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					                                       Lehner Arthur




      The British political system


                               Index



1 THE POLITICAL SYSTEM                            2

1.1   THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT                      2
1.2   THE GOVERNMENT                              2
1.3   THE PRIME MINISTER                          3
1.4    THE CABINET                                3
1.5    DEVOLUTION                                 3

2 THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM                            4

3 PARTIES                                         4

3.1   LABOUR PARTY                                4
3.2   CONSERVATIVE PARTY                          4
3.3   OTHERS                                      5

4. VOCABULARY                                     5
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1     The political system
      Britain is a constitutional monarchy. This means that the political power of the King is
      limited. He or she (nowadays Queen Mary II) has no official right to support or disagree
      with any particular policy. All political decisions are made by the Parliament and the
      Government.



1.1   The British Parliament

      The British Parliament has two houses, namely the House of Commons and the House of
      Lords, which are located in Westminster Palace, London.

       House of Commons: makes laws and decides how to spend the taxpayers’ money. It is
         made up of two “sides”: the Membership Parliament belonging to the party in power,
         and those belonging to the Opposition.

       House of Lords: has over a thousand members. Some have inherited their seat, others are
         made life peers by the monarch. Life peers are created members of the peerage, which is
         a system of titles of nobility, whose titles are therefore not inherited. The House of Lords
         has experienced some reform on recent years. A first phase saw a reduction in the
         number of hereditary peers from 750 to 92. Further reforms could lead to the complete
         removal of these peers from the House. It might even becomes necessary for hereditary
         peers to stand for election in order become a member of the House.



1.2   The Government

      The leader of the winning party in a general election becomes Prime Minister. He/she
      names a cabinet of ministers or secretaries of state responsible for the various government
      departments. The party with the second biggest majority forms the opposition with its own
      shadow cabinet.




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1.3   The Prime Minister

      The Prime Minister is the official leader of the country as well as leader of his/her
      party. The cabinet is proposed by the Prime Minister. Today Tony Blair (Labour Party) is
      Prime Minister.



1.4    The cabinet

       The Prime Minister chooses his cabinet from the elected members of his party and
       occasionally from the House of Lords. The cabinet can be “reshuffled” whenever the Prime
       Minister wishes. The ministers are responsible for their departments of government and
       collectively make decisions in cabinet. The cabinet of Tony Blair consists of 19 members.



1.5    Devolution

       The United Kingdom consists of four parts: England, Wales (Cymru), Scotland and
       Northern Ireland. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland go for liberty and for self-
       determination, namely devolution, which means the transfer of political, of parliamentary
       power. The end of the 1990’s saw the devolution from Westminster to the new Scottish
       Parliament, and the Welsh and Northern Ireland Assemblies. Only the Scottish Parliament
       has power to legislate or make “Acts of Parliament”, which means a law adopted by
       Parliament. The Welsh Assembly has secondary legislative powers which allow it to
       interpret laws made for Wales by Westminster. A New Northern Ireland Assembly
       promotes links with the Irish Government.


1.6   The Royal Family

       Does Britain still need the monarchy? That’s a difficult question. It’s often suggested that
       the Royal Family is outdated and that monarchy is a wasteful, inefficient and demeaning
       system. However, there are also people who think that true patriots want to keep the
       monarchy and that the Queen is a mighty symbol for Britains and the people of the
       Common Wealth. Today the Royals have not much power, but still people pay for the
       Royal Family’s life, their castles and their butlers.




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2     The electoral system
       The system used at general elections is the first-past-the-post system. Voters in each of the
       659 constituencies vote for their preferred candidate. The person with most votes wins the
       seat and becomes the Member of Parliament (MP). All other votes are wasted. Thus the
       number of seats a party wins does not reflect the total number of votes it receives. Under
       this system, minority parties like the Green Party cannot hope to win a seat in a parliament,
       as was the case in the 1989 European Elections, despite receiving two million votes.
       Proposals for electoral reforms point towards proportional representation. The 1999
       elections for the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly used the Additional Member
       system (a two-vote system like that in Germany: voters cast one vote for a constituency MP
       and one for a party list).




3     Parties
      For many years, the two leading parties in Britain have been the Conservative Party and
      the Labour Party. Furthermore, the voting arrangements have always led to a two-
      party system with these two parties taking turns in government. Because of this system
      smaller parties such as the Liberal Democrats have never come to power. They would
      naturally welcome a change to proportional representation, the system used in Austria, as it
      might give them the chance to form part of a coalition like the Greens did in Germany in
      1998. However, the two-party system is one of Britain’s firmest traditions.



3.1   Labour Party

      The Labour Party –now called New Labour Party- was traditionally in favour of labour
      reforms and had strong links to trade unions. Since the mid-nineties Labour has broken these
      links and moved to left of centre. At the last election in May 2005 the Labour Party lost 5, 4
      % of the votes.



3.2   Conservative Party

      At the right of centre, the Conservative Party (Tories) is seen as the party of big business.
      The longest term in office held the so-called “Iron Lady” Margaret Thatcher in the 20th
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        century, namely from 1979 to 1990. She was the first female prime minister in history.
        Since losing the election in 1997 to Labour Party under Tony Blair, the Conservatives have
        been in opposition. The Conservative Party stands for liberalism, scepticism about the
        purposes of the European Union and the restriction of the rights of homosexuals. At the last
        election the Conservatives won 0, 6 percentage points.



3.3     Others

        The biggest of the minority parties are the Liberal Democrats. There is also a Green Party but
        it is not represented in parliament. The two nationalist parties Plaid Cymru (Welsh
        Nationals) and the Scottish National Party have become more important following the
        devolution of power to Cardiff and Edinburgh respectively. In Northern Ireland, the parties
        are divided along sectarian lines: The Social Democratic Labour Party and Sinn Féin, the
        political arm of the IRA, favour a united Ireland; the Ulster Unionist Party and the
        Democratic Unionist Party wants to remain in the United Kingdom. Moreover, there also
        exist the British National Party, the National Front Party, the Legalise Cannabis Party, the
        Respect Party and many more. All parties which ran for the election 2005 are listed after
        their importance:

Labour, Conservative, Liberal Democrats, UK Independence, Scottish National Party, Green
Democratic Unionist, British National, Plaid Cymru, Sinn Féin, Ulster Unionist,
Social Democratic & Labour, Respect, Scottish Socialist Party, Veritas, Alliance (NI), Scottish -
Green Party, Socialist Labour, Liberal, Health Concern, English Democrats, Socialist Alternative,
National Front, Legalise Cannabis, Community Action, Monster Raving Loony, Christian Vote,
Mebyon Kernow, Forward Wales, Christian Peoples, Rainbow Dream Ticket, Community Group,
Ashfield Independents, Alliance for Green Socialism, Residents' Association of London, Workers
Party, Socialist Environmental, Scottish Unionist, Workers' Revolutionary, New England Party,
Communist, The Community (London Borough of Hounslow), Peace and Progress, Scottish Senior
Citizens, Your Party.


4. Vocabulary
to reshuffle  umbesetzen, demeaning  erniedrigend, trade unions  Gewerkschaft,
sectarian  konfessionsgebunden

Sources: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/vote_2005/default.stm,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Thatcher

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Lehner Arthur




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