AP Biology Review Sheets It is worth your time to review for this test! You can and will get a 4 or a 5!!! If your time is limited at least review the ones in bold. Review One 1. What is a hydrogen bond!!!?? 2. How does pH affect enzymes and metabolism, how is pH measured? How does pH interfere with tertiary structure? Contrast dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis. 3. What are the levels of protein organization? What bonds are involved in maintaining protein shape? 4. What is the structure and function of carbohydrates? Poly vs. Mono, glucose, starch, glycogen, cellulose??? 5. What is the structure and function of lipids? Phospholipids vs. triglycerides. 6. Identify the functional groups. Are they polar, nonpolar, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, in what molecules would you find these groups? 7. Compare and contrast all features of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 8. Review the components and organization of a cell membrane. How are cell membranes modified to suit their function? Channels, pumps, markers, and receptors? How does the phospholipid bilayer work? 9. Compare plant and animal cells. List the organelles, describe general function and provide a specific example of cells with “specialized organelles” or abundance of certain organelles. Trace the organelle pathway of protein synthesis to secretion. 10. What is water potential, turgor pressure and plasmolysis? Diffusion vs. Active Transport vs. Osmosis. 11. Explain the enzyme substrate complex, consider lock and key model and the structure of tertiary proteins. How can cofactors and coenzymes help? 12. What are the ways that rate of enzymatic reaction can by inhibited or enhanced? How do enzyme rates compare in an endothermic animal or exothermic animal? How is enzyme activity regulated? 13. Describe the cell cycle. What factors control the rate of the cell cycle? Signal transduction and cell cycle control? 14. What are the phases of mitosis? What are the outcomes of each phase? Can you sketch each phase and identify structures? Chromatin vs. chromosome? Events of interphase? Distinguish between mitosis and Cytokinesis Review Two 1. Law of Ind. Assortment and Law of segregation. When do they occur in meiosis? What is the significance of the laws and how did Mendel derive them from his research? 2. Contrast metaphase I and II, anaphase I and II. Diploid vs. haploid? What is a tetrad? Homologous pair. What is the outcome of meiosis? In what ways does DNA replication, meiosis and sexual reproduction achieve variability? 3. Describe the following inheritance patterns: simple dominant and recessive, dihybrid cross, incomplete dominance, codominance, sex-linked, polygenic inheritance, and pleiotrophy. Cite several examples for each. Be able to perform a Punnet square and a chi square analysis. 4. What are linked genes? Different from sex linkage. How can cross over percentages determine relative gene positions on a chromosome? 5. Distinguish between gene/chromosomal deletion, duplication, translocation, and inversion. 6. What is semiconservative replication? Briefly describe the experiment that supports this model. 7. List all features of the double helix, 5‟ and 3‟. How does its structure relate to its function in information storage, inheritance and protein synthesis? Details of nucleotide structure and complementary base pairing. Know Chargoff, Watson and Crick, Griffith, Hershey and Chase. 8. DNA replication. How is DNA anti-parallel? How is the 5‟ to 3‟ problem solved? Major enzymes involved? When during the cell cycle does replication occur? 9. Describe the major events of transcription and translation. What is a signal or activator for gene transcription? How are steroid hormones involved? How do operons regulate gene activation? 10. Describe the types of RNA and their roles in protein synthesis. Distinguish between introns and exons. How else is RNA processed? 11. What is a Karyotype? How do you „read‟ one and what information can be obtained from one? 12. Discuss the outcomes of Nondisjunction. Discuss symptoms and causes of PKU, sickle cell anemia, Tay Sachs disease, Hemophilia, Huntington‟s disease, Klinefelters, Turners, Down Syndrome. 13. How do restriction enzymes work? How is DNA separated by gel electrophoresis? What is transformation? What is accomplished by PCR and what are the basics? What is an RFLP? 14. What is the basic structure of a virus and how does it infect a cell and reproduce? Lytic vs. lysogenic? Transduction, conjugation, transformation? Review Three 1. Compare the ideas of Darwin and Lamark. Beware of Lamarkian statements!!!! 2. What are the 5 conditions necessary for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Give an example of each. 3. The frequency of sickle cell anemia in a certain population is 12%. What is the frequency of the heterozygous condition in this population? Be able to solve for q, know the equation. 4. What will cause the gene pool of a population to change? Specific examples. 5. What are the types of selection (diversifying, stabilizing, directional) give an example of each. 6. What is the result of natural selection? What is coevolution and cite an example? 7. Define and give examples for sympatric speciation, allopatric speciation and adaptive radiation 8. What are some isolating mechanisms maintaining separate species, consider pre and post zygotic barriers 9. Analogous structures vs. homologous structures. Divergent vs. convergent. Vestigial structures? 10. Describe the significance of Miller„s experiment. 11. Describe the 4 possible events leading to the formation of the first cell 12. What is the endosymbiotic theory and how does it suggest a link between prokaryote and eukaryotes? 13. What categories of evidence suggests that all organisms had a common ancestor? Properties of the universal ancestor? The three Domains vs. the kingdoms. 14. What are the features shared by all Monerans? Fungi? Protista? What are the important contributions to the environment of each? 15. In a multicellular organism all individual cells must be supplied with food and water. What evolutionary solution to this problem is exemplified by the fungi? How does it get to new food sources? 16. List characteristic and examples for the following Phyla. What is a notochord? Porifera Nematoda Chordata Cnidaria Mollusca Platyhelminthes Annelida Arthropoda Echinodermata 21. Distinguish between the major body plans of animals, radial and bilateral; acoelomates, pseudocoelomates and coelomates. 22. What major evolutionary adaptations are seen in the chordates? 23. How are protostomes and deuterostomes different? Review Four 1. List properties and examples for the four tissue types. Relate structure and function. 2. Describe the respiration processes in a mammal. Compare to a fish, insect, amphibian. 3. How does oxygen and carbon dioxide travel in the blood? Trace the pathway of blood through a four chambered heart. 4. How does a nephron work to concentrate urine yet excrete toxic nitrogen? Describe filtration, secretion, reabsorption, excretion. How is the concentration gradient involved? 5. Compare problems in urine production and water conservation in humans, desert mammals, birds, fresh water fish, salt water fish, and terrestrial insects. 6. Compare thermoregulation solutions in ectotherms and endotherms 7. What is the general function of the pituitary, thyroid, adrenal and pancreas? Hormones secreted? 8. What is signal transduction? What is the role of a second messenger? Compare the action of steroid vs. non-steroid hormones. 9. Distinguish between sympathetic and parasympathetic. 10. Explain how an action potential (nerve impulse) travels down an axon. How is the concentration gradient created and maintained? Describe the signal transduction events at the synapse. 11. Describe the structure of muscle and explain the process of muscle contraction. Describe the signal transduction events. 12. What are the types of lymphocytes in the human body and their general functions? 13. Explain the process of cell mediated immunity. How does humoral immunity work? 14. What is secondary immune response? What is acquired immunity? 15. What are the general stages of animal development? Blastula, gastrula, tissue layers, neurula Review Five 1. Compare and contrast the terms endergonic and exergonic, anabolism and catabolism. 2. Describe the general processes and outcomes of glycolysis and the Kreb’s cycle. What happens to pyruvate? Describe the structure of ATP. 3. What is the electrochemical gradient? What is chemiosmosis? How do each of these contribute to the formation of ATP during electron transport? 4. What is the role of NAD+, FAD+, and Oxygen in anaerobic cellular respiration? 5. What is different in anaerobic respiration/ fermentation? 6. What are the distinguishing characteristics of the major plant divisions? 7. What is the alternation of generations? Describe this process in a fern a moss and an angiosperm. 8. What are the responses of plants to environmental cues and how do hormones mediate them? 9. Discuss reproduction in angiosperms. 10. What models are useful in describing the growth of a population? 11. How is population size regulated by abiotic and biotic factors? 12. How is energy flow through an ecosystem related to trophic levels? 13. How do elements (e.g. carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen) cycle through ecosystems? 14. How do biotic and abiotic factors affect community structure and ecosystem function? 15. In which ways are humans affecting biogeochemical cycles? 16. How does photosynthesis convert light energy into chemical energy? Distinguish between products of light dependent and light independent reactions. 17. How are the chemical products of the light trapping reaction coupled to the synthesis of carbohydrates? 18. What kinds of photosynthetic adaptations have evolved in response to different environmental conditions? 19. What factors can influence rate of transpiration? What is the role of the roots, leaves and stems? What are the cells involved? 20. How does translocation occur? 21. What environmental issues face each of the major biomes on this planet? 22. What factors influence the amount of dissolved oxygen in an aquatic environment? 23. What is kinesis? What is taxis?
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