Presentation-Arun Kumar

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Presentation-Arun Kumar Powered By Docstoc
					                       National Seminar On
                         January 04, 2007,
                              New Delhi

              SMALL HYDROPOWER:

                       ARUN KUMAR
                    Alternate Hydro Energy Centre,
                  Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
             E-mail :,
   website :,
Small Hydro
Small Hydro Classification
 What is Small Hydro
          Pico         5 kW & below
          Micro        100 kW & below
          Mini         2000 kW & below
          Small        25000 kW & below
 Head Based
           High        75 m & above
           Medium      30-75 m & above
           Low         3-30 m
           Ultra low   below 3 m
Thrust of SHP Programme of GOI
 2% of capacity addition should come from SHP
 Reliable data for potential sites
 Improve Reliability
 Improve Quality
 Reduce cost of power from SHP
 Development of standards / manuals / guidelines etc
 1400 MW targeted during 2007-2012

  SHP development envisaged

  •   Private Sector participation
  •   State Government/SEB
  •   Central PSUs
  •   Local Bodies & NGO
Private Sector Initiatives
•World’s largest SHP development
programme launched through private
sector participation
•Policies for private sector participation
for SHP development announced by 16
•Over 2600 MW capacity SHP sites
offered/ allotted to private sector for their
  Overall Potential    15,000 MW
  Identified Potential 10,477 MW (4,404 Sites
  Installed Capacity           1826 MW ( 556
   ( as on 31. 03.2006)        Projects)
  Under Construction           468 MW (203 projects
  Target Capacity Addition –   600 MW
  Tenth Plan ( 2002-07)
  Capacity addition during     387 MW
  Target capacity addition -   1400 MW
  11th Plan (2007-2012)
  Policy for Private Sector    18 states
  Development announced
Risks In SHP

 Risks-Types          Mitigation
 Hydrology Failure    Long term data
 Geology Failure      Detailed Investigations
 Power Evacuation     Disciplined grid
 Delayed Payment by   Discipline/ Escrow account
 State Utility
 Natural Calamities   Insurance
Small Hydropower- Broad estimates
 Sl.   Item                                      Low Head            High Head
 1.                                            Rs 40-60,000 pr     Rs 45-70,000 Per
          Capital Cost for shp                      kW                   KW
 2.    Electricity Generation                    3000-6000        4000-6000
       Depending upon water availabilty         kWh/year/kW       kWh/year/kW
                          Annual Cost of Generation

 a     Interest                                       11 %              11 %

 b     O&M                                            4%                 4%

 c     Depreciation                                   3%                 3%

 d     Insurance                                      1%                 1%

       Total                                          19 %              19%

       Cost of Generation at 60% plf         Rs 2 -2.50 per kWh   Rs 2-2.75 per kWh

    • The inventory of sites is incomplete in most of
    • The scale of development and availability of tools
    and interest
    •The current practice to estimate water availability and
    hydro potential is on individual basis.
    •The most prospective shp sites remains un-gauged.
)   •For planning of small hydro scheme, the discharge
    data of stream for at least two lean period
    • Developers carry out occasional ad hoc flow
    measurements over a relatively short period.
   Basic Equation for Power

            Power in kW = Q. H. 9.81 n
        Q         Discharge in cumecs
        H         Head in metres
        n         Overall efficiency of turbine, gear-box &

 The annual energy generated is computed from the flow,
 flow duration curve or energy equation:
       E      =        t.p
              =        n.g. H.     kWh/year
 Where t      =       time in hours (8750 per year)
Identified Small Hydro Projects (Upto 25 MW Capacity)*

   Sl.   State                  TOTAL
   No.                       No. Cap (MW)
    1    Andhra Pradesh       377      250
    2    Arunachal Pradesh    452     1243
    3    Assam                 40      119
    4    Bihar                 74      149
    5    Chhattisgarh          47       58
    6    Goa                    4        5
    7    Gujarat              287      186
    8    Harayana              23       36
    9    Himachal Pradesh     288     1418
   10    Jammu & Kashmir      208     1294
   11    Jharkhand             89      170
   12    Karnataka            221      534
   13    Kerala               207      455
   14    Madhya Pradesh        85      336
Sl.     State                   TOTAL
No.                         No.     Capacity
15     Maharashtra              221       484
16     Manipur                   99         91
17     Meghalaya                 90       197
18     Mizoram                   53       135
19     Nagaland                  84       149
20     Orissa                   206       218
21     Punjab                   122       124
22     Rajasthan                 55         28
23     Sikkim                    70       214
24     Tamil Nadu               155       373
25     Tripura                   10         31
26     UT (A & N Islands)         5          1
27     Uttar Pradesh            211       267
28     Uttaranchal              354      1478
29     West Bengal              141       213
      TOTAL                   4278      10265
SHP Schem es Identified by Private Sector in Chhattisgarh
Sl.NoDistrict           No. of Schemes Capacity (MW)
  1     Ambikapur              1            8
  2       Baster               7            91
  3     Dantewara              4            48
  4      Dhamtari              1            1
  5      Jashpur               3            20
  6       Korba                1            7
  7      Raigarh               3            13
  8       Raipur               1            1
  9      Surguja               9            67
          TOTAL                30          254
Master Plan - SHP
  For a systematic, time bound, duly shared
  between Government, Social and Private
  Sectors, master plan are required.
• It is an inventory of all possible sites.
• Provides priority or ranking for speed
• Provides cluster approach.
• Provides financial requirement.
• Provides – grid network strengthening.
     SUMMARY-(Total Identified Sites and Estimated
                Power Potential)
S.                Type of Scheme                           Sites
                                                  Number     Potential (MW)
1.     Irrigation Canal falls                      129             103
       Identified sites
       a. Identified Sites                          80             73
       b. Allotted sites – DPR ready                18             20
       c. Allotted sites –DPR under preparation     19              9
       d. Sites on irrigation minors (New)          12             0.4

2.     Run-off-River Scheme (New)                   36             54

3.     Tail Race of          Existing    Hydel      8              80
       Channel (New)
4.     Irrigation Dam Outlet Sites (New)            11             0.5

       TOTAL                                       184             238
        Sources of Information
•State Nodal Agencies for renewable energy in states

•State Electricity Boards, Deptt. of Power of states

•Central Government MNES, CEA, CWC, NHPC etc
•Individuals having background in such data calculation

•Survey of India including Digital Maps

•Forest Survey of India

•Indian Institute of Remote Sensing

•NATMO, Calcutta
 •Several types of investigations required to be
 carried out for the schemes in hills
 •Investigation for schemes on existing facilities are
 less as most of the data are available from the
 owners of these facilities
 Following should be determined
 •Technical feasibility of the project
 •Identification of critical issues and their possible
 •First economic evaluation
•   Quite often no scientific or systematic
    attempts have been made to assess the full
    potential available for shp development.
•   Development has been on individual site
    development basis.
•   Integration of other development like
    irrigation, drinking water, industry
    development is missing.
•   Related issues such grid installation,
    making finances available, energy wheeling,
    institutional aspects is missing.
Small Hydropower- Levels of Study
Sl.   Item                                Commercial         Social Sector
No.                                    Project above 500   Project below 500
                                              kW                  kW
1.                                            yes                 yes
        Reconnaissance Level report
2.    Prefeasibilty Report                    Yes                  yes
                                           3 months                2 months

a     Detailed Investigations                Yes                Limited
                                         4-12 months          1-3 months
b     Feasibility Report                      Yes            Not required
                                           6 months
c     Financial Approval                      yes                yes

d     Detailed Construction drawings          Yes            Limited 1- 2
      and technical specifications        3-6 months           months



Early completion of Civil Works

• Major impediment is delay in completion of civil works
• Pre-cast pipes lieu of open channel,
• portable cabins in place of conventional RCC building
• The mobile or portable cranes may be adopted for equipment
handling in a power house to reduce the cost.

Effective Operation and Maintenance of Works

•Withdrawal of silt free water (through Coanda system, inflated
•Covered sections for power channel like RCC pipe and box,
deeper intakes at fore bay tank
•plastic trash rack for ensuring continuous flow in penstockin
cold area.
Efficiency of SHP Station and equipment

•   Efficiency of shp
       = efficiency of turbine* generator* gearbox

•   Turbine                           88 to 94%
•   Generator                         96 to 98%
•   Gearbox                           98%
•   Weighted average efficiency       75%
S No   Manufacturers                 Collaboration                 Type

 1     Alstom, Baroda                Alstom, France                JV

 2     BHEL, Hardwar & Bhopal        Fuji, Japan                   Technical

 3     Boving Fouress, Bangalore     Kvaernaener Boving now        JV
                                     GE UK/ Norway
 4     HPP, Delhi                    HPP France                    JV

 5     Jyoti, Vadodra                Gilks, UK ( now expired)      Technical
                                     Turbo Institute       of
 6     Kirloskar, Pune               Ebara Corp , Japan            Technical

 7     VA Tech Escher         Wyss   VA Tech, Austria              JV
       Flovel, Faridabad
 8     Steel Industies, Thissur      Koessler,Ausria               Technical

       Offices of Voeth Siemens (Germany), ABB, Fuzi and Hitachi (Japan), Technip
       Ganj (Hungary), CKD Blansko (Czech) are there in India
                                                       (Source: Indian Manufacturers)
Special standards need to be prepared to
provide comprehensive rules for smaller units
and new developers, who are not equipped with
the means required for larger units.
 Silt erosion is not covered by any standard till
date and remains an obstacle to productivity
specially in Himalayan region requires special
focus in the standards
Subcontractors with no particular expertise are
being used, sometimes for some parts of the
design itself
Traditional specialized suppliers, formerly
involved in the turbine technology, are being
replaced by newcomers.
Standards and guides on SHP need to be
carefully   dovetailed with environmental
Careful environmental studies can generally
make hydropower as one of best compromises
between a energy demand and minimal impacts.
Both large and small projects, with careful
consideration of environmental constraints, are
now receiving a better public acceptance.
Hydroelectricity is viewed as an excellent
development opportunity for Developing region