HIV - PowerPoint

Document Sample
HIV - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					The Other Side of the
HIV/AIDS Debate: Evaluating
Scientific Evidence Hidden in
Plain Sight
The public face of HIV is well-known

   Although everybody is at risk

       HIV is a sexually-transmitted virus that “selectively” preys on

           Gay men
           African-Americans
           Drug users
           Just about all of Africa

       We are encouraged to be tested

       We have been told that the AIDS drugs are the salvation of
        the entire African continent

       HIV is not required to get AIDS
The public face of HIV is well-known

   The journals that review HIV tests, drugs, and patients
   As well as the instructional materials from

         Medical schools
         Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
         HIV-test manufacturers

   Will all agree with the public’s perception in the large print
   A different story emerges if you look at the fine print
   This talk will focus on an analysis of that fine print
Analyze the statistics from the CDC

    Mark Twain: There are three types of lies
     1)   Lies

     2)   Damned lies

     3)   Statistics

    Will this theory prove true when we examine the
     statistics from the CDC’s website?
Analyze the statistics from the CDC
   From 1981 - 2005, the CDC “estimated” the number of
    HIV/AIDS cases (diagnoses, deaths, and persons living with
    AIDS) to be ~1 million (956,666)
           This is a 0% increase

   At the end of 2003, the CDC revised their estimates – the
    number of HIV/AIDS cases (diagnoses, deaths, and persons
    living with AIDS) is estimated to be between 1,039,000 to
    1,185,000
       On the surface, this is a 23.9% increase in the number of HIV/AIDS cases

   The actual estimated increase or decrease rate of HIV infection
           The 1981 US population (229,465,714)
           The current US population (298,444,215)
           The actual estimated HIV/AIDS cases decreased by 23.1%


        http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/At-A-Glance.htm
Analyze the statistics from the CDC:
Where are we today?
   What made HIV a Black world epidemic and how do we
    account for the following predicament?
       HIV has gone from a disease that infects white homosexual
        males in the U.S.

       To that of a disease that traveled across the Atlantic Ocean
        and infected heterosexual Africans

       Then, it crossed the Atlantic Ocean again to infect African
        American males in prison

       Now, HIV has somehow evolved with the intelligence that it
        should skip the majority of the American population and become
        synonymous with African Americans and women in particular


        http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/At-A-Glance.htm
Analyze the statistics from the CDC:
HIV/AIDS epidemic?
   Depending on how you present the statistics, African Americans
    are facing a serious epidemic
       In 2005, the CDC said that African Americans (12–13% of the
        American population) make up 49% of the estimated number of
        HIV/AIDS cases diagnosed

   Let’s analyze the same information a different way

       In 2005, the CDC estimated that 38,096 people were diagnosed with
        HIV/AIDS

       The “estimated” percentage of people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS
           African Americans (18,667/38,797,748) is 0.048%
           U.S. population (38,096/298,444,215) is 0.013%




             http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/aa/resources/factsheets/aa.htm
Analyze the statistics from the CDC:
HIV/AIDS deaths?

   In 2004, the CDC “estimated” that 17,453 people died from
    AIDS

       If these estimated AIDS deaths are “real”, then these deaths can
        be verified by looking at the actual number of deaths for that year




            http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/aa/resources/factsheets/aa.htm
Leading causes of death in the U.S., 2004
   Total Deaths                                                   2,398,365
   1    Diseases of the heart                                      654,092
   2    Malignant neoplasms (cancer)                               550,270
   3    Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke)                           150,147
   4    Chronic lower respiratory diseases (emphysema,
        chronic bronchitis)                                        123,884
   5    Unintentional injuries (accidents)                         108,694
   6    Diabetes mellitus                                           72,815
   7    Alzheimer’s disease                                         65,829
   8    Influenza and pneumonia                                     61,472
   9    Nephritis and nephrosis (Kidney disease)                    42,762
   10   Septicemia (systemic infection)                             33,464
   11   Intentional self-harm (suicide)                             31,647
   12   Chronic liver/cirrhosis (liver disease)                     26,549
   13   Essential (primary) hypo and hypertension renal disease     22,953
   14   Parkinson’s disease                                          18,018
   15   Pneumonitis due to solids and liquids                       16,959

   All other causes                                                 418,810

             http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_19.pdf
High public policy priority: Rethinking/revising

   Although 62% of all
    deaths recorded in the
    U.S. in 2004 are caused
    by heart disease, cancer,
    strokes, and lower
    respiratory diseases

   If you follow the money
    budgeted per death, it
    becomes apparent, the
    amount of NIH funds
    allocated for HIV/AIDS
    research (72.6%) are
    excessive




                      http://www.fairfoundation.org/update.htm
Sexual transmission of HIV
   The CDC says HIV is sexually transmitted

   Padian NS et al., Heterosexual transmission of Human
    Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Northern California: Results
    from a ten-year study
               American Journal of Epidemiology. 1997;146(4):350-7

       Followed 175 HIV-discordant couples
       Although 25% of the couples had unprotected sex
       No seroconversion after entry into the study was observed
           None of the unprotected individuals became HIV+

   Sex has nothing to do with HIV/AIDS
   David W. Rasnick, PhD, member of the Scientific Group for
    the Reappraisal of AIDS, wrote a letter to the British
    Medical Journal entitled ”Sex has nothing to do with AIDS”
               (http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/326/7381/126/e)
Sexual transmission of HIV: The prostitute
paradox
   If HIV is sexually transmitted, it should be found in sex-
    trade workers
   Six additional studies published in prestigious scientific
    journals that demonstrate HIV can not be sexually
    transmitted
    1.   Potterat J J et al. Mortality in a Long-term Open Cohort of Prostitute Women. Am J
         Epidemiol 2004;159:778-785.
    2.   Modan, B et al. Prevalence of HIV antibodies in transsexual and female prostitutes,
         American Journal of Public Health. 1992;82(4):590-592.
    3.   Hyams KC et al. HIV infection in a non-drug abusing prostitute population. Scandinavian
         Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1989;21(3):353-4.
    4.   Seidlin M et al. Prevalence of HIV infection in New York call girls. Journal of acquired
         immune deficiency syndromes. JAIDS, 1988;1(2):150-4
    5.   Smith GL, Smith KF. Lack of HIV infection and condom use in licensed prostitutes.
         Lancet. 1986;1392.
    6.   Brenky-Faudeux D, Fribourg-Blanc A. HTLV-III antibody in prostitutes. Lancet.
         1985;2:1424.
Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS
hypothesis
    David Rasnick, PhD
        Earned his living as a designer of protease inhibitors (more on
         this later)
        It has taken me 15 years of curiosity, acceptance, doubt, study,
         understanding, new doubt, followed by new understanding, to
         come to terms with HIV/AIDS--and I'm a scientist, I’m able to
         plow through the intimidating technical literature
        No wonder the public has bought the contagious AIDS theory
        The truth is guarded by experts and hidden by a thick forest of
         jargon, credentials, and all those papers
        The fraud, incompetence, and outright lies produced by the cult
         of HIV have already been documented
        But holding the perpetrators accountable will not be easy
Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS
hypothesis
    Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, PhD and her group in Perth,
     Australia published articles concluding that there is no evidence
     for the existence of HI viruses
             Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner VF, Papadimitriou JM. IS a positive
              western blot proof of HIV infection? Biotechnology NY 1 993;1 1:696-707

             Papadopulos-Eleopulos E: Is HIV the cause of AlDS? Continuum 1997;5:8-
              19.

    Stefan Lanka, PhD – has experience in molecular biology,
     molecular genetics, marine biology, and virology says all
     retroviruses, including HIV, are biologically inexistent and their
     phenomenology is based on laboratory artifacts
             Lanka S. Fehldiagnose AIDS. Wechselwirkung l994;16:48-53.

             Lanka S. HIV-Realität oder Artefakt? Raum und Zeit 1 995;77:1 7-27.

             Lanka S. HIV - reality or artifact? Continuum 1995;3/1 :4-9
Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS
hypothesis
   Roberto A. Giraldo, MD
       Most serologic tests that look for the presence of antibodies against
        germs use neat serum [undiluted]
           Tests that look for antibodies to hepatitis A and B viruses, rubella virus,
            syphilis, hystoplasma and cryptococus, etc are just a few examples

       To prevent false positive reactions, some serologic tests use diluted
        serum
           Measles, varicelia, and mumps viruses use a dilution of 1:16
           Cytomegalovirus uses a dilution of 1:20
           Epstein-Barr Virus uses a dilution of 1:10
           ELISA test for HIV uses a dilution of 1:400

       If undiluted or neat serum is used, every human being on planet earth
        will react positive to the ELISA test for HIV
           Tested his own serum (HIV+ at less dilute concentrations)

             (http://www.virusmyth.net/aids/data/rgelisa.htm) - 1998
Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS
hypothesis
    Rebecca Culshaw, PhD
        Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Univ Texas at Tyler,
         BS, MS, PhD
         Research Interests: Mathematical Biology
         Five peer reviewed publications and seven conference papers in
         ten years

        Created quite a stir by announcing “Why I quit HIV” in March
         2006, after having devoted ten years to mathematical modeling
         of how HIV causes AIDS

        The entire basis for this theory is wrong

        AIDS is not a disease so much as it is a sociopolitical construct
         that few people understand and even fewer question

                http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig7/culshaw1.html
Understand the HIV/AID debate: Decouple
HIV from AIDS
   HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus
         Retroviruses
             Contain the genetic material RNA rather than DNA
             Contain genes that encode the proteins
                gag, pol, env, and (often) pro

   AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
         As an illness, AIDS originated in the search by the CDC for sick
          homosexual men, also suffering from Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) and/or
          Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)

             KS was named for Dr. Moritz Kaposi who first described it in 1872
             Sarcoma is a cancer
             Pneumocystis carinii is a common microorganism (fungus) that exists in
              mammals (rats, guinea pigs, monkeys, dogs, sheep, humans, etc.)
                 First described around World War II in severely malnourished and
                  premature infants
Clinical conditions redefined as HIV/AIDS

    Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs (fungal infection)
    Candidiasis esophageal
    Cervical cancer (invasive)
    Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (fungal
     disease)
    Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary (fungal infection)
    Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal for longer than 1 month
     (protozoan parasite)
    Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, spleen or lymph nodes
     (Herpes)
    Encephalopathy
    Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer(s) (for more than 1 month); or
     bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis
    Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (fungal infection)
    Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (for more than 1 month) (parasitic
     infection)
    Kaposi's sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8 )
    Lymphoma Burkitt's, immunoblastic or primary brain (variety of
     cancers)
Clinical conditions redefined as HIV/AIDS

    Mycobacterium avium complex
    Mycobacterium, other species, disseminated or extrapulmonary
    Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (formerly Pneumocystis carinii)
     (fungal infection)
    Pneumonia (recurrent)
    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    Salmonella septicemia (bacterial infection)
    Toxoplasmosis of the brain (protozoan Toxoplasma gondii)
    Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
    Wasting syndrome
    Malaria
    Dysentery
    Leprosy
    Vaccine and antibiotic damage
    Amyl nitrate damage (poppers, used by homosexual males)
    Malnutrition
HIV antibody tests: Housekeeping items

    Can not detect the actual virus

    There is no such thing as an AIDS test
    They test for non-specific antibodies in the body
    Antibodies are proteins, so please keep this in mind
     throughout the rest of the presentation because this
     designation will be used
        Three types of molecules in the body (DNA is transcribed into RNA
         and RNA is translated into Proteins)

    There are inherent problems using antibody tests to
     diagnose any disease
    People do not necessarily have the virus that their
     antibodies may appear to suggest they have
HIV antibody tests: Housekeeping items
    Examples of how misleading antibody tests are
        People can have positive antibody responses to certain
         laboratory chemicals, but this does not mean they are infected
         with laboratory chemicals
        People vaccinated for polio will test positive for antibodies to
         polio even though they don’t have polio
        People exposed to TB will test antibody positive for TB but
         this does not necessarily mean they are currently infected
         with TB
        The test for glandular fever measures antibody response to
         red blood cells of sheep and horses, but a positive test does
         not mean that someone is infected with sheep or horse blood,
         or that animal blood causes glandular fever

    These examples are shown to demonstrate why
     antibody responses alone cannot determine if someone
     is infected with a particular virus
HIV antibody tests: Arbitrarily interpreted

   1988, the Mayo Clinic reported that “the Western Blot (WB)
    method lacks standardization, is cumbersome, and is
    subjective in interpretation of banding patterns”

   1988, the Journal of the American Medical Association
    published an article stating that 19 different labs, testing
    ONE blood sample got 19 different WB results (JAMA,
    260, 1988)

   1993, a review in Bio/Technology reported that the FDA, the
    CDC, the Department of Defense, and the Red Cross
       All interpret “WB” differently
       All the other major US labs for HIV testing also have
        their own criteria for interpreting WB
HIV antibody tests: Arbitrarily interpreted
HIV status depends on where you live
     11 interpretations of what
      constitute HIV+
     Africa is the easiest place
      to be deemed HIV+
     Australia is the hardest
     6 different U.S.
      interpretations
     People can literally move
      to a different location and
      they will no longer be
      HIV+
     What other contagious
      disease do you know of
      that behave in this
      manner?

AFR = Africa; AUS = Australia; FDA = US Food and Drug Administration; RCX = US Red Cross;
CDC = US Center for Disease Control; CON = US Consortium for Retrovirus Serology Standardization;
GER = Germany; UK = United Kingdom; FRA = France; MACS = US Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study 1983-1992
HIV antibody tests: No virologic gold
standard
   The medical literature adds something truly astounding!
       1987, the New England Journal of Medicine reported that the meaning
        of positive tests will depend on the joint (ELISA/WB) false positive
        rate
           The real rate is unknown because there is no recognized gold standard

       1996, Journal of American Medical Association reported: The diagnosis
        of HIV infection in infants is particularly difficult
           Because there is no reference or “gold standard”

       1997, Abbott laboratories, the world leader in HIV-test production
        stated
           At present, there is no recognized standard for establishing the “presence
            or absence” of HIV antibody in human blood
       2000, the Journal AIDS reported that "2.9% - 12.3%" of women in a
        study tested positive, depending on the test used
           Since there is no established gold standard test, it is unclear which of these
            two proportions is the “best estimate” of the real prevalence rate
No virologic gold standard: Insert from
Abbott Laboratory




        http://www.healtoronto.com/testkits.html
High false positive rate with HIV tests

   1985, at the beginning of HIV testing, it was reported in
    the New England Journal of Medicine
       "68% to 89%” of all repeatedly reactive ELISA (HIV antibody) tests were
        likely to represent false positive results

   1992, the Lancet reported ("HIV Screening in Russia")
       For 66 true positives, there were 30,000 false positives
       In pregnant women, "there were 8,000 false positives for 6 confirmations"

   2000, the Archives of Family Medicine reported
       The more women we test, the greater "the proportion of false positive and
        ambiguous (indeterminate) test results"

   The tests described above are standard HIV tests, the
    kind promoted in the ads
       ELISA or EIA (Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbant assay)
HIV tests are non-specific: ELISA & WB

   The ELISA is the first test that is used for HIV detection
       If you test HIV+, a second ELISA is recommended, if you test HIV+
        again, then a Western Blot (WB) is performed
       ELISA - a mixture of proteins, which are said to come only from
        HIV, is exposed to a blood sample and any antibodies in the blood
        that can bind to these proteins are allowed to do so
       If all of the proteins in the mixture come from HIV, “and” if all of
        the antibodies recognize only HIV proteins, a positive reading means
        that a person has been exposed to HIV

   1993, Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, PhD
       The proteins in the mixture are not unique to HIV for the ELISA or WB
       The antibodies in the blood samples are not specific only to HIV
        proteins


              Papadopulos-Eleopulos, E., Turner, V.F., Papadimitriou, J.M. 1993.
              "Is a positive Western Blot proof of HIV infection?" Bio/Technology. 11:696-707
HIV tests are non-specific: Example of a
Western Blot
   All retroviruses
       Contain genes that encode
        for the proteins (gag, pol,
        env)
   In the U.S., there are 5
    major proteins used to
    determine a person’s HIV
    status


          env         gp160
                      gp120
                      gp 41
          gag         p55
                      p18
                      p24
          pol         p65
                      p51
                      p31

           Image reproduced from Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology, 2000. ASM Press.
HIV tests are non-specific: Analyzing the
important protein bands in the WB
   Analysis of the five proteins that determines a person’s HIV
    status
       p24: Found in all endogenous retroviruses (HTLV-1, HTLV-II, HIV-2)
       p31: The amino-acid sequences of the "purified HIV (p30-p32)” are
        identical to that of a normal protein found in the human immune system
        called "Class II histocompatibility DR proteins"
               Henderson, L.E., Sowder, R., Copeland, T.D., et. al. 1987. "Direct identification of Class II
                histocompatibility DR proteins in preparations of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type III." J.
                Virol. 61:629-632.

       p41: Protein called actin - the most abundant protein in human cells
           In some cells, actin accounts for 15% of the total cellular content
           Actin filaments drives shape changes, cell locomotion, chemotactic migration
            and participate in muscle contraction

       p120, p160 - oligomers of p41, for instance (p 120 = p40 *3 and p160 =
        p40*4)
66 factors known to generate a false
positive on HIV tests
    1. Anti-carbohydrate antibodies
    2. Naturally-occurring antibodies
    3. Passive immunization: receipt of gamma or immune globulin
    4. Leprosy
    5. Tuberculosis
    6. Mycobacterium avium
    7. Systemic lupus erythematosus
    8. Renal (kidney) failure
    9. Hemodialysis/renal failure
    10. Alpha interferon therapy in hemodialysis patients
    11. Flu
    12. Flu vaccination
    13. Herpes simplex I
    14. Herpes simplex II
    15. Upper respiratory tract infection (cold or flu)
    16. Recent viral infection or exposure to viral vaccines
    17. Pregnancy in multiparous women
    18. Malaria
    19. High levels of circulating immune complexes
66 factors known to generate a false
positive on HIV tests
   20. Hypergammaglobulinemia (high levels of antibodies)
   21. False positives on other tests, including RPR (rapid plasma
       reagent) test for syphilis
   22. Rheumatoid arthritis
   23. Hepatitis B vaccination
   24. Tetanus vaccination
   25. Organ transplantation
   26. Renal transplantation
   27. Anti-lymphocyte antibodies
   28. Anti-collagen antibodies (found in gay men, haemophiliacs,
       Africans of both sexes and people with leprosy)
   29. Serum-positive for rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody
       (both found in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoantibodies)
   30. Autoimmune diseases: Systemic lupus erythematosus,
       scleroderma, connective tissue disease, dermatomyositis
   31. Acute viral infections, DNA viral infections
   32. Malignant neoplasms (cancers)
   33. Alcoholic hepatitis/alcoholic liver disease
   34. Primary sclerosing cholangitis
66 factors known to generate a false
positive on HIV tests
   35. Hepatitis
   36. "Sticky" blood (in Africans)
   37. Antibodies with a high affinity for polystyrene (used in
       the test kits)
   38. Blood transfusions, multiple blood transfusions
   39. Multiple myeloma
   40. HLA antibodies (to Class I and II leukocyte antigens)
   41. Anti-smooth muscle antibody
   42. Anti-parietal cell antibody
   43. Anti-hepatitis A IgM (antibody)
   44. Anti-Hbc IgM
   45. Administration of human immunoglobulin preparations
       pooled before 1985
   46. Hemophilia
   47. Hematologic malignant disorders/lymphoma
   48. Primary biliary cirrhosis
   49. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
   50. Q-fever with associated hepatitis
   51. Heat-treated specimens
66 factors known to generate a false
positive on HIV tests
   52. Lipemic serum (blood with high levels of fat or lipids)
   53. Hemolyzed serum (blood where haemoglobin is
       separated from the red cells)
   54. Hyperbilirubinemia
   55. Globulins produced during polyclonal gammopathies
       (which are seen in AIDS risk groups)
   56. Healthy individuals as a result of poorly-understood
       cross-reactions
   57. Normal human ribonucleoproteins
   58. Other retroviruses
   59. Anti-mitochondrial antibodies
   60. Anti-nuclear antibodies
   61. Anti-microsomal antibodies
   62. T-cell leukocyte antigen antibodies
   63. Proteins on the filter paper
   64. Epstein-Barr virus
   65. Visceral leishmaniasis
   66. Receptive anal sex
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
 1. Agbalika F, Ferchal F, Garnier J-P, et al. 1992. False-positive antigens related to emergence of a 25-30 kD
      protein detected in organ recipients. AIDS. 6:959-962.

 2. Andrade V, Avelleira JC, Marques A, et al. 1991. Leprosy as a cause of false-positive results in serological assays
      for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1. Intl. J. Leprosy. 9:125.

 3. Arnold NL, Slade RA, Jones MM, et al. 1994. Donor follow up of influenza vaccine-related multiple viral enzyme
      immunoassay reactivity. Vox Sanguinis. 67:191.

 4. Ascher D, Roberts C. 1993. Determination of the etiology of seroreversals in HIV testing by antibody
      fingerprinting. AIDS. 6:241.

 5. Barbacid M, Bolgnesi D, Aaronson S. 1980. Humans have antibodies capable of recognizing oncoviral glycoproteins:
      Demonstration that these antibodies are formed in response to cellular modification of glycoproteins rather than
      as consequence of exposure to virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:1617-1621.

 6. Biggar R, Melbye M, Sarin P, et al. 1985. ELISA HTLV retrovirus antibody reactivity associated with malaria and
       immune complexes in healthy Africans. Lancet. ii:520-543.

 7. Blanton M, Balakrishnan K, Dumaswala U, et al. 1987. HLA antibodies in blood donors with reactive screening tests
       for antibody to the immunodeficiency virus. Transfusion. 27(1):118.

 8. Blomberg J, Vincic E, Jonsson C, et al. 1990. Identification of regions of HIV-1 p24 reactive with sera which
       give "indeterminate" results in electrophoretic immunoblots with the help of long synthetic peptides. AIDS Res.
       Hum. Retro. 6:1363.

 9. Burkhardt U, Mertens T, Eggers H. 1987. Comparison of two commercially available anti-HIV ELISA's: Abbott
      HTLV-III ELA and DuPont HTLV-III ELISA. J. Med. Vir. 23:217.

 10. Bylund D, Ziegner U, Hooper D. 1992 Review of testing for human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Lab. Med.
      12:305-333.
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
 11. Challakere K, Rapaport M. 1993. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ELISA results in low-risk
      subjects. West. J. Med. 159(2):214-215.

 12. Charmot G, Simon F. 1990. HIV infection and malaria. Revue du practicien. 40:2141.

 13. Cordes R, Ryan M. 1995. Pitfalls in HIV testing. Postgraduate Medicine. 98:177.

 14. Dock N, Lamberson H, O'Brien T, et al. 1988. Evaluation of atypical human immunodeficiency virus immunoblot
      reactivity in blood donors. Transfusion. 28:142.

 15. Esteva M, Blasini A, Ogly D, et al. 1992. False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic
      lupus erythematosus. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51:1071-1073.

 16. Fassbinder W, Kuhni P, Neumayer H. et al. 1986. Prevalence of antibodies against LAV/HTLV-III [HIV] in
      patients with terminal renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis and following renal transplantation. Deutsche
      Medizinische Wochenschrift. 111:1087.

 17. Fleming D, Cochi S, Steece R. et al. 1987. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in low-incidence areas. JAMA.
      258(6):785.

 18. Gill MJ, Rachlis A, Anand C. 1991. Five cases of erroneously diagnosed HIV infection. Can. Med. Asso. J.
      145(12):1593.

 19. Healey D, Bolton W. 1993. Apparent HIV-1 glycoprotein reactivity on Western blot in uninfected blood donors.
      AIDS. 7:655-658.

 20. Hisa J. 1993. False-positive ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus after influenza vaccination. JID. 167:989.

 21. Isaacman S. 1989. Positive HIV antibody test results after treatment with hepatitis B immune globulin. JAMA.
      262:209.
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
 22. Jackson G, Rubenis M, Knigge M, et al. 1988. Passive immunoneutralisation of human immunodeficiency virus in
      patients with advanced AIDS. Lancet, Sept. 17:647.

 23. Jindal R, Solomon M, Burrows L. 1993. False positive tests for HIV in a woman with lupus and renal failure.
      NEJM. 328:1281-1282.

 24. Jungkind D, DiRenzo S, Young S. 1986. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell
      lymphotropic virus type III [HIV] antibody test. J. Clin. Micro. 23:381.

 25. Kashala O, Marlink R, Ilunga M. et al. 1994. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and
      human T-cell lymphotropic viruses among leprosy patients and contacts: correlation between HIV-1 cross-
      reactivity and antibodies to lipoarabionomanna. J. Infect. Dis. 169:296-304.

 26. Lai-Goldman M, McBride J, Howanitz P, et al. 1987. Presence of HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies in immune serum
      globulin preparations. Am. J. Clin. Path. 87:635.

 27. Langedijk J, Vos W, Doornum G, et al. 1992. Identification of cross-reactive epitopes recognized by HIV-1
      false-positive sera. AIDS. 6:1547-1548.

 28. Lee D, Eby W, Molinaro G. 1992. HIV false positivity after hepatitis B vaccination. Lancet. 339:1060.

 29. Leo-Amador G, Ramirez-Rodriguez J, Galvan-Villegas F, et al. 1990. Antibodies against human immunodeficiency
      virus in generalized lupus erythematosus. Salud Publica de Mexico. 32:15.

 30. Mackenzie W, Davis J, Peterson D. et al. 1992. Multiple false-positive serologic tests for HIV, HTLV-1 and
      hepatitis C following influenza vaccination, 1991. JAMA. 268:1015-1017.

 31. Mathe G. 1992. Is the AIDS virus responsible for the disease? Biomed & Pharmacother. 46:1-2.

 32. Mendenhall C, Roselle G, Grossman C, et al. 1986. False-positive tests for HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies in
      alcoholic patients with hepatitis. NEJM. 314:921.
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
 33. Moore J, Cone E, Alexander S. 1986. HTLV-III [HIV] seropositivity in 1971-1972 parenteral drug abusers - a
      case of false-positives or evidence of viral exposure? NEJM. 314:1387-1388.

 34. Mortimer P, Mortimer J, Parry J. 1985. Which anti-HTLV-III/LAV [HIV] assays for screening and comfirmatory
      testing? Lancet. Oct. 19, p873.

 35. Neale T, Dagger J, Fong R, et al. 1985. False-positive anti-HTLV-III [HIV] serology. New Zealand Med. J.
      October 23.

 36. Ng V. 1991. Serological diagnosis with recombinant peptides/proteins. Clin. Chem. 37:1667-1668.

 37. Ozanne G, Fauvel M. 1988. Perfomance and reliability of five commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits
      in screening for anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody in high-risk subjects. J. Clin. Micro. 26:1496.

 38. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E. 1988. Reappraisal of AIDS - Is the oxidation induced by the risk factors the primary
      cause? Med. Hypo. 25:151.

 39. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner V, and Papadimitriou J. 1993. Is a positive Western blot proof of HIV
      infection? Bio/Technology. June 11:696-707.

 40. Pearlman ES, Ballas SK. 1994. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus screening test related to rabies
      vaccination. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118-805.

 41. Peternan T, Lang G, Mikos N, et al. Hemodialysis/renal failure. 1986. JAMA. 255:2324.

 42. Piszkewicz D. 1987. HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies after immune globulin. JAMA. 257:316.

 43. Profitt MR, Yen-Lieberman B. 1993. Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Inf. Dis.
      Clin. North Am. 7:203.

 44. Ranki A, Kurki P, Reipponen S, et al. 1992. Antibodies to retroviral proteins in autoimmune connective tissue
      disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 35:1483.
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
 45. Ribeiro T, Brites C, Moreira E, et al. 1993. Serologic validation of HIV infection in a tropical area. JAIDS.
      6:319.

 46. Sayers M, Beatty P, Hansen J. 1986. HLA antibodies as a cause of false-positive reactions in screening enzyme
      immunoassays for antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type III [HIV]. Transfusion. 26(1):114.

 47. Sayre KR, Dodd RY, Tegtmeier G, et al. 1996. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Western blot
      tests in non-infected blood donors. Transfusion. 36:45.

 48. Schleupner CJ. Detection of HIV-1 infection. In: (Mandell GI, Douglas RG, Bennett JE, eds.) Principles and
      Practice of Infectious Diseases, 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990:1092.

 49. Schochetman G, George J. 1992. Serologic tests for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In
      AIDS Testing Methodology and Management Issues, Springer-Verlag, New York.

 50. Simonsen L, Buffington J, Shapiro C, et al. 1995. Multiple false reactions in viral antibody screening assays after
      influenza vaccination. Am. J. Epidem. 141-1089.

 51. Smith D, Dewhurst S, Shepherd S, et al. 1987. False-positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactions for
      antibody to human immunodeficiency virus in a population of midwestern patients with congenital bleeding
      disorders. Transfusion. 127:112.

 52. Snyder H, Fleissner E. 1980. Specificity of human antibodies to oncovirus glycoproteins; Recognition of antigen by
      natural antibodies directed against carbohydrate structures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:1622-1626.

 53. Steckelberg JM, Cockerill F. 1988. Serologic testing for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies. Mayo Clin.
      Proc. 63:373.

 54. Sungar C, Akpolat T, Ozkuyumcu C, et al. Alpha interferon therapy in hemodialysis patients. Nephron. 67:251.
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
 55. Tribe D, Reed D, Lindell P, et al. 1988. Antibodies reactive with human immunodeficiency virus gag-coated
      antigens (gag reactive only) are a major cause of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity in a bood donor
      population. J. Clin. Micro. April:641.

 56. Ujhelyi E, Fust G, Illei G, et al. 1989. Different types of false positive anti-HIV reactions in patients on
      hemodialysis. Immun. Let. 22:35-40.

 57. Van Beers D, Duys M, Maes M, et al. Heat inactivation of serum may interfere with tests for antibodies to
      LAV/HTLV-III [HIV]. J. Vir. Meth. 12:329.

 58. Voevodin A. 1992. HIV screening in Russia. Lancet. 339:1548.

 59. Weber B, Moshtaghi-Borojeni M, Brunner M, et al. 1995. Evaluation of the reliability of six current anti-HIV-
      1/HIV-2 enzyme immunoassays. J. Vir. Meth. 55:97.

 60. Wood C, Williams A, McNamara J, et al. 1986. Antibody against the human immunodeficiency virus in commercial
      intravenous gammaglobulin preparations. Ann. Int. Med. 105:536.

 61. Yale S, Degroen P, Tooson J, et al. 1994. Unusual aspects of acute Q fever-associated hepatitis. Mayo Clin.
      Proc. 69:769.

 62. Yoshida T, Matsui T, Kobayashi M, et al. 1987. Evaluation of passive particle agglutination test for antibody to
      human immunodeficiency virus. J. Clin. Micro. Aug:1433.

 63. Yu S, Fong C, Landry M, et al. 1989. A false positive HIV antibody reaction due to transfusion-induced HLA-
      DR4 sensitization. NEJM.320:1495.

 64. National Institue of Justice, AIDS Bulletin. Oct. 1988.
Low CD4 T-cell count: Non-HIV/AIDS
diagnosis
   Prior to 1993, the definition of AIDS required clinical symptoms
    of serious disease
   According to the 1993 redefinition of AIDS, clinically healthy
    but HIV+ people in the US have "AIDS" when their CD4 cell
    count drops below 200.
   This redefinition is absurd - a variety of physical and even
    psychological conditions have been shown to cause very low CD4
    cell counts in "HIV negative" individuals
   Literally overnight, this change of definition caused the number
    of people with "AIDS" in the United States to double
       From 1993 to 1997, the CDC disclosed the percentage of AIDS
        patients that had AIDS'93, but not AIDS'87
       Starting in 1998, the CDC would no longer disclose which percentage
        of AIDS cases was "AIDS'93" but not "AIDS'87", and stonewalled
        all attempts of AIDS rethinkers to acquire it
Low CD4 T-cell count: A Variety of causes
account for this phenomenon
   Many viral infections
   Bacterial infections
   Parasitic infections
   Sepsis
   Tuberculosis
   Coccidioidomycosis (acquired from inhalation of spores)
   Burns
   Trauma
   Intravenous injections of foreign proteins
   Malnutrition
   Over-exercising
   Intravenous drug users
   Pregnancy
   Normal daily variation
   Psychological stress and social isolation
   Malaria
Low CD4 T-cell count: References
1.    Alberts SC, Sapolsky RM, Altmann J (1992). Behavioral, endocrine and immunological correlates of immigration by an
      aggressive male into a natural primate group. Hormones and Behavior 26; 167-178.
2.    Andreoli TE et al. (1993). Cecil essentials of medicine. W.B. Saunders; Philadelphia.
3.    Antonaci S, Jirillo E, Stasi D, De Mitrio V, La Via MF, Bonomo L (1988). Immunoresponsiveness in hemophilia:
      lymphocyte- and phagocyte-mediated functions. Diagn Clin Immunol;5(6):318-25
4.    Antonacci AC, Good RA, & Gupta S (1982). T-cell subpopulations following thermal injury. Surg Gynecol Obstet;
      155(1); 1-8.
5.    Atzori (2000). In Vitro activity of HIV protease inhibitors against Pneumocystis carinii. J Infect Dis; 181; 1629-
      1634.
6.    Azar ST, Melby JC (1993). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in non-AIDS patients with advanced HIV
      infection. Am J Med Sci May;305(5):321-5.
7.    Babameto G & Kotler DP (1997). Malnutrition in HIV infection. GI Clin North America: 26(2): 393-413.
8.    Balter M (1997, November 21). How does HIV overcome the body's T-cell bodyguards? Science 278: 1399-1400.
9.    Beck JS, Potts RC, Kardjito T, and Grange JM (1985). T4 lymphopenia in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis.
      Clin Exp Immunol, Volume 60, 49-54.
10.   Beisel WR (1996, october). Nutrition in pediatric HIV infection: setting the research agenda. Nutrition and immune
      function: overview. J Nutr;126(10 Suppl):2611S-2615S
11.   Berkman L & Syme S (1979). Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: a nine year follow up study of alameda
      county residents. Am J Epidemiol; 109(2): 186-203.
12.   Blatt SP, Lucey CR, Butzin CA et al. (1991). Total lymphocyte count as a predictor of absolute CD4+ percentage in
      HIV infected persons. JAMA 269; 622-626.
13.   Bonneau RH, Sheridan JF, Feng N, Glaser R (1993). Stress-induced modulation of the primary cellular immune
      response is mediated by both adrenal-dependent and adrenal independent mechanisms. Journal of Neuroimmunology;
      42; 167-176.
14.   Britton S, Thoren M, Sjoberg HE (December 20, 1975). The immunological hazard of Cushing's syndrome. British
      Medical Journal 4; 678-680.
15.   Burns DN, Nourjah P, Minkoff H, et al. (1996). Changes in CD4 and CD8 cell levels during pregnancy and post partum
      in women seropositive and seronegative for HIV-1. Am J Obstet Gyn; 174(5); 1461-1468.
16.   Carney WP, Rubin RH, Hoffman RA, et al. (1981). Analysis of T lymphocyte subsets in CMV mononucleosis. The
      Journal of Immunology 126(6); 2114-2116.
17.   Carr DJJ, Serou M (1995, November). Exogenous and endogenous opioids as biological response modifiers.
      Immunopharmacology; 31(1): 59-71
Low CD4 T-cell count: References

18.   Cassone (1999). In vitro and in vivo anticandidal activity of HIV protease inhibitors. J Infect Dis; 180; 448-453.
19.   Castilla JA, Rueda R, Vargas L, et al. (1989). Decreased levels of circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes during normal
      human pregnancy. J Reprod Immunol; 15; 103-111.
20.   Castle S, Wilkins S, Heck E, Tanzy K, Fahey J (1995, September). Depression in caregivers of demented patients is
      associated with altered immunity: impaired proliferative capacity, increased CD8+, and a decline in lymphocytes with
      surface signal transduction molecules (CD38+) and a cytotoxicity marker (CD56+ CD8+). Clin Exp Immunol;101(3):487-
      93
21.   CDC (1999). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.
22.   Chandra RK (1997, August). Nutrition and the immune system: an introduction. Am J Clin Nutr; 66(2) :460S-463S
23.   Chirenda J (1999). Low CD4 count in HIV-negative malaria cases, and normal CD4 count in HIV-positive and malaria
      negative patients. Cent Afr J Med; Volume 45(9): page 248.
24.   Christeff N, Gharakhanian S, Thobie N et al. (1992). Evidence for changes in adrenal and testicular steroids during
      HIV infection. J Acquired Imm Def Syn; 5: 841-846.
25.   Coodley GO, Loveless MO, Nelson HD et al. (1994). Endocrine function in the HIV wasting syndrome. J Acquired Imm
      Def Syn; 7: 46-51.
26.   Culver KW, Ammann AJ, Partridge JC, Wong DF, Wara DW, Cowan MJ (1987, August). Lymphocyte abnormalities in
      infants born to drug-abusing mothers. J Pediatr;111(2):230-5.
27.   Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Marmor M et al. (1987, July). Development of AIDS, HIV seroconversion, and
      potential cofactors for CD4 cell loss in a cohort of intravenous drug users. AIDS 1(2): 105-111.
28.   Feeney C, Bryzman S, Kong L, Brazil H, Deutsch R, Fritz LC (1995, Oct). T-lymphocyte subsets in acute illness. Crit
      Care Med; 23(10):1680-5.
29.   Fox CH (1996). The pathogenesis of HIV-disease. J Nutr; 126(10 Suppl): 2608S.
30.   Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M, et al (1984). Frequent Detection and Isolation of Cytopathic Retro-viruses
      (HTLV-III) from Patients with AIDS and at Risk for AIDS. Science ; 224:500-502.
31.   Garrett L (2001). Change in Guidelines for HIV; U.S. officials to tout new treatment policy. Newsday (New York,
      NY), January 17, 2001, Wednesday, page A22.
32.   Goldman (2000). Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 21st edition, W.B. Saunders, Inc.
33.   Goodkin K, Feaster DJ, Asthana D, et al. (1998, May). A bereavement support group intervention is longitudinally
      associated with salutory effects on the CD4 cell count and number of physician visits. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol: 5(3);
      382-91.
34.   Guyton AC & Hall JE (1996). Textbook of Medical Physiology. Saunders; New York
35.   Harbige LS (1996). Nutrition and immunity with emphasis on infection and autoimmune disease. Nutrition and Health:
      10; 285-312.
Low CD4 T-cell count: References

36.   Hegde HR, Woodman RC, Sankaran K (1999, March). Nutrients as modulators of anergy in acquired immune deficiency
      syndrome. J Assoc Physicians India; 47(3): 318-25
37.   Herbert TB & Cohen S (1993). Stress and immunity in humans: A meta-analytic review. Psychosomatic Medicine;
      55;364-379.
38.   House et al. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science ;241:540-545.
39.   Junker AK, Ochs HD, Clark EA et al. (1986, Sep). Transient immune deficiency in patients with acute Epstein-Barr
      virus (EBV) infection. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 40(3); 436-446.
40.   Kennedy S, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R (1988 Mar). Immunological consequences of acute and chronic stressors:
      mediating role of interpersonal relationships. Br J Med Psychol; 61(Pt 1):77-85.
41.   Keusch GT & Thea DM (1993). Malnutrition in AIDS. Med Clin North America: 77(4); 795-813.
42.   Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Ricker D, George J (1984). Urinary cortisol levels, cellular immuno-competency, and loneliness in
      psychiatric inpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine; 46(1): 15-23.
43.   Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Dura JR, Speicher CE et al. (1991). Spousal caregivers of dementia victims: Longitudinal changes
      in immunity and health. Psychosomatic Medicine; 53;345-362.
44.   Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R (1992). Acute, psychological stressors and short-term immunological changes.
      Psychosomatic Medicine; 54;680-685.
45.   Kotze M (1998). Ability of the total lymphocyte count to accurately predict the CD4+ T-cell count in a group of
      HIV1-infected South African patients. Int Conf AIDS - 1998; 12: 810 (abstract no. 42187)
46.   Laudenslager M, Ryan SM, Drugan RC, et al. (1983). Coping and immunosuppression: Inescapable but not escapable
      shock suppresses lymphocyte proliferation. Science, 221;568-570.
47.   Learmont J, Tindall B, Evans L, et al (1992). Long-term symptomless HIV-1 infection in recipients of blood products
      from a single donor. Lancet ;340:863-867.
48.   Leserman J, Jackson ED, Petitto JM, et al. (1999) Progression to AIDS: the effects of stress, depressive
      symptoms, and social support. Psychosomatic Medicine; 61; 397-406.
49.   Lewi DS, Kater CE, Moreira AC (1995 Mar-Apr). Stimulus of the hypophyseal-adrenocortical axis with corticotropin
      releasing hormone (CRH) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Evidence for activation of the immune-neuroendocrine
      system (article in Portuguese). Rev Assoc Med Bras;41(2):109-18.
50.   Lortholary O, Christeff N, Casassus P, Thobie N, Veyssier P, Trogoff B, Torri O, Brauner M, Nunez EA, Guillevin L
      (1996 Feb). Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. J Clin Endocrinol
      Metab ;81(2):791-6
51.   Madhok R, Gracie A, Lowe GD, Burnett A, Froebel K, Follett E, Forbes CD (1986, Oct 18). Impaired cell mediated
      immunity in haemophilia in the absence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Br Med J (Clin Res
      Ed);293(6553):978-80
Low CD4 T-cell count: References
52.   McChesney MB & Oldstone A (1987). Viruses perturb lymphocyte functions. Ann Rev Immunol, Volume 5: 279-304.
53.   McDonough RJ, Madden JJ, Falek A, et al. (1980). Alteration of T and null lymphocyte frequencies in the peripheral
      blood of human opiate addicts: In Vivo evidence for opiate receptor sites on T lymphocytes. J Immunol: 125(6);
      2539-43.
54.   Membreno L, Irony I, Dere W, Klein R, Biglieri EG, Cobb E (1987 Sep). Adrenocortical function in acquired
      immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab;65(3):482-7.
55.   Mientjes GH, Miedema F, van Ameijden EJ, Hoek AA, et al. (1991). Frequent injecting impairs lymphocyte reactivity
      in HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users. AIDS: 5; 35-41.
56.   Momose JJ, Kjellberg RN, Kliman B (1971). High incidence of cortical atrophy of the cerebral and cerebellar
      hemispheres in Cushing's disease. Radiology 99; 341-348.
57.   Nishijima MK, Takezawa J, Hosotsubo KK et al. (1986). Serial changes in cellular immunity of septic patients with
      multiple organ-system failure. Critical Care Medicine, Volume 14(2); 87-91.
58.   Norbiato G, Bevilacqua M, Vago T, Clerici M (1996, July). Glucocorticoids and interferon-alpha in the acquired
      immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab;81(7):2601-6
59.   Norbiato G, Bevilacqua M, Vago T, Taddei A, Clerici (1997, Oct). Glucocorticoids and the immune function in the
      human immunodeficiency virus infection: a study in hypercortisolemic and cortisol-resistant patients. J Clin Endocrinol
      Metab; 82(10): 3260-3.
60.   O'Mahoney JB, Palder SB, Wood JJ, et al. (1984). Depression of cellular immunity after multiple trauma in the
      absence of sepsis. J Trauma: 24(10); 869-75.
61.   Ornish D (1997). Love and Survival: the Scientific Basis for the Healing Power of Intimacy; Harper Collins; New York.
62.   Pariante CM, Carpiniello B, Orru MG, Sitzia R, Piras A, Farci AM, Del Giacco GS, Piludu G, Miller AH (1997). Chronic
      caregiving stress alters peripheral blood immune parameters: the role of age and severity of stress. Psychother
      Psychosom;66(4):199-207.
63.   Polk HC, George CD, Cost K, et al. (1986). A systematic study of host defense processes in badly injured patients.
      Ann Surg; 204; 282-299.
64.   Sapolsky RM, Uno H, Rebert CS, Finch CE (1990 Sep). Hippocampal damage associated with prolonged glucocorticoid
      exposure in primates. J Neurosci ; 10(9):2897-902.
65.   Sapolsky RM (1996, August 9). Why stress is bad for your brain. Science 273; 749-750.
66.   Shallenberger F (1998). Selective compartmental dominance: an explanation for a non-infectious, multifactorial etiology
      for AIDS. Medical Hypotheses: 50; 67-80.
67.   Sridama V, Pacini F, Yang S, et al. (1982). Decreased levels of helper cells: A possible cause of immunodeficiency in
      pregnancy. New Eng J Med: 307(6); 352-356.
68.   Starkman MN, Gebarski SS, Berent S et al. (1992). Hippocampal formation volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol
      levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Biological Psychiatry; 32: 756-765.
69.   Stefanski V, Engler H (1998 Jul). Effects of acute and chronic social stress on blood cellular immunity in rats. Physiol
      Behav;64(5):733-41
The viral load test: Polymerase chain
reaction (PCR)
        PCR is method of rapidly synthesizing many copies of a specific
         segment of DNA
          PCR is the biotechnology version of the Xerox machine
          The amount of DNA you have to study increases exponentially

        Viral load tests suppose to measure the amount of HIV RNA
         present in the blood stream, but, instead they measure genetic
         fragments, not levels of active virus in the body

        The viral load hypothesis fails to answer two important
         questions
    1.     If billions of HIV are present, why is PCR necessary to find them?
    2.     If PCR is the only way HIV can be detected, how is it possible for
           scientists to verify the results of PCR?
The viral load test: Invalid and not
reproducible
   Nobel Laureate Kary Mullis, the inventor of the PCR method
    has stated publicly that "viral load" tests are invalid
   The “so-called viral load numbers” are not reproducible, not
    even when the same technology is used
   A nationwide team of orthodox AIDS researchers led by
    doctors Benigno Rodriguez and Michael Lederman of Case
    Western Reserve University in Cleveland
       Disputed the value of viral load tests standard used since 1996
        to assess health, predict progression to disease, and grant
        approval to new AIDS drugs after their study of 2,800 HIV
        positives concluded viral load measures failed in more than
        90% of cases to predict or explain immune status




    Published in the September 27, 2006 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association
The viral load test: Invalid and not
reproducible
   In a study by French
    researchers
       15 HIV-1 strains using 3 viral load tests
        were analyzed
   The samples contained the same
    load of this alleged “HIV” as
    quantified by p24 measurements
       p24: Found in all endogenous
        retroviruses (HTLV-1, HTLV-II, HIV-2)
   If the tests were true
    measurement of HIV RNA the
    results should have been the
    same for all strains in a given
    test and all tests for a specific
    strain
       Every number to the right of the first
        column should be identical



    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 15:174.
Another analysis of the HIV/AIDS
statistics from the CDC’s website
   In 2005, the CDC estimated that 38,096 people were
    diagnosed with HIV/AIDS

   African Americans (12–13% of the American population)
    make up 49% of the estimated number of HIV/AIDS cases
    diagnosed
       (38,096 *0.49) 18,667

   If HIV exits, the actual HIV diagnoses that should have
    occurred can be calculated by subtracting
       The diagnoses that are a direct result of a low CD4 cell count
       The false positives generated from the joint ELISA/WB test
Another analysis of the HIV/AIDS
statistics from the CDC’s website
   1/2 (38,096) of those diagnosed with HIV/AIDS are from a
    low CD4 count (19,048)
   Assuming a 90% false positive rate based upon the joint WB
    and ELISA antibody tests 19,048 *0.90 (17,143)
   The HIV/AIDS cases should have been 38,096 – 19,048-
    17,143 (1,905 people in the entire U.S.)

   Since 49% of those estimated to be infected with HIV are
    African Americans
         This means that 933 out of ~39 million African Americans may
          have this thing that is called “HIV”

   Since antibodies are really not a good measure to detect any
    disease, then this number should be reduced to “Zero”
If commerce laws were applied equally
   HIV tests would have to bear a disclaimer just like
    cigarettes

        “WARNING"
            This test will not tell you if you are infected with a virus
            It may confirm that you are pregnant
            It may confirm that you have used drugs or alcohol
            It may confirm that you have been vaccinated
            It may confirm that you have a cold, liver disease, arthritis
            It may confirm that you are stressed, poor, hungry, or tired
            It may confirm that you are an African
            It will not tell you if you are going to live or die
            In fact, we really do not know what testing “positive or
             negative” means at all

    Liam Scheff is an investigative journalist whose research was the basis for the 2004 BBC documentary,
    "Guinea Pig Kids," about the forced use of experimental AIDS drugs.
The fine print: Summary of scientific
evidence
   They tell you, unabashedly
       HIV tests are arbitrarily interpreted

       HIV tests are not standardized (no gold standard)

       The term HIV does not describe a single entity

       HIV describes a collection of non-specific, cross-reactive
        cellular material

       HIV can not be sexually transmitted

       HIV is not required for AIDS

   What is causing people to become sick?
The Drugs: HIV therapy - AZT

    Liquid Plummer
    Developed in the 1960s as a chemotherapy for leukemia
    A "nucleoside analog" drug, or DNA chain terminator
        Stops the DNA molecule from duplicating
    Kills cells that try to reproduce
    Chemotherapies are notoriously immunosuppressive
        The idea for cancer treatment is that a short shock program of maybe two or three
         weeks will kill the tumor while only half-killing the patient
        Then you get the person off the therapy as quickly as possible
        Then build up the person’s immune system

    Officially acknowledged side effects
        Diarrhea, dementia, lymphoma (cancer), muscle wasting, and T-cell depletion, which are
         also AIDS-defining conditions
The Drugs: HIV therapy – protease
inhibitors
    Proteases
        Are some of the most important enzymes (proteins) that we
         have
        They aid in the breakdown of proteins in the body (digestion
         of protein)

    Protease inhibitors
        Throw your body out of homeostasis
        Inhibit the body's natural proteases
        Prevent the digestion of proteins
            If the digestive process is incomplete, undigested proteins can
             wind up in a person’s circulatory system, as well as in other parts
             of the body
        Will cause an autoimmune response
Side effects - protease inhibitors
    Invirase (Hoffmann-LaRoche inserts)
        Body as a whole: allergic reaction, chest pain, edema, fever, intoxication, parasites
         external, retrosternal pain, shivering, wasting syndrome, weight decrease

        Cardiovascular: Cyanosis, heart murmur, heart valve disorder, hypertension, hypotension,
         syncope, vein distended

        Endocrine/Metabolic: Dehydration, dry eye syndrome, hyperglycemia, xerophthalmia

        Gastrointestinal: Cheilitis, constipation, dysphagia, eructation, feces bloodstained, feces
         discolorred, gastralgia, gastritis, gastrointestinal inflammation, gingivitis, glossitis,
         hemorrhage rectum, hemorrhoids, hepatomegaly, melena, pain pelvic, painful defecation,
         pancreatitis, parotic disorder, salivary glands disorder, stomatitis, tooth disorder,
         vomiting

        Hematlogic: Anemia, microhemorrhages, pancytopenia, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia

        Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, arthritis, back pain, cramps muscle, musculoskeletal
         disorders, stiffness, tissue changes, trauma

        Neurological: Ataxia, bowel movements frequent, confusion, convulsions, dysarthria,
         dysesthesia, heart rate disorder, hyperesthesia, hyperreflexia, hyporeflexia, mouth dry,
         numbness face, pain facial, paresis, poliomyelitis, progressive multifocal
         leukoencephalopathy, spasms, tremor
Side effects - protease inhibitors
    Invirase (continued)
        Psychological: Agitation, amnesia, anxiety, depression, dream excessive, euphoria,
         hallucination, insomnia, intellectual ability reduced, irritability, lethargy, libido
         disorder, overdose effect, psychotic disorder, somnolence, speech disorder

        Reproductive System: Prostate enlarged, vaginal discharge

        Resistance Mechanism: Abscess, angina tonsillaris, candidiasis, hepatitis, herpes
         simplex, herpes zoster, infection bacterial, infection mycotic, infection
         staphylococcal, influenza, lymphadenopathy, tumor

        Respiratory: Bronchitis, cough, dyspnea, epistaxis, hemoptysis, laryngitis,
         pharyngitis, pneumonia, respiratory disorder, rhinitis, sinusitis, upper respiratory
         tract infection

        Skin and Appendages: Acne, dermatitis, dermatitis seborrheic, eczema, erythema,
         folliculitis, furunculosis, hair changes, hot flushes, photosensitivity reaction,
         pigment changes skin, rash maculopapular, skin disorder, skin nodule, skin
         ulceration, sweating increased, urticaria, verruca, xeroderma

        Special Senses: Blepharitis, earache, ear pressure, eye irritation, hearing
         decreased, otitis, taste alteration, tinnitus, visual disturbance

        Urinary system: Micturition disorder, urinary tract infection
Side effects - protease inhibitors
    Crixivan (Merck, Sharp & Dohme inserts)

        Body as a whole/site unspecified: Abdominal distention, chest pain,
         chills, fever, flank pain, flu-like illness, fungal infection, malaise, pain,
         syncope

        Cardiovascular system: Cardiovascular disorder, palpitation

        Digestive system: Acid regurgitation, anorexia, aphthous stomatitis,
         cheilitis, cholecystitis, cholestasis, constipation, dry mouth, dyspepsia,
         eructation, flatulence, gastritis, gingivitis, glossodynia, gingival
         hemorrhage, increased appetite, infectious gastroenteritis, jaundice,
         liver cirrhosis

        Hemic and Lymphatic System: Anemia, lymphadenopathy, spleen disorder

        Metabolic/Nutritional/Immune: Food allergy

        Musculoskeletal system: Arthralgia, back pain, leg pain, myalgia, muscle
         cramps, muscle weakness, musculoskeletal pain, shoulder pain, stiffness
Side effects - protease inhibitors
    Crixivan (continued)
        Nervous system and psychiatric: Agitation, anxiety, anxiety disorder, bruxism,
         decreased mental acuity, depression, dizziness, dream abnormality, dysesthesia,
         excitement, fasciculation, hypesthesia, nervousness, neuralgia, neurotic disorder,
         paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, sleep disorder, somnolence, tremor, vertigo

        Respiratory system: Cough, dyspnea, halitosis, pharyngeal hyperemia, pharyngitis,
         pneumonia, rales/rhonchi, respiratory failure, sinus disorder, sinusitis, upper
         respiratory infection

        Skin and skin Appendage: Body odor, contact dermatitis, dermatitis, dry skin,
         flushing, folliculitis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, night sweats, pruritus,
         seborrhea, skin disorder, skin infection, sweating, urticaria

        Special senses: Accommodation disorder, blurred vision, eye pain, eye swelling,
         orbital edema, taste disorder

        Urogenital system: Dysuria, hematuria, hydronephrosis, nocturia, premenstrual
         syndrome, proteinuria, renal colic, urinary frequency, urinary tract infection, urine
         abnormality, urine sediment abnormality, urolithiasis
Side effects – AIDS drugs


  Photos of an infant with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, a
  blistering, peeling, potentially fatal skin rash. It is one of the
  known side-effects of the AIDS drug Nevirapine (Viramune).
  Viramune is one of the primary drugs being readied for
  distribution in Africa.




   “Viramune is not a cure for HIV-1 infection.”
Side effects – Protease inhibitor effects

 BUFFALO HUMPS" between the shoulders and protruding
 abdomen
Confidential name-based HIV infection
reporting

    There are 33 States and 4 Dependent Areas that will not
     release your name if you test HIV +
        Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Idaho,
         Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota,
         Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New
         Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio,
         Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas,
         Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

        American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and
         the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Illinois is not on that list
AIDS in Africa: The Bangui definition

   In 1985, the WHO called a meeting in Bangui, the capital
    of the Central African Republic, to define African AIDS
   The meeting was presided over by CDC official Joseph
    McCormick
   McCormick wrote about it in his book "Level 4 Virus
    hunters of the CDC," saying…
       If I could get everyone at the WHO meeting in Bangui to agree on
        a single, simple definition of what an AIDS case was in Africa,
        then, imperfect as the definition might be, we could actually start
        counting the cases

       The result was - African AIDS would be defined by physical
        symptoms: fever, diarrhea, weight loss, and coughing or itching

              AIDS in Africa: an epidemiological paradigm, Science, 1986
In Africa, HIV status is irrelevant

   Even if you test negative, you can be called an AIDS
    patient
   In 1992, a study in Ghana: 59% of the seronegative (HIV-
    negative) group were clinically diagnosed as having AIDS
       All the patients had three major signs: weight loss, prolonged
        diarrhea, and chronic fever
           Lancet, October, 1992

   Across Africa: 50% (2215 out of 4383) African AIDS
    patients from Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Lusaka, Zambia, and
    Kinshasa, Zaire, were HIV-antibody negative
           British Medical Journal, 1991
In Sub-Saharan Africa
   ~60% of the population lives and dies without safe drinking water,
    adequate food, or basic sanitation
   Sep, 2003 report in the Ugandan Daily "New Vision" outlined the
    situation in Kampala, a city of ~ 1.3 million inhabitants, which, like
    most tropical countries, experience seasonal flooding
   In the flood zone
       Heaps of unclaimed garbage among the crowded houses
       Countless pools of water that provide a breeding ground for mosquitoes
        and create a dirty environment that favors cholera
       Latrines are built above water streams
       During rain - residents open a hole to release the feces from the latrines
       The rain then washes away the feces to the streams
       The residents fetch water from the streams

   Some defecate in polythene bags, which they throw into the
    stream (flying toilets)
False positive rate in South Africa


   Dec 2002 – an article published by a fifth-year medical
    student at Bristol University in Britain

       Mukai Chimuterngwende-Gordon

       83% chance that the HIV test mechanism in Africa -
        called Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (Elisa)
        would produce false results




              http://new.hst.org.za/news/index.php/20030118/

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:58
posted:11/10/2011
language:English
pages:65