Program Director/Principal Investigator (Last, First, Middle):
Provide the following information for the key personnel and other significant contributors in the order listed on Form Page 2.
Follow this format for each person. DO NOT EXCEED FOUR PAGES.
NAME POSITION TITLE
Lei Liu Associate Professor
eRA COMMONS USER NAME (credential, e.g., agency login)
EDUCATION/TRAINING (Begin with baccalaureate or other initial professional education, such as nursing, and include postdoctoral training.)
INSTITUTION AND LOCATION YEAR(s) FIELD OF STUDY
Sichuan University, Chengdu, China BS 1981 Physics
Graduate School of Academica Sinica, Beijing,
MS 1986 Biophysics
University of California at Berkeley PhD 1994 Vision Science
A. Positions and Honors
Professional and Employment
1982- 1983 & 1986- 1987 Research Assistant, Biophysics Institute, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China
1986- 1991 Research Assistant, Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, CA
1987- 1993 Graduate Student Instructor, School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA
1987- 1994 Graduate Student Researcher, School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA
1994- 1995 Post-Doctoral Trainee, School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA
1995 Assistant Researcher, School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA
1995- 1997 Associate Vision Research Investigator
Vision Research Laboratory, The Arlene R. Gordon Research Institute
Lighthouse International, New York, NY
1997- 2006 Vision Research Investigator, The Arlene R. Gordon Research Institute
Lighthouse International, New York, NY
2006-Present Associate Professor, School of Optometry, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Other Experience and Professional Memberships
Member, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), since 1988
Member, American Academy of Optometry, since 1998; fellow, since 2001
Member, Vision Science Society, since 2002
Member, The International Society for Low-Vision Research Rehabilitation, since 1999
1987- 1990 Rachel C. Atkinson Fellowship for Vision Research Award Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research
Institute, San Francisco, CA
1989-1991 Graduate Fellowship. University of California at Berkeley.
1994-1995 Post-Doctoral Training Grant. National Eye Institute, National Institute of Health (T32
1989 ARVO Travel Grant, ARVO.
1992 Frank W. Weymouth, Travel Fellowship, American Optometric Foundation
2001- 2002 Innovative Research Grant, “Degraded Texture Discrimination Test for Early Detection of
Diabetic Retinopathy”. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation.
PHS 398/2590 (Rev. 11/07) Page Biographical Sketch Format Page
1992 and 2008 ARVO Annual Meeting Session Moderator.
B. Selected peer-reviewed publications (in chronological order).
Tyler, C.W. and Liu, L. (1992). Relative abundance of the cone types: Analysis of absolute threshold evidence.
Advances in Color Vision, summaries of papers presented at the Advances in Color Vision Topical
Meeting, January 31-February 1, 1992, Irvine, California. pp23-25. Postconference ed. Washington,
DC: The Optical Society of America.
Tyler, C.W., Chan, H. and Liu, L. (1992). Different spatial tunings for ON and OFF pathway stimulation.
Ophthal. Physiol. Opt., 12, 233-240.
Tyler, C.W., Chan, H., Liu, L., McBride, B. and Kontsevich, L. (1992). Bit-stealing: how to get 1786 or more
gray levels from an 8-bit color monitor. Proc. S.P.I.E. 1666, 351-364.
Liu, L., Tyler, C.W. and Schor, C.M. (1992). Failure of rivalry at low contrast: evidence of a suprathreshold
binocular summation process. Vision Res. 32, 1471-1479.
Liu, L., Stevenson, S.B. and Schor, C.M. (1994). Stereoscopic depth perception without binocular
correspondence. Nature, 367, 66-69.
Liu, L. and Schor, C.M. (1994). The spatial properties of binocular suppression zone. Vision Res., 34,937-947.
Liu, L., Stevenson, S.B. and Schor, C.M. (1994). A polar coordinate system for describing binocular disparity.
Vision Res. 34,1205-1222.
Liu L., Stevenson S.B. and Schor C.M. (1995). Matching Needed For Stereopsis - Reply. Nature, 373, 203-
Liu, L. and Schor, C.M. (1995). Binocular combination of contrast signals from orthogonal orientation
channels. Vision Res., 35. 2559-2567.
Tyler, C.W. and Liu, L. (1996). Saturation revealed by clamping the gain of the retinal light response. Vision
Research, 36, 2553-2562.
Arditi, A. and Liu, L. (1996). Visual acuity assessment: charts vs. computers. Vision '96: Proceedings of the
International Low Vision Conference 1996. Book I. Madrid, Spain: ONCE, pp.50-53.
Liu, L., Stevenson, S.B. and Schor, C.M. (1997). Binocular matching of dissimilar features in phantom
stereopsis. Vision Research. 37, 633-644.
Liu, L., and Schor, C.M. (1997). Functional Division of Human Retina. In. Basic and Clinical Applications of
Vision Science, The Professor Jay M. Enoch Festschrift Volume, V. Lakshminarayanan Ed., Kluwer
Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 295-299.
Arditi, A., Liu, L. and Lynn, W. (1997). Legibility of outline fonts. In Vision Science and its Applications, 1997
OSA Technical Digest Series, Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: Optical Society of America, 204-207.
Liu, L., Stevenson, S.B. and Schor, C.M. (1998). Vergence eye movements elicited by stimuli without
corresponding features. Perception, 27, 7-20.
Liu, L. and Schor, C.M. (1998). Functional division of the retina and binocular correspondence. Journal of the
Optical Society of America. A15, 1740-1755.
Liu, L. (1999). Texture discrimination is robust to image sampling and noise, but is sensitive to image
scrambling. In Vision Science and its Applications, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series. Washington,
DC. : Optical Society of America, 2-5.
Liu, L. and Arditi, A. (2000). Apparent string shortening concomitant with letter crowding. Vision Research, 40,
Liu, L. (2001). Dual Oriented Mechanisms In Contour Interaction. Vision Research, 41, 853-858.
Liu, L. and Arditi, A. (2001). How crowding affects letter confusion, Optometry and Vision Science, 78, 50-55.
Liu, L. (2001). Can the amplitude difference spectrum peak frequency explain the foveal crowding effect?
Vision Research, 41, 3693-3704.
Liu, L. & Cho, J. (2002). The effect of pixel nonlinearity on CRT based visual acuity tests, Optometry and
Vision Science, 79, 724-734.
Kuyk, T. K., Liu, L., and Fuhr, P. S. W. (2005). Feature Search in Persons with Severe Visual Impairment.
Vision Research, 45, 3224-3234.
Fuhr, P. S. W., Liu, L., Elliott, JL., Wood, B. D., McKibbin, M, K., Kuyk, T. K. (2007). Feature search and
mobility in patients with severe visual impairment. Optometry & Vision Science, 84, 393-400.
PHS 398/2590 (Rev. 11/07) Page 2 Biographical Sketch Format Page
Jun-Yun Zhang, Ting Zhang, Feng Xue, Lei Liu, Cong Yu (2007). Legibility Variations of Chinese Characters
and Implications for Visual Acuity Measurement. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 48,
Liu, L., Kuyk, T. K. and Fuhr, P. S. W. (2007). Visual Search Training in Subjects with Severe Visual
Impairment. Vision Research, 47, 2627-2636.
Marran, L., Liu, L. (2008). Desktop Publishing and Validation of Custom Visual Acuity Charts, Optometry and
Vision Science, 85, 1082–1090.
Jun-Yun Zhang; Ting Zhang; Feng Xue; Lei Liu, Cong Yu (2008). Legibility of Chinese Characters in Peripheral
Vision and the Top-down Influences on Crowding, Vision Research, 49, 44–53.
Kuyk, T., Liu, L., Elliott, J. L., Grubbs, H. E., Owsley, C., McGwin, Jr, G., Griffin, R. L. and Fuhr, P. S. (2008)
Health-related quality of life following blind rehabilitation. Quality of Life Research, 17, 497-507
Liu, L., Klein, S. A., Zhang, J. Y. and Yu, C. (2009) Using geometric moments to explain human near-acuity
letter recognition. Journal of Vision 9(1):26, 1-18, http://journalofvision.org/9/1/26/, doi:10.1167/9.1.26.
Yao, X. C., Liu, L., Li, Y. G. (2009), Intrinsic optical signal imaging of retinal activity in frog eye. Journal of
Innovative Optical Health Sciences, 2, 201–208.
Li, Y. G., Liu, L., Yao, X. C. (2009) Rapid Line-Scan Confocal Imaging of Retinal Activation, Optics Letters, 35,
Kuyk, T. K., Liu, L. and Fuhr, P. S. W. (2010). Visual Search Training and Obstacle Avoidance in Visually
Impaired Older Adults. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 104, 215-227.
Liu, L., White, J. (2010) Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration Impairs Tolerance To Stimulus Degradation,
Optometry & Vision Science (in print).
C. Research Support
Ongoing Research Support
1 R21 EY019549 Lei Liu 08/01/2010-07/31/2012
National Eye Institute/NIH
Efficacy of Enhancing Low Vision Mobility thru Visual Training in Virtual World
The goal of this project is to determine if persons with severe visual impairment can benefit from training in a
computer-simulated virtual environment.
Brain-Immuno Imaging program Yao, Xingcheng (PI) 01/01/09 -12/31/11
Concurrent Structural and Functional Imaging of Retinal Neurons
The goal of this project is to develop and evaluation a near infrared OCT to image fast intrinsic optical signals
associated with retinal neural activities induced by visible light stimulation.
Eyesight Foundation of Alabama 7/1/2008 - 6/30/2011
Development of a Microlens Array Confocal Ophthalmoscope Yao, Xincheng (PI)
The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate an optical device that can record intrinsic optical signals at
multiple retinal locations simultaneously.
Completed Research Support
1-R03 EY014904-01A2 Lei Liu 05/01/05-04/30/08 (extended to 4/30/09)
A New Technique for Central Visual Field Analysis
The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of using a regular dot array to detect and quantify scotomas
associated with macular diseases.
PHS 398/2590 (Rev. 11/07) Page 3 Biographical Sketch Format Page
C2632-RA Thomas Kuyk (PI) 01/01/02-12/31/04
Department of Veterans Affairs
Enhancing Mobility in the Visually Impaired.
The goal of this project is to determine the effectiveness of different strategies for eye movement training in
persons with central visual field defects.
C2833R Janis White (PI) 07/01/02-06/30/04
Department of Veterans Affairs
Transient and Steady-State Photopic Light Adaptation: Effects of Age.
The goal of this project is to determine the impact of age and age-related eye disease on the magnitude and
time course of adaptation to changes in light level.
1-2001-619 Lei Liu (PI) 07/01/01-06/30/02
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
Degraded Texture Discrimination Test for Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy.
The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of the Degraded Texture Discrimination Test to quantify
neural damage associated with Diabetic Retinopathy.
Lei Liu (PI) 01/01/02-12/31/03
The Helen Hoffritz Charitable Trust
Degraded Texture Discrimination Test for Early Detection of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of the Degraded Texture Discrimination Test to quantify neural
damage associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
PHS 398/2590 (Rev. 11/07) Page 4 Biographical Sketch Format Page