Spheres of the
Weather Dynamics Unit
All of the water on planet Earth
“71% of the earth is covered by
water and only 29% is terra firma”
(University of Florida).
“Blue Planet” – water is not found
on any other planets in our solar
“It is because the Earth has just
Video of Atlantic the right mass, the right chemical
Ocean composition, the right atmosphere,
http://www.youtube.co and is the right distance from the
m/watch?v=vwf2a4wp Sun (the "Goldilocks" principle)
S-8 that permits water to exist mainly
as a liquid” (U of F).
The great variety of
and pressures allows
water to exist in all
– Solid = Ice
– Liquid = Water
– Gas = Water Vapour
The oceans contain
most of the water
(approx. 1.35 million
Environment Canada: Satellite Images
of North America and the Pacific
The high heat capacity of water and the large volumes of
water “buffers the Earth surface from large temperature
changes such as those observed on the moon” (U of F
“Water is the universal solvent and the basis of all life on our
Planet” (U of F Hydrosphere).
“Benjamin Franklin to comment[ed] "When the well's dry, we
know the worth of water.“” (U of F Hydrosphere).
Source: University of Florida Hydrosphere
Water in the ocean:
– Equator = warm water (like a warm bath)
– Near Poles = cold (can freeze into icebergs)
ETE – Hydrosphere
Ocean Temperatures Updated Daily:
Antarctic Water Temperatures: http://www.wunderground.com/MAR/
Hurricanes from Space
Ernest Shackleton’s Voyage
“Already a celebrated polar explorer, Sir
Ernest Shackleton coordinated the British
Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition with the
goal of accomplishing the first crossing of
the Antarctic continent, a feat he considered
to be the last great polar journey of the
"Heroic Age of Exploration.“” (Nova Website
Contains Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon
dioxide and water vapour
Extend 500 km above the surface of the Earth
Climate is determined by the interactions
Ozone protects from UV rays
Source: University of Florida Atmosphere
“Since the Industrial Revolution, man has been
altering the composition of the atmosphere by the
burning of fossil fuels” (U of F Atmosphere).
Greenhouse Gases include:
(concerns include the rising levels of greenhouse gases)
– carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and
– “these "greenhouse" gases trap heat energy emitted
from the earth surface and increase global temperatures
(global warming)” (U of F Atmosphere).
– “In addition, chloroflurocarbons are effective at depleting
the Earth's ozone shield that protects the earth surface
from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation” (U of F
Source: University of Florida Atmosphere
Atmosphere Review Diagram
– Atmosphere Animated
Greek for rocky sphere
Solid outermost shell of the
planet including the crust and
upper layers of the mantle.
– Oceanic crust
– Continental crust
– Interior of the earth
“Ninety-four percent of the earth
is composed of the elements
oxygen, iron, silica, and
http://ess.geology.ufl.edu/ess/Introduction/Geosphere.html magnesium” (U of F
Plates of the Earth: Is always changing (Plate
Tectonics/ Continental Drift)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe Source: University of
dia/commons/d/dc/Tectonic_plate Florida Geosphere
The fluid layer under the lithosphere.
Plastic like layer (fluid rock movement)
100-200 km deep into the Earth (or up to
The ridged lithosphere floats on this layer,
which conducts heat up to the plates.
Fault lines and breaks occur in the
lithosphere because it is brittle.
Source: Wikipedia Asthenosphere
Dr. Art’s Guide to Planet Earth
– Earth’s Solid Stuff (animation)
All of the snow and ice on earth
Majority of ice is found at the poles
– Giant icecaps in Antarctica and Greenland
12 000 years ago = colder climate = huge ice sheets
covered the surface of the earth
– Most of North America and Europe were covered
During the age of the dinosaurs the climate was warm and
much of the ice had melted and disappeared.
Earth Floor Cryosphere
The “life zone” of earth.
Includes all living organisms (all organic matter
that has not decomposed.)
Food chains govern the transfer of energy
– Producers Consumers Secondary Consumers
U Of F – Biosphere
By looking at the surface of the earth you can
readily distinguish the different areas
– i.e. deserts, forests
– These areas are called Biomes.
Earth Floor Biosphere
Surface of the Earth from Space
- Notice the different colors, which indicated different biomes.
Can you identify the desert? Forests?
Read over Section 13.8 Hydrosphere
– Draw a simplified diagram of the water cycle (be
sure to include all of the important terms.
Define any of the terms that you use in your diagram
– Complete questions:
Page 524 #s 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8
University of Florida Earth System Science
Sources Continued . . .
Exploring the Environment
– Earth Floor Hydrosphere
– Earth Floor Cryosphere
– Earth Floor Biosphere