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must_-_have

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									 Must / have to / have got to: expressing                            Must / have to: expressing the future
the present                                                      and the past
Must, have to and have got to are used to express                Must and have got to are not used in future or past:
obligation but keep in mind that must shows that it is the       × I had got to…/ I’ll have got to…/ I’ll must…/ I’ve must…
speaker who has decided that something is necessary. On          Note: must can be used to express future and present
the contrary, have to and have got to show that somebody         intention of the speaker. But it cannot be used to express
else wants you to act in this way.                               past intention:
                                                                 To pass my exams well, I will have to / must work as hard
Note: we use have got to in very informal speech.                as ever.

                                                                 We use have to express obligation or necessity in past
                       I must clean my room before               and future:
                       mum gets back. I want to
                       surprise her.
                                                                                        I’ll have to visit the dentist
Sorry, I can’t come out now. I have to clean my                                         next week. He’s applied a
room before mum allows me to go out.                                                    temporary tooth stopping.
With frequency adverbs such as often, always, sometimes,
never, etc, have to is usuallu used:

                                                                  We had to put on fancy dresses
 She usually has to work at                                       to the party though we didn’t
 weekends. I’m afraid she won’t go                                want to.
 to the country with us.

 Must / have to / have got to in the                                     Must / have to in the negative
interrogative                                                    We use have to in the negative when there is no
Have to and have got to are usually used in the interrogative,   obligation or necessity to do something:
but we can use must if it is the speaker who decides that is
necessary to act in this way:                                                    You won’t have to leave early
                        How often have you got / do                             tomorrow. I can give you a lift.
                        you have to travel by plane? –
                        Oh, quite often!                         We use mustn’t to say that something is not allowed:

                                                                  You mustn’t smoke in the
Must you live right now?! –                                       office. It’s forbidden.
I’m sorry I must be at home
by eight.

                Note: have to has the same characteristics as a regular verb and therefore requires an auxiliary verb in
the question    negative and interrogative sentences:

                form or negative:
                Did you have to sell your house? – Yes, we did.

                Will you have to sell your house? – Yes, we will.

                If we don’t have to move, we won’t sell it.
        Match up the sentences


     1. I mustn’t be late.                                         A. Yes, she lives far from the office.

     2. He had to visit the doctor last week.                      B. But when I work late, my husband has to do it.

     3. You don’t have to go shopping.                             C. She has to attend the clinic every week.

     4. Does Jane have to get up early?                            D. You mustn’t leave your car there.

     5. We must clean the kitchen.                                 E. There is lots of food in the fridge.

     6. My suit looks shabby.                                      F.   He hurt his leg badly.

     7. It’s no parking.                                           G. I must eat more fruit and vegetables.

     8. My grandma is seriously ill.                               H. We haven’t done it for ages!

     9. I usually cook dinner for my family.                       I.   I’ll have to buy a new one.

     10. I have poor health.                                       J.   Mum will be angry if I am.




           Use either “must”, “have to”, “mustn’t” or “not have to” for the following
sentences

  1. ______________ you ___________________ go to school today? – Oh no! It’s Sunday!

  2. I _______________________ go to the supermarket as we don’t have enough food for dinner.

  3. You _____________________ to come to the hospital to make an appointment. You can just call the secretary.

  4. You ______________________ smoke in a petrol station.

  5. She ______________________ buy any textbooks. She always uses her sister’s textbooks.

  6. This newspaper is free. We _______________________ pay for it.

  7. We __________________ be late for classes.

  8. Tom _________________________ look for a new job as he quitted last week.

  9. ___________ they ________________ meet him every day? – No, he has moved.

  10. If Paul wants to be a good pianist, he ______________________ practice every day.

  11. According to the law, drivers _______________________ stop at stop signs.

  12. It’s optional. You __________________ go if you don’t want to.

  13. The train was direct and we ________________________ change trains.

  14. He is very rich. He ________________________ work but he does because he enjoys it.

  15. It is forbidden. You __________________________ do that.

  16. ________________ you ______________ go to work last Saturday? – Yes, I had a lot of work to do.
                                    KEY

             Match up the sentences

    1. I mustn’t be late.                                           A. Yes, she lives far from the office.
                                J
    2. He had to visit the doctor last week.      F                 B. But when I work late, my husband has to do it.

    3. You don’t have to go shopping.         E                     C. She has to attend the clinic every week.

    4. Does Jane have to get up early?        A                     D. You mustn’t leave your car there.

    5. We must clean the kitchen.       H                           E. There is lots of food in the fridge.

    6. My suit looks shabby.        I                               F.    He hurt his leg badly.

    7. It’s no parking.     D                                       G. I must eat more fruit and vegetables.

    8. My grandma is seriously ill.       C                         H. We haven’t done it for ages!

    9. I usually cook dinner for my family.       B                 I.    I’ll have to buy a new one.

    10. I have poor health.     G                                   J.    Mum will be angry if I am.




         Use either “must”, “have to”, “mustn’t” or “not have to” for the following
sentences



  1. Will you have to go to school today? – Oh no! It’s Sunday!

  2. I will have to go to the supermarket as we don’t have enough food for dinner.

  3. You don’t have to come to the hospital to make an appointment. You can just call the secretary.

  4. You mustn’t smoke in a petrol station.

  5. She doesn’t have to buy any textbooks. She always uses her sister’s textbooks.

  6. This newspaper is free. We don’t have to pay for it.

  7. We mustn’t be late for classes.

  8. Tom will have to look for a new job as he quitted last week.

  9. Do they have to meet him every day? – No, he has moved.

  10. If Paul wants to be a good pianist, he has to practice every day.

  11. According to the law, drivers must stop at stop signs.

  12. It’s optional. You don’t have to go if you don’t want to.

  13. The train was direct and we didn’t have to change trains.

  14. He is very rich. He doesn’t have to work but he does because he enjoys it.

  15. It is forbidden. You mustn’t do that.

  16. Did you have to

								
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