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S10 - WD - Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere pwrpt

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S10 - WD - Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere pwrpt Powered By Docstoc
					Spheres of the
    Earth
Atmosphere Hydrosphere
      Lithosphere

  Weather Dynamics Unit
       Science 10
                                                               Hydrosphere
                                                    All of the water on planet Earth
                                                    “71% of the earth is covered by
                                                     water and only 29% is terra firma”
                                                     (University of Florida).
                                                    “Blue Planet” – water is not found
http://ess.geology.ufl.edu/ess/Introduction/Hydr
osphere.html
                                                     on any other planets in our solar
                                                     system.
                                                    “It is because the Earth has just
         Video of Atlantic                           the right mass, the right chemical
         Ocean                                       composition, the right atmosphere,
         http://www.youtube.co                       and is the right distance from the
         m/watch?v=vwf2a4wp                          Sun (the "Goldilocks" principle)
         S-8                                         that permits water to exist mainly
                                                     as a liquid” (U of F).
                                                                             The great variety of
                                                                              surface temperatures
                                                                              and pressures allows
                                                                              water to exist in all
                                                                              three states.
                                                                              – Solid = Ice
                                                                              – Liquid = Water
                                                                              – Gas = Water Vapour
                                                                             The oceans contain
                                                                              most of the water
                                                                              (approx. 1.35 million
                                                                              cubic kilometres)
Environment Canada: Satellite Images
of North America and the Pacific
http://weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/data/satellite/goes_gwdisk11_visible_100.jp
g
                                                             Water Vapour

                                                             Ice
                                                             Refer to
                                                               website:
                                                            http://www.accd.e
                                                               du/sac/astrono
                                                               m/astr1370/gla
                                                               cial.htm



Weather Central:
http://www.weathercentral.com/weather/satellite/alaska_wv
.html

               Columbia Icefields:
               http://www.accd.edu/sac/astronom/astr
               1370/glacial.htm
   http://my.opera.com/Mathilda/albums/showpic.dml?al
   bum=42812&picture=516117




 The high heat capacity of water and the large volumes of
  water “buffers the Earth surface from large temperature
  changes such as those observed on the moon” (U of F
  Hydrosphere).
 “Water is the universal solvent and the basis of all life on our
  Planet” (U of F Hydrosphere).
 “Benjamin Franklin to comment[ed] "When the well's dry, we
  know the worth of water.“” (U of F Hydrosphere).
               Source: University of Florida Hydrosphere
       Hydrosphere Cont’d
 Water in the ocean:
  – Equator = warm water (like a warm bath)
  – Near Poles = cold (can freeze into icebergs)
           ETE – Hydrosphere




                                   http://www.bigelow.org/
                                   shipmates/temperature.
                                   html
Ocean Temperatures Updated Daily:
http://www.wunderground.com/MAR/
Antarctic Water Temperatures: http://www.wunderground.com/MAR/
      Hurricanes from Space
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PDGnoEn
  KxkQ
 Hurricane Luis:
  – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5725Etc4bI
    &feature=related
  Ernest Shackleton’s Voyage
 “Already a celebrated polar explorer, Sir
  Ernest Shackleton coordinated the British
  Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition with the
  goal of accomplishing the first crossing of
  the Antarctic continent, a feat he considered
  to be the last great polar journey of the
  "Heroic Age of Exploration.“” (Nova Website
 http://main.wgbh.org/imax/shackleton/sirern
  est.html
Atmosphere
 Contains Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon
 dioxide and water vapour
 Extend 500 km above the surface of the Earth
 Climate is determined by the interactions
   occurring here
 Ozone protects from UV rays
            Source: University of Florida Atmosphere




                                   Image from:
                                   http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere
                                   .html
 “Since the Industrial Revolution, man has been
  altering the composition of the atmosphere by the
  burning of fossil fuels” (U of F Atmosphere).
 Greenhouse Gases include:
  (concerns include the rising levels of greenhouse gases)
  – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and
    chloroflurocarbons
  – “these "greenhouse" gases trap heat energy emitted
    from the earth surface and increase global temperatures
    (global warming)” (U of F Atmosphere).
  – “In addition, chloroflurocarbons are effective at depleting
    the Earth's ozone shield that protects the earth surface
    from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation” (U of F
    Atmosphere).
             Source: University of Florida Atmosphere
 Climate Change
  and Greenhouse
  Gases:
http://www.agu.org/e
  os_elec/99148e.ht
  ml
  Atmosphere Review Diagram
 Earthguide Diagrams:
  – Atmosphere Animated
     http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/atmo
      sphere/index.html
                             Lithosphere (Geosphere)
                                                              Greek for rocky sphere
                                                              Solid outermost shell of the
                                                               planet including the crust and
                                                               upper layers of the mantle.
                                                                                Wikipedia Lithosphere
                                                              Solid earth
                                                                 – Oceanic crust
                                                                 – Continental crust
                                                                 – Interior of the earth
                                                              “Ninety-four percent of the earth
                                                               is composed of the elements
                                                               oxygen, iron, silica, and
http://ess.geology.ufl.edu/ess/Introduction/Geosphere.html     magnesium” (U of F
                                                               Geosphere).
    Plates of the Earth:                                      Is always changing (Plate
                                                               Tectonics/ Continental Drift)
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe                                          Source: University of
    dia/commons/d/dc/Tectonic_plate                                              Florida Geosphere
    s.png
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tectonic_plates.png
            Asthenosphere
 The fluid layer under the lithosphere.
 Plastic like layer (fluid rock movement)
 100-200 km deep into the Earth (or up to
  400 km)
 The ridged lithosphere floats on this layer,
  which conducts heat up to the plates.
 Fault lines and breaks occur in the
  lithosphere because it is brittle.
           Source: Wikipedia Asthenosphere
              Plate Tectonics
 Dr. Art’s Guide to Planet Earth
  – Earth’s Solid Stuff (animation)
      http://www.planetguide.net/book/chapter_2/earth_soli
       d.html
                      Cryosphere
 All of the snow and ice on earth
 Majority of ice is found at the poles
   – Icebergs
   – Glaciers
   – Giant icecaps in Antarctica and Greenland
 12 000 years ago = colder climate = huge ice sheets
  covered the surface of the earth
   – Most of North America and Europe were covered
 During the age of the dinosaurs the climate was warm and
  much of the ice had melted and disappeared.

               Earth Floor Cryosphere
                               Antarctic Ice:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Antarctica_satellite_orthographic.jpg
                     Biosphere
 The “life zone” of earth.
 Includes all living organisms (all organic matter
  that has not decomposed.)
 Food chains govern the transfer of energy
   – Producers  Consumers  Secondary Consumers 
     Tertiary Consumers
             U Of F – Biosphere
 By looking at the surface of the earth you can
  readily distinguish the different areas
   – i.e. deserts, forests
   – These areas are called Biomes.
             Earth Floor Biosphere
Surface of the Earth from Space
- Notice the different colors, which indicated different biomes.
Can you identify the desert? Forests?
http://www.novaspace.com/POSTERS/PHOTO/FOTE.jpeg
                     To Do:
 Read over Section 13.8 Hydrosphere
  – Draw a simplified diagram of the water cycle (be
    sure to include all of the important terms.
     Define any of the terms that you use in your diagram
  – Complete questions:
     Page 524 #s  2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8
                        Sources
 University of Florida Earth System Science
  Program
  – http://ess.geology.ufl.edu/ess/Introduction/00-
    Introduction.html
  – Hydrosphere:
      http://ess.geology.ufl.edu/ess/Introduction/Hydrosphere.html
  – Geosphere:
      http://ess.geology.ufl.edu/ess/Introduction/Geosphere.html
  – Biosphere
      http://ess.geology.ufl.edu/ess/Introduction/Biosphere.html
         Sources Continued . . .
 Wikipedia
   – Lithosphere
       http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/spheres.html
   – Asthenosphere
       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asthenosphere

 Exploring the Environment
       http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/spheres.html
   – Earth Floor Hydrosphere
       http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/hydrosphere.html
   – Earth Floor Cryosphere
       http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/biosphere.html
   – Earth Floor Biosphere
       http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/biosphere.html

				
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