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              Compiled By
      Mr. Dudley Freeman
    Director of Staff Development
              October 1998
         Revised November 2001

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                   TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction to Glossary..........................0

Glossary of Terms.................................1

Glossary of Acronyms..............................29

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                   Introduction to Glossary

The terms and definitions are located in the front portion of the
document. The acronyms begin about the second half.

The purpose of this glossary is to provide information whenever
there is a need for a definition of a safety and health term and/or
acronym.    These terms, acronyms, and definitions have been
collected from a variety of sources and put together in a single
document for the expressed purpose of providing assistance to
College employees as they read MSD Sheets, labels, training
materials, etc.

Whenever users encounter a term or acronym that is not included in
this document (there are probably many), forward them to Mr. Dudley
Freeman.   The new information will be included in any future
revisions or publications.

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                     SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM
                               Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

Introduction to Glossary

The terms and definitions are located in the front portion of the document. The
acronyms begin about the second half.

The purpose of this glossary is to provide information whenever there is a need for a
definition of a safety and health term and/or acronym. These terms, acronyms, and
definitions have been collected from a variety of sources and put together in a single
document for the expressed purpose of providing assistance to College employees as they
read MSD Sheets, labels, training materials, etc.

Whenever users encounter a term or acronym that is not included in this document (there
are probably many), forward them to Mr. Dudley Freeman. The new information will be
included in any future revisions or publications.

Abatement: Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating a hazard.

Absolute: Free from imperfection; free or relatively free from mixture.

Absorb: To take in, suck up, especially a solid taking in a liquid, as a sponge takes in water.

Absorption: The process by which a substance can be readily taken into the body. For example, some
chemicals can be absorbed through unbroken skin.

Acclimatization: The physiological and behavioral adjustments of an organism to changes in its environment.

Acetylcholine: A substance in the human body having important neurotransmitter effects on internal systems;
often used as a broncho-constricter.

Acid: A compound consisting of hydrogen plus one or more other elements and which, in the presence of some
solvents or water, reacts to release hydrogen. Acids have the ability to turn litmus paper red, neutralize bases,
and have a pH range of 0 to 7.

Acidosis: An abnormal condition characterized by reduced alkalinity of the blood and of the body tissues.

Action Levels: Levels of exposure at which OSHA regulations for protective programs must be put into effect.

Acute: Severe, usually critical, often dangerous conditions in which relatively rapid changes occur as a result
of exposure to high concentrations of material over a short period of time. Acute effects are easier to reverse

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than are the effect of chronic exposure (see chronic).

Air Monitoring: Sampling for and measuring pollutants in the atmosphere.

Alkali: A compound, which has the ability to neutralize acid and form a salt. Alkalis turn litmus paper blue
and have a pH range of 7 to 13.

Aliphatic: Refers to an open chain carbon compound, usually, petroleum products derived from a paraffin
base, can be straight chained or branched chain, and saturated or unsaturated molecular structure. Examples
are hexane, naphtha, and mineral spirits.

Alopecia: Loss of hair.

Analgesia: Loss of sensitivity to pain.

Anaphylaxis: Hypersensitivity resulting from sensitization following prior contact with a chemical or protein.

Anesthesia: Loss of sensation or feeling.

Anhydride: An oxide or compound which when combined with water produces an acid or base.

Anosmia: Loss of the sense of smell.

Anoxia: A lack of oxygen from inhaled air - literally "without oxygen". Also see Hypoxia.

Anorexia: Loss of appetite.

Aqueous: A water based solution.

Argyrosis: Local or generalized impregnation (blue-gray color) of the of the body tissues with silver.

Aromatic: Fragrant or distinguished odor. Applied to a group of hydrocarbons and their derivatives
characterized by the presence of one or more six-carbon rings. Examples are benzene. toluene, and xylene.

Article: An item which when manufactured:

      1.    Is formed to a specific design or shape during manufacturing, and

      2.    Has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part upon its shape or design during end use,

      3.    Does not release, or otherwise result in exposure to, a hazardous chemical,      under    normal
            conditions of use. Examples are construction lumber and steel.

Asphyxia: unconsciousness due to suffocation from a lack of oxygen or interference with the oxygen uptake by
the blood.

Asphyxian: A vapor or gas that can cause unconsciousness or death by suffocation.

Asphyxiation: A condition that causes asphyxia, suffocation.

Asthma: A disease characterized by reoccurring attacks of dyspnea., wheezing, and cough due to spasmodic
contraction of the bronchioles.

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Ataxia: A loss of power of muscle coordination.

Atrophy: A wasting or withering in the size of a part of the body.

Auto-Ignition Temperature: The lowest temperature at which a flammable gas or vapor in air mixture will
ignite from its own heat source or a contacted heat surface without the presence of a spark or flame.

Barrier Coating: A layer of substance that acts to obstruct or prevent passage of something through a surface
that is to be protected, e.g., grout, caulk, or various sealing compounds.

Barrier Cream: A cream for use on human skin to protect against injury from contact with specific types of
harmful agents.

Base: A compound, which reacts with an acid to form a salt. A base will turn litmus paper blue and has a pH of
7 to 13. Base is another term for "alkali".

Beryllium: An airborne metal that can be hazardous to human health when inhaled. Discharged by machine
shops, ceramic and propellant plants, and foundries.

Beta Particle: An elementary particle emitted by radioactive decay, that may cause skin burns.
It is halted by a thin piece of paper.

Biologic Half-Life: the time required for a given species, organ, or tissue to eliminate half of a substance which
it takes in.

Biohazard: A biological hazard; organisms or products of organisms that present a risk to humans.

Black Lung: A disease of the lungs caused by habitual inhalation of coal dust.

Blasting Agent: (OSHA) any material or mixture consisting of a fuel and an oxidizer, intended for blasting, not
otherwise classified as an explosive and in which none of the ingredients are classified as an explosive,
provided that the finished product, as mixed and packaged for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means
of a # 8 test blasting cap when unconfined.

Bloods Agents: Chemicals such as carbon monoxide and the cyanides that act upon the blood and the
hematopoletic system and ultimately result in depriving body tissues of adequate oxygen.

Bloodborne: Carried by or found in the blood.

Boiling Point: The temperature at which a substance will change from a liquid to a gas. This is the point at
which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure.

Bonding: The electrical connection of two objects to equalize electrical potential and therefore prevent sparks.

Brachycardia: A slow heartbeat in which the pulse rate falls below 60. Also see "tachycardia".

Breathing Zone: The area of the ambient environment in which a person breaths; an imaginary globe with a 2-
foot radius surrounding the head.

Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchial tubes of the lungs.

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Buffer: Substance that reduces or controls the change in hydrogen ion concentration, which otherwise would
result from adding acids or bases.

By-Product: material, other than the principal product, that is generated as a consequence of an industrial

Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless, toxic gas produced by incomplete combustion of carbon containing

Carboxyhemoglobin: Hemoglobin in which the iron is associated with carbon monoxide (CO). The affinity of
hemoglobin for CO is about 300 times greater than for oxygen.

Carcinogen: Any substance, which, under certain quantified exposures, produces cancer in animals or
humans. A chemical is considered to be a carcinogen if:

      1.     It has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer        (IARC) and found
             to be a carcinogen or a potential carcinogen.

      2.     It is listed as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen in the annual report on carcinogens published
             by the National Toxicology Program (NTP).

      3.     It is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen.

Carcinogenic: Cancer-producing.

Carcinoma: A malignant tumor or cancer; a new growth made up of new growth of epithelial cells, tending to
infiltrate and give rise to metastasis.

CAS Number: An identification number assigned by the Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) of the American
Chemical Society. The CAS Number is used in various databases, including Chemical Abstracts for
identification and information retrieval.
Catalyst: A substance which, without changing itself, causes or controls a chemical reaction.

Cataract: A loss of the transparency of the crystalline lens of the eye of its capsule.

Cathodic Protection: A technique to prevent corrosion of a metal surface by making that surface the cathode of
an electrochemical cell.

Caustic: Something that strongly irritates, chemically burns, or destroys living tissue.

Caustic Soda: Sodium hydroxide, a strong alkaline substance used as the cleaning agent in some detergents.
Common name is lye.
Ceiling Limit: A concentration that is not to be exceeded.

Ceiling Value: A Maximum established level, which no human exposure should ever exceed.

Chemical Inventory: S list of the hazardous chemicals known to be presenting an identity that is referenced on
the appropriate material safety data sheet (the list may be compiled for the workplace as a whole or for
individual work areas).

Chemical Name: The scientific designation of a chemical, in accordance with the nomenclature system

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developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) or the Chemical Abstracts
Service (CAS) rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify the chemical for the purpose of
conducting a hazard evaluation.

Chemical Protective Clothing (CPC): Special clothing that may be resistant to permeation. Penetration, or
degradation by a chemical., Rubber boots, gloves, aprons, and suits are commonly used to protect workers
from exposure to hazardous chemicals.

Centigrade (Celsius): Related to, or having a thermometric scale on which the interval between the freezing
point of water and the boiling point of water is divided into 100 degrees with 0 degrees representing freezing
and 100 degrees representing the boiling point.

Centimeter: A unit of metrical measure. 100 centimeters equal 1 meter.

Centipoise: A unit of viscosity or fluidity.

Cesium: A silver-white, soft, ductile element of the alkali group that is the most electropositive element known.
Used in photoelectric cells.

Chelating Agent: A substance added to a system to preclude the normal ionic effects of the metals present.

Chemical: Any element, chemical compound, or mixture of elements and/or compounds.

Chemical Change: A change of composition in properties of a substance due to rearrangement of elements,
atoms or molecules.

Chemical Name: The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system
developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) of the Chemical Abstracts
Service (CAS) rules of nomenclature, or name which will clearly identify the chemical for the purposes of
conducting a hazard evaluation.

Chemical Family: A group of individual elements or compounds with a common general name. Examples are
the ketone; acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, etc.

Chilling Effect: The lowering of the earth s temperature because of increased particles in the air blocking the
sun s rays.

Chloracne: An acne-like eruption from contact with chlorinated naphthalenes and polyphenyls acting on
sweat glands.

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: Includes a class or persistent broad-spectrum insecticides that linger in the
environment and accumulate in the food chain. Examples are: DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane,
lindane, endrin, mirex, hexachloride, and toxaphene.

Chlorinated Solvent: An organic solvent containing chlorine atoms, e.g. methylene chloride and 1,1,1,
trichloromethane, which are used in aerosol spray containers and in traffic paint.

Chlorination: The application of chlorine to drinking water, sewage, or industrial waste to disinfect or to
oxidize undesirable compounds.

Chloroflurocarbons: A family of inert, nontoxic, and easily liquefied used in refrigeration, packaging,
insulation, or as solvents and aerosol propellants. The CFC s drift upward atmosphere where the chlorine
components destroy ozone.

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Chronic: Persistent, prolonged, and/or repeated effects which are the results of repeated exposure to low
concentrations of a chemical substance(s) over a long period of time. See "acute".

Chronic Effect: An adverse effect on a human or animals with symptoms that develop slowly over an extended
period of time or that recur frequently.

Chronic Toxicity: An adverse effect resulting from repeated doses of exposure to a substance over a relatively
prolonged extended period of time. The term is usually used to denote effects in experimental animals.

Closed Cup: A method used in flash point testing.

Code of Federal Regulations: Collection of rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by various

Combustible Liquid: A liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100 F but below 220 F except mixtures having
components with flashpoints greater that 220 F (99%+ of all mixtures).

Combustion: Burning, or rapid oxidation, accompanied by release of energy in the form of heat and light.
Common Name: Any chemical identification such as a code name, brand name, trade name, code number, or
generic name.

Compliance: The state of meeting all the requirements of the law.

Compressed Gas: Any of the following:

      1.     A gas or mixture of gases, in a container, having an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70 F.

      2.     A gas or a mixture of gases, in a container, having an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130
             F regardless of the pressure at 70 F.

      3.     A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100 F as determined by American National
             Standard Institute (ANSI) Method of Testing (ASTM).

Conc: Concentration.

Concentration: The amount of substance in a given amount of another substance.

Confined Space: refers to a space, which by design has: 1) limited openings for entry and exit, 2) unfavorable
natural ventilation that could contain or produce dangerous air pollutants, and 3) which is not intended for
continuous employee occupancy.

Conjunctivitis: Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the delicate membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the

Contact Dermatitis: Caused by contact with a primary irritant, a skin irritation at the area of skin contact.

Container: Any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank inflatable, or the like
that contains a hazardous chemical.

Contingency Plan: A document specifying an organized, planned, and coordinated course of action to be
followed in case of fire, explosion, or other accident that releases toxic chemicals, hazardous wastes, or
radioactive materials, which threaten human health or the environment.

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Coolant: A liquid or gas used to reduce the heat generated by power production in nuclear reactors, electric
generators, various industrial and mechanical processes, and internal combustion engines.

Core: The Uranium-containing heart of a nuclear reactor, where energy is released.

Cornea: Transparent structure of the external layer of the eyeball.

Corrosion: The dissolving and wearing away of metal caused by chemical reaction such as between water and
the pipes that the water contacts, chemicals touching a metal surface, or contact between two or more metals.

Corrosive: Any Material, liquid or solid, that causes visible destruction of, or reversible alterations in, human
skin tissues at the site of contact (burns). Examples of corrosives are sodium hydroxide (lye) or ammonium

Cubic Feet Per Minute: A measure of the volume of a substance flowing through air within a fixed period of
time. Also refers to the amount of air in cubic feet that is exchanged with indoor in a minutes time, or an air
exchange rate.

Curie: A quantitative measure of radioactivity equal to 3.7 x 10 to the tenth disintergrations per second.

Cutaneous Hazards: Chemicals which irritates the skin.

Cyanosis: Blueness of the skin, generally caused by the lack of oxygen.

Decibel: A unit of sound measurement. In general, a sound doubles in loudness for every increase of 10

Dermal: Used on or applied to the skin.

Decomposition: Chemical breakdown of a material brought on by some adverse condition.

Degradation: A destructive effect a chemical may have on a piece of chemical-protective clothing.

Deliquescent: Tending to melt or dissolve, especially tending to undergo gradual dissolution and liquefaction
by the attraction and absorption of moisture from the air.

Demulcent: An oily or mucilaginous drug that soothes or protects inflamed tissues.

Density: A number that relates a substance’s weight to its volume. Density values of liquids are given in
weight/volume and density values of solids are given in numbers that show the substance’s comparative
weight to an equal volume of water. Water has an assigned density of 1. Also see specific gravity.

Distributor: A business, other than a chemical manufacturer or importer, which supplies hazardous chemicals
to other distributors or employers.

Dermal: Relating to the skin.

Dermal Toxicity: Adverse effects resulting from exposure of the skin to a substance; ordinarily used to denote
effects in experimental animals. The ability of a pesticide or toxic chemical to poison people or animals by
contact with the skin.

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Dermatitis: Inflammation of the skin. Two major types of skin reactions are: 1) primary irritation dermatitis
and 2) sensitization dermatitis. Also see "irritant, "sensitize", and "contact dermatitis".

Detergent: A synthetic washing agent that helps to remove dirt and oil. Some kill useful bacteria and
encourage the growth of algae.

Diaphoresis: Perspiration, especially profuse perspiration that is artificially induced.

Diazinon: An insecticide.

Dike: A low wall that can act as a barrier to prevent a spill from spreading.

Dioxin: Any of a family of compounds known chemical as dibenzo-p-dioxins. This is one of the more toxic
man-made chemicals.

Disinfectant: A chemical or physical process that kills pathogenic organisms. Ordinary chlorine laundry
bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) is an effective disinfectant when mixed one part to 10 parts water.

Dispersant: A chemical agent used to break up concentrations of organic material such as spilled oil.

Direct-Reading Instrumentation: Instruments that give an immediate indication of the concentration of
aerosols, gases, vapors, or the magnitude of a physical hazard by some means such as a dial or meter.

Distilled Spirits: Are not subject to the Hazard Communication labeling requirements.

Documentation: The record of compliance that an employer should maintain.

Dose: A term used to express the amount of energy or substance absorbed in a unit volume of an organ or an
individual. Dose rate is the dose delivered per unit of time.

Dosimeter: An instrumentation that measures exposure to radiation.

Dust: Minute solid particles generated by the crushing of such materials as coal, wood, grains, rocks, etc.

Dustfall Jar: An open container used to collect large particles from the air for measurement and analysis.

Dysfunction: any abnormality or impairment of an organ.

Dyspnea: Labored or difficult breathing.

Ecology: The relationship of living things to one another and to their environment, or the study of such

Eczema: A skin disease or disorder; one specific type of dermatitis.

Edema: An abnormal accumulation of watery fluid in tissues or serous cavities; swelling.

Electrolyte: A substance that dissolves into two or more ions, to some extent water. Solutions of electrolytes
thus conduct the electric current and can be decomposed by it.

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Element: A substance composed entirely of one kind of atom. Elements are designated by chemical symbols.

Emergency (Chemical): A situation created by an accidental release or spill of hazardous chemicals that poses
a threat to the safety of workers, residents, the environment, or property.

Emetic: A drug that causes vomiting; used especially in cases of poisoning.

Embolism: The sudden obstruction of a blood vessel by an abnormal particle (an air bubble) circulating in the

Emphysema: A lung disease in which the presence of air in the connective tissues of the lungs causes swelling
or inflammation.

Employee: A paid person who may be exposed to a hazardous chemical(s) or conditions under normal
operating conditions or in foreseeable emergencies.

Employer: A person engaged in a business where persons are hired to conduct work including contractors or

Environmental Protection Agency: Federal agency responsible for enforcing regulations related to the control
of hazardous materials.

Environmental Response Team: EPA experts located in Edison NJ, and Cincinnati, OH who can provide
around the clock technical assistance to EPA regional offices and states during all types of emergencies
involving hazardous materials, waste sites, and other hazardous substances.

Epidemic: Widespread outbreak of a disease in a single community or a relatively small area.

Epidemiology: The study of diseases as they affect mankind, including the distribution of diseases or other
health related states or events.

Epiphoria: An abnormal flow of tears down the cheeks due to excess secretion of tears or to obstruction of the
lachrymal gland.

Epistaxis: Nosebleed; hemorrhage of the nose.

Equilibrium: In relationship to radiation, the state at which the radioactivity of consecutive elements within a
radioactive series is neither increasing nor decreasing.

Erythema: An abnormal redness of the skin due to capillary congestion.

Ethylene dibromide: A chemical used as an agricultural fumigant and in certain industrial processes.
Extremely toxic and found to be a carcinogen in laboratory animals. Now banned for agricultural uses in the

Etiology: The study of the cause of disease.

Evaporation Rate: The time it takes a given amount of material to completely vaporize (evaporate) when
compared to a reference material.

Explosive: A chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous, release of gas, pressure, and/or heat when
subjected to shock, pressure, or high temperature.

Exposed or Exposure: Coming into contact with a hazardous chemical in the course of employment through

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any route of entry.

Fahrenheit: Measurement of temperature under standard atmospheric pressure conditions and where freezing
of pure water is 32 degrees and the boiling of pure water is at 212 degrees.

Flammable: Any substance that is easily ignited, burns intently, or has a rapid rate of flame spread.

Flammable Aerosol: Any substance that yields a flame projection longer than 18 inches at full valve opening
or a flashback (a flame extending back to the valve) at any valve opening.

Flammable Gas: A gas that will burn or explode if combined with air over a wide concentration range.
Examples are hydrogen, propane, butane, etc.

Flammable Liquid: A liquid that has a flashpoint below 100 F and can be ignited by a spark without any

Flammable (Explosive) Limits: Indicates the explosive or flammable range of a vapor or gas; those
concentrations of a vapor or gas in air, below or above which a flame does not occur on contact with a source
of ignition. The Lower Exposure Limit (LEL) is the minimum concentration of the vapor and air mixture,
which will ignite before it becomes too "lean" to burn or explode. The Upper Explosion Limit (UEL) is the
maximum concentration above which the concentration is too "rich" to burn or explode. LEL and UEL are
given in terms of percentage by volume of gas or vapor in air.

Flammable Liquid (OSHA): A liquid having a flashpoint below 100 degrees Fahrenheit.

Flammable Solid (OSHA): A solid other than a blasting agent or explosive that is liable to cause fire through
friction, adsorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or
processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited, burns vigorously and persistently.

Flashpoint: The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite
under testing conditions.

Fluorides: Gaseous, solids, or dissolved compounds containing fluorine.

Fluorosis: An abnormal condition caused by an excessive intake of fluorine, characterized chiefly by mottling
of the teeth.

Flush: Using pressured water to wash out or clean pipes or other containers.

Fly Ash: Non-combustible residual particles from the combustion process, carried by flue gas.

Foreseeable Emergency (OSHA): A recognized potential occurrence that could result in an uncontrolled
release of a hazardous chemical.

Formaldehyde: A colorless, pungent, irritating gas, CH2O, used chiefly as a disinfectant and preservative and
in synthesizing other compounds and resins.

Fume: Airborne particulate formed by evaporation of solid materials, such as from welding.

Fume Fever: An acute condition caused by a brief high exposure to the freshly generated fumes of metals, such
as lead or magnesium, or their oxides.

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Fungicide: Pesticides that are used to control, prevent, or destroy fungi.

Gamma Radiation: True rays of energy contrasted with alpha and beta radiation. With properties similar to x-
rays, they are the most penetrating waves of radiant nuclear energy, but can be blocked by dense materials
such as lead.

Gangrene: Death of tissue combined with putrefaction.

Gas: The state of matter where the material has a low density and viscosity and the atoms/molecules diffuse to
occupy all available space.

Gasification: Conversion of solid material such as coal into a gas for use as a fuel.

Gastroenteritis: Inflammation of the stomach and/or intestines.

Geiger Counter: An electrical device that detects the presence of certain types of radioactivity.

Germicide: Any compound that kills disease-causing microorganisms.

Grab Sample: A sample taken within a very short time period during which atmospheric concentration is
assumed to be constant.

Grounding: Electrically connecting an object to the ground, preventing sparks and shock.

Halogen: Any group of five chemically related nonmetallic elements that includes bromine, fluorine, chlorine,
iodine, and astatine.

Halon: Bromine-containing compounds with long atmospheric lifetimes whose breakdown in the stratosphere
causes the depletion of ozone. Used in firefighting.

Hard Water: Alkaline water containing dissolved salts that interfere with some industrial processes and
prevent soap from lathering.

Hazard Communication: Recognition and evaluation of hazardous materials in the workplace, accurate
labeling of hazards, and effective training of employees about the proper handling and use of those hazardous
materials. Also called Right To Know.
Hazard Warning: Words, pictures, symbols or a combination thereof appearing on a label or other appropriate
form of warning which convey the hazards in the chemicals or materials in the container. Required on all
hazardous materials containers.

Hazardous Chemical: Any chemical, which is an actual or potential physical or health hazard.
Hazardous Material: A material that has one or more of the following characteristics:

      1.    A flashpoint below 140 F, closed cup, or subject to spontaneous heating.

      2.    Has a threshold limit value (TLV) below 500 PPM for gases and vapors, below 500 mg/M 3 for
            fumes, and below 25 mg per cubic foot for dusts;

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      3.    Single oral dose LD50 or below 25 mgpcf for weight;

      4.    Subject to polymerization which results in the release of large amounts of energy;

      5.    Is a strong oxidizing or reducing agent;

      6.    Causes first degree burns to the skin in a short time exposure, or is    systematically toxic on
            contact with the skin; and/or

      7.    In the course of normal operations, may produce dust, gases, fumes, vapors, mists, or smoke
            which has one or more of the above characteristics.

Hazardous Materials Identification System: Labeling system which includes information such as chemical
identification, acute hazard rating, long-term health hazard potential, and appropriate personal protective

Hazardous Work Area: Any building, room, space or other area at the workplace where hazardous chemicals
are received, produced, stored, handled, or used and employees are present.

Hazards Analysis: Procedures involved in: 1) Listing, in sequence, the activities of job duties, 2) identifying
actual or potential hazards associated with each activity, and3) determining the possible methods to minimize
or eliminate the hazards. Process may also be used in evaluating hazardous materials spills.

Hazard Warning: Any words, pictures, symbols, or combinations thereof appearing on a label or any other
appropriate form of warning which conveys the hazards in the container.

Health Hazard: Anything (including certain chemicals) that, according to at least one significant scientific
study, may be harmful to the health of the body. Chemicals classified as health hazards include:

      1.   Carcinogens
      2.   Toxic or highly toxic agents
      3.   Reproductive toxins.
      4.   Irritants.
      5.   Corrosives.
      6.   Hematopoietic system effectors.
      7.   Agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or the mucus membranes.
Heavy metals: Metallic elements with high atomic weights (mercury, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and lead).
They can damage living things at low concentrations and tend to accumulate in the food chain.

Hematologic Disturbances: Blood disturbances.
Hematopoietic System: The system of the body that manufactures blood cells and other blood substances.

Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.

Hepatotoxin: Chemicals, which produce liver damage.

High-density polyethylene: A material that produces toxic fumes when burned. Used to make plastic bottles
and other products.

Hood Capture Efficiency: The emissions from a process that are captured by a hood and are directed into the
control device expressed as a percent of the total.

Human Data: Where available, epidemiological studies and case reports of adverse health effects used in
considerations of an evaluation. A mandatory consideration for health hazard determinations.

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HVAC: Heating, ventilation, air conditioning system.

Hydrocarbons: Compounds composed solely of hydrogen and carbon, which are the basic building blocks of
all organic chemicals.

Hydrogen Sulfide: Gas emitted during organic decomposition and is also a by-product of oil refining and
burning. It smells like rotten eggs and in heavy concentrations, can cause illness.

Hypergolic: Igniting upon contact of components without external aid such as a spark or a match.

Hygroscopic: Readily absorbs moisture from the air.

Hypotoxia: Insufficient oxygen, especially as applied to cells.

Identity: Any chemical or common name, which is indicated on the MSDS for a chemical.

Ignitable: Capable of burning or causing a fire.

Ignition Temperature: The lowest temperature at which a material can catch fire and burn independently of
other heat sources.

Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH): A term describing very hazardous atmospheres where
exposure can cause serious injury, death, or serious delayed effects.

Immediate Use: The hazardous chemical will be under the control of and used only by the person who
transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred.

Imminent Danger: An impending, dangerous situation that could be expected to cause death or serious injury
unless corrective measures are taken.

Immiscible: Liquids that will not mix with each other, but will form separate layers or will result in cloudiness
or turbidity.

Impervious: Unable to be penetrated.

Importer: The first business with employees within the customs jurisdiction of the United States, which
receives a hazardous chemical.

Incineration: The burning of certain types of materials. A high temperature waste destruction process.

Incinerator: A furnace for burning wastes under controlled conditions.

Incompatible: Materials that should be kept apart due to hazards involved if they come into contact with each

Inflammable: Flammable

Inflammation: Tissue reaction to injury; the succession of changes that occur in living tissue when it is injured.

Ingestion: Process by which materials enter the body by swallowing.

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Inhalation: Breathing inwardly. Process by which some materials enter the body.

Inhibitor: A chemical that is added to another substance to prevent an unwanted chemical change from

Inorganic Chemicals: Chemical substances of mineral origin, not of basically carbon structure.

Incompatible: Materials that could cause dangerous reactions.

Industrial Hygiene: An art or science devoted to the recognition, evaluation, and control of environmental
factors that may cause sickness, impaired health, or significant discomfort to employees.

Inflammation: A series of reactions produced in the tissues by an irritant; It is identified by an affluxion of
blood with an exudation of plasma and leukocytes.

Ingestion: The taking in of a substance through the mouth or eating it.

Inhalation: The act of breathing in. This is the most common route of hazardous chemical entry into the

Inhibitor: An agent, which slows or arrests a chemical action, or a material used to prevent or retard rust or

Injection: The entry of chemicals into the body by means of broken skin from cuts, abrasions, burns,
scratches, or puncture.

Inorganic: A term to designate compounds that generally do not contain carbon. Source matter other than
vegetable or animal. An example is salt.

Insoluble: A substance, which is incapable of being dissolved.

Iridocyclitis: Inflammation of both iris and ciliary body of the eye.

Irritant: A chemical that is not corrosive, but that causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by
chemical action at the site of the contact. Also see dermatitis and sensitize.

Ischemia: Local and temporary anemia due to the obstruction of the circulation to a part of the body.
Inventory: A list of materials located within a certain place.

Ion: An electrically charged atom, a group of atoms, or other particle.

Ionizing Radiation: Radiation that can remove electrons from atoms, i.e., alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.

Irritant: A chemical or other material that is not corrosive but can cause a reversible inflammatory effect on
living tissue at the site of contact

Isomer: One of two or more chemical substances that have the same molecular formula, but different chemical
and physical properties due to different arrangement of the atoms in the molecule.

Isotope: A variation of an element that has the same atomic number but a different atomic weight because of
the number of neutrons it has.

                                                  - 18 -
Jaundice: A condition characterized by a yellowing of the skin, whites of the eyes, mucous membranes, and
body fluids due to decomposition of bile pigment resulting from excess bilirubin in the blood.

Job Hazard Analysis: A process by which a job is studied to determine the hazards involved and ways to safely
complete the job by procedures and/or personal protective equipment.

Ketosis: The accumulation in the body of the ketone bodies: acetone, betahydroxybutric acid, and acetoacetic

Label: Any written, painted, or graphic material, displayed on or fixed to containers of a hazardous chemical.
Lacrimation: Secretion and discharge of tears.

Latent Period: The period of time between exposure and the first manifestation of damage.

Lavage: Washing of a hollow organ, such as the stomach

Lead Intoxication: Lead absorption resulting from inhalation of lead dust or fumes, or from swallowing lead

Lesion: Injury, damage, or abnormal change to a body tissue or organ.

Lethal Concentration (LC): A concentration of a substance that is sufficient to kill a test animal.

Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50): See "toxic inhalation LC50".

Lethal Dose (LD): An amount of a substance that is sufficient to kill a test animal.

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50): See "toxic inhalation LC50".

Leukemia: A disease of the blood marked by persistent leukocytosis associated with changes in the spleen, the
bone marrow, or the lymphatic nodes.

Level Of Concern (LOC): The concentration in air of an extremely hazardous substance above which there may
be serious immediate health effects to anyone exposed to it for short periods of time.

Limiting Factor: A condition, whose absence, or excessive concentration, is incompatible with the needs or
tolerance of a species or population and which may have a negative influence on their ability to grow or even

Liner: A relatively impermeable barrier designed to prevent leachate from leaking from a landfill.

Lipid Solubility: The maximum concentration of a chemical that will dissolve in fatty substances. Lipid soluble
substances are soluble in water.

Liquefaction: Changing a solid into a liquid.

                                                  - 19 -
Long-Term Sample: Sample taken over a long period of time, by averaging the variations in exposure cycles.

Lower Explosive Limit: The concentration of a compound in air, below which a flame will not propagate if the
mixture is ignited.

Lower Flash Point Limit: The lowest concentration of combustible or flammable gases or vapors in air that will
produce a flash of fire.

Lung Agents: Chemical that irritates or damages lung tissue.

Malaise: A feeling of general discomfort, distress, or uneasiness; an out-of-sorts feeling.

Manufacturer’s Formulation: A list of substances or component parts as described by the maker of a coating,
pesticide, or other product containing chemicals or other substances.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): Written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical, which
accompanies the hazardous chemical and provides essential information for handling and using the material.

Maximum Contaminant Level: The maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water delivered to any
user of a public water system.

Medical Surveillance: Surveillance on an employee to assure that chemical exposure is within the acceptable

Melting Point: The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid state.

Mercury: A heavy metal that can accumulate in the environment and is highly toxic if breathed or swallowed.

Metastasis: Transfer of a disease-producing agent from the site of the disease to another part of the body; a
secondary metastasis growth of a malignant tumor.

Metabolism: The chemical changes that take place as the body carries out daily functions.

Methane: A colorless, nonpoisonous, flammable gas created by anaerobic decomposition of organic materials.

Millimeter: A metric unit of measure equal to one thousandth of a meter.

Milliliter: A metric unit of volume equal to one cubic centimeter.

Million Gallons Per Day: A measure of water flow or other fluids.

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA): Along with NIOSH, MSHA is responsible for testing and
approving respirators.

Miscible: The extent to which liquids and gases can be blended.

Mixture: Two or more chemicals, if the combination is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical
reaction. A material consisting of two or more chemicals which may be separated by mechanical means.

Monitoring: Biological and environmental testing in the workplace to determine whether the parameters

                                                 - 20 -
being measured are within acceptable limits.

Mutagen: A chemical that causes a defect in sperm or egg cells prior to conception.
Mutagenesis: Any process by which cells are mutated.

Mutate: To bring about a change in the genetic constitution of a cell by altering its DNA.

Narcosis: Stupor or unconsciousness produced by some narcotic drug.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Nonprofit organization that provides information on fire
protection and prevention. It published the 704 Standard for the Identification of the Fire Hazards of

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): National safety and health research
organization that recommends methods for reducing or elimination of hazards.

National Response Center: The Federal operations that receive notifications of all releases of oil and
hazardous substances into the environment.

National Response Team: Representatives of thirteen agencies that, as a team, coordinate federal responses to
nationally significant incidents of pollution and provide advice and technical assistance during a response

National Toxicology Program: Produces and publishes The Annual Report on Carcinogens.

Natural Gas: A fuel gas that is primarily methane and ethane, and occurs in certain geological formations.
Generally produced from decaying organic matter.

Nausea: Tendency to vomit, feeling of sickness of the stomach.

Necrosis: Localized death of tissue.

Nephrotoxins: Chemicals that produce kidney damage.

Neuritis: Inflammation of a nerve or nerves usually associated with a degenerative process.

Neurotoxins: Chemicals that negatively affect the nervous system.

Neutralization: Decreasing the acidity or alkalinity of a substance by adding to it alkaline or acidic materials

Nitrate: A compound containing nitrogen that can exist in the atmosphere or as a dissolved gas in water and
can have harmful effects on humans and animals.

Nitric Oxide: A gas formed by combustion under high temperature and high pressure in an internal
combustion engine. A great contributor to smog.

Nitrilotriacetic Acid (NTA): A compound that is being used to replace phosphates in detergents.

Nitrite: An intermediate in the process of nitrification, or a nitrous oxide salt used in food preservation.

                                                  - 21 -
Nitrogen Dioxide: A product of combustion from transportation and stationary sources and a major
contributor to the formation of Ozone in the atmosphere, and acid deposition.

Non-Flammable: Not easily ignited and not burning rapidly if ignited.

Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation: 1. Radiation that does not change the structure of atoms but does
heat tissue and may cause harmful biological effects. 2. Microwaves, radio waves, and low-frequency
electromagnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines.

Non-Routine Task: Occasional job-duty assignment; duties not performed on a regular and ongoing basis.

Nuclear Power Plant: A facility that converts atomic energy into usable power.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): Federal agency responsible for enforcing the
regulations related to safety and health in the workplace.

Olfactory: Pertaining to the sense of smell.

Oncogenic: A substance that causes tumors, whether benign or malignant.

Opaque: Impervious to light rays; light will pass through but cannot see through.

Oral: Through the mouth.

Oral Toxicity: Adverse effects resulting from taking a substance into the body through the mouth. Ordinarily
used to denote the effects in experimental animals.

Organic: Chemicals that contain carbon and usually are derived from living or once lived organisms.
Organic Peroxides: A derivative of hydrogen peroxide and highly reactive. A bivalent (-O-O-) organic
compound where one or both hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radical. Some are very
unstable and may act as an explosive or oxidizer.

Organophosphates: Pesticide chemicals that contain phosphates; used to control insects. Short lived, but can
be toxic when first applied.
Organotins: Chemical compounds used in antifoulant paints to protect the hulls of boats and ships, buoys, and
dock pilings.

Osmosis: The passing of a fluid through a permeable or semipermeable barrier or membrane from a region of
greater concentration to a region of lesser concentration.

Oxidant: A substance containing Oxygen that reacts chemically in air to produce a new substance.

Oxidation: 1. The addition of oxygen that breaks down organic waste or chemicals such as cyanides, phenols,
and organic sulfur compounds in sewage by bacterial and chemical means. 2. Oxygen combining with other
elements. 3. The process in chemistry whereby electrons are removed from a molecule.

Oxidizer: A chemical, other than a blasting agent or explosive, as defined in section 1910.109(a) that initiates
or promotes combustion in other materials thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release of oxygen
or other gases.

Oxidizing Agent: A chemical that gives off free oxygen in a chemical reaction.

                                                  - 22 -
Oxygen-Deficient: An atmosphere having less the percentage of oxygen found in ambient or normal air.

Palpitation: A Rapid, irregular beating of the heart.

Particulate Loading: The mass of particulates per volume of air or water.

Particulates: Fine liquid or solid particles such as dust, smoke, mist, fog, or smog, found in air or emissions.

Pathogenic: Capable of causing a disease.

Pathogens: Microorganisms that can cause a disease in other forms of living organisms.

Penetration: The passage of a chemical through an opening in a protective material.

Permeation: Passage of a chemical through a piece of clothing on a molecular level.

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): An exposure limit for various chemicals established by OSHA.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Devices, equipment, or clothing used or worn by the employee, as a last
resort, to protect against hazards in the workplace.

pH: A symbol used to quantify the level of acidity or alkalinity (base). A pH of 7 is neutral, a pH of 0 to 7 is
acidic, and a pH of 7 to 13 is alkaline. The farther away from 7 the pH number is, the stronger the acid or base.

Phenols: Organic compounds that are by-products og petroleum refining, tanning, and textile manufacturing.

Pheromone: A hormonal chemical produced by the female of a species to attract a mate.

Phosphates: Certain chemical compounds that contain phosphorus.

Physical Hazard: A chemical for which there is scientific and validated evidence that it is a combustible liquid,
a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, pyrophoric, an organic compound, an oxidizer, unstable (reactive), or

Picourie: A measurement or radioactivity. One trillionth of a curie.

Pig: A container, usually lead, used to store or ship radioactive materials.

Pneumoconiosis: Dusty lungs resulting from the continued inhalation of various kinds of dusts and other

Polyelectrolytes: Synthetic chemicals that help solids to clump during sewage treatment.

Polymer: The basic molecular ingredient in plastics.

Polymerization: A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules form a larger and different
material accompanied by the release of energy.

Polyvinyl Chloride: A tough indestructible plastic that releases hydrochloric acid when burned.

                                                   - 23 -
Portable Containers: Containers for chemicals or other materials. They do not have to be labeled if the
substance is for immediate use.

Produce: To manufacture, process, formulate, or repackage.

Pulmonary Agents: Chemicals that may damage the lungs.

Pulmonary Edema: The condition of having fluid in the lungs.

Pyrophoric: A chemical that will ignite spontaneously and burn in air at a temperature of 130 F or below.

Radiation: Any form of energy propagated from rays, waves, or streams or energetic particles.

Radiation Absorbed Dose (RAD): A unit of absorbed dose of radiation. One RAD of Absorbed Dose is equal to
.01 joules per kilogram.

Radioactive Substance: Substances that emit radiation.

Radon: A colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive, inert gaseous element formed by radioactive
decay of radium atoms in soil or rocks.
Reactive: A chemical in the pure state that will polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self reactive
under certain conditions of shocks, pressure, or temperature.

Reactivity: A measure of the tendency of a substance to undergo chemical reaction with the release of energy.

Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): The highest allowable airborne concentration, which is not expected to
cause injury or illness.

Reproductive Toxins: Chemicals that affect reproductive capabilities, including chromosomal damage
(mutations) and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis).

Responsible Party: A person who can provide additional information on a hazardous chemical and/or
appropriate emergency procedures, if necessary.

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): A molecule that carries the genetic message from DNA to a cell’s protein-producing

Right-To-Know: Name also used for the Hazard Communication Standard.

Rodenticide: A chemical used to, destroy rats and other rodents.

Roentgen Equivalent Man: The unit of dose equivalent from ionizing radiation to the human body, used to
measure the amount of radiation to which a person or a part of a human has been exposed.

Route of Entry: Methods by which pathogens or gasses can enter the body; most notable are inhalation,
ingestion, or absorption.

Safety Can: An OSHA approved closed container, which has the following characteristics:

                                                 - 24 -
      1.    A capacity of not more than five gallons.

      2.    Spring closing lid and spout cover.

      3.    Flash-arresting screen.

      4.    Designed to safely relieve internal pressure if exposed to fire.

Sampling: The process of isolating or withdrawing a fractional part of a whole for testing.

Saturation: The maximum concentration of matter that can be dissolved in a given substance at a given
temperature and pressure.

Sensitization: An allergic response reaction that increases in severity with subsequent exposures. A person
previously exposed to a certain material is more sensitive when further contact with this material is

Sensitizer: Chemicals that might cause an allergic reaction after one or more exposures. Once a person
becomes sensitized, a smaller dose of the material may cause a big effect. See "dermatitis" and "irritant."

Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of silica (quartz) dust, characterized by
formation of small discrete nodules.
Skin Notation: A chemical that can penetrate unbroken skin.

Smoke: Particles suspended in air after incomplete combustion of materials.

Soluble: Capable of being dissolved.

Solubility: The ability of a material to dissolve in water or other solvent.

Solubility In Water: The percentage of a material (by weight) that will dissolve in water at ambient
temperature. The terms used to express solubility are:

      1.    Negligible-------------------Less than 0.1%

      2.    Slight-------------------------0.1% to 1.0%

      3.    Moderate--------------------1% to 10%

      4.    Appreciable-----------------More than 10%

      5.    Complete--------------------Soluble in all proportions

Solvent: A substance capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances.

Soot: Carbon dust formed by incomplete combustion of a material.

Sorption: The action of soaking up or attracting substances.

Spasm: An involuntary, convulsive, muscular contraction.

Specific Chemical Identity: The chemical name, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number, or any
other information that reveals the precise chemical designation.

                                                   - 25 -
Specific Gravity (sp. gr.): A measurement to quantify the weight of a substance by comparing the weight of a
given amount of material to the same amount of water. Materials with a sp. gr. greater than 1 are heavier than
water and will sink if it does not dissolve. Materials with a sp. gr. of less than 1 is lighter than water and will
float if it does not dissolve. See "solubility in water."

Spontaneous Combustion: Combustion resulting from a chemical reaction with the slow generation of heat
from oxidation of organic compounds until the ignition temperature of the material (fuel) is reached. The
condition is reached only where there is sufficient air for oxidation, but not enough ventilation to carry away
the heat as fast as it is generated

Stability: The tendency of a material to resist involvement in a chemical reaction.

Standards: Prescriptive norms that govern action and actual limits on the amounts of pollutants or emissions

State Emergency Response Commission: A governor appointed, local emergency planning body.
Stupor: Partially or nearly unconscious.

Sulfur Dioxide: A heavy, pungent, colorless, gaseous air pollutant formed primarily by the combustion of fossil
plant fuels.

Sump: A pit or tank that catches liquid runoff for drainage or disposal.
Synergism: The cooperative reaction of two or more agents such that the resulting action is greater than the
sum of their individual effects.

Synergistic: pertaining to the action of two or more substances, organs or organisms to achieve an effect
greater than the sum or total that could be achieved individually.

Synthetic Organic Chemical: Man-made organic chemicals.

Systemic: Spread throughout the entire body and affecting all body systems and organs; not localized in one
spot or area.

Systemic Toxicology: Adverse effects caused by a substance that affects the body generally, rather than locally.

Tachycardia: Excessively rapid heartbeat.

Target Organ: Primary body organ attacked by a chemical.

Teratogen: Chemicals that cause birth defects in a developing fetus.

Thermal Decomposition: The breakdown or decomposition of a material when heated.

Threshold Limit Value (TLV): A safe exposure to a chemical level that has been set by the American
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH). Refers to airborne concentrations of a substances
and represents an exposure level under which most people can work constantly for eight hours a day, day after
day, with no harmful effects. Three categories of TLVs are specified:

      1.     Time Weighted Average (TWA) - Time weighted average concentration for   a normal 8-hour
             workday or 40-hour work week, to which all workers may normally be exposed day-after-day
             without adverse effect.

                                                    - 26 -
      2.    Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) - Maximum concentration to which workers can be exposed
            for a period up to 15 minutes continuously without suffering from irritation, chronic or
            irreversible tissue change, or narcosis of sufficient degree to impair self-rescue or reduced work
            efficiency. No more than four 15-minute exposure periods per day are permitted with at least 60
            minutes between those exposure periods.

      3.    Ceiling (C) - The concentration that should never be exceeded.

NOTE: If any one of the above TLVs is exceeded, a potential hazard from that substance is presumed to be
permitted to exist.

Tinnitus: A ringing sound in the ears.

Toxemia: Poisoning by way of the blood stream.

Toxic: The toxicity of a chemical measured by using any of several animal studies. OSHA recognizes three
specific studies:

      1.    Oral LD50 - Lethal dose 50% test: The Medium Lethal Dose (LD50) that kills 50% of the albino
            white rats that received the dose. Oral LD50 is expressed milligrams of chemical per kilogram of
            test animal weight. A dose of one milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) is equal to one millionth of the
            test animal's body weight. OSHA considers a chemical to be toxic if the oral LD50 is between 50
            mg/kg and 500 mg/kg.

      2.    Skin LD50 - A dose that kills 50% of the albino white rabbits that had the chemical applied directly
            to the bare skin for 24 hours. Skin LD50 is also expressed as mg/kg. OHSA considers a chemical
            to be toxic if the skin (LD%) is between 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg.

      3.    Inhalation LC50 - The concentration of a chemical in the air needed to kill 50% of the albino white
            rats that breathed the chemical. Inhalation LC50 is expressed as parts per million (PPM) for bases
            and vapors. Inhalation LD50 is also expressed as milligrams per liter (mg/l) for mists. fumes, and
            dusts. See "high toxic."

Toxicant: A poisonous agent that kills or injures animal or plant life.

Toxic Chemical Release Form: An information form required to be submitted by facilities that manufacture,
process, or use chemicals listed in SARA Title III.

Toxicity: The degree of injury or illness caused by a toxic material.

Toxicology: The science and study of poisons control.

Toxic Substance: A chemical or mixture that may present a unreasonable risk of injury of illness to health or to
the environment.

Trichloroethylene: A stable, low-boiling, colorless liquid, and toxic by inhalation. Used as a solvent and metal

Trihalomethane: One of a family of organic compounds, named as derivatives of methane.


                                                  - 27 -
Underground Storage Tanks: An underground or partially underground storage tank for storage of gasoline or
other petroleum products.

Upper Flash Limit: The highest concentration of a combustible or flammable gas or vapor in air that will
produce a flash fire.

Unstable: A chemical which, in the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize,
decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure or high temperature.

Unlabeled Pipe Hazard: A real or potential workplace hazard created by chemical(s) being transported
through unlabeled pipes.
Uranium: A radioactive, heavy metal, element used in nuclear reactors.

Vapor: The gaseous phase of substances that are liquid or solid at atmospheric temperature and pressure.

Vapor Density: The measure of how heavy a vapor is compared to air [air has a vapor density of 1 (one)].
Vapors that have a density of greater than 1 will accumulate on the floor or ground or other low places.
Substances with vapor densities of less than 1 will rise in the air.

Vaporization: The change of a substance from a solid or liquid to a gas state.

Vapor Pressure: A measure of how readily a material will evaporate and indicates the volatility of the liquid.
The lower the vapor pressure, the slower it evaporates and the longer it takes to build up toxic or explosive

Ventilation/Suction: The admitting of fresh air into a space in order to replace stale or contaminated air.

Vinyl Chloride: A chemical compound used in producing some plastics, which is believed to be carcinogenic.

Viscosity: A fluid's resistance to flow or "run".

Volatility: The tendency of a substance to vaporize.

Volatile Organic Compound (VOC): An organic compound that evaporates or vaporizes.

Water Reactive: A chemical that reacts with water and the reaction produces a gas that is either flammable or
presents a health hazard.

Water Solubility: The maximum concentration of a chemical compound that can result when it is dissolved in

Work Area: A room or defined space in a workplace where hazardous chemicals are received, stored,
produced, or used and employees are present. See "hazardous work area".

Workplace: An establishment, jobsite, or project, at one geographic location containing one or more work

                                                    - 28 -
                                             Partial Listing

AAP: Asbestos Action Program.

ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist.

ANSI: American National Standards Institute.

ASTM: American Society For Testing And Materials.

AC: Alternating current.

ACA: American Conservation Association.

ACBM: Asbestos-Containing building Material.

ACFM: Actual Cubic Feet Per Minute.

ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

ACH: Air Changes Per Hour.

ACL: Alternate Concentration Limit.

ACL: Analytical Chemistry Laboratory.

ACS: American Chemical Society.

ACTS: Asbestos Contractor Tracking System.

ADI: Acceptable Daily Intake

AEA: Atomic Energy Act

AHERA: Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act

AICE: American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

AIHC: American Industrial Health Council

AIP: Auto Ignition Point

AL: Acceptable Level

                                               - 29 -
ALA: American Lung Association

ALA: Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid

ALA-O: Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydrates

ALARA: As low As Reasonably Achievable

ALC: Application Limiting Constituent

ALJ: Administrative Law Judge

ALK: Alkali abbreviation

ALR: Action Leakage Rate

ALR: Abbreviation for Allergenic Effects.

AMA: American Medical Association

ANPR: Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

ANSI: American National Standards Institute

AO: Area Office

APHA: American Public Health Association

API: American Petroleum Institute

APT: Associated Pharmacists and Toxicologists

ARIP: Accidental Response Information Program

ASHAA: Asbestos in Schools Hazard Abatement Act

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

ATERIS: Air Toxics Exposure and Risk Information System

ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

BaP: Benzo(a)Pyrene

BLD: Abbreviation for Blood Effects

BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics

BOM: Bureau of Mines

BP: Boiling Point

                                                - 30 -
BSO: Benzene Soluble Organics

BTU: British Thermal Unit

BUN: Blood Urea Nitrogen

C: Celsius, Centigrade

Ca: circa, about

CAA: Clean Air Act

CAER: Community Awareness and Emergency Response

CAFO: Consent Agreement Final Order

CAG: Carcinogenic Assessment Group

CAMP: Continuous Air Monitoring Program

CAR, CARC: Abbreviation for Carcinogenic

CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service.

CC: Ceiling Concentration.

CC: Closed Cup

Cc: Cubic Centimeter

CCID: Confidential Chemicals Identification List

CDC: Center for Disease Control

CDD: Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin

CDF: Chlorinated Dibenzofurane

CEO: Chief Executive Officer

CEPP: Chemical Emergency Preparedness Plan

CFC: Chloroflurocarbons

CFM: Cubic Feet Per Minute

CFM: Chlorofluoromethanes

CFR: Code of Federal Regulations

                                               - 31 -
CFS: Cubic Feet Per Second

CHEMTREC: Chemical Transportation Emergency Center

CHESS: Community Health and Environment Surveillance System

CHIP: Chemical Hazard Information Profile

CI: Compression Ignition

CICIS: Chemicals In Commerce Information System

CIS: Chemical Information System

CLEANS: Clinical Laboratory for Evaluation and Assessment of Toxic Substances

CLEVER: Clinical Laboratory for Evaluation and Validation of Epidemiologic Research

CLIPS: Chemical List Index and Processing System

CLP: Contract Laboratory Program

Cm: Centimeter

CMA: Chemical Manufacturers Association

CO: Carbon Monoxide

CO2: Carbon Dioxide

COE: Core of Engineers

conc: Concentration

COR: Abbreviation for Corrosive

CPC: Chemical Protective Clothing

CPF: Carcinogenic Potency Factor

CPSC: Consumer Product Safety Commission

CSIN: Chemical Substances Information Network

CSMA: Chemical Specialties Manufacturing Association

CTARC: Chemical Testing and Assessment Research Commission

Cu m, cu m3: Cubic Meter

CUM: Abbreviation for Cumulative Effects

CVS: Abbreviation for Cardiovascular Effects

                                               - 32 -
CWA: Clean Water Act

CWTC: Chemical Waste Transportation Council

dB: Decibel

DDT: Insecticide

DES: A Synthetic Estrogen

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DOC: Department of Commerce

DOD: Department of Defense

DOE: Department of Energy

DOI: Department of Interior

DOJ: Department of Justice

DOS: Department of State

DOT: U.S. Department Of Transportation.

DRA: Deputy Regional Administrator

DRC: Deputy Regional Council

DSCF: Dry Standard Cubic Feet

DSCM: Dry Standard Cubic Meter

ECRA: Economic Cleanup Responsibility Act

EDB: Ethylene Dibromide

EDC: Ethylene Dichloride

EDTA: Ethylene Diamine Triacetic Acid

EEG: Electroencephalogram

EENET: Emergency Education Network (FEMA)

EHS: Extremely Hazardous Substance

EIA: Environmental Impact Assessment

                                              - 33 -
EIR: Endangerment Information Report

ELI: Environmental Law Institute

EMI: Emergency Management Institute

EO: Ethylene Oxide

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency

EPAA: Environmental Programs Assistance Act

EPCA: Energy Policy and Conservation Act

EPD: Emergency Planning District

ERC: Emergency Response Commission

ERCS: Emergency Response Cleanup Services

ERNS: Emergency Response Notification System

ERT: Emergency Response Team

F: Fahrenheit

f/cc: Fibers Per Cubic Centimeters (of air)

FACM: Friable Asbestos-Containing Material

FAM: Friable Asbestos Material

FCs: Fluorocarbons

FDA: Food and Drug Administration

FEA: Federal Energy Administration

FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency

FERC: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

FFDCA: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

FIM: Friable Insulation Material

FLP: Flash Point

FMI: Flexible Membrane Liner

                                              - 34 -
FR: Federal Register

FRN: Final Rulemaking Notice

g, gm: Gram

g/ml: grams per milliliter

gal: Gallon

GC: Gas Chromatograph

GC/MS: Gas Chromatograph /Mass Spectrograph

GCWR: Gross Combination Weight Rating

GI: Gastrointestinal
GLC: Gas Liquid Chromatography

GPG: Grams Per Gallon

HAD: Health Assessment Document

HAP: Hazardous Air Pollutant.

HazMat: Hazardous Materials.

HAZWOPER: Hazardous Waste Operations And Emergency Response.

HBV: Hepatitis B Virus.

HCS: Hazard Communication Standard

HCs: Hydrocarbons

HCCPD: Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

HDPE: High Density Polyethylene

HEPA: High Efficiency Particulate Air

HEX-BCH: Hexachloronorbornadiene

HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

HMIS: Hazardous Materials Information System

HMTA: Hazardous Materials Transportation Act

                                           - 35 -
HMTR: Hazardous Materials Transportation Regulations

HOC: Halogenated Organic Carbons

HSBD: Hazardous Substance Data Base

HSL: Hazardous Substance List

HSWA: Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments

HT: Hypothermally Treated

HW: Hazardous Waste

IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer.

ICS: Institute for Chemical Studies

ICWM: Institute for chemical Waste Management

ID: Inside Diameter

IDLH: Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health

IG: Inspector General

I/M; Inspection and Maintenance

IME: Institute Of Makers Of Explosives.

IRPTC: International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals

IRR: Abbreviation for Irritant

IUPAC: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists.

kg: Kilogram

kw: Kilowatt

kwh: Kilowatt hour

LC: Lethal Concentration

LC50: Concentration Of A Chemical In The Air Needed To Kill 50% Of Test Animals In A Given Time

                                               - 36 -
LCL: Lower Control Limit

LD: Lethal Dose

LD 0: Highest Concentration of a Toxic Substance at Which None of the Test Organisms die

LD50: Dose Of A Toxic Substance Required To Kill One-Half Of All test Animals In A    Predetermined
Amount Of Time (By Absorption Or Ingestion)

LD L0: The Lowest Concentration and Dosage of a Toxic Substance That Kills Test Organisms

LDS: Leak Detection System

LEL: Lower Exposure Limit Or Lower Explosive Level

LEPC: Local Emergency Planning Committee

LERC: Local Emergency Response Committee

LFL: Lower Flammability Limit

LOAFL: Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level

LOC: Level Of Concern

LOEL: Lowest Observed Effect Level

LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LST: Low-Solvent Technology

LUST: Leaking Underground Storage Tank

M3: Cubic Meters

MATC: Maximum Allowable Toxicant Concentration

MCL: Maximum Contaminant Level

MDA: Methylenedianliline

MEK: Methyl Ethyl Ketone

mg: Milligram

MGD: Million-Gallons Per Day

mg/m3: Milligrams Per Cubic Meter

MH: Man-Hours

                                              - 37 -
MIBK: Methyl Isobutyl Ketone

MIC: Methyl Isocyanate

ml: Milliliter

MMT: Million Metric Tons

MOS: Margin of Safety

MP: Melting Point

MS: Mass Spectrometry

MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet.

MSHA: Mine Safety and Health Administration

MTB: Materials transportation Bureau

MTBE: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether

MTD: Maximum Tolerated Dose

MW: Megawatt

N/A: Not Applicable

NAS: National Academy of Sciences

NBS: National Bureau of Standards

NETC: National Emergency Training Center

NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.

NGA: Natural Gas Association

NHTSA: National Highway Traffic Safety Act

NICS: National Institute for Chemical Studies

NIH: National Institutes of Health

NIMBY: Not In My Back Yard

NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

NLM: National Library of Medicine

NMHC: Nonmethane Hydrocarbons

                                                - 38 -
NMOC: Nonmethane Organic Compound

NOAEL: No Observed Adverse Effect Level

NOC: Notice of Commencement

NOC: Not Otherwise Classified

NOHSCP/NCP: National Oil and Hazardous Substance Contingency Plan

NRC: Nuclear regulatory Commission

NRS: National response Center

NRT: National Response Team

NSF: National Science Foundation

NTE: Not to Exceed

NTIS: National Technical Information Service

NTP: National Toxicology Program

NTSP: National Transportation Safety Board

O&G: Oil and Gas

O&M: Operations and Maintenance

OD: Outside Diameter

OPIM: Other Potentially Infectious Materials.

ORM: Other Regulated Material.

ORP: Oxidation/Reduction Potential

OSHA: Occupational Safety And Health Administration.

OSTP: Office of Science and Technology Policy (White House)

OTA: Office of Technology Assessment (U.S. Congress)

OXY: Abbreviation for Oxidizer

PAH: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon

                                                - 39 -
PAN: Peroxyacetyl Nitrate

PAPR: Powered Air Purifying Respirator

PBB(PCBs): Polybromated Biphenyls

PCDD: Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxin

PCDF: Polychlorinated Dibendzofuran

pCl/l: Picouries Per Liter

PCP: Pentachlorophenyl

PEL: Permissible Exposure Limit.

PHC: Principle Hazardous Constituent

PHS: Public Health Service

PHSA: Public Health Service Act

PIFE: Polytetrafluoroethylene

PNA: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons

POE: Point of Exposure

POHC: Principal Organic Hazardous Constituent

POI: Point of Exposure

ppb: Parts Per Billion

PPC: Personal Protective Clothing

PPE: Personal Protective Equipment.

ppth/ppm/ppb: Parts Per Thousand/ Parts Per Million/ Parts Per Billion

ppm: Parts Per Million.

psi: Pressure Per Square Inch.

PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride

QA: Quality Assurance

QAO: Quality Assurance Officer

qbtu: Quadrillion British Thermal Units

                                              - 40 -
QC: Quality Control

R&D: Research and Development

RAD: Radiation Absorbed Dose

RCRA: Resource and Conservation and Recovery Act

REL: Recommended Exposure Limit

REM: Roentgen Equivalent Man

RNA: Ribonucleic Acid

ROG: Reactive Organic Gas.

PP: Respirable Particles

RPM: Revolutions Per Minute

RTECS: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.

SARA: Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act

SCBA: Self Contained Breathing Apparatus.

SCFM: Standard Cubic Feet Per Minute

SEPC: State Emergency Planning Commission

SERC: State Emergency Response Commission
SOC: Synthetic Organic Chemicals

SOP: Standard Operating Procedures

Sp. Gr.: Specific Gravity.

STEL: Short Term Exposure Limit.

STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure

SUP: Standard Unit of Processing

TAC: Toxic Air Contaminant.

                                              - 41 -
TC: Target Concentration

TCDD Dioxin (Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)

TCDF: Tetra chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

TCE: Trichloroethylene

TCP: Trichloropropane

TD: Toxic Dose

THM: Trihalomethane

TISE: Take It Somewhere Else

TLV: Threshold Limit Value

TNT: Trinitrotoluene

TOX: Tetradichloroxylene

TPTH: Triphenyltinhydroxide

TPY: Tons Per Year

TPQ: Threshold Planning Quantity.

TRI: Toxic Release Inventory

TSCA: Toxic Substance Control Act

TWA: Time Weighted Average.

UDMH: Unsymetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine

UEL: Upper Exposure Limit

UFL: Upper Flammability Limit

UL: Underwriters’ Laboratories

UN (#): United Nations (Number)

USBM: United States Bureau of Mines

USDA: United States Department of Agriculture

USDOI: United States Department of the Interior

USEPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency

                                                - 42 -
USPHS: United States Public Health Service

UST: Underground Storage Tank

UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator

VCM: Vinyl Chloride Monomer

VOC: Volatile Organic Compound

VP: Vapor Pressure

VSD: Virtually Safe Dose.

XHS: Extremely Hazardous Substance.

YTD: Year To date.

ZRL: Zero Risk Level

                                             - 43 -

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