America's Early 19th Century Society and Culture

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        Unit VA

AP United States History
        Fundamental Question
► Was the Gilded Age a “golden age” during
 the years from 1877 to 1900?
            The “New” South
► The Compromise of 1877 withdrew federal
  troops from former Confederate states,
  ended Reconstruction with a promise of
► New vision
   From slave-dependency to self-sufficient and
    diverse agricultural
   Industrialization and infrastructure
   Redemption…
           Southern Agriculture
► Cotton   remained the dominant crop
   Cotton farms doubled
   Large supply of world’s cotton drove prices down
► Sharecropping
   50% white farmers and 75% black farmers
   Crop liens kept small farmers in constant debt
► Diversity   of crops
   Peanuts, sweet potatoes, soybeans
   Tobacco and cigarette companies
            Southern Industry
► Growth   of cities in the South
   Textiles, steel, lumber, tobacco
► Industrialization   spearheaded by cheap
  labor rates
► More railroads built and designed on
  national standards
        “Southern” Economy
► Northern investment control and slow
  progress kept the South poor
► Cheap labor wages and sharecropping
► Poor education attributed to Southern
► Redeemers pledged to rid Republican control and
 enhance discrimination
   Hamburg Massacre
   Benjamin Tillman
   Origin of Bible Belt
► Supreme    Court Cases
   Civil Rights Cases of 1883
   Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
► Jim   Crow Laws and Disenfranchisement
   Segregated facilities and institutions
   Literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clauses, white
    political primaries
              Frontier Thesis
► Frederick    Jackson Turner in 1893
► The frontier defined the American identity
► It promoted independence and individualism unlike
  European conformity and social structure
► The distinct American political society was a result
  of surviving the frontier
► The edge of the frontier was the figurative border
  of civilization and the wild
► The loss of the frontier could signal the beginning
  of social conformity and rigidity
               Settling the West
► Mining   Frontier
   Gold and silver strikes leading to boomtowns and states
   Employed foreign-born miners
► Cattle   Frontier
   Ranchers and cowboys
► Farming    Frontier
   Homestead Act of 1862; Land Rushes
   Barbed wire fenced off land
   Environmental impact
Manifest Destiny and the Natives
► Most western tribes based on a nomadic lifestyle
► Reservations
► Indian Wars
      Theaters
      Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
      Little Big Horn (1876)
►   Assimilation
      Formal education and religious conversion
      A “white” education
►   Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
      Broke up tribal organizations; lands divided into 160 acre plots; citizenship grants;
       disease, alcoholism, poverty, starvation
►   Ghost Dance Movement
      Wovoka’s attempt to drive the settlers out through circle dances and chants
►   Wounded Knee (1890)
      Massacre of Sioux men, women, and children signifying the end of the Indian Wars
                 Commercial Farming
►   Agriculture became commercialized on cash crops for national and
    international markets
     From subsistence to market/stores
     Pushed out local/small farmers
►   Competition and overproduction lowered prices while input costs
►   Organization of farmers against unfair practices
     National Grange Movement
        ►   Cooperatives
        ►   Granger laws
        ►   Munn v. Illinois (1877) allowed for regulation of businesses in public sector
     Interstate Commerce Act (1886)
        ►   Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), federal regulatory agency
     National Alliance and the Ocala Platform (1890)
        ►   Unity against corporations and monopolies
        ►   Favored direct election of Senators, lower tariffs, graduated income tax, federal
            banking system
  American Industrial Expansion
► With  the completion of Manifest Destiny
  throughout continental U.S., the nation
  encompassed near-perfect elements for massive
► The timing of the Second Industrial Revolution
  with innovation and technology
► Abundance of resources: coal, iron ore, copper,
  timber, oil, etc.
► Abundance of labor: cheap labor, immigration,
  growing population
► Investment from American and European capital
► Federal development of infrastructure (railroads);
  land grants, subsidies, pro-business policies
► The rise of entrepreneurs and commercialism
  Railroads Drive the Expansion
► 35,000 miles in 1865 to 193,000 in 1900
► Gauge standards connecting various local and
  national lines
► Connection of rails to cities, water ports, market
  centers, Atlantic to Pacific
    First Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
► Federal land grants and subsidies
► Overexpansion and corruption led to
  consolidation by business moguls
Expansion of Railroads
The Second Industrial Revolution
►   The Gilded Age owes its expansion and prosperity to the
    technological innovations and efficiencies of the 2nd IR
►   Iron ore to steel – Bessemer Process
►   Electricity and petroleum fueled machines on assembly
    lines and agricultural equipment
►   Communication – telegraph lines all over the world and
    Bell’s telephone
►   Thomas Edison’s research labs, phonograph,
    incandescent lamp, motion picture camera
►   New consumer products led to brand names, chain stores,
    catalogs, national advertising
      Rise of American Barons
► Innovations  and resources along with limited
  government regulation led to the rise of the robber
► Andrew Carnegie: steel, vertical integration
► J.P. Morgan: U.S. Steel, banking/investment,
  General Electric, corporate management and
► John D. Rockefeller: Standard Oil Company
► Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jay Gould, Leland Stanford:
► Henry Flagler: Standard Oil Company, railroads
        Robber Barons and Trusts
►   Limited government
    regulation of business led
    to the development of
    trusts or monopolies
►   Corporate owners earned
    enormous wealth through
    shrewd and questionable
►   Sherman Antitrust Act
     Prohibited trusts/monopolies
      but lacked strong regulation
     United States v. E.C. Knight
      Co. – regulation applied to
      commerce and not
   Gilded Age Socioeconomics
► By  1890s, 10% of Americans controlled 90%
  of the nation’s wealth
► Socioeconomic gap extensively widened
► Horatio Alger Myth
► Corporations required
  administrative/managerial labor ->
  expansion of middle class/white-collar
► Iron law of wages
           Gilded Age Women
► 20%   of American women worked as wage earners
   Most single women; 5% married
   Low-income families required women in workplace
► Female-based    Jobs
   Typical home-associated industries: textiles, foods
   New types of jobs: secretaries, bookkeepers, typists,
    communication operators
► Women  and feminized jobs considered low status
 and low salaries
           Unions vs. Management
►   Industrialization, mass             ►   Industrialization, mass
    production, use of semiskilled          production, use of semiskilled
    workers = devalued labor                workers = increased profits
►   Poor and dangerous working          ►   Poor and dangerous working
    conditions, immigrants, and             conditions, immigrants, and
    meager salaries = upset                 meager salaries = increasing
    workforce                               profits and satisfied
►   Organized labor to appeal for           management
    better conditions, higher           ►   Developed image of unions and
    salaries, benefits                      organized labor as un-
►   Union Methods: political action         American, socialist, anarchist
    and efficacy, strikes, picketing,   ►   Management Methods: lockouts,
    boycotts, slowdowns                     blacklists, yellow-dog contracts,
                                            government/private force, court
     Timeline of Gilded Age Unions and Strikes
► Local associations and guilds before the Gilded Age led to industry-specific unions in
► National Labor Union (1866) – first attempt of a national union of all workers
        Higher wages, 8-hour day (won for federal employees)
        Women and black equality, monetary reform, cooperatives
►   Great Railroad Strike of 1877
        Wages cut to make up costs due to Panic of 1873
        Federal troops used; unions lost support and popularity
►   Knights of Labor (1881)
        Members included women and blacks
        Cooperatives, end child labor, anti-trusts
        Preferred method of arbitration over strikes
►   Haymarket Bombing (May 4, 1888)
        May Day celebration coupled with strike in Chicago led to police killing 4 people
        Commemoration on May 4 led to bombing killing police officers and to a police riot
        8 innocent anarchists tried and convicted in show trial and hanged
►   American Federation of Labor (AFL) (1886)
        Pursued more practical goals rather than reforms
        Samuel Gompers and walkouts for collective bargaining
►   Homestead Strike (1892)
        Carnegie and Frick used tactful negotiations to break unions
        Lockouts and Pinkertons led to union breaking
►   Pullman Strike (1894)
        Pullman wage cuts led to Eugene Debs to order boycotts of Pullman cars
        Federal injunctions against workers led to arrest of Debs
        In re Debs approved federal injunctions and weakened labor movements
►   By 1900 only 3% of workers belongs in unions
             Gilded Age Demographics
►   U.S. Population Rates                        ►   Immigration
      23.2 million in 1850                            Population
      76.2 million in 1900                               ►   16.2 million immigrants between 1850-1900
                                                          ►   8.8 during 1901-1910
►   Urbanization
      Population increasingly moving to               Pushes
       cities                                             ►   Mechanization removing jobs, esp. in rural
      Economic opportunities with increased              ►   Overpopulation
       industrialization                                  ►   persecution
      Blacks increasingly moving to cities            Pulls
      Increased infrastructure                           ►   Political and economic freedoms and
         ►   Streetcars, bridges, subways                     opportunities
         ►   Skyscrapers, elevators, radiators         Old Immigrants
      Suburbs                                            ►   Northern and Western Europe
      Urban reform developments                       New Immigrants
                                                          ►   Southern and Eastern Europe
                                                       Unfriendly Environments
                                                          ►   Chinese Exclusion Act (1882),
                                                              Naturalization Act (1906), etc.
                                                          ►   Sociopolitical enemies
                                                          ►   Ethnic neighborhoods
                                                          ►   Machine Politics
Ellis Island
Gilded Age Reforms and Trends
►   Living and working conditions          ►   Educational Reforms
    across the U.S. inspired reform              Compulsory laws and
    movements                                     comprehensive curriculums
►   The results of unregulated business          Kindergarten
    practices and economics inspired             Increase of colleges/universities
    people to seek more influence by              and development of liberal arts
    the government and reforms                    curriculum
►   Settlement houses established by       ►   Social Sciences
    idealistic middle-class reformers in         Scientific method applied to human
    ethnic and poor neighborhoods                 behavior
►   Christianity and Reform                      Statistics, environment, legal
►   Temperance Movement Builds             ►   Darwinism
►   Regulating Morality                          Natural selection and survival of the
►   Gospel of Wealth                              fittest
                                                 Applied to society – SOCIAL
                                                     ►   Economic perspective
                                                     ►   Social perspective
    Gilded Realism and Naturalism and
               Pop Culture
►   Literature
      Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Jack London
►   Painting
      Winslow Homer, James McNeill Whistler, Mary Cassatt, George Bellows, Ashcan
►   Architecture
      Frank Lloyd Wright, Frederick Law Olmstead
►   Music
      John Philip Sousa – Stars and Stripes Forever
      Jazz and Scott Joplin – The Entertainer
►   Pop Culture
        Entertainment of large urban population
        Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
        Vaudeville, circuses
        Spectator sports dominated by men
        Leisure sports distinguished by social class
Winslow Homer’s Breezing Up
George Bellow’s New York
Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater
            Gilded Age Politics
► Limited government with strict interpretation
  of laws and regulations
► Weak and near forgettable presidents
► Close elections between major parties led to
  divided governments and high efficacy
► Campaigns run on regionalism
    Democrats and Republicans
► SolidSouth, Catholics,   ► Party  of Lincoln,
  Lutherans, Jews,           reformers, blacks,
  immigrants                 WASPs, middle and
   Bourbon Democrats        upper class
   Redeemers              ► American System-type
► States’ rights and         policies
  laissez-faire            ► Stalwarts
                           ► Halfbreeds
                           ► Mugwumps
         Civil Service Reform
► Patronage   dominated political appointments
► Corruption during Grant administration
  called for reform
► Garfield’s assassination
► Pendleton Act (1881)
   Civil Service Commission
   Exams and campaign contributions
      The Populist Movement
► Granger  Movement -> Farmers Alliance ->
  Populist Movement -> People’s Party
► Coinage of silver, direct election of
  Senators, graduated income tax, state laws
  through referendums/initiatives, government
  ownership of infrastructure, 8-hour workday
             Silver vs. Gold
► Overproduction    led to decreased prices
  therefore a call for increase in money supply
► Silver coinage would cause inflation
  lessening farmer debt to banks
► Banks and businesses preferred gold
► Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
Tariffs and Silver Consequences
►   McKinley Tariff (1890)
     Rate would be 48%
     Passed as a compromise for Republican support of Sherman Silver
      Purchase Act
►   Increase in silver led to silver dropping in value
     Trade silver for gold for value but led to decrease in gold reserve
►   High tariffs hurt farmers and foreign affairs
►   Panic of 1893
     Overspeculation and railroad failures along with stock market crash
     Silver Act repealed
     Government bailed out by J.P. Morgan
Election of 1892
                Election of 1896
► Democrat     William Jennings Bryan
     Depression hurt Democrats
     Ran on pro-Populist platform and “free silver”
     “Cross of Gold” speech
     Populists endorsed him
► Republican     William McKinley
   Endorsed industry and tariffs
   Support from Mark Hanna and mass media
► Improved economy led to McKinley           win
► End of Populist movement
► End of Third Party System
Election of 1896

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