                                                                     of all feline tumors:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  mutliple
                                                                                                     multicentric - tumors of liver,
                                                                    Anemia, immunodeficiency,                                                                                                                     fibrosarcomas in
                                                                                                     bone marrow, kidneys, lungs
                                                                    enteritis, reproductive failure.                                                      Virus is very fragile,                                  skind, rarely
                                                                                                     (T-lymph);
                                                                     Endogenous not                                                                       quarantine for 3-4                                      multifocal
                                                                                                     thymic/mediastenal - kittnes,
                                                                    pathological; exogenous                                                               weeks is sufficient                                     subcutaneous.
                                                                                                     large masses, infiltrate
                                                                    replication-competent -                                                               (enviro). Retesting in 2-                               Non-regenerative
                                                                                                     thymus and regional lymph
                                                                    leukemia; exogenous                                                                   3 months to determine       Viral isolation from blood anemai
                                         Prolonged, direct                                           tissue (T-lymph); Alimentary -
                                                                    defective (FeSV) - sarcoma.                                                           transient/persistent        samplesFeLeuk test for      (aplastic/hypoplasti
                                         exposure; saliva,                                            GIT and GALT, liver,
Feline mammalian type                                               Subgroup A - malignancy;                                           Self limiting      viremia. vaccines           Ag p27, IFA, ELISA. Can c) pancytopenia.
                                         respiratory secretons                                       kidney, spleen (B-lymph);
   C retrovirus - Feline                                            Subgroup A&B - chronic                                             infections (92-    incorporate all 3           have a +ELISA/-IFA early Immunopathologica                    3 months-3
                         Cats            (urine, feces, milk, and                                    Atypical/unclassified -                                                                                                           Worldwide
Leukemia and Sarcoma                                                viremia. FeSV is psuedotype                                        96%); persistent   subgroups; Isolation or     in disease course;          l disease: immune                 years
                                         fleas to a lesser extent),                                  tumors of kidney, CNS, eyes
                  (FeLV)                                            with envelope provided by                                          infection <10%     euthanasia of infected      positive tests only         complex
                                         "mutual grooming", FeSV                                     (non-Int./lymph tissues).
                                                                    FeLV. oronasal infection,                                                             cats. Leukocell admin.      indicates increased risk of glomerulonephritis
                                         de novo                                                     Myeloproliferative Dz: bone
                                                                    tonsils, low grade (transient)                                                        >9wks in 2 does SubQ        FeLV related disease        - hypoproteinemia,
                                                                                                     marrow dz leading to
                                                                    viremia, spleen, ln, Int., bone                                                       3-4 weeks apart, with                                   edema, uremia
                                                                                                     aplastic anemia
                                                                    marrow, persistent 2ndary                                                             annual revaccination.                                   and death.
                                                                                                     (erythromyelosis,
                                                                    viremia, FOCMA Ag-Ab lyses                                                            Genetically engineered                                  Immunosupression:
                                                                                                     granulocytic leukemia,
                                                                    tumor cells via ADCC(NK-                                                              vaccine is available.
                                                                                                     erythroleukemia,
                                                                    cells)                                                                                                                                       hypocomplemente
                                                                                                     myelofibrosis; characterized
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 mia, thymic
                                                                                                     by neoplastic cells in bone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 atrophy (fading
                                                                                                     marrow, nonregenerative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 kitten syndrome),
                                                                                                     anemia, immunosuppression)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 increased
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 susceptibility to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2ndary infections




                                                                     subgroup A and B are most
                                                                     important in terms of field
                                                                     outbreaks; subgroup E is
                                                                     gentically inherited. Tumors
                                                                                                                                                                                      flock history and age of
                                                                     occur only in congenitally
                                                                                                                                                                                      animal, liver, spleen,
                                                                     infected birds with viremia.
                                                                                                                                                                                      kidney, proventriculus,
                                                                     Big liver dz (lymphoid
                                         vertically intermittent                                                                                                                      bone marrow, thymic and
Avian Type C Retrovirus enzootic in                                  leukosis/visceral
                                         shedding from layers;                                                                                            terminate infected          bursal tumors (PM)
       - Avian Leukosis- all flocks of                               lymphomatosis) - 14-30 wks,                                       Morb: 3-20%                                                               Marek's Disease
                                         horizaontally in saliva                                                                                          breeder flocks              without nerve or ocular
          Sarcoma Virus chickens                                     targets B-lymphoblasts and
                                         and feces                                                                                                                                    involvement; blood
                                                                     infiltrates liver, spleen,
                                                                                                                                                                                      smears to show
                                                                     kidney and bursa of Fab.
                                                                                                                                                                                      lymphocytes of uniform
                                                                     Osteopetrosis - proliferation
                                                                                                                                                                                      size
                                                                     of periosteal osteoblasts of
                                                                     limb longbones, non-
                                                                     neoplastic thickenings of
                                                                     dia/metaphyseal regions


Lentiviruses
                                                                                                                                   MORBIDITY AND          TREATMENT AND                                          DIFFERENTIAL                  INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                     MORTALITY               CONTROL                      DIAGNOSIS                DIAGNOSIS    DISTRIBUTION      PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells

                                                                  T-lymphocytes, brain
                                                                  macrophages, peritoneal
                                                                  macrophages, and astrocytes
                                                                  are target cells; depression                                                                                  Viral isolation: blood,
                                                                                                  Immunosuppression; fever,
                                                                  of CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio;                                                                                      bone marrow, buffy coat
                                                                                                  malaise, severe stomatitis,
                                                                  decreased blastogenesis to                                                                                    (saliva and CSF); more
                                                                                                  gingivitis, chronic URT dz,
    Feline Lentivirus -                                           pokeweed mitogen and                                             Average age of                               often in cats >5 years,
                                      Catfights - bites, blood,                                   chronic diarrhea/wasting,                             Isolation of infected
                Feline Domestic                                   ConA, supression of Ab                                           mortality is 5-6                             free-roaming males.
                                      saliva and CSF; non                                         chronic conjunctivitis,                               animals. Vaccine exists
Immunodeficiency Virus cats                                       response to T-dep Ags,                                           years, but can see                           IFA/ELISA. Kittens less
                                      zoonotic                                                    chronic skin infections;                              but is debatable
                  (FIV)                                           resulting in increased                                           up to 20 years.                              than 12 wks should be
                                                                                                  neurologic damage -
                                                                  susceptibiltiy to 2ndary                                                                                      retested after 12 wks to
                                                                                                  dementia, hiding, rage,
                                                                  infections; peripheral                                                                                        determine if the Abs were
                                                                                                  seizures, facial twitching
                                                                  generalized                                                                                                   maternal
                                                                  lympadenomegaly and
                                                                  complicating bacterial
                                                                  infections of the skin



                                                                Replication in macrophages,
                                                                persistent Ag-Ab complexes
                                                                                                  Acute: fever, weakness,
                                                                damage vascular
                                                                                                  severe anemia, juandice,
                                                                endothelium, inflammatory
                                                                                                  blood-stained feces,
                                                                changes in liver and nervous                                                                                       AGID or Coggin's test,
                                                                                                  tachypnea, petechial
                                      Mechanical vector (biting tissue - spinal leptomeningitis                                                                                    retesting in 4-6 weeks,
                                                                                                  hemorrhages of mucosae;                               Destruction/isolation of
      Equine Infectious Horses (all   insects - tabanids,       and encephalomyelitis.                                                                                             nursing foals may be
                                                                                                  Subacute: moderate fever,      Acute: 80%             infected animals,
   Anemia (EIA, Swamp breeds and      mosquitos, stable flies), Lifelong cell-associated                                                                                           temporarily postive, but if                                 2-4 weeks
                                                                                                  follwed by recovery, may       mortality              importation of horses
                 Fever) ages)         iatrogenic,               viremia develops in all                                                                                            not infected, should be
                                                                                                  reoccur; Chronic: mild signs                          require negative test
                                      transplacental, colostrum infected horses; anemia                                                                                            negative in 6 months, no
                                                                                                  of illness, failure to thrive,
                                                                (complement damaged RBCs                                                                                           cross rxn
                                                                                                  episodic or persistent fever,
                                                                are removed by MPS;
                                                                                                  cachexia and ventral edema;
                                                                glomerulonephritis (immune
                                                                                                  ataxia
                                                                complex deposition in
                                                                basement membrane)




                                                                                                  Bilateral/unilater progressive
                                                                                                  swelling in carpal joints
                                                                  Macrophages are infected.                                                             Remove kids at birth
                                                                                                  (recurrent); ascending
                                                                  Arthritis (most common) -                                                             immediately or treat
                                      Colostrum and milk, rare                                    paralysis results in
    Caprine Lentivirus -                                          immunopathological rxn in                                        81% of goats are     infected colostrum at 56
                                      in utero infections;                                        recumbancy, upward
       Caprine Arthritis-                                         synovial cavity; encephalitis                                    seropositive in      degrees celsius for 1    Clinical signs, agar gel
                          Goats       contact transmission                                        deviation of the head,                                                                                                        Worldwide
      EncephalitisVirus                                           (1-5 mos old); interstitial                                      U.S.; persistent     hour. Goats are tested diffusion, ELISA
                                      between lactating                                           twisting of the neck,
                (CAEV)                                            pneumonia (primarily adults)                                     lifetime infection   every six months and
                                      (inefficient)                                               paddling; gradual weight
                                                                  insidious and progressive;                                                            infected animals are
                                                                                                  loss and respiratory distress;
                                                                  Mastitis                                                                              removed
                                                                                                  diffuse swelling of mammary
                                                                                                  gland and firmness


Birnaviridae - Nonenveloped, dsRNA, two segments, very stable
                                                                                                                                    MORBIDITY AND           TREATMENT AND                                           DIFFERENTIAL                      INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                      MORTALITY                CONTROL                      DIAGNOSIS                 DIAGNOSIS       DISTRIBUTION       PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells


                                                                   Replication in the GALT,
                                                                   primary viremia via portal                                                             Depopulation and
                                                                   system. bursa of fabricius in                                                          disinfection of premises
                                                                   11 hrs, release of 2nd                                                                 (intensive).
                                                                   viremia Bursectomy chicks                                                              Immunization is
                                                                                                    Depression, anorexia,           Most severe in
                                                                   are subclinical; intact die                                                            principle method of        Clinical signs last 3-4
      Avian Birnavirus -                                                                            incoordinatin, trembling,       chicks 3-5 weeks
                                                                   within 3-4 days; recovered                                                             control: breeding hens     days; characteristic bursa
       Infectious Bursa Chickens,      Highly contagious; direct                                    wobbling gait, whitish-watery   old. Morb: up to                                                                                                  2-3 days;
                                                                   birds are                                                                              with oral live virus       lesions; viral isolation of                     Worldwide
   Disease Virus (IBDV, turkeys        contact and fecal-oral                                       diarrhea, soiled vent           10%; Mort: 30-                                                                                                    sudden onset
                                                                   immunocompromised; Bursa                                                               vaccine, followed by an    bursal tissue;
      Gumboro Disease)                                                                              feathers, dehydration, and      90%, decreasing
                                                                   enlarges 5X, is edematous                                                              oil-adjuvanted vaccine,    FAT/AGID/ELISA/VN
                                                                                                    vent picking (pruritis).        with age
                                                                   and hemorrhagic; at death,                                                             annual revaccination
                                                                   atrophied and gray; kidneys                                                            recommended.
                                                                   are enlarged with urates;                                                              Maternal Abs protect for
                                                                   immune complexes in                                                                    4-7 weeks
                                                                   glormeruli


Bunyaviridae - enveloped, three nucleocapsids, segmented, (-)ssRNA, genetic reassortment
         Bunyaviruses
                                                                                                    Fever, inappetance,                                   Vaccines for sheep and     Clinical signs, viral
                                                                                                    vomiting, mucopurulent          Most severe in        cattle: attenuated live    isolation(blood, aborted
                                         Biological vector         Primary viremia lasts 2-5
                                                                                                    nasal discharge and bloody      ruminants less than   (not on preg.),            fetuses, spleen, liver),
                          Sheep,         transmission (Aedes);     days; liver is primary site of
                                                                                                    diarrhea; in humans:            7 days old(90-        inactivated; vector        and seroconversion;
                          cattle, goats, Mechanical vector         replication; mild
        Rift Valley Fever                                                                           influeza/dengue fever           100% mort); 90-       control; zoonosis from     acidophilic INIBs;                              Africa           9-72 hours
                          humans, wild transmission (culicoides    hematocellular changes
                                                                                                    symptoms, sudden onset,         100% abortion; 10-    aerosol in lab, or         hemagglutination;
                          ruminants      and sand flies);          rapidly progress to final
                                                                                                    fever, chills, malaise,         30% mortality in      slaughter of viremic       IFA/ELISA/AGID/Plaque-
                                         inhalation (humans)       massive necrosis
                                                                                                    headache, vomiting (4-6         sheep and cattle      animals; formalin          reduction/complement-
                                                                                                    days)                                                 inactivated vaccine        fixation

                                                                                                                                                          Recovered animals are      Viral isolation (plasma,
 Nairobi Sheep Disease Sheep and       Biological vector                                            High fever, abortion,
                                                                   Hemorrhagic enteritis                                            Mortality 50-80%      immune for life;           spleen, mesenteric lymph                        Africa           4-6 days
                 (NSD) goats           (rhipicephalus)                                              prostration
                                                                                                                                                          vaccination                nods); detection of Abs


                                                                   If the virus occurs early in                                                           Inactivated vaccine in     Increase in abortions;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Australia,
                       Cattle,                                     pregnancy, it crosses the                                                              Japan; immunity to         viral isolation (brain,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Cache Valley      Japan, Israel,
       Akabane Disease sheep and       Arthropod-borne             placenta - hydraencephaly,                                                             dams prebreeding (limit    cervical, thoracic, lumbar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Fever             Turkey, Kenya,
                       goats                                       arthrogryposis,                                                                        exposure of vectors,       SC); VN in precolostral
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     South Africa
                                                                   micrencephaly, porencephaly                                                            during breeding season)    serum from offspring


                                                                   Asymptomatic viremia in ewe;
                                                                   fetus (24-54 days) -
                                                                   arthrogryposis, CNS                                                                                               Abs in precolostral serum
     Cache Valley Virus                Mosquitos are                                                                                                      No vaccine, vector
                         Sheep                                     malformations, readsorption                                                                                       from heart blood of           Akabane Disease   North America
               Infection               suspected, but unknown                                                                                             control
                                                                   and mummification; most are                                                                                       affected lambs;
                                                                   stillborn, alive births are
                                                                   weak and unable to walk

Calciviridae - nonenveloped, linear (+)SSRNA, rapidly cytopathic, NO IBs, stable
                        Swine,
                        marine                                                                      Swine: vesicles on the
  Vesicular Exanthema                                                                                                                                                                                              FMD, swine
                        mammals                                                                     snout, within oral cavity, on
 (VE) - San Miguel Sea                                                                                                                                                                                             vesicular disease, U.S.
                        (Sea Lions                                                                  feet; Sea lions: abortion,
             Lion Virus                                                                                                                                                                                            vesicular stomatitis
                        are primary                                                                 vesicular lesions on flippers
                        reservoir)
                                                                                                                                      MORBIDITY AND        TREATMENT AND                                            DIFFERENTIAL                       INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                        MORTALITY             CONTROL                      DIAGNOSIS                  DIAGNOSIS       DISTRIBUTION        PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells

                                                                                                                                                        Extensive cross-rxn
                                                                                                                                                        occure - monotypic
                                                                                                     Subclinical infection,                             vaccines (may not fully
                                         Direct contact, salivary                                    lameness, oral/respiratory                         protect against all
                                                                    Clinical disease is rare in                                                                                                                    Feline
                                         shedding in recovered                                       disease, pneumonia                                 strains); modified
       Feline Calcivirus                                            cats>1year; coinfection can                                     High morbidity;                                Viral isolation from            Herpesvirus-1                       3-5 days; may
                          Cats           cats (up to 75 days),                                       (especially in young kittens);                     live/inactivated in                                                           Worldwide
               Infections                                           occur with FIV/FeLV,                                            mortality up to 30%                            oropharyngeal swab              (feline                             last 1-3 weeks
                                         some will be lifelong                                       oral ulcers, mild                                  combo with FHV-1 -
                                                                    increasing susceptibility                                                                                                                      rhinotracheitis)
                                         carriers                                                    conjunctivitis, ocular/nasal                       reduction of disease
                                                                                                     discharge                                          severity, will not prevent
                                                                                                                                                        carrier, eliminate, or
                                                                                                                                                        protect against infection


Slow Virus Infections

                                                                                                                                                                                    History, age, clinical signs
                        Sheep and        Horizontally: lambs from                                                                                        Extremely resistant;
                                                                                                     Intense pruritis                                                               ; histopath: neuronal
                        goats (age 2-    nasal/fecal secretions of                                                                                       reportable; difficult to                                                     Europe, North
      Scrapie (subacute                                                                              (rubbing/biting); muscle      Death within 6 wks-                              vacuolation and brain
                        5 years),        dams. Prion as             Chronic, fatal,                                                                      control due to long                                                          America, Asa,
             spongiform                                                                              tremors, weaving gait,        6 mos of clinical                                degenerative changes                                               1-4 years
                        breed            infectious agent (unique); neurodegenerative disease;                                                           incubation periods and                                                       and parts of
        encephalopathy)                                                                              staring eyes, rear            sign manifestation                               (scrapie-associated fibrils
                        susceptibility   vertical tranmission in                                                                                         interstate movement of                                                       Africa
                                                                                                     paraplegia, rapid weight loss                                                  in brain, spleen, and
                        varies           sheep only                                                                                                      sheep
                                                                                                                                                                                    lymph nodes


                                                                                                     Initially: apprehension,
                                                                                                     hyperesthesia, mild
                                         Scrapie agent of sheep                                      incoordination; Later:                                                         Viral isolation of Brain:
    Bovine Spongiform                    or cattle adapted scrapie;                                  kicking, aggression,                                                           bilateral degenerative                            British Isles,
                                                                                                                                                         Banning of ruminant                                                                           2.5-8 years; 2-
Encephalopathy (BSE) -                   scrapie infected ovine       Sporadic, slowly progressing   hypermetria, increasing                                                        vacuolation of gray matter                        France,
                       Adult cattle                                                                                                                      derived protein food                                                                          14 week
   Raging cow disease,                   tissue fed to cattle; cattle neurologic disorder            incoordination, falling,                                                       neutrophils and neurons;                          Switzerland,
                                                                                                                                                         additives,                                                                                    duration
      Mad cow disease                    appear to be dead-end                                       difficulty rising; Terminally:                                                 EM brain tissue fibrils                           Oman
                                         hosts                                                       head tremors, frenzied                                                         (~scrapie)
                                                                                                     behavior, hypersensitivity to
                                                                                                     sound/touch, recombancy




                                                                                                     Maedi: progressive weight
                                                                                                     loss, dyspnea (rythmic jerks
                                                                 Maedi: shortness of breath                                                              Viral persistence occurs
                                                                                                     during inspiration, flared
                                                                 (ovine progressive                                                                      despite neutralizing Abs
                                                                                                     nostrils, nasal discharge and                                                  Clinical signs; viral
                                        Droplet inhalaton from   pneumonia); Visna: wasting,                                                             and cell-mediated
                         Adult sheep                                                                 cough), abort or deliver                                                       isolation from buffy
                                        RT, ingestion of         (neurological form); Arthritic:                                                         immune responses;
                         and goats;                                                                  weak lambs; Visna: slowly                                                      coatMultinucleate giant
                                        feces/urine contaminated polyarthritis; mononuclear-                                       Clinical disease      pretesting and                                                               Worldwide;
                         breed                                                                       progressing ataxia,                                                            cells from choroid plexus                                        months to 9
Maedi-Visna (Lentivirus)                food/water,              associated viremia; provirus                                      5%; Maedi: fatal      quarantine of incoming                                                       midwest/northw
                         specific                                                                    abnormal head posture,                                                         cultures; histopath:                                             years
                                        milk/colostrum,          integration; disease induced                                      within 3-8 months     animals, annual                                                              est U.S.
                         susceptibility                                                              trembling of lips, paresis to                                                  diffuse, demyelinating
                                        transplacental?, biting  when monocytes mature to                                                                serologic monitoring,
                         (2 years +)                                                                 total paralysis, unattended                                                    encephalomyelitis;
                                        arthropods, iatrogenic   tissue macrophages and                                                                  removal of seropositive
                                                                                                     sheep may die of starvation                                                    AGID/VN/ELISA
                                                                 establish infection;                                                                    animals, isolating lambs
                                                                                                     (survive 1-2 years with
                                                                 seroconversion                                                                          at birth
                                                                                                     assistance); severe lamness
                                                                                                     of carpal/tarsal joints



Miscellaneous Viruses

Coronaviridae (Toroviruses) - particles are rod or kidney shaped, glycoprotein peplomeres are responsible for hemagglutinating activity

                                                                    Iowa 1-2, Ohio isolates; viral   1-4 days of mild to severe
                                                                                                                                                                                    Fecal sample during 1st 3                         U.S.
                                                                    replication in epithelium of     diarrhea, severe weight loss, 90% of domestic       Supportive therapy; no
Bovine Torovirus (Breda                                                                                                                                                             days of diarrhea,                                 Netherlands,
                          Cattle         Fecal-oral                 L&S.I., crypt, villous, and      dehydration, death; both      cattle are            vaccine; good                                        Rotavirus                                48-72 hours
                   Virus)                                                                                                                                                           IEM/ELISA,                                        France,
                                                                    dome cells, atrophy,             large and small intestine,    seropositive          management practices
                                                                                                                                                                                    hemagglutination, FAT                             Germany
                                                                    maldigestion, malabsorption      watery diarrhea
                                                                                                                                 MORBIDITY AND          TREATMENT AND                          DIFFERENTIAL                  INCUBATION
     TAXONOMY           SPECIE (S)      TRANSMISSION                 PATHOGENESIS                 CLINICAL SIGNS                   MORTALITY               CONTROL                 DIAGNOSIS     DIAGNOSIS    DISTRIBUTION      PERIOD
Parvoviridae-non-enveloped,(-)ssDNA,Eosinophilic INIB, Stable (1yr), needs mitotic dividing cells

                                                                  Subclinical to fatal
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Europe,
Equine Torovirus (Berne                                           pseudomembranous enteritis
                          Horses                                                             Diarrhea                                                                       Diarrhetic feces                  probably
                   Virus)                                         and miliary granulomas,
                                                                                                                                                                                                              worldwide
                                                                  necrosis of liver

Astroviridae - five/six pointed stars, linear (+)ssRNA

                                                                  Usually with dual rotavirus
                                                                  infection; affects the villi of
                         Cows,                                    S.I., apical villous epithelium
                                                                                                    Abnormally colored ad soft
              Astrovirus sheep, pigs,                             and subepithelial                                                                   No cross reactions;   Diarrhetic feces
                                                                                                    diarrhea
                         cats, humans                             macrophages, producing
                                                                  villus atrophy; reduced
                                                                  lactase levels

Hepadnaviridae - Circular DNA (part double, part single stranded), integration of viral DNA to host DNA

                                                                  Ducks: hepatic carcinoma in
                                                                  Pekin ducks; humans: acute
Hepadnavirus (hepatitis Ducks,
                                                                  and chronic hepatitis, liver
 B, duck hepadnavirus) humans
                                                                  cirrhosis, and primary
                                                                  hepatocellular carcinoma

Arenaviridae - Pleiomorphic, enveloped, helical nucleocapsid, two linear segments of ssRNA


                                                                                                 Lassa/Machupo/Junin: fever,
                                                                                                 headache, malaise, myalgia,
                                                                                                 pharyngitis, frank hepatitis,
                                                                                                 diffuse interstitial
                                                                  Subclinical infectios in the
                                                                                                 hemorrhages, hypotension,
                                                                  reservoir; 4 are pathogenic to
                                                                                                 pulmonary edema, shock,
                                                                  humans: Lassa virus (Lassa
                        Rodents are                                                              and death. LCM: influenza-                                                                                   LCM: Europe
                                        Urine and oral secretions fever), Machupo (Bolivian
             Arenavirus reservoirs,                                                              like - fever, headache,                                                                                      and Americas
                                        of rodents                hemorrhagic fever), Junin
                        humans                                                                   myalgia, malaise; less often:                                                                                (house mice)
                                                                  virus (Argentine hemorrhagic
                                                                                                 aseptic meningitis, severe
                                                                  fever), and lymphocytic
                                                                                                 headache, papilledema, and
                                                                  choriomeningitis virus (LCM)
                                                                                                 elevated CSF pressure,
                                                                                                 encephalomyelitis,
                                                                                                 depression, coma, disturbed
                                                                                                 nerve function


Filoviridae - long filamentous rods, or compacted convolutions, eveloped, helical nucleocapsid, single molecule of (-) ssRNA, large ICIBs

                                                                                                    Fever, subcutaneous and      Mortality: Monkeys
 Filovirus - Marburg and                                           Severe pharyngitis and
                          Monkeys                                                                   intestinal hemorrhage,       up to 100%;
      Ebola hemorrhagic                                           conjunctivitis, necrotizing
                          and Humans                                                                intractable diarrhea,        Humans 60-90%;
                   fevers                                         hepatitis, shock
                                                                                                    prostration                  Death in 6-9 days

								
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