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					The Effect of Mathematics Journaling on Mathematics Problem-Solving Skills of

                                Second Graders

                           An Action Research Project



            Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the

                           Master of Education Degree



                        Melissa Sneed and Kelly Williams

                                    July, 2009



                          Bagwell College of Education

            Department of Elementary and Early Childhood Education

                           Kennesaw State University

                               Kennesaw, Georgia



                         David J. Martin, Ph.D., Advisor
                                                        Kelly Williams and Melissa Sneed

                                                                                 ECE 7550

                                                                              July 14, 2009



                                         Abstract

       The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of mathematics

journaling on mathematic problem-solving skills of second graders. There has been a

decrease in math problem-solving skills within our school. Journaling is a strategy that

could aid in improving these weaknesses. The significance of this study to this school is

to improve mathematical problem-solving skills. The theoretical basis is to show whether

journaling is an effective strategy to improve these areas in mathematics. This study was

implemented to explore the benefits of math journaling for second grade students and to

discover if math journaling improves and enhances the understanding of mathematical

problem-solving skills.

       The word problems were selected from the county’s math inventory dealing with

the topic that we were teaching and were applied as the pre-test and post-test for the

phase without journaling (wording and numbers was changed to minimize the Test-Retest

Effect). A different word problem was selected from the county’s math inventory dealing

with the topic that we were teaching for the phase with math journaling. Wording and

numbers were changed to minimize the Test-Retest Effect.

       Before the study began, a series of problem solving strategies were taught to all of

the students. For Week 1-3, there was an application and practice time without

journaling. The students were given a pre-test at the start of Week 1. They were given a
post-test at the end of Week 3. For Week 4-6, the journaling process was implemented.

Week 4 began with a pre-test and Week 6 concluded with a post-test. We compared

Weeks 1-3 results to Weeks 4-6 results to see if math journaling was beneficial in

improving mathematical problem solving skills. The students had math problems that are

similar in difficulty for both phases. The problems that were used during the application

process came from the county inventory as well as a math word problem resource book.

We examined descriptive statistics to make the determination of the effect of journal

writing on math problem-solving. The significance of any changes that occurred between

studying mathematics problem solving skills without the use of journals and studying

math problem solving skills with the use of journaling was calculated using a t-test to

compare the pre-post test gains in weeks 1-3 with the pre-post test gains of weeks 4-6.

        This research project was six weeks long and included 32 students. Of these

students, there were 24 regular education students, 5 Special Education/ESOL students,

and 3 gifted students. The study was quantitative. The data was analyzed by comparing

the pre/post gains of each phase of the study. Each pre- and post- test in both phases was

scored by percentage correct out of 100. All data from each test was inputted into a

spreadsheet into Microsoft Excel. A t-test of Two Sample Assuming Unequal Variances

showed that this project was statistically significant. This t-test illustrates that math

journaling had a positive effect on the students in this study. In order to establish

statistical significance, the t-test needs to be <.05. Our t-test demonstrates a value of .045,

which achieves statistical significance. It is not a large significance, but it still shows that

math journaling is beneficial.
        In addition, this study found that it was more significant for students in regular

education, but was not significant for students in special education, including ESOL and

gifted students. We can hypothesize that because the sample size of this sub-group was

small that we could not achieve the desired results. However, if the sample size was

larger the treatment may have yielded more significant results. We will continue to

implement this practice because it was beneficial to most of the students.
The Effect of Mathematics Journaling on Mathematic Problem-Solving Skills of

                              Second Graders



                      Kelly Williams and Melissa Sneed

                         Kennesaw State University

                             Dr. David J. Martin
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                  2




Abstract

       The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of mathematics

journaling on mathematic problem-solving skills of second graders. There has been a

decrease in math problem-solving skills within our school. Journaling is a strategy that

could aid in improving these weaknesses. The significance of this study to this school is

to improve mathematical problem-solving skills. The theoretical basis is to show whether

journaling is an effective strategy to improve these areas in mathematics and written

expression. This study is being implemented to explore the benefits of math journaling

for second grade students and to discover if math journaling improves and enhances the

understanding of mathematical problem solving skills.



Introduction

Background

       This study took place at an elementary school in a suburb of a southeastern

metropolitan city. Our school serves students from a variety of economic and cultural

backgrounds. This includes middle-class neighborhoods, apartment complexes, and some

mobile home communities. The school population consists of 964 students, 461 females

and 503 males. Of these students, 115 are on free/reduced lunch. Our school faces the

challenges of a growing ESOL population, including a rising number of students that

speak languages other than Spanish, and an increase in the percentage of EIP students. Of

the entire student population, 1.6% of the students are considered gifted. The staff

members at our school provide a nurturing environment to develop responsible citizens.
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                      3

It is a collaborative effort of the students, staff, parents, and the community to create the

best learning environment. Our students are provided with opportunities for an authentic

and challenging education. Students learn best when they are actively engaged in

meaningful work. The teachers at our school collaboratively use data to identify and

improve instructional practices. All of the characteristics of our school aided in the

decision to complete our research on the benefit of math journaling for mathematic

problem-solving in second graders.


Statement of the Problem/Purpose

       The purpose of this study was to explore the benefits of mathematics journaling in

mathematical problem-solving skills in second graders. To find this out, we used a pre-

and post- test assessment for each of two phases of the study. The questions on these tests

were taken from the County School District Constructed Response questions. The first

phase involved math problem-solving without the use of a journal. The second phase of

this research was with the use of a math journal. Our expectation for this project was that

journaling would improve mathematical problem-solving skills by setting up certain steps

to complete math word problems. At the same time, the journaling would aide in

improving writing skills as well as mathematical problem-solving skills.


Research Question

       What is the effect of math journaling on mathematical problem-solving skills of

second graders?
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                   4


Literature Review

          The purpose of this literature review is to examine the benefits of math journaling

to improve problem-solving skills in students. Studies have found that math journaling is

a great way for students to explain their thoughts when solving word problems. Math

journaling is an additional tool that should be used along side a mathematics curriculum

adopted by the school. A famous mathematician, George Polya, said, “Solving problems

is a practical art, like swimming or skiing or playing the piano: you can do it by imitation

and practice… if you wish to learn swimming you have to go in the water, and if you

wish to become a problem solver you have to solve problems” ( Math Gym, p. 1). For the

purpose of this research, the literature review will discuss the many approaches to

journaling, investigate if there is a relation between math journaling and problem solving

and examine the effectiveness of math journaling to improve a student’s problem solving

skills.

    Math journaling is a way that teachers use to get their students to write about a math

problem by picking out key information, illustrating the information and then using the

information to solve a math problem. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

emphasizes that mathematical communication organizes and consolidates mathematical

thinking (NCTM, 2004). Burns stated in 2004 that “writing in math class supports

learning because it requires students to organize, clarify, and reflect on their ideas-all

useful processes for making sense of mathematics” (p. 31). Burns wanted to test the

hypothesis that writing helped make sense of mathematics. According to Flores and

Brittain (2003) it was discovered through their research that process writing helped

students learn mathematics and create a personal connection to new concepts. Process
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                   5

writing is a model used in writing instruction that sees writing as an evolving process.

Students follow a given set of procedures for planning, drafting, revising, editing

(proofreading and correcting), and publishing (sharing by some means) their writing.

Gurule stated (2007), “When you begin focusing more on student reflections in

mathematics, students became more engaged in building a deeper understanding of

mathematics. Students could understand their goals, where they were according to the

learning goals, and what they needed to do to achieve those goals” (p. 3). Gurule wanted

to show that with a deeper understanding of mathematic concepts, students would

improve and become more engages in mathematical concepts.

   Harmon (1995) discusses how using background knowledge and strategies that have

been implemented help children to become effective problem- solvers. Some of

Harmon’s findings suggest that, “the most effective problem solvers were those who had

sufficient domain-specific knowledge of mathematics to solve the problem, and who also

engaged in the sophisticated monitoring strategies required for goal attainment. The

research findings indicate that successful problem solvers engage in sophisticated

monitoring strategies and are aided by sufficient domain-specific knowledge. Children, as

they grow older, gain more knowledge and become more efficient in the strategies they

employ. Another key finding lies in the importance of metacognitive skill. This is

reflected in more efficient problem solving and in better choice of appropriate strategies

even when knowledge alone is not the critical factor” (p.580).

   As presented by Benko, Loaiza, Long, Sacharski, and Winkler (1999) many educators

today put emphasis on using metacognitive skills and recommend methods of developing

these skills. Also reported in this article by Benko, Loaiza, Long, Sacharski, and Winkler
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                    6

(1999), Howell and Barnhart (1992) discovered that students can learn to think about

math concepts successfully by using a three- step process. First, the students are

introduced to concrete, hands- on experience. Second, teachers begin teaching the

students to use symbols and drawings to represent information from the problem. Lastly,

teachers teach the concepts through an abstract create of the equation. Educators seem to

be skipping the first two steps frequently.

   According to Sezer (2008), by improving critical thinking skills, students will be able

to understand mathematical concepts better and positive effects would be seen in problem

solving as well. Sezer showed that positive effects would happen if students had a deeper

understanding of mathematical concepts. A study conducted by Kelly (2006) stated that

problem solving across all areas normally involves some sort of tool or manipulative, and

if manipulatives help to make mathematics “come to life,” teachers should be encouraged

to use them in an effort to improve problem solving skills. Kelly (2006) suggests that

when teaching problem solving skills the problems should be related to real- life

experiences. Kelly showed that using manipulatives in problem solving would be

beneficial at all times, including assessments.

        Caracelo stated in 2008, “… the use of math journaling does in fact impact a

students’ ability to apply math problem solving strategies taught in class. Through the

data analysis it is noted that the experimental group did score higher on the post-test and

exhibited greater gains as compared to those members of the control group. This study

supports that more research should be done on the use of math journaling and its

effectiveness on the development on problem solving skills” (p.14).
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                 7

       Though much of the research found supports math journaling as a tool to enhance

a students’ problem solving skills, there has been some research that found some

deficiencies with math journaling. Educators know that using math journaling as the only

tool used for teaching mathematics concepts will not help children understand all math

concepts. According to Pugalee (1997), although mathematics teachers are being

encouraged to implement various activities into their instruction, there is insufficient

research to provide a basis that these practices are occurring regularly. Writing in

mathematics is beneficial when implemented. Pugalee (1997) hypothesized that writing is

only helpful when being taught in the classroom. A study by Whitin & Whitin (2002)

stated that writing challenges children to make their own understanding of the ideas being

discussed. This study wanted to figure out if writing enhanced understanding of a specific

topic. Stonewater (2002) reports the NCTM built a strong case for including writing in

mathematics. The results indicate that “successful” writers are more likely than

“unsuccessful” writers to use appropriate mathematical language (Stonewater, 2002).

The students who lack the necessary writing skills may not have the same results as a

student who is a proficient writer. Stonewater’s findings were as follows: when students

exhibit difficulties with the writing process they are also challenged to effectively

communicate their reflections in math. In addition when using math journals

appropriately it is important that the teacher give feedback to the students, because

students stop seeing journals as purposeful if there is no feedback from the teacher

(Manning 1999).

   In a study that Pugalee (2001) conducted, he investigated whether students’ writing

about how they solved math problems demonstrated a metacognitive arrangement.
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                   8

Pugalee’s findings “indicated the presence of a metacognitive framework. Metacognition,

or the monitoring of one's mental activities, is essential to employing the appropriate

information and strategies during problem solving” (p.236). As stated in Pugalee’s

article, “The term is used to encompass the awareness of the student in such mental

processes as planning, monitoring, and evaluating” (Fortunato, Hecht, Tittle & Alvarez,

1991). Math journaling is an outlet for students to write their plans, evaluate and solve

problems. .

       From the literature that we have read, we have realized that math journaling in

second grade could be very beneficial to improve problem-solving skills. Math journals

are a great tool for teachers to use as an assessment to evaluate a student’s

comprehension of a standard. They could also provide insight for the teacher if re-

teaching is necessary for the student or if the teacher should be challenging the student.

Math journals provide documentation of the student’s knowledge of the math concepts

taught. This study will examine the benefits of math journaling in improving

mathematical problem-solving skills in second grade students.


Methodology

Participants

       A total of 32 students (two second grade classes) participated in this research

project. There were 16 boys and 16 girls. Of these students, 24 were regular education, 5

were special education/ESOL, and 3 were gifted students. The participants consisted of

17 Caucasian students, 2 Asian students, 6 African- American students, 3 multi-racial

students, 3 Hispanic students and 1 Arab student. All students were eligible for this

study. At this point, please describe how you each have your own classroom, and how
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                  9

close they are to each, and how you continually talked with each other to ensure that the

teaching was as close to identical as possible.

Research Design/Procedure of Study

        The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits of math journaling on

mathematical problem-solving in second grade students. Word problems were selected

from the county’s math inventory dealing with the topic that we were teaching and were

applied as the pre-test and post-test for the phase without journaling. Wording and

numbers were changed to minimize the Test-Retest Effect. The same type of word

problems were used for Phase 2, with math journaling. Wording and numbers were

changed to minimize the Test-Retest Effect (see Appendix A). Each pre- and post- test in

both phases was scored by percentage correct out of 100. All data from each test was

inputted into a spreadsheet into Microsoft Excel. Appendix B shows the scores and gains

of the entire sample size.

       Before the study began, a series of problem-solving strategies were taught to all of

the students. For Week 1-3, there was an application and practice time without

journaling. The students were given a pre-test at the start of Week 1. They were given a

post-test at the end of Week 3. For Week 4-6, the journaling process was implemented.

Week 4 began with a pre-test and Week 6 concluded with a post-test. The math problems

that were used during application and practice times were collected from a math resource

book along with county math inventory problems. We compared Weeks 1-3 results to

Weeks 4-6 results to see if math journaling was beneficial in improving mathematical

problem solving skills. The students had math problems that were similar in difficulty for

both phases. We examined descriptive statistics to make the determination of the effect of
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                  10

journal writing on math problem-solving skills. The significance of any changes that

occurred between studying mathematics problem solving skills without the use of

journals and studying math problem solving skills with the use of journaling was

calculated using a t-test to compare the pre-post test gain in weeks 1-3 with the pre-post

test gains of weeks 4-6.

Definition of Terms

Math Journaling is a way for students to record their thoughts, understandings, and

explanations about mathematical ideas or concepts. The purpose is for students to keep

track of their thought process and concepts that they are learning.

Problem solving is an approach that involves identifying the causes of a problem and

proposing potential, often creative, solutions to the problem, which will be agreeable to

multiple parties or individuals.

Instruments

       The same types of problem-solving questions were used to measure the growth in

each part of the study. We compared Weeks 1-3 results to Weeks 4-6 results to see if

math journaling was beneficial in improving mathematical problem solving skills. We

used Microsoft Excel to assess the results of both phases of the research.



Results

       Figure 1 is a table that we created to show the mean and standard deviation from

this study and the participant’s pre-test/post-test gains. This table consists of whole group

data. For the first phase pre-test, without math journaling, the mean was 0.093. The post-

test in phase 1 had a mean of 0.254. The pre/post test gain in phase 1 was 0.161. For the
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                       11

second phase pre-test, with math journaling, the mean was 0.312. The post-test in phase 2

had a mean of 0.556. The pre/post test gain in phase 2 was 0.244. This data shows that

the whole group gained more in the treatment phase than without the treatment.



Figure 1

Whole         Pre-test 1    Post-test 1   Pre/Post Gain   Pre-test 2   Post-test 2   Pre/Post

Group                                                                                Gain



Mean          0.093         0.254         0.161           0.312        0.556         0.244

Standard      0.157         0.219         0.196           0.226        0.249         0.179

Deviation



        A Two Sample Assuming Unequal Variances t-test was conducted and showed

that the result of the treatment was statistically significant. Figure 2 shows the results

from the t-test. This t-test illustrates that math journaling had a positive effect on the

students in this study. In order to establish statistical significance, the t-test needs to be

<.05. Our t-test demonstrates a value of .045, which achieves statistical significance. It is

not a large significance, but it still shows that math journaling is beneficial.
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                                                            12


Figure 2

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal                                                                                            Pre/Post
Variances                                                                                                                      Gains
                                                                                     Without              With
                                                                                       0.666                 0.5
Mean                                                                                 0.145065             0.236548
Variance                                                                             0.031056             0.031091
Observations                                                                                31                   31
Hypothesized Mean Difference                                                                 0
Df                                                                                         60
t Stat                                                                               -2.04321
P(T<=t) one-tail                                                                     0.022715
t Critical one-tail                                                                  1.670649
P(T<=t) two-tail                                                                      0.04543
t Critical two-tail                                                                  2.000298



            Figure 3 shows a graph of pre/post test gains of Phase 1 and 2 of all subjects of

the study. According to this graph, the majority of the students improved in Phase 2 from

math journaling.



Figure 3

                                           Pre/Post Gains for Phase 1 and 2

 80%


 70%


 60%


 50%


 40%


 30%
                                                                                                             Pre/Post Gain 1
                                                                                                             Pre/Post Gain 2
 20%


 10%


  0%
        1   3   5   7   9   11   13   15     17   19   21   23   25   27   29   31    33   35   37   39

 -10%


 -20%


 -30%
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                       13

          Figure 4 is a table that consists of regular education students in this study. For the

first phase pre-test, without math journaling, the mean was 0.069. The post-test in phase 1

had a mean of 0.228. The pre/post test gain in phase 1 was 0.159. For the second phase

pre-test, with math journaling, the mean was 0.284. The post-test in phase 2 had a mean

of 0.555. The pre/post test gain in phase 2 was 0.270. This data shows that the regular

education participants gained more in the treatment phase than without the treatment.

Figure 4

Regular        Pre-test 1    Post-test 1   Pre/Post Gain   Pre-test 2   Post-test 2   Pre/Post

Education                                                                             Gain



Mean           0.069         0.228         0.159           0.284        0.555         0.270

Standard       0.146         0.201         0.166           0.222        0.272         0.182

Deviation

          According to this study, math journals are more beneficial for regular education

students. This t-test (Figure 5) illustrates that math journaling had a positive effect on the

regular education students in this study. In order to establish statistical significance, the t-

test needs to be <.05. Our t-test demonstrates a value of .032, which achieves statistical

significance. This shows that compared to the whole group of students, this study was

more statistically significant for regular education students than for the general

population.
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                                                               14


Figure 5

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal                                                                                          Regular
Variances                                                                                                                    Education

                                                                          Variable            Variable
                                                                              1                   2
Mean                                                                      0.159708            0.270708
Variance                                                                  0.027704             0.03341
Observations                                                                    24                  24
Hypothesized Mean Difference                                                     0
Df                                                                              46
t Stat                                                                    -2.19966
P(T<=t) one-tail                                                          0.016447
t Critical one-tail                                                        1.67866
P(T<=t) two-tail                                                          0.032894
t Critical two-tail                                                       2.012896



           Figure 6 shows a graph of the pre/post test gains of Phase 1 and 2 of regular

education students only. According to this graph, 14 of the 24 regular education students

improved their score with math journaling.

Figure 6

                                Pre/Post Gains 1 and 2 in Regular Education Students

 70%




 60%




 50%




 40%
                                                                                                                       Pre/Post Gain 1
                                                                                                                       Pre/Post Gain 2
 30%




 20%




 10%




  0%
       1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24




           Figure 7 is a table that consists of special education students in this study. For the

first phase pre-test, without math journaling, the mean was 0.166. The post-test in phase 1
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                       15

had a mean of 0.332. The pre/post test gain in phase 1 was 0.166. For the second phase

pre-test, with math journaling, the mean was 0.395. The post-test in phase 2 had a mean

of 0.562. The pre/post test gain in phase 2 was 0.167. This data shows that the special

education participants gained a small amount in the treatment phase, but it was not

significant.

Figure 7

Special        Pre-test 1    Post-test 1   Pre/Post Gain   Pre-test 2   Post-test 2   Pre/Post

Education                                                                             Gain



Mean           0.166         0.332         0.166           0.395        0.562         0.167

Standard       0.178         0.267         0.282           0.234        0.176         0.154

Deviation



          This t-test (Figure 8) illustrates that math journaling did not have a positive effect

on the special education students in this study. Our t-test demonstrates a value of .994,

which does not achieve statistical significance. This group of students included Special

Education, gifted, and ESOL students.
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                16


Figure 8

 t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal                                               Special
 Variances                                                                         Education

                                                  Variable    Variable
                                                      1           2
 Mean                                              0.16625       0.167
 Variance                                         0.079589    0.023858
 Observations                                             8          8
 Hypothesized Mean Difference                             0
 Df                                                      11
 t Stat                                             -0.0066
 P(T<=t) one-tail                                 0.497428
 t Critical one-tail                              1.795885
 P(T<=t) two-tail                                 0.994856
 t Critical two-tail                              2.200985



       Figure 9 shows a graph of the pre/post test gains of Phase 1 and 2 of special

education students, which includes ESOL and gifted students. It illustrates that 4 of the 8

students did not improve their score with math journaling. This was a small sample size,

so we can not conclude that it is not beneficial for all students in these sub-groups. This

data only shows that math journaling did not prove to be beneficial for special education

students in this particular study.
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                      17


Figure 9

                       Pre/Post Gains 1 and 2 in Special Education Students

  60%



  50%



  40%



  30%



  20%
                                                                                      Series1
                                                                                      Series2
  10%



  0%
           1      2         3           4           5            6            7   8

 -10%



 -20%



 -30%




Conclusions

Discussion

        According to the research and our results, math journaling is beneficial to

improving mathematical problem-solving skills in second grade students – especially

with regular education students. Math journaling is also a great teaching tool for

educators. It allows educators to view the journals and see if a student has mastered the

concept or if the concept needs to be re-taught. Students were given a pre-test and a post-

test for each phase of the project to determine if the treatment was effective for

improving mathematical problem- solving skills in second grade students. The student’s

problem- solving skills did have a significant improvement after the treatment phase was
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                  18

completed. We looked at the results of the pre/post test gains. It is evident that the

strategies implemented helped the students become successful math problem solvers.

       We have determined that the use of math journaling is an effective tool to use in

the classroom. It provides students with tools for success when solving mathematical

problems. In addition, to improving their mathematical problem solving skills it helped

the students communicate their answers through writing. The data suggests that further

implementation would produce greater results. Through journal writing the student’s

confidence with solving math word problems increased. Overall, the research shows that

math journaling did improve the problem-solving skills in second grade students.

Limitations

       Limitations of this study were the length of the project, types of math word

problems, sample size, and time constraints during the school day. Other limitations were

participant’s absences, different makeup of classes, and the difference in teachers. This

research was conducted over six weeks. We know that math journaling will be even more

beneficial if used throughout the school year. Teachers need more time to teach the

variety of mathematical problem-solving strategies effectively. The same type of math

word problems were used throughout the study. This could contribute to the Test/Retest

Effect. Even though we changed the numbers and information in the math problems, they

were still the same type of problems every time. If teachers used journals throughout the

school year, then more types of problems will be addressed. Even though we were able to

combine two classrooms of second graders, it would be more beneficial if the sample size

was larger. One limitation that we noticed was students tend to write at extremely

different paces. The opportunity of having extra time to finish was not always evident.
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                    19

The school day is full of many other activities. Another limitation was student absences.

Absences definitely had an impact on the student’s individual results, especially if it was

in Phase 1 where all of the problem-solving strategies were taught. Since this study was

conducted with two different second-grade classrooms, the class makeup of the two

classes was a limitation. Also, there were two different teachers involved in this study.

Implications for Further Research and Classroom Practice

       The results of this study have shown that math journaling is a beneficial method

of improving mathematical problem-solving skills. We would like to see other teachers

use this method also. It would be helpful to see if a larger group of students have the

same success with math journaling as our group did. When we use the research next year

we will provide a list of problem solving strategies posted for student’s who have trouble

remembering all of the problem-solving steps. They will be provided their own copy of

problem- solving strategies to refer to in their math journal. This project has made us

realize that journaling would be beneficial in all areas of education. Journals are a great

tool for teachers to use as an assessment to evaluate a student’s comprehension of a

standard. It will also provide insight for the teacher if re- teaching is necessary for the

student or if the teacher should be challenging the student. Journals provide a

documentation of the student’s knowledge of the concepts taught. We will continue to

use math journals next year, as well as in other subject areas.
Effects of Math Journaling                                                                20


References



Benko, A.; Loazia,R; Long,R; Sachrarski,M; Winkler, J.(1999) Math Word Problem

       Remediation with Elementary Students. Saint Xaiver University.

Burns, M. (2004). Writing in Math. Educational Leadership. V. 62, no. 2, 30-33.

Caracelo, S. (2008). Effects of Math Journaling on Third Grade Students, p.14.

Flores, A. & Brittain, C. (2003). Writing to reflect in a methods course. Teaching

       Children Mathematics, 10, 112-118.

Fortunato, I., Hecht, D. Tittle, C. K., & Alvarez, L. (1991). Metacognition and problem

       solving. Arithmetic Teacher, 39(4), 38-40.

Gurule, K. (2007, November). Problem Solving Time. Educational Leadership Making

       Math Count, v.65(3).

Harmon, M. & Morse, L. Strategies and Knowledge in Problem Solving: Results and

       Implication for Education. 1995, V.115. Issue 4. ,p.580.

Howell & Barnhart. Teaching Exceptional Children, Winter 1992, V.24, n2 p44-46.

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Effects of Math Journaling   22


Appendix A
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Effects of Math Journaling                                                         39




Appendix B

                              Pre/Post Gain                        Pre/Post Gain
Student   Pre 1     Post 1    1               Pre 2      Post 2    2
      1        0%      67%              67%        33%      83%              50%
      2        0%      17%              17%        33%      33%               0%
      3       17%      67%              50%        67%      83%              17%
      4       33%      33%               0%        50%      67%              17%
      5       33%      67%              33%        50%      67%              17%
      6        0%      17%              17%        50%      67%              17%
      7        0%      17%              17%         0%      17%              17%
      8        0%        0%              0%        33%      33%               0%
      9        0%        0%              0%         0%        0%              0%
     10        0%      33%              33%        17%      67%              50%
     11        0%      17%              17%        17%      17%               0%
     12        0%        0%              0%         0%      50%              50%
     13        0%      50%              50%        67%     100%              33%
     14        0%        0%              0%         0%      17%              17%
     15        0%      17%              17%         0%      50%              50%
     16        0%      17%              17%        33%      67%              33%
     17        0%      17%              17%        33%      67%              33%
     18        0%        0%              0%        50%      67%              17%
     19        0%      33%              33%        50%      67%              17%
     20       17%      17%               0%        33%      50%              17%
     1a        0%        0%              0%        17%      33%              17%
     2a       33%      50%              17%        50%     100%              50%
     3a       50%      33%             -17%        67%      50%             -17%
     4a        0%      17%              17%        17%      67%              50%
     5a        0%      17%              17%         0%      50%              50%
     6a       50%      50%               0%        67%     100%              33%
     7a       33%      50%              17%        50%      67%              17%
     8a        0%      50%              50%         0%      33%              33%
     9a        0%        0%              0%        17%      33%              17%
    10a       17%      50%              33%        50%      67%              17%
    11a        0%      17%              17%        17%      50%              33%
    12a       17%        0%            -17%        33%      67%              34%

				
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