World War II and the Cold War 02. Which of the following statements is correct about the case of Whitaker Chambers and Alger Hiss? (A) Hiss accused Chambers, an important mid-ranking government official, of being a Communist spy (B) The case gained national attention through the involvement of Joseph R. McCarthy (C) Hiss was convicted of perjury for denying under oath that he had been a Communist agent (D) The case marked the beginning of American concern about Communist subversion (E) Chambers denied ever having had any involvement with the Communist Party. 03. The Berlin Airlift was America’s response to (A) the Soviet blockade of West Berlin from land communication with the rest of the western zone (B) the acute war-time destruction of roads and railroads, making land transport almost impossible (C) the unusually severe winter of 1947 (D) a widespread work stoppage by German transportation workers in protest of the allied occupation of Germany (E) the increased need for flu vaccine in the midst of a serious epidemic. 06. All of the following statements about the 1950s in America are true except: (A) There were some improvements in the areas of civil rights and integration (B) Americans moved increasingly to the suburbs C) More Americans owned automobiles than at any time before (D) Americans had fewer children that at any time since the Civil War (E) Americans’ standard of living improved steadily. 10. At the beginning of the Cold War, U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union tended to follow the ideas of George F. Kennan, that is (A) an isolationist policy that took no notice of Soviet expansionism (B) an aggressive policy of rolling back the gains already made by the Soviet Union (C) active aid to nationalist movements attempting to throw off Soviet domination (D) strict enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine with regard to Soviet expansionism in the Western Hemisphere (E) a policy of containment of Soviet expansionist tendencies. 11. Which of the following statements is correct about the case of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg?(A) They were accused of giving atomic secrets to Germany during World War II (B) They were exposed as spies by former Communist agent Whitaker Chambers (C) They were convicted of espionage, condemned, and electrocuted (D) They were convicted but were later pardoned by President Eisenhower because public opinion did not favor harsh treatment of accused Communist spies (E) They confessed to having carried out espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union. 12. In 1960 which of the following contributed most directly to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev’s cancellation of a scheduled summit meeting with President Dwight Eisenhower? (A) the rise to power of Fidel Castro in Cuba (B) the failure, at the Bay of Pigs, of a U.S.-sponsored attempt to oust Castro (C) the sending of U.S. troops to Lebanon (D) the downing of an American U-2 spy plane over the Soviet Union (E) the success of the Soviet space program in launching the Sputnik satellite. 13. The purpose of the Truman Doctrine was to (A) aid the economic recovery of war-torn Europe (B) prevent European meddling in the affairs of South American countries (C) aid countries that were the targets of Communist expansionism (D) reduce the dependence of the European economy on overseas empires (E) expand the Monroe Doctrine to include Eastern Asia. 16. The Marshall Plan was (A) a strategy for defeating Germany (B) a strategy for defeating Japan (C) an American economic aid program for Europe (D) an American commitment to give military and economic aid to any nation resisting Communist aggression (E) a civil-defense plan for surviving a Soviet nuclear strike. 17. Which of the following was the most important factor in John F. Kennedy’s 1960 presidential election victory over Richard Nixon? (A) Americans’ deep and growing dissatisfaction with the Eisenhower administration (B) revelations of corrupt activities on the part of Nixon (C) Kennedy’s better showing in nationally televised debates (D) Kennedy’s long record of administrative experience as governor of Massachusetts (E) Nixon’s failure to serve in the armed forces during the Second World War. 20. The Truman Doctrine was issued in response to (A) the threat of Communist expansion in Greece and Turkey (B) the devastated economic condition of post-war Europe (C) the threat presented by the Red Army in Central Europe (D) the Communist North Korean invasion of South Korea (E) the Communist threat to South Vietnam. 23. United States Supreme Court Case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was significant because it (A) prohibited prayer in public schools on the grounds of separation of church and state (B) legally upheld the doctrine of “separate but equal” educational facilities for blacks and whites (C) clarified the constitutional rights of minors and restricted the rights of school administrators to set dress codes or otherwise infringe on students’ rights (D) upheld school districts’ rights to use aptitude and psychological tests to “track” students and segregate them into “college prep” and “vocational” programs (E) ordered the desegregation of public schools, prohibiting the practice of segregation via “separate but equal” schools for blacks and whites. 24. What allowed the U.S. to push a motion through the Security Council activating U.N. forces to fight alongside U.S. troops in Korea? (A) The Soviets had not yet joined the UN (B) The U.S. blackmailed the Soviets into not vetoing the motion to send in U.S. troops (C) This was a period of detente between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., so the Soviets, in a goodwill gesture, allowed the motion to pass (D) The Soviets were fearful of hostile world opinion if they attempted to block the U.S. resolution, so they grudgingly let it pass (E) The Soviets walked out of the Security Council to protest the UN refusal to recognize the communist government on mainland China. 27. Senator Joseph McCarthy was known for (A) leading a “witch hunt” to expose communists in the United States (B) recommending large-scale American intervention in Vietnam (C) helping to formulate a major economic aid plan for Western Europe in the late 1940s (D) leading the peace faction of the Democratic Party in the 1968 presidential campaign (E) being the First American Senator convicted of spying for the Soviet Union (in 1956). 28. What event triggered President Truman to announce the “Truman Doctrine”? (A) the overthrow of the Czechoslovakian Government by Soviet Communists (B) Russian actions in Iran (C) the Greek Civil War (D) the Hungarian Revolution (E) the Korean War. 32. The Korean War was fought to (A) stop an invasion of North Korea by the communist-led South (B) end U.S. imperialism in Southeast Asia (C) stop an invasion of South Korea by Japan (D) eliminate taxation without representation in South Korea (E) stop an invasion of South Korea by the communist-led North. 33. What was the name of the U.S. sponsored economic aid plan designed to rebuild Europe after World War II had ended? (A) the Marshall Plan (B) the Atlantic Charter (C) the Schleifen Plan (D) the Eisenhower Doctrine (E) the Truman Doctrine. 38. What was the main goal of the Truman doctrine? (A) enforcement of the “Domino Theory” (B) containment of communism (C) ending nationalistic revolts in American territories and colonies (D) elimination of communism (E) rebuilding Western Europe after World War II. 39. In 1948, what city did the U.S., Britain, and France have to keep supplied for over 300 days in a massive airlift due to the Soviets cutting off all land-based supply routes in an effort to drive the Westerners out of the city? (A) Helsinki (B) Warsaw (C) Bonn (D) Berlin (E) Prague. 41. The Taft-Hartley Labor Act of 1947 had the effect of (A) prohibiting strikes by government employees (B) granting Railroad workers the right to strike and to organize unions (C) extending the right to strike and to organize unions, previously allowed to railroad workers only, to all workers (D) allowing unions to force management into binding arbitration when contract negotiations broke down (E) forbidding unions from closing shops to nonunion employees. 42. Where did MacArthur land his forces behind North Korean lines in an effort to trap the North Korean Army and quickly win the Korean war? (A) Pusan (B) Seoul (C) Inchon (D) Pan Mun Jong (E) Pyong Yang. 44. Rosa Parks is known for (A) founding the National Right to Life Organization (B) starting the modern civil rights movement (C) organizing the National Organization for Women (D) organizing Project Headstart for preschool children (E) becoming the first female general in the United States Army. 47. McCarthyism in the 1950s was an attempt to reveal (A) communist infiltration in the United States government (B) corruption in the Truman administration (C) the plot to sell weapons to belligerent nations (D) misuse of corporate funds for political purposes (E) the dangers of nuclear energy. 64. The early years of the Cold War marked a critical turning point in American foreign relations because it (A) forced diplomats to give priority to Asian issues over European issues (B) ended America’s long-standing close ties with Great Britain (C) replaced the American tradition of political isolationism with a commitment to collective security (D) ended the traditional American policy of the Monroe Doctrine toward Latin America (E) brought a break in diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. 68. The Marshall Plan had all of the following consequences except: (A) It strengthened the United States’ commitment to nationalist China. (B) It helped to save the system of capitalism in western Europe. (C) It helped to save democratic governments in western Europe. (D) It increased American economic influence over western Europe. (E) It contributed to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 71. All of the following statements about the North Atlantic Treaty Organization are true except: (A) It committed the United States to the principle of collective security. (B) It was the first treaty of alliance that the United States had ever concluded with a European power or powers (C) It marked a sharp departure form previous American foreign policy toward Europe. (D) It was approved under the Truman administration. (E) It led to the rearmament of Germany. 77. According to the theory of containment, the United States pledged itself to (A) resist Nazi expansionism in Europe (B) resist Japanese expansionism in the Far East (C) accept the principle of collective security and join the United Nations (D) liberate Eastern Europe from the control of the Soviet Union (E) stem the influence of the Soviet Union in vital strategic spots around the world. 78. George Kennan is most closely associated with (A) the theory of containment (B) the domino theory (C) a plan for the peaceful use of atomic energy (D) the planning of the Berlin Airlift (E) the decision of the United States to intervene in Vietnam. 79. All of the following actions were taken under the administration of Harry Truman except: (A) the Berlin airlift (B) the passage of the Marshall Plan (C) the passage of the Point Four “Bold New Program” (D) the intervention of U.S. Marines in Lebanon (E) the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty organization. 81. During the Korean war a major conflict developed between President Harry Truman and General Douglas MacArthur over MacArthur’s advocacy of (A) a “Europe First” strategy (B) fighting a limited war for limited military and political objectives (C) escalating the war through an attack on Soviet bases that were supplying North Korea with arms (D) air bombardment of China and reinforcement of United States forces with Chinese Nationalist troops (E) a withdrawal of American forces from Korea. 82. The Korean war had all of the following consequences for the United States except: (A) the decision to give priority to Asia over Europe in American foreign policy (B) the signing of a peace treaty with Japan (C) the escalation of the anti-Communist movement (D) the admission of Germany to NATO and its rearmament (E) a rapid escalation in defense spending. 83. During the election campaign of 1952 the Republicans advocated a foreign policy that emphasized (A) a continuation of the policy of containment (B) the liberation of Eastern Europe and the rollback of Soviet power (C) a return to the former policy of isolationism (D) international control of atomic weapons (E) the overthrow of Stalin and the communist government of the Soviet Union. 84. The initial commitment of the United States to contain communism in Southeast Asia occurred through (A) military aid to the French under the Truman administration (B) military aid to South Vietnam under the Truman administration (C) military intervention by American Armed Forces under the Truman administration (D) military intervention by American Armed Forces under the Eisenhower administration (E) the sending of military advisors by the Kennedy administration. 85. The United States refused to sign the Geneva Accords of 1954 because that agreement (A) established a communist government in all of Vietnam (B) did not provide for democratic elections in Vietnam (C) was likely to lead to a communist regime in Vietnam within a few years (D) was not approved by the Security Council of the United States (E)did not provide for any partition of Vietnam between communist and noncommunist governments. 86. All of the following were parts of the “New Look” diplomacy of the Eisenhower administration except: (A) a cutback in spending for conventional forces and arms in favor of nuclear weapons (B) the development of an international “atoms for peace” plan (C) John Foster Dulles’s policy of “brinkmanship (D) the use of Radio Free Europe to encourage resistance to communism in Eastern Europe (E) the creation of the Peace Corps. 87. All of the following were major foreign policy issues during Eisenhower’s second term in office except: (A) U.S. military intervention in Lebanon (B) Chinese communist bombardments of Quemoy and Matsu (C) the status of Berlin, Germany (D) reaching an agreement for a truce in the Korean War (E) the launching of earth satellites by the Soviet Union. 88. The U-2 affair involved (A) American reconnaissance flights over the Soviet Union (B) the launching of earth satellites by the Soviet Union (C) the deployment of ballistic missiles in Cuba by the Soviet Union (D) the selling of atomic secrets to the Soviet Union by American citizens (E) the capture of a Soviet spy by the United States. 89. The Eisenhower Doctrine stated that the United States would (A) oppose the expansion of communism in Asia (B) provide economic aid and armed support to any nation threatened by communism in the Middle East (C) provide economic aid and armed support to any nation threatened by communism in Latin America (D) use massive retaliation with nuclear weapons rather than conventional forces against Soviet expansionism (E) support and freedom movement in Eastern Europe. 90. The reaction of the United States to the Hungarian revolt of 1956 demonstrated that the Eisenhower administration (A) was willing to use conventional forces in Europe to help freedom fighters resist communist rule (B) subscribed to a policy of isolationism in Europe (C) had no option except to continue the policy of containment in Europe (D) was more concerned with the threat of communism in Asia than in Europe (E) acknowledged the right of the Soviet Union to have friendly governments on its borders 91. All of the following were important consequences of the policy of containment except (A) the bypassing of Congress by presidents and the waging of war by executive authority alone (B) the control of the flow of information and the concealment of the truth by administrations (C) a greater willingness by the United States to enforce the principle of collective security through the United Nations (D) the supporting of dictatorships to avoid the possibility of communist revolutions in Third World countries (E) increasing involvement in limited wars of counterinsurgency. 92. The Eisenhower Doctrine stated that the United States would (A) oppose the expansion of communism in Asia (B) provide economic aid and armed support to any nation threatened by communism in the Middle East (C) provide economic aid and armed support to any nation threatened by communism in Latin America (D) use massive retaliation with nuclear weapons rather than conventional forces against Soviet expansionism (E) support and freedom movement in Eastern Europe. 93. The reaction of the United States to the Hungarian revolt of 1956 demonstrated that the Eisenhower administration (A) was willing to use conventional forces in Europe to help freedom fighters resist communist rule (B) subscribed to a policy of isolationism in Europe (C) had no option except to continue the policy of containment in Europe (D) was more concerned with the threat of communes in Asia than in Europe (E) acknowledged the right of the Soviet Union to have friendly governments on its borders. 94. All of the following were important consequences of the policy of containment except (A) the bypassing of Congress by presidents and the waging of war by executive authority alone (B) the control of the flow of information and the concealment of the truth by administrations (C) a greater willingness by the United States to enforce the principle of collective security through the United Nations (D) the supporting of dictatorships to avoid the possibility of communist revolutions in Third World countries (E) increasing involvement in limited wars of counterinsurgency. 95. The Fair Deal was a legislative program of the administration of President (A) Franklin D. Roosevelt (B) John F. Kennedy (C) Lyndon B. Johnson (D) Jimmy Carter (E) Harry Truman. 96. The Taft- Hartley Act of 1947 (A)restricted the right of workers to strike and outlawed the closed (all union) shop (B) protected the right of workers to strike and legalized the closed (all union) shop (C) provided for equal opportunity for all workers (D) guaranteed the right of workers to engage in collective bargaining with their employers (E) prohibited employers from employing strike breakers 97. The outcome of the election of 1948 was unusual in that (A) the party that split lost the presidency (B) a third party captured the presidency (C) it marked the first time that a President who reached office through the death of his predecessor was reelected (D) it marked the first time that four candidates competed for the presidency (E) the party that split won the presidency. “I have here in my hand a list of 205 [card- carrying communists].... who are still working and shaping policy in the State Department.” “Let me assure you that regardless of how high- pitched becomes the squealing and screaming of those left- wing, bleeding heart, phony liberals, this battle is going to go on.” 98. These quotations above are from speeches by (A) Dwight D. Eisenhower (B) Richard Nixon (C) Joseph McCarthy (D) Ronald Reagan (E) Adlai Stevenson. 99. The anti-Communist crusade of the late 1940s and early 1950s had a negative consequence for all of the following except: (A) the civil rights movement (B) The Congress of Industrial Organizations (C)government contractors (D) domestic dissenters (E) writers and performers in films and television 100. The prosperity of the 1950s rested to a great extent on (A) federal spending for defense and domestic programs (B) increased opportunities for poor people (C) profit- sharing plans and generous wages and benefits offered by big business (D) government loans and benefits to veterans and income earned by wives (E) government subsidies and social security payments to lower and middle income people. 101. All of the following were leading cultural figures of the 1950s except: (A) Jack Kerouac (B) Betty Friedan (C) F. Scott Fitzgerald (D) Dr. Benjamin Spock (E) Mickey Mantle. 102. President Eisenhower responded to the school desegregation decision handed down by the Supreme Court in 1954 by (A) actively campaigning to have the decision reversed (B) actively enforcing the court’s decision (C) Supporting a comprehensive Civil Rights Bill (D) maintaining a passive policy and delaying federal enforcement (E) ignoring the issue entirely. “To separate [those children] from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates an feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone.” 101. This quotation is from the (A) Supreme Court Case of Plessy v Ferguson (B) “ I Have a Dream” speech of Martin Luther King, Jr. (C) Supreme Court case of Brown v the Board of Education (D) Inaugural address of John F. Kennedy (E) Civil Rights Act of 1964. 102. All of the following were major events in the Civil Rights Movement of the late 1950s and early 1960s except: (A) the integration of the United States Armed Forces (B) the Montgomery bus boycott (C) the sit- ins at lunch counters (D) the Freedom Bus rides (E) the March on Washington. 103. Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. both came to national prominence in the Civil Rights Movement during the (A) Montgomery bus boycott (B) sit- ins and Greensboro, North Carolina (C) Freedom rides throughout the South (D) March on Washington (E) urban race riots of the 1960s. 105. All of the following statements about the election of 1960 are true except: (A) John Kennedy’s Catholicism was a factor in the race (B) John Kennedy won by a wide margin (C) the two candidates did not differ significantly on foreign affairs (D) Richard Nixon was the incumbent vice-president. (E) Richard Nixon was hurt by the problems that plagued the Eisenhower administration during the late 1950s. 106. All of the following are important to understanding U.S. foreign policy from 1945 to 1970 except: (A) brinkmanship (B) NATO (C) containment policy (D) Marshall Plan (E) McCarthyism. 107. During the period from 1945 to 1970, U.S. foreign policy planners were LEAST concerned with (A) containing Soviet expansion (B) trade imbalances between the United States and Japan (C) Cuba’s support for guerrilla movements in Latin America (D) wars on national liberation in SE Asia (E) Military conflicts in the middle East. 108. Which of the following occurred during the Truman administration? (A) Yalta Conference (B) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (C) Bay of Pigs invasion (D) Taft-Hartley Act (E) Suez crisis. 110. In 1961, the most significant event affecting relations between the United States and Cuba was (A) the discovery of Soviet missiles on the island (B) Castro’s decision to support Marxist movements in Central America (C) the Bay of pigs invasion (D) the closing of the US naval base at Guantanamo Bay (E) The CIA plan to assassinate Castro. 111. The principal reason for the economic boom in the United States after the Second World War was (A) full employment, because the United States kept ten million men in the armed services as a precautionary measure (B) the continued production of war materials on a round-the- clock basis (C) a shortage of consumer goods combined with a reserve of purchasing power in the form of accumulated savings (D) the continuance of the federal government’s operation of some basic industries, such as railroads (E) strong action by the federal government in behalf of organized labor 112. Which of the following contributed the least to the growth of McCarthyism in the early 1950’s? (A) Fears over Soviet development of an atomic weapon (B) Revelations about Soviet spies in Great Britain and the United States (C) President Truman’s use of anticommunism to build support for his foreign policy (D) A large influx of immigrants following the Second World War (E) Political recriminations over the success of the Chinese Communist revolution. 115. Which of the following is in the correct chronological order? (A) Bay of Pigs invasion; Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; U.S. intervention in Dominican Republic; limited nuclear test ban treaty (B) Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; Bay of Pigs invasion; limited nuclear test ban treaty; U.S. intervention in Dominican Republic (C) Bay of Pigs invasion; limited nuclear test ban treaty; Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; U.S. intervention in Dominican Republic (D) Bay of Pigs invasion; U.S. intervention in the Dominican Republic; Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; limited nuclear test ban treaty (E)U.S. intervention in Dominican Republic; Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; Bay of Pigs invasion; limited nuclear test ban treaty. 116. The key issue in Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer was the (A) constitutionality of the Taft-Hartley Act (B) right of the president to seize private property (C) power of the states to limit the number of hours worked by children (D) authority of Congress to impose quotas for hiring based on race (E) validity of state right- to-work laws. 119. Which of the following events in the Cold War happened most recently? (A) Hungarian uprising (B) Berlin Airlift (C) U-2 incident (D) Launching of Sputnik (E) Castro in power in Cuba. 124. In the period after World War II, which of the following were intended to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union? I. NATO II. Camp David Accords III. United Nations IV. Truman Doctrine (A) I only (B) I and III only (C) I and IV only (D) III and IV only (E) I, III and IV only 126. The United Nations was able to provide military assistance to South Korea in 1950 because (A) the USSR opposed the North Korean invasion of the south (B) the USSR boycotted the session of the Security Council at which the decision was made (C) the United States outvoted the Soviet Union (D) the General Assembly approved the decision (E) other nations in Southeast Asia pledged their support. 127. Like the Republican party in 1912, the Democrats were divided in 1948. In addition to Truman, which Democrat ran for President in 1948? I. Strom Thurmond II. Norman Thomas III. Henry Wallace IV. George Wallace (A) I only (B) IV only (C) I and III only (D) II and III only (E) I, II and III only 128. The post-World War II program of economic assistance to Western Europe was known as (A) the Alliance for Progress (B) NATO (C) UNICEF (D) the Marshall Plan (E) the Point Four Program. 129. What action did President Eisenhower take to bring about school integration in Little Rock, Arkansas? (A) He urged Congress to pass civil rights legislation (B) He issued an executive order mandating integration (C) He began impeachment proceedings against Governor Orval Faubus (D) He had the Justice Department file a suit in the federal courts (E) He placed the Arkansas National Guard under federal command to carry out the desegregation plan. 130. Besides the obvious decline in voter participation between 1952 and 1988, what other point can be made based on the above graph (A) In an election in which the President is running for a second term, voter participation declines (B) Voter participation increases in elections in which there is a strong third-party candidate (C) The sharpest drop in voter participation occurred in the election of 1972 (D) 1988 was the first presidential election in which voter participation was less than fifty percent (E) Voter participation has never reached above sixty-five percent. 199. During the Truman Administration the Republican leaders in Congress favored all of the following except: (A) stricter regulation of labor unions (B) membership of the United States in the United Nations (C) restrictions on the activities of Communists in the United States (D) firm economic controls (E) United States entry in the Korean War. 200. Which of the following is correct about the victory of the communists over the nationalists in China in 1949? (A) It led to a revision of the Marshall Plan (B) It fanned fears of communist subversion in the United Sates (C) It resulted from a Soviet-American nonintervention agreement (D) It resulted in a large-scale immediate commitment of American troops in Asia (E) It had no discernible impact on American public opinion. 135. One effect of the Brown v. Board of Education  decision was to (A) inspire challenges to other aspects of segregation (B) bring about immediate integration (C) ruin the public school system in America (D) prohibit teachers from striking (E) establish the principle of “one man, one vote. 141. United States society in the period from the end of World War II until the election of President John F. Kennedy was characterized by all of the following except: (A) a new attitude towards segregation in schools precipitated by Supreme Court decisions (B) a concern over Communist (Soviet) infiltration into the United States government bureaucracy (C) the start of a new movement of popular music (D) a voting populace that seemed uncritical and silent (E) a major economic recession with high unemployment for all Americans. 144. During the Truman Administration the Republican leaders in Congress favored all of the following except: (A) stricter regulation of labor unions (B) membership of the United States in the United Nations (C) restrictions on the activities of Communists in the United States (D) firm economic controls (E) United States entry in the Korean War. 145. Which of the following is correct about the victory of the communists over the nationalists in China in 1949? (A) It led to a revision of the Marshall Plan (B) It fanned fears of communist subversion in the United Sates (C) It resulted from a Soviet-American nonintervention agreement (D) It resulted in a large-scale immediate commitment of American troops in Asia (E) It had no discernible impact on American public opinion. 146. The decade of the 1950’s was characterized by all of the following except: (A) a decline in the divorce rate (B) increased expenditures for the national defense (C) increased expenditures for education (D) a rising level of family income (E) a migration from cities to the suburbs. 149. In Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka the United States Supreme Court ruled that segregated educational facilities violated the (A) Thirteenth Amendment (B) Civil Rights Act of 1866 (C) Fourteenth Amendment (D) concept of division of powers (E) Fifteenth Amendment. “I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work our their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.” 150. The statement above is taken from (A) Woodrow Wilson’s request for a declaration of war against Germany (1917) (B) Herbert Hoover’s statement on the Japanese aggression in China (1931) (C) a joint statement by the United States, Great Britain, and France with regard to the Spanish Civil War (1935) (D) Franklin D. Roosevelt’s request for a declarations of war against Japan (1941) (E) Harry S. Truman’s request for funds to support Greece and Turkey against communism (1947). 153. John Foster Dulles’ advocacy of “massive retaliation” in 1955 meant that (A) federal efforts to integrate Southern schools would be met by widespread resistance (B) Soviet aggression in Europe or Asia would be instantly resisted by strong military force (C) Dulles would lead a broad political counterattack against the anti-Communist crusade of Joseph R. McCarthy (D) Japanese efforts to dump cheap manufactured goods in America markets would be resisted by high tariff rates (E) Republican opponents of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy would be denied party endorsement in the upcoming election of 1956. 155. To avoid a controversy similar to that which had arisen after the First World War over the repayment of debts by foreign governments, the United States did which of the following shortly before entering the Second World War? (A) Adopted the lend-lease approach (B) Declared a moratorium on unpaid debts (C) Adopted the Marshall Plan approach (D) Made outright grants of cash to its allies (E) Refused to share its supplies with anyone but the British. 156. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka the United States Supreme Court ruled that segregated educational facilities violated the (A) Thirteenth Amendment (B) Civil Rights Act of 1866 (C) Fourteenth Amendment (D) concept of division of powers (E) Fifteenth Amendment. 159. This Supreme Court case upheld segregation in public transportation. (A) Dred Scott v. Sanford (B) Gideon v. Wainwright (C) Plessy v. Ferguson (D) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (E) Roe v. Wade. 160. The following statements refer to the Truman-MacArthur controversy between the president and the general he appointed as chief United Nations commander in Korea in 1950. All but one of the following support Truman. Identify the exception (A) General MacArthur, in writing a letter to Republican minority leader, urging his campaign Policies, opposing the President’s policies and containing the phrase, “there is no substitute for victory,” was guilty of gross indiscretion and probably insubordination. (B) General Bradley, chief of staff, said of the MacArthur policies that they would lead the United States into “the wrong war, at the wrong time, in the wrong place, with the wrong enemy. (C) As soon as the commander of the U.N. forces appointed by him was unwilling to carry out the presidential objectives and policies, there was little President Truman could do other than dismiss MacArthur from his command. (D) The decision to limit the fighting to Korea when the United States had atomic bombs and great superiority on the sea and in the air made acceptance of a stalemate without victory a needless humiliation. (E) Driving the combined Chinese and North Korean forces back to the 38th parallel, as was finally done, and making them stay there was not a stalemate: it was a complete victory carrying out precisely the stated objectives of the United Nations. 165. The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 is an important milestone in the history of labor- management relations because it marked the (A) reversal of the basic labor policies of the New Deal (B) achievement of labor’s demand for union security (C) further assumption by the federal government of the responsibility for balancing the power of labor and management (D) acceptance by management and labor of the need to keep essential industries operating during periods of industrial strife (E) beginning of government arbitration as a means of preventing strikes in essential industries. 166. The Taft-Hartley Act substituted the union shop for the closed shop. This change makes it more difficult to insure employment of members of which union? (A) Building trades (B) Barbers (C) Auto workers (D) Clothing workers (E) Government employees. 167. The following are some of labors’ important gains in the period since the Civil War: I. An Act recognizing the right to bargain collectively II. Legislation limiting the use of injunctions in labor disputes III. The passing of the first Workmen’s Compensation Act IV. An Act prohibiting the use of child labor in interstate commerce upheld by the Supreme Court V. The first law to restrict immigration that was competing with American labor ..... Which represents the correct chronological order in which these gains were made? (A) V, III, II, I, IV (B) I, III, II, V, IV (C) III, V, I, II, IV (D) V, III, II, I, I (E) V, II, I, III, IV (A) An act of Congress (B) A Supreme Court decision (C) An action by an existing federal agency (D) An amendment to the federal Constitution (E) Presidential Action. 170. Under the Puerto Rican Constitution of 1952, it was agreed that the United States would (A) grant citizenship to Puerto Ricans (B) retain control over Puerto Rican foreign affairs (C) retain control over taxation in Puerto Rico (D) grant independence to Puerto Rico at an unspecified date (E) give Puerto Rico tariff concessions for a period of ten years. 171. During the period since the end of World War II, the United States has departed most sharply from its traditional attitude toward Europe by (A) initiating disarmament negotiations (B) supporting foreign independence movements (C) lowering its tariff barriers (D) employing non-recognition to show disapproval of aggressors (E) forming a system of defensive alliances. 172. In its relations with the Arab world since 1945, the United States’ most fateful decision was that resulting in the (A) creation of the Central Treaty Organization (B) support of the United Nations resolution partitioning Palestine (C) dispatch of troops to Lebanon at the time of the Iraqi Revolution (D) building of air bases in Morocco and Iran (E) sending of technical assistance missions to the United Arab Republic. 173. The Korean War (1950-1953) and the Boxer Rebellion were alike in that both (A) were provoked by a nation that did not become belligerent (B) ended in a stalemate (C) aided directly in the advance of communism in East Asia (D) involved the joint participation of forces of the United States and other nations (E) resulted in loss of territory for China. 174. The legal basis for President Truman’s order for American air and naval forces to support South Korea was (A) an inherent power of the presidency (B) a joint resolution of Congress (C) the federal (constitution (D) the United Nations Charter (E) the United States treaty with the Republic of Korea. 175. Which of these immediately preceded the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty (A) Outbreak of war in Korea (B) Failure of the United Nations to settle the Berlin blockade (C) Communist coup d’etat in Czechoslovakia (D) Failure to renew the Marshall Plan (E) Suppression of the Hungarian Revolution. 176. The Nuremberg Trials at the end of World War II were important because they, (A) demonstrated that the Soviet Union lacked good faith in carrying out its agreements (B) set the precedent that leaders are responsible for the deeds of their nations (C) established Hitler’s responsibility for World War II (D) revealed that most accounts of Nazi atrocities could not be documented (E) extended the American legal concept of ex post facto to international law. 188. The book that is credited with raising the awareness of Americans of the threats to the environment is (A) Unsafe at Any Speed (B) Silent Spring (C) The Affluent Society (D) The Shame of the Cities (E) On the Road. 189. Henry Wallace ran as the Progressive candidate for President in 1948 because he (A) opposed Truman’s policy on civil rights (B) saw himself as the true heir of the New Deal (C) Favored a less hostile attitude towards the Soviet Union than Truman did (D) was defeated by Dewey in the Republican primaries (E) wanted to use the army to force the Soviet Union out of Eastern Europe. 203. In Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka the United States Supreme Court ruled that segregated educational facilities violated the (A) Thirteenth Amendment (B) Civil Rights Act of 1866 (C) Fourteenth Amendment (D) concept of division of powers (E) Fifteenth Amendment. 207. All but one of the following statements are true about the Truman Doctrine and the circumstances to which it was directed. Identify the exception. (A) The Truman Doctrine was a unilateral action by the United States. (B) Greece and Spain were the principal beneficiaries of the Truman Doctrine. (C) Greece had appealed to the U.N. for help. (D) The Soviet Union was pushing toward an outlet and control on the Mediterranean Sea just as had Czarist Russia throughout modern times. (E) Under the Truman Doctrine, substantial military aid was sent to Turkey. 208. Which of the following pairs is an illustration of political log rolling? (A) The McKinley Tariff and the Adamson Act (B) The 1894 Income Tax and the Payne-Aldrich Tariff (C) The National Origins Immigration Law of 1929 and the McCarran-Walter Act (D) The Assumption Act and the location of the capital on the Potomac River (E) The Wagner-Connery Act and the Taft-Hartley Act. 210. Secretary of State George C. Marshall was credited with stemming the spread of communism by his proposal to (A) create economic conditions favorable to the development of free institutions (B) unite the free nations in western Europe against Russian attack (C) give military assistance to nations opposing communism (D) dispatch technical assistance to the world’s underdeveloped nations (E) impose a trade embargo on the USSR and its satellites. 214. The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952 changed our previous immigration policy by (A) increasing the Japanese quota (B) removing the formula which discriminated against southeastern Europeans (C) doubling the previous 154,000 quota (D) eliminating political screening of immigrants (E) establishing special quotas for political refugees. 215. Which of the following statements is not true about President Kennedy’s administration? (A) The Alliance for Progress was directed toward Latin America (B) Latin American governments were usually anxious to institute political and economic reforms in return for aid under the Alliance for Progress (C) Selling surplus food products to the U.S.S.R. and other communist nations gained considerable support from both major political parties (D) The Peace Corps program was a comparatively inexpensive foreign aid program (E) President Kennedy backed the attempted Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. 216. Which of the following statements is not true concerning the Marshall Plan? (A) The plan was primarily a military alliance to assure peace in Europe (B) It was known as the European Recovery Plan (E.R.P.) (C) The fall of Czechoslovakia from an independent republic to a satellite of the U.S.S.R. helped convince Congress to appropriate the billions of dollars the plan required (D) The Soviet Union’s hostile reaction to the Marshall Plan made it very definite that the cold war was on in earnest (E) As it was first presented by the United States, the communist bloc of nations in eastern Europe could have joined in the Marshall Plan. 218. Some presidents have had programs that they drove, or tried to drive, through Congress. They looked upon themselves as representing the people. They interpreted their election to be an order by the people to carry out the program they had favored in their campaign for office. They expected to rule as well as reign. All but one of the following presidents were of that type. Identify the exception. (A) Andrew Jackson (B) William McKinley (C) Theodore Roosevelt (D) Franklin D. Roosevelt (E) Harry S. Truman. 219. Some presidents saw themselves as the leader of their party. They saw their job to be that of a chief executive to carry out the laws of the land. It was Congress who made Policy by passing laws. They willingly kept in the background. All but one of the following were examples of this second type. Identify the exception. (A) Grover Cleveland (B) Calvin Coolidge (C) Ulysses S. Grant (D) Herbert Hoover (E) Martin Van Buren. 220. “Log rolling” means which of the following? (A) An agreement by one group of legislators to support or oppose a particular bill in return for support or opposition for another bill (B) Arranging to break up a jam of legislation and get action on the more important bills (C) Congressmen voting themselves a pay raise (D) A president bringing strong political pressure on congressional leaders in his party to press for the laws he wants (E) Giving “spoils” jobs to persons unfit for their duties. 221. The treaty banning nuclear test explosions anywhere other than underground went into effect on October 10th, 1963. Which statement supports the treaty? (A) The United States proposed the same idea to the Soviet Union many months ago, and no action was taken. (B) Both the United States and the Soviet Union are concerned over the tremendous cost of the race to the moon. (C) The United States is able to detect any violation of this treaty and thus does not have to rely upon the integrity of the Soviet Union. (D) Such a treaty requires the approval of the Senate. (E) There can be no victor in a nuclear war. 222. Which of the following statements is correct? (A) The president may do whatever he thinks is right and for the national welfare so long as there is no prohibition in the Constitution or laws to prevent such action. (B) The president must restrict his official actions to carrying out powers specifically granted to him in the Constitution. (C) The president may do whatever the Constitution specifically provides and anything reasonably implied by Constitutional provisions. Any dispute about the implication may be settled in the courts. (D) In time of war or other major emergencies the president may do as he thinks best, without regard to the Constitution. (E) Whenever a president is in doubt about the extent of his legal powers, he may confer with the Supreme Court for authoritative advice. 223. All but one of the following statements associated with the early part of World War II are true. Identify the exception. (A) “Peace in our time” is associated with the Munich Conference. (B) Warsaw was the first city to be the victim of the “blitzkrieg.” (C) Germany, Italy, and France formed the Axis powers of World War II. (D) The United States transferred 50 “over-age” destroyers to the British navy months before Congress declared war. (E) Even though the U.S.S.R. had taken part of Finland and all of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, the United States extended the Lend- Lease program to include the Soviet Union. 224. All but one of these statements about the presidential campaign of 1948 are true. Identify the exception. (A) The Dixiecrats were a special group of southern Democrats who would not support Truman. (B) Truman was a heavy favorite to defeat his Republican rival, Governor Thomas Dewey of New York. (C) Henry Wallace broke from the Democratic party and became a candidate on the Progressive party ticket. (D) Not only did Truman win the election, but his party made gains in both houses of Congress and picked up most of the governorships. (E) The Democrats lost electoral votes from the states once known as the “Solid South.” 226. In the post-World War II period all of the following policies were used by the federal government to combat inflation except (A) government pressure on certain industries to rescind price increases (B) an increase in interest rates (C) the urging of manufacturers and unions to act with restraint (D) a tax increase (E) government seizure of industries that exceeded price guidelines. 227. The removal of General Douglas MacArthur from command of the United States- United Nations forces during the Korean War exemplifies the constitutional principle of (A) separation of powers (B) federal supremacy (C) freedom of speech (D) impeachment for high crimes and misdemeanors (E) civilian control of the military. 228. Joseph McCarthy’s investigative tactics found support among many Americans because (A) evidence substantiated McCarthy’s charges against the army (B) there was widespread fear of communist infiltration of the United States (C) both Truman and Eisenhower supported McCarthy (D) McCarthy worked closely with the FBI (E) McCarthy correctly identified numerous Communists working in the State Department. 233. The 1949 Department of State “White Paper,” from which the excerpt above is taken, had which of the following effects? (A) It led to a closer relationship between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (B) It led to friendly relations between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the People’s Republic of China (C) It convinced the “China Lobby” that the downfall of Nationalist China had been inevitable (D) It temporarily quieted the charges of Senator Joseph McCarthy that there were Communists in the Department of State (E) It augmented bitter domestic controversy about the Far Eastern policy of the United States. 234. All of the following were characteristics of reform activity during both the Progressive era and the 1960s except: (A) Civil rights for African Americans were supported by the federal government (B) Reform activity was encouraged by strong and active presidents (C) Reform in the area of women’s rights was advocated by feminists (D) Governmental reform initiatives were curtailed by war (E) Reform occurred despite the absence of severe economic depression. “Even while I protest the assembly-line production of our food, our songs, our language, and eventually our souls, I know that it was a rare home that baked good bread in the old days. Mother's cooking was with rare exceptions poor, that good unpasteurized milk touched only by flies and bits of manure crawled with bacteria, the healthy old-time life was riddled with aches, sudden death from unknown causes, and that sweet local speech I mourn was the child of illiteracy and ignorance. It is the nature of a man as he grows older, a small bridge in time, to protest against change, particularly change for the better.” 236. The author of the quote above is most likely (A) Jesse Jackson (B) John Steinbeck (C) Bill Clinton (D) John F. Kennedy (E) Richard Nixon. 237. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was a Supreme Court decision that (A) was a forerunner of the Kansas-Nebraska Act (B) established free public colleges in the United States (C) declared racially segregated public schools inherently unequal (D) established free public elementary and secondary schools in the United States (E) provided for federal support of parochial schools. 238. Joseph McCarthy's investigative tactics found support among many Americans because (A) evidence substantiated McCarthy's charges against the army (B) there was widespread fear of communist infiltration of the United States (C) both Truman and Eisenhower supported McCarthy (D) McCarthy worked closely with the FBI (E) McCarthy correctly identified numerous communists working in the State Department. 240. During his presidency, Harry S. Truman did all of the following except (A) abolish the Tennessee Valley Authority (B) establish a new loyalty program for federal employees (C) extend Social Security benefits (D) order the desegregation of the armed forces (E) veto the Taft-Hartley Act. 244. Which of the following was not true of Jack Roosevelt Robinson [1919-72]? (A) He was the first African-American to play in the major leagues. (B) Robinson excelled in four sports at UCLA, and in 1945 he was signed by Branch Rickey of the Brooklyn Dodgers. (C) A fierce competitor, daring base runner, and solid hitter, Robinson led the Dodgers to 6 World Series. (D) He surpassed Bath Ruth’s home run record, once thought untouchable, in 1971. (E) He was the first African-American to enter (1962) the National Baseball Hall of Fame. 245. One effect of World War II on the American economy was that it (A) retarded growth of labor unions (B) created the basis for the development of a military-industrial complex (C) lowered tax rates (D) loosened government control over the economy. 264. The Cold War resulted from (A) Soviet but not American actions (B) isolationist attitudes across American society (C) differing expectations about the post-World War II world (D) incompetent leadership in the postwar world. 265. As leader of the Soviet Union at the end of World War II, Joseph Stalin believed that the (A) victory had been a joint Allied effort (B) best basis for governing the Soviet Union was a doctrine of fairness (C) United States should be trusted as an ally (D) Soviet Union was primarily responsible for victory over Germany. 266. At the end of World War II, President Truman (A) aided the Soviets in rebuilding their war-torn economy (B) continued lend-lease to the British but not the Soviets (C) ended the lend-lease program to all European nations (D) supported economic aid for the communist bloc countries. 267. The concept of containment became the basis for (A) American foreign policy in the post-World War II period (B) unified support for revolutionary movements worldwide (C) Dean Acheson's claim to fame (D) stronger relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. 268. As enunciated by the President, the Truman Doctrine indicated that the United States would (A) stay out of European affairs (B) protect Latin American countries from colonization (C) give aid to countries resisting communism (D) support nationalist revolutions in Asia. 269. During the Korean War, President Truman (A) clearly stated the American objective to conquer North Korea (B) vigorously acted to oppose communist aggression (C) reluctantly cooperated with the United Nations' decision to defend South Korea (D) actively supported MacArthur's proposal to bomb communist bases in China. 270. In the Middle East during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations, the United States (A) cooperated with the Soviets (B) protected Western access to Iranian oil supplies (C) refused to recognize the state of Israel (D) prevented Egypt from taking control of the Suez Canal. 271. In an attempt to deal with the problem of nuclear proliferation after World War II, President Truman (A) threatened to attack the Soviets if they developed a nuclear bomb (B) agreed with the Soviet plan for control of nuclear research (C) rejected the plan proposed by Dean Acheson and David Lilienthal (D) eventually abandoned plans for international arms control. 272. In reaction to Cold War tensions, Congress (A) called for negotiations between the Soviet Union and the United States (B) condemned President Truman's loyalty program as too severe (C) protected the civil rights of those accused of disloyalty (D) restricted Communist Party activity in the United States. 273. During the second red scare, which developed during the 1950s, (A) W. E. B. DuBois defended of American way of life (B) right of due process for those accused was often ignored (C) academics suffered few restrictions on freedom of speech (D) labor unions were -generally unaffected. 274. The wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union broke down immediately after World War II for all of the following reasons except (A) competing economic systems (B) differing political philosophies (C) developing fears of the other side's motives (D) rejecting China's membership in the United Nations. 275. The Marshall Plan did all of the following except (A) revitalize the Western European economy (B) aid communist bloc countries (C) assure Western Europe of American support (D) develop markets for goods produced in the United States. 276. Senator Joseph McCarthy emerged as a leader of the red scare of the 1950s because he (A) obtained evidence that the nation was overrun by subversives (B) expected labor unions to endorse communists in the 1948 elections (C) resisted the loyalty oath program of the Truman administration (D) needed a popular political issue. 277 . During the Eisenhower administration, material development of the United States was promoted by (A) control of the economy by the Office of Price Administration (B) population shifts away from suburban areas (C) construction of the interstate highway system (D) less corporate control of the American economy. 278. By 1956, the majority of workers in the United States worked in (A) factory jobs (B) white-collar jobs (C) self-employed jobs (D) agricultural jobs. 279. In the years since World War II, the American population has increasingly (A) shifted away from the West and Southwest (B) concentrated poor nonwhites in the center of cities (C) reelected suburban living (D) insisted on less standard housing. 280. During the 1950s, material consumption in the United States was generally (A) uninfluenced by advertising (B) inhibited by low salaries (C) limited due to the unavailability of luxury goods (D) facilitated by installment plans. 281. For women in the United States, the 1950s was a period when (A) widespread resistance to traditional roles existed (B) male attitudes toward women's roles significantly changed (C) fewer married women worked (D) social pressure to fill traditional roles was great. 282. In terms of economic goals during his administration, President Truman attempted to (A) restrict the policies of the New Deal (B) reduce government interference in the economy (C) guarantee full employment through government action (D) resist the liberal policies of the Republicans. 283. Truman's Fair Deal program (A) suffered because of his preoccupation with the Cold War (B) promised gains for a select few in American society (C) received strong support of Congress (D) achieved overwhelming success. 284. It was Eisenhower's perception that government should (A) expand the role of the President (B) grow to meet the needs of the nation (C) promote conservative fiscal policies (D) encourage economic activism. 285. All of the following factors contributed to greater national interest in civil rights during the late 1940s and 1950s except (A) increasing demands by minorities for change (B) growing political strength of minorities (C) rapid desegregation of public schools (D) media coverage of civil rights disturbances. 286. In response to the desegregation crisis at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, President Eisenhower (A) called out federal troops to protect black citizens (B) stated that laws were the best way to improve race relations (C) supported the position of the Governor of Arkansas (D) privately endorsed desegregation while condemning it publicly. 287. During the 1950s, Mexican Americans (A) continued to remain politically passive (B) unlike blacks, faced little discrimination (C) increasingly protested discriminatory treatment (D) effectively united their various protest movements. 288. African Americans were left out of the "American dream" of the late 1940s and 1950s because (A) segregation persisted throughout the period (B) discrimination in schools was endorsed by the Supreme Court (C) northern states passed Jim Crow laws (D) black leaders and organizations were ineffective. 289. Labor-management relations improved during the 1950s in part because (A) union membership declined (B) federal legislation protected the closed shop (C) wartime experiences proved the value of cooperation (D) managers placed less emphasis on profits. 290. In the reader, Professor William O'Neill regarded President Dwight Eisenhower as (A) quite effective in resisting large increases in military spending (B) highly trained in economics (C) more conservative than most Republicans (D) directly responsible for deficit spending practices. 291. One reason that the social and political patterns of the 1950s ended was because (A) those not benefiting from the status quo demanded change (B) conservative Republicans refused to accept change (C) Eisenhower's poor health caused him to lose effectiveness (D) economic downturns necessitated political activism. 292. The stereotypical image of suburban living in the 1950s was a (A) reflection of the desires of increasing numbers of Americans (B) reality only for those in the top five percent of income (C) fabrication of popular writers of the times (D) dehumanizing myth for American women. 293. One key to post-World War II prosperity was (A) continuing wage and price controls (B) spending of wartime savings (C) passing the Taft-Hartley Act (D) planning for the transition to peacetime economy. 294. The GI Bill directed that (A) cash bonuses be paid (B) veterans' pensions be substituted for Social Security (C) benefits be targeted for housing and education (D) all- volunteer armed forces be created. 295. Which of the following are true about the so-called "Checkers speech"? I Reports surfaced of a secretly financed "slush fund" Richard Nixon had tapped while holding a seat in the Senate. II Eisenhower seriously considered dropping Nixon from the ticket. III Nixon went on national television with a theatrical appeal filled with self- pity, which was so heart-tugging as to save him his place on the ticket. IV The maudlin speech also demonstrated the awesome political potentialities of television because Nixon had defied Republican party bosses and bent Eisenhower himself to his will by appealing directly to the American people. V The black-and-white television screen made possible a kind of "plebiscitarian" politics, through which lone-wolf politicians could go straight to the voters without the mediating influence of parties or other institutions. (A) I and II only (D) III and IV only (B) I, III and V only (E) I, II, III, IV, and V (C) II, IV and V only 296. Which of the following are true about the presidential election of 1952? I "Ike" ran slightly behind of the Republican ticket. II The voters massively declared for "Ike." III Eisenhower garnered 33,963,234 votes to Stevenson's 27,314,992. IV Eisenhower cracked the “Solid South” wide open, ringing up 442 electoral votes to 89 for his opponent. V However, the Democrats still controlled of the new Congress by a paper- thin margin. (A) I and II only (D) III and IV only (B) I, III and V only (E) I, II, III, IV, and V (C) II, III and IV only 297. Which of the following are true about Eisenhower's role in ending the Korean War? I True to his campaign pledge, president-elect Eisenhower undertook a flying three- day visit to Korea in December 1952. II But even a glamorous "Ike" could not immediately budge the peace negotiations off dead center. III Only after Eisenhower had threatened to use atomic weapons, was an armistice was finally signed. IV The Korean War resulted in a clear victory for the United States. V The Korean War resulted in a clear victory for the Communists. (A) I, II and III only (D) III and IV only (B) I, III and V only (E) I, II, III, IV, and V (C) II, III and IV only 54. Which of the following are true about the presidential election of 1956? I The election was a resounding personal endorsement of Eisenhower. II Eisenhower piled up a majority of 35,590,472 votes to Stevenson's 26,022,752. III The Electoral College count was 457 to 73. IV Once again, Eisenhower failed to win for his party either house of Congress V The country remained heavily Democratic; but Eisenhower remained widely beloved. (A) I, II and III only (D) III and IV only (B) I, III and V only (E) I, II, III, IV, and V (C) II, III and IV only 299. Which of the following is true about the Landrum-Griffin Act ? (A) It was a drastic labor-reform bill in 1959 grew out of recurrent strikes in critical industries and scandalous revelations of gangsterism. (B) The only “clean” union was the Teamsters Union. (C) When the Teamsters elected the tough-fisted James R. Hoffa, Hoffa purged the corrupt bosses from his union. (D) The key to passage of the Landrum-Griffin Act was John F. Kennedy’s dramatic television appeal. (E) The bill also protected secondary boycotts and certain kinds of picketing from prosecution under the Clayton Act. 300. Which of the following are true about the presidential election of 1960? I The Democratic candidate was Senator John F. Kennedy, a Roman Catholic, the first to be nominated since Al Smith in 1928. II Smear artists revived the ancient charges about the Roman Catholic Pope controlling the White House. Kennedy pointed to his fourteen years of service in Congress, denied that he would be swayed by Rome, and asked if some 40 million Catholic Americans were to be condemned to second-class citizenship from birth. III Kennedy's Catholicism aroused misgivings in the Protestant, Bible Belt South, which was ordinarily Democratic. "I fear Catholicism more than I fear communism," declared one Baptist minister in North Carolina. IV But the religious issue largely canceled itself out. If many southern Democrats stayed away from the polls because of Kennedy's Catholicism, northern Democrats in unusually large numbers supported Kennedy because of the bitter attacks on their Catholic faith. V Religion played no part in electing John F. Kennedy president (A) I, II and III only (D) III and IV only (B) I, III and V only (E) I, II, III, and IV (C) II, III and IV only 301. Which of the following are true about the presidential election of 1960? I John F. Kennedy insisted that the Soviets, with their nuclear bombs and Sputniks, had forged a lead on the United States he called the “Missile Gap.” II Television may well have tipped the scales. Richard Nixon agreed to meet Kennedy in four so-called debates. The contestants crossed words in millions of living rooms before audiences estimated at 60 million or more. III Nobody "won" the debates. But Kennedy at least held his own and did not suffer by comparison with the more "experienced" Nixon. Many viewers found Kennedy's glamour and vitality far more appealing than Nixon's tired and pallid appearance. IV Kennedy squeezed through by the rather comfortable margin of 303 electoral votes to 219, but with the breathtakingly close popular margin of only 118,574 votes out of over 68 million cast. V Although losing a few seats, the Democrats swept both houses of Congress by wide margins. (A) I, II and III only (D) III and IV only (B) I, III and V only (E) I, II, III, IV and V (C) II, III and IV only 302. Which of the following are true about the Employment Act ? I It sold war factories and other government installations to private businesses at fire-sale prices. II It made it government policy "to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power." III It created a three member Council of Economic Advisers to provide the president with the data and the recommendations to make that policy a reality.” IV It provided jobs and job training for veterans. (A) I and II only (D) II and III only (B) II and IV only (E) I, II, III, and IV (C) III and IV only 303. Which of the following are true about the Servicemen's Readjustment Act ? I It was known as the “GI Bill of Rights.” II The Bill made generous provisions for sending the former soldiers to school. III In the postwar decade, some 8 million veterans advanced their education at Uncle Sam's expense. IV The majority of ex-servicemen attended graduate schools. V The total eventually spent for education was some $145 billion in taxpayer dollars. (A) I, II, III, only (D) II and III only (B) II and IV only (E) I, II, III, IV and V (C) III and IV only 304. Which of the following is true? (A) The GI Bill of Rights enabled the Veterans' Administration (VA) to guarantee loans for veterans to buy homes, farms, and small businesses. (B) The size of the "middle class," defined as households earning between $3,000 and $10,000 a year, doubled from pre-Great Depression days (C) The middle class included 60 percent of the American people by the mid-1950s. (D) By the end of the 1950s, the vast majority of American families owned their own car and washing machine, and nearly 90 percent owned a television set (E) All of these. 305. Which of the following is not true? (A) By 1960, almost 60% of American families owned their own homes, compared with less than 40% in the 1920s. (B) In all regions, America's modern migrants, if they were white, fled from the cities to the burgeoning new suburbs. (C) Government policies encouraged this momentous move with loan guarantees. (D) Tax deductions for interest payments on home mortgages provided additional financial incentive. (E) By 1960 eight of every nine Americans dwelt in suburbia. 306. Which of the following is not true? (A) The construction industry lagged in the 1950s and 1960s. The Levitt brothers, whose first "Levittown" sprouted on New York's Long Island in the 1940s, revolutionized the techniques of home construction. (C) Critics wailed about the aesthetic monotony of the suburban "tract" developments, but eager home buyers nevertheless moved into them by the millions. (D) "White flight" to the green suburbs left the inner cities in the Northeast and Midwest “black, brown, and broke.” (E) Taxpaying businesses fled with their affluent customers from downtown shops to suburban shopping malls. “This is one country. It has become one country because all of us and all the people who came here had an equal chance to develop their talents. We cannot say to ten percent of the population that you can't have that right; that your children can't have the chance to develop whatever talents they have; that the only way that they are going to get their rights is to go into the streets and demonstrate. I think we owe them and we owe ourselves a better country than that. Therefore, I am asking for your help in making it easier for us to move ahead and to provide the kind of equality of treatment which we would want ourselves; to give a chance for every child to be educated to the limit of his talents.” 307. The author of the passage above is (A) Richard Nixon (B) John F. Kennedy (C) Martin Luther King (D) Robert McNamara (E) Earl Warren. 308 Which of the following had a negative impact on President John F. Kennedy’s ability to champion the cause of civil rights with positive legislation? (A) He was elected by a wafer-thin margin (B) with shaky control over Congress, Kennedy needed the support of southern legislators to pass his economic and social legislation (C) He believed, perhaps justifiably, that bold moves would be counter-productive (D) He was much more interested in being the leader of the free world (E) All of these. 309. Which of the following was true of the 1960s? (A) The 1960s brought a sexual revolution, spurred by rebellion and the new birth control pill. (B) The civil rights revolution diminished in intensity in the 1960s as the court battles were the primary focus. (C) In the 1960s, a "youth culture," emerged, focused on a return to traditional morality and new wave music. (D) The war in Vietnam unified the nation much like World War II had in 1941 (E) By the end of the 1960s, most Americans were comfortable with the comparative calm of complacency. 310. Which of the following was accomplished by President John F. Kennedy? (A) Kennedy forced an expansion of the all-important House Rules Committee, dominated by conservatives who could have bottled up his entire legislative program. (B) the president tried to hold the line against crippling inflation. His administration helped negotiate a noninflationary wage agreement in the steel industry in early 1962. The assumption was that the companies, for their part, would keep the lid on prices. 311. Which of the following is not true of Jesse Owens [1913-81]? (A) He was the first African-American to play professional basketball (B) He was the first African- American track star. (C) While at Ohio State University he broke (1935-36) several world records, four in one day. (D) At the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Owens won four gold medals (E) In later years, Owens was an ambassador of good will. “I can think of no greater tragedy than for the United States to become involved in an all-out war in Indochina.” February 1954 312. Which of the following is the author of the quote above? (A) Lyndon Johnson (B) Dwight D. Eisenhower (C) Abraham Lincoln (D) Elvis Presley (E) Ho Chi Minh. 313. Which of the following is true about the U-2 incident? I Central Intelligence Agency pilot Francis Gary Powers was cruising ten miles above the U.S.S.R. on May 1, 1960, when a Soviet missile felled his Lockheed U-2 spy plane. II Soviet-American relations plunged to a new Cold War low. III U.S. pilots had been flying regular reconnaissance missions over the Soviet Union since 1956. Although Soviet authorities knew about the flights, they could do nothing to stop them: U-2 planes flew at an altitude beyond the reach of early Soviet missiles. IV Soviet premier Khrushchev announced the incident on May 5, neglecting to say that Powers had been taken alive. V Powers was widely vilified in his homeland for pleading guilty (taking the “suicide pill” he had with him, many felt, would have been the patriotic thing to do), but was eventually exchanged in 1962 for a Soviet spy (A) I only (D) I and II only (B) III only (E) All of these (C) I, III and IV only 314. Which of the following is true about the First Birth-Control Pill? I A sexual revolution was about to erupt and science made it possible. II For the most part, few women used oral contraceptives until the late 1970s. III The American endocrinologist Gregory Goodwin Pincus led the team that developed the oral contraceptive. IV Margaret Sanger, America’s leading birth control advocate since the 1920s helped to secure funding for the project. V The drug was approved by the FDA in 1920, and soon to become part of daily life for millions of women around the globe. (A) I only (D) I and III only (B) II only (E) II and IV only (C) I, III, and IV 317. Why was General MacArthur removed from his command in Korea? (A) MacArthur's extreme anti-Communist views made him unpopular in the Truman administration. (B) The General publicly challenged President Truman over policy differences. (C) Eisenhower dismissed MacArthur because of personality conflicts after he became president in 1953. (D) Truman held MacArthur responsible for Chinese entry into the conflict. (E) All of these. 323. How did the Korean War end? (A) Korea was unified under North Korea's control. (B) Korea was unified under South Korea's control. (C) China established control over Korea. (D) An armistice was signed and the country divided near the area where the conflict began. 324. Compared with U.S. involvement in other wars, what was the most significant change in U.S. policy at the end of World War II? (A) The United States entered into entangling alliances. (B) The United States helped the civilian population of the nations involved in the war.(C) The United States became economically integrated with the nations of Europe. (D) The United States directly controlled European. 325. Which factor led to Soviet distrust and to tensions in Europe in 1948? (A) The ongoing civil war in Greece (B) American support for non-Communist political parties in Eastern Europe (C) The inability of the Allied powers to agree on a plan for a united Germany (D) The American sponsorship of the Marshall Plan. 326. Where did the United States first formally recognize that a state of hostility existed with the Soviet Union? (A) With the enunciation of the Truman Doctrine (B) At the Potsdam Conference (C) At the onset of the Korean War (D) With the announcement of the Fair Deal. 328. How was the Cuban missile crisis resolved? (A) The Soviet missiles remained in Cuba. (B) The United States dismantled its nuclear weapons in Western Europe in exchange for the removal of the Soviet missiles. (C) The Soviet missiles in Cuba were removed. (D) The United States destroyed the missiles in an air raid. 329. What was the U.S. response to postwar devastation in Europe in June 1947? (A) The Marshall Plan (B) Operation Overlord (C) The iron curtain (D) The Truman Doctrine. 330. Which American President sponsored an invasion of Cuba? (A) Dwight Eisenhower (B) Richard Nixon (C) John F. Kennedy (D) Harry S Truman. 331. What defense policy did Secretary of State John Foster Dulles advocate in the early 1950s. (A) Liberation (B) Massive retaliation (C) Modern Republicanism (D) Counter insurgency. 332. Which American president ordered the atomic bomb dropped on Japan in August 1945? (A) President Herbert C. Hoover (B) President John F. Kennedy (C) President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) President Harry S Truman. 333. Why did President Kennedy order a U.S. military mobilization in the fall of 1963? (A) Kennedy hoped to stem the tide of Latin American revolutions. (B) Kennedy was responding to a Russian provocation in Berlin. (C) Kennedy was responding to the discovery of Soviet missiles in Cuba. (D) Kennedy wanted to prepare the nation for the war in Vietnam. 338. Which of the following reforms was not instituted by the U.S. occupation forces in Japan at the end of World War II? (A) The emperor was made the supreme head of state and government. (B) A major land reform was established. (C) A new Constitution was written for the Japanese. (D) Universal suffrage was instituted. 341. How did President Truman respond to the Soviet blockade of Berlin? (A) Truman ordered that supplies be airlifted to West Berlin. (B) Truman threatened to use atomic weapons. (C) Truman ordered that the Berlin Wall be removed. (D) Truman negotiated a withdrawal of all American forces from Berlin. 342. Which organization was created in Europe in 1949? (A) CENTO (B) NATO (C) The Atlantic Charter (D) The United Nations Security Council 347. How were U.S. forces committed to the Korean War? (A) U.S. forces were attacked by North Korean forces during the initial invasion. (B) The United Nations approved the plan. (C) American forces arrived to reinforce Japanese colonial forces. (D) The United States declared war on North Korea. 350. How did Kennedy attempt to limit the dangers of a nuclear holocaust? (A) Kennedy sponsored a complete ban on all nuclear weapons. (B) Kennedy achieved a nuclear test ban agreement. (C) Kennedy proposed that the United States and the Soviet Union undertake joint space missions. (D) Kennedy improved relations with China. 352. Why did the People's Republic of China concern U.S. policy makers in the early 1960s? (A) China attempted to encourage revolution in Malaya. (B) China was forging closer relations with the Soviet Union. (C) China was approaching great power status. (D) China attempted to invade Taiwan. 353. What dramatic announcement did President Truman make in September 1949? (A) The Soviet Union had developed an atomic bomb. (B) The Chinese Communists had taken (C) The United States became involved in the Greek Civil War. (D) North Korea had invaded South Korea. 356. How did the United States respond to the Communist victory in China in 1949? (A) Truman began plans for an invasion of China through Taiwan. (B) America sought friendly relations with the new Communist government. (C) The U.S. recognized the regime of former ruler Chiang Kai-shek. (D) The U.S. attempted to reconcile the Communist and Nationalist forces. 360. What did U.S. policy makers fear most in Europe during the period before the Marshall Plan? (A) The threat of a Soviet invasion (B) Unpaid European war debts recover militarily (C) (D) A gradual Communist takeover. 364. How was the war in Korea suddenly extended in October 1950? (A) The Soviet Union intervened on the North Korean side. (B) North Korea counterattacked. (C) United Nations troops pulled out of the conflict. (D) China intervened on the North Korean side. 365. The United States occupation of Japan at the end of World War II may have been one of the most successful administrations of a foreign country in history. Who was in charge of that effort? (A) General Douglas MacArthur (B) Admiral Chester Nimitz (C) Admiral Louis Mountbatten (D) General Dwight Eisenhower. 366. Which event in the late 1950s caused the United States to question its technological superiority? (A) The Soviet interception of an American spy plane (B) The explosion of the Soviet hydrogen bomb (C) The Soviet Union's launching of the Sputnik satellite (D) The rapid economic growth of the Soviet Union. 387. The Marshall plan proposed (A) military intervention against the Chinese Communists, (B) the economic recovery of Europe (C) military aid for Greece (D) confining Communism to Eastern Europe (E) defense. 388. Which of the following gave the greatest support to the Taft-Hartley Act? (A) President Truman (B) conservative forces (C) liberal Democrats (D) labor (E) Socialists. 389. All of the following are gains by labor since the 1880's except (A) rebates (B) collective bargaining (C) lobbying power (D) greater union membership (E) higher wage scale and shorter working hours. 400. The major presidential public opinion polls in 1948 predicted (A) the election would be a toss-up (B) the reelection of Truman (C) the election of Dewey (D) a slight advantage for Truman (E) the election of Strom Thurmond. 401. The Democratic party in 1948 split over the issue of (A) price controls (B) the Taft-Hartley Act (C) Civil Rights (D) Communism (E) inflation. 402. The United Nations forces in Korea were predominantly (A) French (B) British (C) American (D) Turkish (E) Canadian. 403. Which of the following presidential winners would have been less likely to have said what we need is "more business in government"'? (A) Herbert Hoover (B) Warren G. Harding (C) Dwight Eisenhower (D) Franklin D. Roosevelt (E) Calvin Coolidge. 405. The Twenty-second Amendment provided that (A) no president may be elected for over three terms (B) no president may be elected for over two terms (C) any president could break the two-term custom (D) executive agreements are unconstitutional (E) the poll tax would be banned in national elections. 406. There was criticism of the McCarthy investigation because (A) there were no Communists in the United States (B) his methods were questionable (C) he had ties with the Communists (D) his suggestions were not drastic enough (E) he was too socialistic in his attitude. 407. Which of the following presidents ordered federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce school desegregation? (A) Harry Truman (B) Dwight Eisenhower (C) John F. Kennedy (D) Lyndon Johnson (E) Richard M. Nixon. 408. Which of the following was not prominent in the Civil Rights movement? (A) James Meredith (B) Medgar Evers (C) Roy Wilkins (D) Martin Luther King (E) Ralph Bunche. 409. The largest item of expenditure in the federal government is for (A) defense (B) interest on money borrowed (C) agriculture (D) the space program (E) welfare programs. 410. Over half of the total money acquired by the federal government comes from (A) corporation taxes (B) custom and excise taxes (C) income taxes (D) state government taxes (E) cigarette, gasoline and liquor taxes. 411. President Eisenhower's administration opposed (A) meetings with the U.S.S.R. (B) continuing foreign aid (C) increases in Social Security (D) extension of government development of electrical power (E) the policy of containment of Communism. 412. During his administrations President Eisenhower worked mainly with a Congress that was (A) Democratic, (B) Republican (C) evenly divided between parties (D) heavily Republican (E) slightly Republican. 413. The city of West Berlin was once surrounded by the (A) Russian or Communist zone, (B) French zone (C) United States zone (D) Allied zone (E) British zone. 414. Who was given much of the credit for the program of U.S. aid which, after World War II, made Europe prosper and provided a bulwark against Communism? (A) Harry Truman (B) George Marshall (C) Dean Acheson (D) Dwight Eisenhower (E) Adlai Stevenson. 415. Which of the following was not a candidate for president in the presidential election of 1948? (A) Harry S. Truman (B) Henry Wallace (C) Strom Thurmond (D) Adlai Stevenson (E) Thomas Dewey. 416. Which of the following coined the phrase "Iron Curtain"? (A) Hitler (B) Nixon (C) Churchill (D) Roosevelt (E) Truman. 417. Which of the following was not a provision of the Taft-Hartley Act? (A) federal injunctions may be granted against strikes that cripple the national economy (B)unions must file detailed annual financial reports (C) political expenditures by unions are forbidden (D) unions can be sued by employers for damages (E) closed shop is outlawed and union shop restricted. 418. A new cabinet post created under the Eisenhower administration was the (A) Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (B) Secretary of Foreign Affairs (C) Secretary of War (D) Secretary of National Defense (E) Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. 419. All of the following is provided for by the Taft-Hartley Act except (A) Unions are made subject to suit for breach of contract (B) Employers are made subject to suit for breach of contract. (C) Union officials must take an oath that they are not members of the Communist party. (D) Management officials bargaining with unions must take an oath that they are not members of the Communist party. (E) An injunction can be obtained to postpone a strike for 80 days. 420. Which of the following events occurred first? (A) Beginning of the Berlin Airlift (B)Truman Doctrine (C) Formation of NATO (D)Formation of the Marshall Plan (E) Potsdam Conference. 421. Which of the following items was first in chronological order? (A) First law excluding Chinese laborers (B) Peak of Irish immigration resulting from famine (C) McCarran-Walter Act (D) Gentlemen's Agreement (E) National Origins Formula. 422. Which of the following acts was first in chronological order? (A) Wagner Connery Act (B) Interstate Commerce Act (C) Clayton Antitrust Act (D) Taft-Hartley Act (E) Sherman-Antitrust Act. 427. All of the following statements are true about the Truman Doctrine and the circumstances to which it was directed except (A) The Truman Doctrine was a unilateral action by the United States. (B) Greece and Spain were the principal beneficiaries of the Truman Doctrine. (C) Greece had appealed to the UN for help. (D) The Soviet Union was pushing toward an outlet and control on the Mediterranean Sea just as had Czarist Russia throughout modern times. (E) Under the Truman Doctrine, substantial military aid was sent to Turkey. 432. Which of the following items was least involved with the Cold War? (A) Berlin airlift (B) Truman Doctrine (C) NATO (D) Marshall Plan (E) Potsdam Conference. 55. George F. Kennan's "Containment Policy" was based on all the following assumptions except: (A) Soviet totalitarianism was internally weak (B) Soviet leaders were more concern about staying in office than strict enforcement of Marxism (C) the U.S. should ignore Soviet expansionism and let it run its course unopposed (D) Soviet policy makers needed a hostile U.S. to justify themselves (E) Kennan was a shrewd, sharp, and skilled observer of Russian maneuvers. 56. The best example of military containment as practiced by the United States was (A) the Marshall plan (B) Pan American Union (C) Organization of American States (D) NATO (E) SEATO. 57. In Korea, General. Douglas MacArthur's brilliant success came (A) through brilliant frontal assault that broke through North Korean lines near Seoul (B) at Inchon after a daring amphibious landing behind North Korean lines (C) as ordered the invasion of North Korea (D) when he suggested bombing targets in China, especially the Yalu River dams (E) when he invaded Hong Kong in southern China to take the Chines out of the conflict. 58. The postwar goal of the United States in Germany was: (A) a divided Germany (B) a deindustrialized Germany (C) an isolated Germany (D) immediate reunification (E) a reindustrialized Germany. 59. In 1945, Korea: (A) was within the United States ` defensive perimeter (B) was divided at the 38th parallel (C) was "corrupt, reactionary, and inefficient" (D) was within the economic sphere of Japan (E) came under Chinese dominion. 60. Harry Truman won an upset victory in 1948 for all of the following reasons except: (A) he appealed to the people effectively (B) he received support from labor and ethnic groups (C) he won a majority of Black votes (D) he won the support of Eastern intellectuals (E) he retained the allegiance of the Solid South. 61. All of the following were Blacklisted except: (A) Pete Seeger (B) Whittaker Chambers (C) Zero Mostel (D) Arthur Miller (E) Robert Oppenheimer. 82. The most famous member of the House Committee on Un-American Activities was: (A) Robert (A) Taft (B) Karl Mundt (C) John J. Sparkman (D) Joseph McCarthy (E) Richard Nixon. 63. President Eisenhower's presidential style has been characterized as: (A) deft (B) confrontational (C) activist (D) charismatic (E) evasive and unsure. 64. The "Eisenhower Doctrine" applied to (A) Latin America (B) the Middle East (C) Northern Europe (D) Southeast Asia (E) Eastern Europe. 65. Eisenhower's Farewell Address, (A) he cautioned against entangling alliances (B) he warned Americans about the "military-industrial complex" (C) he urged Americans to stop the spread of communism in Latin America (D) he advocated bipartisanship in foreign policy (E) he became deeply involved in economic planning of the future. 66. The first modern computers were developed during the decade of... (A) the 1920's (B) the 1930's (C) the 1940's (D) the 1950's (E) the 1960's. 67. The major issue involved in the Brown vs Board of Education court decision was: (A) legalization of abortion (B) the guarantee of equal rights of minors with those of adults (C) segregation (D) integration (E) reverse-discrimination. 68. The growth and development of "suburbia" in America came in all of the following except: (A) Michigan (B) Florida (C) Texas (D) California (E) Illinois. 70. President Eisenhower did all of the following except: (A) nominate Earl Warren to the Supreme Court (B) ended one war and avoided all others (C) led a moral crusade for civil rights (D) helped preserve the two-party system. (E) provided middle-of-the-road leadership. 71. The election of 1960 featured all of the following except: (A) television debates (B) defeat by incumbent sitting president (C) was a political squeaker thus taking much punch power away from Kennedy (D) media that was openly partisan to Kennedy (E) strongly supported by American intelligentsia. 8. Senator Joseph McCarthy gained national prominence with his accusation that (A) American meat packers disregarded fundamental rules of sanitation (B) the Federal Bureau of Investigation was violating many innocent citizens' right to privacy (C) some congressmen were taking bribes in return for pro-business votes (D) massive voter fraud was common throughout the Southwest (E) the State Department had been infiltrated by communist spies. 9. The 1956 boycott of the Montgomery bus system (A) was led by Malcolm X (B) started because the city doubled bus fares (C) was instigated by the arrest of Rosa Parks (D) lasted for three weeks and failed to achieve its goal (E) resulted from the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. 18. In which decision did the Supreme Court invalidate the practice of "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites? (A) Marbury v. Madison (B) Bradwell v. Illinois (C) Plessy v. Ferguson (D) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (E) Holden v. Hardy. 19. The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba, in 1961, was carried out by (A) Caribbean mercenaries hired by the United States (B) American soldiers (C) the Soviet Navy (D) Cuban exiles trained by the Central Intelligence Agency (E) Cuban Communist rebels led by Fidel Castro. 27. The Truman Doctrine declared the government's commitment to assist (A) Japanese families affected by the atomic bomb blasts in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (B) any nation facing widespread poverty as a result of World War II (C) free nations in danger of takeover by repressive governments, especially Soviet-style Communism (D) American farmers, who suffered through major price drops after World War II ended (E) American families who could not afford to build homes without government aid. 1. In a famous 1947 article in Foreign Affairs, George Kennan argued that the United States should pursue a policy of (A) neutrality (B) one worldism (C) isolationism (D) containment (E) multilateralism. 2. The commitment of the American government to the state of Israel was determined in 1948 when the (A) Lebanese Civil War began (B) state of Israel was founded (C) CIA overthrew the government of Iran (D) Palestine Liberation Organization was founded (E) Eisenhower Doctrine was announced. 3. The Marshall Plan was successful because it (A) lasted for twenty years (B) created the National Security Agency (C) prohibited loans to the Soviet Union (D) sparked western Europe's industrial recovery (E) required European nations to solve their balance of payments problems. 4. Immediately after World War II, the United States government's policy regarding atomic energy called for (A) destruction of all nuclear weapons (B) a nuclear arms proliferation agreement (C) control of all fissionable materials by an international agency (D) the abandonment by the Soviet Union of its nuclear program (E) an end to Third World programs of nuclear research. 6. In 1934, the actor and opera singer, Paul Robeson, said that "I feel like a human being for the first time....Here I am not a Negro but a human being." In this quotation, Robeson referred to his life in which country? (A) France (B) Ghana (C) Liberia (D) the Soviet Union (E) Cuba. 7. One reason that the United States supported the French colonial regime in Vietnam after World War II was that (A) Mao Zedong was victorious in the Chinese Civil War (B) Bao Dal was known for his democratic tendencies (C) Vietnam was an important trade partner for the United States (D) the United States agreed at Yalta to pr~tect the French empire (E) the United States was rewarding the French government for its support during World War II. 8. Despite high unemployment immediately after World War II, the United States economy thrived, largely due to (A) continued government subsidies (B) personal savings and the availability of easy credit (C) the absence of strikes (D) stable prices (E) a rise in real income. 9. President Truman labeled the Eightieth Congress as the "do nothing Congress" because it (A) enacted very little legislation (B) was overwhelmingly liberal (C) was solidly Republican (D) rejected most of his legislative agenda (E) met for only three months. 10. Segregationists had the choice of anti-integrationist candidates for president in both the 1948 and l%8 elections. Their choices in these two campaigns were, respectively, (A) Thomas Dewey and George McGovern (B) Henry Wallace and 3ohn Anderson (C) Henry Wallace and Richard Nixon (D) J. Strom Thurmond and George Wallace (E) J. Strom Thurmond and Henry Wallace. 11. All of the following demonstrate the importance of the 1940's to the advancement of rights for Mexican-Americans except the (A) entry of Jackie Robinson into major league baseball (B) publication of Gunnar Myrdal's An American Dilemma (C) establishment of the Justice Department's Civil Rights Division (D) creation of the NAACP's Legal Defense Fund (E) founding of "freedom schools" in Mississippi. 12. During the 1940's, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People [NAACP] tried to destroy the "separate but equal" doctrine by (A) insisting on its literal interpretation by the courts (B) promoting airmative action legislation (C) lobbying for special interest legislation (D) urging the Supreme Court to legislate an end to segregation (E) persuading the president to interfere with the courts. 13. President Truman removed General Douglas MacArthur from command of the American forces in Korea for all of the following reasons except (A) insubordination to the Commander-in-Chief (B) the risk of drawing China further into the war (C) the risk of drawing the Soviet Union into more active support of North Korea (D) MacArthur's suggestion that Truman was guilty of appeasement (E) MacArthur's lack of bold military initiatives. 14. In the presidential campaign of 1952, General Dwight Eisenhower promised that if elected president he would (A) bomb China (B) withdraw American forces from Korea (C) give the American generals greater authority to wage the war (D) conduct total war against N9rth Korea (E) visit Korea personally. 15. In terms of the number of dollars spent, the largest public works program in American history was the (A) Works Projects Administration (B) Public Works Administration (C) Civilian Conservation Corps (D) Interstate Highway Program (E) Volunteers in Service to America. 16. The loyalty of J. Robert Oppenheimer, the physicist who directed the atomic bomb project during World War 11, was questioned by the Eisenhower administration because he (A) opposed the hydrogen bomb project (B) was a member of the Communist Party of the United States (C) did not meet the standards of the Communist Control Act (D) conflicted with the Smith Act (E) was convicted of perjury. 17. In response to Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus' decision in 1957 to resist desegregation in Little Rock's Central High School, President Eisenhower (A) publicly supported the governor (B) firedGovernorFaubus (C) federalized the Arkansas National Guard (D) arrested the governor (E) argued that "separate but equal" should be declared constitutional. 18. The creation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in l%0 was direcdy inspired by (A) antiwar protests (B) the sit-in movement (C) the speeches of Malcolm X (D) the Freedom Riders (E) President Kennedy's commitment to Civil Rights. 19. In response to the Soviet Union's launch of the first satellite into outer space in 1957, the United States government (A) passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) to upgrade the study of mathematics, science and foreign languages (B) ended the joint American-Soviet occupation of Austria (C) agreed with the Soviet Union to pursue peaceful coexistence (D) detonated the world's largest hydrogen bomb on the island of Bildni (E) reinforced the defense of two islands near the People's Republic of China. 20. The Eisenhower Doctrine, a policy which stated that the United States would intervene if a government was threatened by communism, was first implemented in (A) Iran (B) Israel (C) Lebanon (D) Turkey (E) Saudi Arabia. 21. Just prior to leaving office in 196l, President Eisenhower wamed the nation to guard against the "potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power" in the hands of the (A) American communist party (B) Soviet Union (C) labor unions (D) military- industrial complex (E) Central Intelligence Agency. 22. The cornerstones of post-World War II economic growth included all of the following except (A) the baby boom (B) the construction industry (C) the automobile (D) military spending (E) family farms. 23. Levittown, a phenomenon of the 1940's, is an example of a (A) standardized suburban housing development (B) fast growing university town (C) rural community annexed by a major city (D) small town linked to a major city by interstate highways (E) government supported public housing project. 25. Popular culture in the 1950's was increasingly dominated by television. All of the following were widely viewed TV programs of the 1950's except (A) The Jackie Gleason show (B) Leave It To Beaver (C) The Micky Mouse Club (D) I Love Lucy (E) Rebel Without A Cause. 6. Henry Wallace ran for President on the Progressive ticket in 1948 because he (A) favoured a less hostile attitude than Truman towards the Soviet Union (B) was opposed to the Sherman Silver Purchase Act (C) disliked the alternative candidate, William Jennings Bryan (D) was defeated by Dewey in the Republican primaries (E) saw himself as the heir to the New Deal. 21. Under what plan was economic aid proposed to post-World War II Western Europe? (A) NATO (B) the Marshall Plan (C) Fourteen Points (D) Treaty of Versailles (E) Unicef. 2. President Truman's domestic policies included support for all of the following except (A) a full-employment bill (B) increase in the minimum wage (C) national health care insurance (D) desegregating the armed forces (E) the Taft-Hartley Act. 3. Which of the following was not a major issue between the Soviet Union and the United States in the postwar years 1945-1950? (A) establishment of Communist governments in Eastern Europe (B) occupation zones in Japan (C) access to Berlin (D) Marshall Plan aid (E) development and control of atomic weapons. 4. "In these circumstances, it is ~ that the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a long-term, patient, but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies. It is important to note, however, that such a policy has nothing to do with outward histrionics, with threats or blustering or superfluous gestures of outward toughness. This statement is taken from (A) President Roosevelt's speech at the Yalta conference (B) Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech (C) George Marshall's introduction to his Marshall Plan (D) George Kennan's article, "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" (E) General MacArthur's letter to Congressman Joseph Martin. 5. The primary purpose of the Marshall Plan was to (A) end the rift between the United States and the Soviet Union (B) establish a uniform world currency (C) aid the economic recovery of war-devastated Europe (D) set up a military alliance of anticommunist nations (E) hinder the economic recovery of nations under Soviet control. 6. Which U.S. action is not correctly paired with an event in international politics? (A) airlift-Soviet blockade of Berlin (B) troops sent to Korea- Churchill's iron Curtain speech (C) Truman Doctrine-civil war in Greece (D) Marshall Plan-growing popularity of communism in Western Europe (E) development of hydrogen bomb-A-bomb tested in Soviet Union. 7. Which of the following was not an issue during the Korean War? (A) whether to expand the war by attacking China (B) whether North Korea had committed aggression (C) whether Congress should have declared war (D) the removal of General Douglas MacArthur (E) the policies of containment and "limited war." 8. Which of the following contributed least to the growth of the Red Scare in the 1950s? (A) loss of atomic bomb secrets to the Soviets (B) Army-McCarthy hearings (C) Alger Hiss case (D) fall of China to the Communists (E) investigations by the House Un- American Activities Committee. 9. Which of the following best describes Truman's foreign policy from 1945 to 1952? (A) reluctance to involve the United States in foreign conflicts (B) willingness to negotiate differences with the Soviet Union (C) aggressive use of U.S. troops in Europe and Asia (D) commitment to containing Communist challenges (E) extending foreign aid only with U.N. approval. 10. A principal reason for the defeat of most Fair Deal programs was (A) opposition by Republicans in Congress (B) outbreak of the Second Red Scare (C) McCarthy's accusations (D) Truman's lack of experience in domestic policy (E) Dewey's speeches in the election of 1948 1. President Eisenhower's "modern Republicanism" can best be described as (A) a return to the economic policies of Coolidge and Hoover (B) a general acceptance of the New Deal programs and a balanced budget (C) an effort to shift taxes from the wealthy to lower income Americans (D) Opposition to all liberal causes, including civil rights (E) the return of social and welfare programs to the states. 2. John Foster Dulles' "new look" to U .S. foreign policy included all of the following except (A) taking Communist nations to the brink of war to force them to back down (B) threatening massive retaliation with nuclear weapons to prevent Soviet aggression (C) supporting the liberation of "Captive" nations (D) Recognizing the Communist government of China (E) reducing conventional forces of the U.S. Army and Navy. 3. U.S. intervention in Iran in 1953 and in Guatemala in 1954 are examples of (A) the use of covert action by the CIA (B) the application of the Eisenhower Doctrine (C) U.S. efforts to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons (D) the use of U.S. troops to support democratic governments (E) the policy of brinkmanship. 4. "We declare that however acute the ideological differences between the two systems-the socialist and the capitalist-we must solve questions in dispute among states not by war, but by peaceful negotiation." This statement by Nikita Khrushchev in 1957 expressed the idea of (A) massive retaliation (B) de-Stalinization (C) inevitability of the triumph of communism (D) peaceful coexistence (E) cultural revolution. 5. Which of the following represented a major crisis during Eisenhower's presidency? (A) Cuban missile crisis (B) invasion of South Korea (C) Spirit of Camp David (D) British, French, and Israeli invasion of Egypt (E) blockade of Berlin. 6. In the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. the Supreme Court ruled that (A) segregated facilities must be equal (B) African Americans and whites must have equal access to public transportation (C) racially segregated schools are inherently unequal and unconstitutional (D) nonviolent protests are protected by the First Amendment (E) voting rights must apply equally to whites and African Americans. 7. The Montgomery bus boycott and Greensboro lunch counter sit-ins are examples of (A) enforcement by the Justice Department of the Brown decision (B) President Eisenhower's use of federal troops to end segregation (C) court-initiated efforts to end racial discrimination (D) failures of nonviolent direct action by the NAACP (E) protests against segregation coming from the African-American community. 8. During the 1950s, all of the following contributed to a more homogeneous culture except (A) building of the interstate highway system (B) the soil-bank program (C) television programming (D) spread of franchise operations (E) growth of the suburbs. 9. The United States during the Eisenhower years was characterized by (A) decreased spending for defense (B) breakup of conglomerates (C) increased tension between Protestants, Catholics, and Jews (D) increased middle-class affluence (E) radical protests on college campuses. 10. All of the following represented a criticism of the society and conformity of the 1950s except (A) David Reisman's The Lonely Crowd (B) William Whyte's The Organization Man (C) John Kenneth Galbraith's The Affluent Society (D) David Halberstam's The Best and the Brightest (E) C. Wright Mills' The Power Elite. 1. U.S. economic expansion after World War II was encouraged by all of the following except (A) Office of Price Administration (B) veterans' loans (C) increased savings from the war years (D) high demand for consumer goods (E) increase in per capita income. 7. President Harry S Truman initiated the policy of containment in response to: (A) rise of Mao Tse-tung in China (B) communist revolts or threats in Turkey and Greece (C) Soviet blockade of Allied sectors in Berlin (D) communist overthrow of a democratic government in Czechoslovakia (E) Soviet refusal to hold promised free elections in Poland 56. Which of the following was a serious economic problem facing the United States immediately following World War II? (A) housing surplus (B) overproduction (C) unemployment (D) inflation (E) weakened national currency 57. All of the following problems concerned middle class Americans as the election of 1952 approached except? (A) the seemingly endless nature of the Korean War (B) suggestion of corruption at high levels of government (C) racial injustice in the South (D) evidence of communist infiltration and espionage within the U.S. (E) threat of atomic world war 58. Desiring to reduce federal spending and repeal New Deal legislation, Eisenhower styled his new administration by which of the following: (A) the "New Conservativism" (B) "modern Republicanism" (C) "Rugged Individualism" (D) "Silent Majority" (E) "Better Dead than Red." "From Stettin in the Baltic to Triest in the Adriatic an Iron Curtain had descended across the Continent...." 59. This statement made in the 1946 Fulton, Missouri speech by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was an attempt to signal what event? (A) opening of the Cold War (B) British support for NATO (C) institution of "containment" (D) alliance of the United States and Great Britain against the fascist threat as culminated in the Atlantic Charter (E) immediate and urgent need for American membership in the United Nations Organization. "...Although he wanted a `peace without victory,' he wound up with a victor's peace because he had compromised. But he had compromised only because he believed he must do so if he were to succeed in getting his most precious dream, his proudest effort on behalf of world peace, incorporated into that treaty. His sacrifices were in vain, however, for his own countrymen rejected the treaty and, with it, his dream. Not only had he failed to win their support, but what was even more tragic, his failure stemmed partly from his own errors in judgment...." 60. The "precious dream" that this statement refers to would be which of the following? (A) Pan American Union (B) Atlantic Charter (C) NATO (D) League of Nations (E) Grand Alliance. 8. All of the following comments concerning the Bay of Pigs Incident are true except? (A) the plan was devised under the Eisenhower administration (B) U.S. air cover for the invasion was ordered by Kennedy at the recommendation of his military advisors (C) the CIA and the military convinced Kennedy that the attempt to overthrow Castro would succeed (D) the Cuban people failed to rally to support the cause of the invading "freedom fighters" (E) incident led to Soviet attempt to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. 9. The U.S. responded to the successful Soviet orbiting of Sputnik in 1957 by: (A) expanded federal aid to education (B) increasing NATO forces in Europe (C) cooperative space efforts with Britain and France (D) firing several important American scientists (E) joined operations with USSR. 10. Which of the following accurately describes Joseph R. McCarthy? (A) Republican - communist hunter - 1950s (B) Dixiecrat - segregationist governor of Mississippi - 1948 (C) Democrat - opponent of LBJ's Vietnam policies - 1960s (D) Aryan Nation - radical pro-white racist - 1970s (E) Weathermen - student radical leader - 1960s. 11. This individual, an internationally recognized biologist, authored the book Silent Spring, a warning against the evironmental impact of indiscriminate use of insecticides, especially DDT. (A) Betty Friedan (B) Francis Perkins (C) Emma Goldman (D) Rachel Carson (E) Gerturde Stein. 23. This individual "made" his political career as a young congressman on the House Committee on Un-American Activities, especially over the Alger Hiss case: (A) Joseph R. McCarthy (B) Richard M. Nixon (C) Gerald R. Ford (D) Robert (A) Taft (E) Hubert H. Humphrey. 24. Eisenhower's "Farewell Address" offered the American people a warning concerning the threat of: (A) international communism (B) creeping welfare state (C) growing military-industry complex (D) unbalanced federal budget (E) increased racial tensions. 27. The lead attorney for the NAACP in the Brown case and later appointed as a justice on the U.S. Supreme Court was: (A) Ralph Bunche (B) Thurgood Marshall (C) Charles R. Drew (D) James Farmer (E) Stokely Carmichael. 28. This president was closely associated with originating the concept of "brinksmanship," the theory which suggested the United States should pursue a policy of destabilizing the Soviet Union by pushing it right up to the edge of war, but not over that line. (A) Harry S Truman (B) Dwight David Eisenhower (C) John F. Kennedy (D) Lyndon (B) Johnson (E) Richard M. Nixon. 29. President Eisenhower's concept of "Modern Republicanism" included the hope of repealing much of FDR's former New Deal social legislation and: (A) massive increases in the defense budget (B) cutting federal spending (C) return to traditional isolationism (D) economic exploitation of third world nations (E) subordinating U.S. foreign policy to United Nation mandates. 30. The Suez Crisis in 1956 led to Eisenhower supporting the Egyptian government against Israel, France, and what other nation? (A) Soviet Union (B) Great Britain (C) Greece (D) Turkey (E) Italy. 34. "That the President be hereby is authorized to cooperate with and assist any nation or group of nations in the general area of the Middle East desiring such assistance in the development of economic strength dedicated to the maintenance of national independence...." (Congressional resolution, 1957) This statement would most reflect what American foreign or defense policy? (A) Eisenhower Doctrine (B) containment (C) Alliance for Progress (D) NATO Organization (E) domino theory. 36. In the movement that was born under the influence of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., which of the following most correctly describes the tactics used by African Americans to gain their human and civil rights? (A) constant petitioning to Congress and the United States Supreme Court (B) direct, public nonviolent defiance of segregation laws (C) armed, violent response to provocation and violations of civil rights (D) patiently developing skills that would make blacks economically successful while hoping to gain the sympathy and support of moderate whites (E) use of black voting power to manipulate presidential elections and force compromise on white politicians. 37. Which of the following statements is true of the SALT I treaty? (A) instituted significant reductions in Soviet and American missile arsenals (B) brokered by the NATO/Warsaw Pact partners of the United States and Soviet Union (C) represented United States acceptance of MAD (mutual assured destruction) (D) excluded nuclear armed missiles in Eastern Europe, Asia, and NATO nations outside of the United States and the Soviet Union (E) removed Soviet short-range missile based in Cuba. 38. Which of the following led to the 1960 walkout at the Paris Summit Meeting by Nikita Khrushchev? (A) Cuban Missile Crisis (B) Gulf of Tonkin Incident (C) Gary Powers' U-2 flight (D) Berlin Wall (E) USS Pueblo incident. 44. With the establishment of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in April 1953, this individual became the first secretary of that agency: (A) Francis Perkins (B) Georgia O'Keeffe (C) Sandra Day O'Connor (D) Oveta Culp Hobby (E) Francis Parkman. 57. During the 1950s influences which pushed the nation toward a more homogeneous society included all of the following EXCEPT: (A) appearance of television as a mass communication media (B) introduction of the federally financed interstate highway program (C) growing importance of suburban housing (D) dominance of the Republican party in the White House (E) rising literacy rate and general educational level of the American public. 58. All of the following were significant events of the Eisenhower administrations EXCEPT: (A) Salk vaccine for polio (B) Montgomery Bus Boycott (C) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (D) revolt of the Dixiecrats under J. Strom Thurmond's leadership (E) Suez Crisis. 59. Controversies surrounding the Korean War included all of the following EXCEPT? (A) Truman's dismissal of General Douglas MacArthur (B) the value of the concept of "limited war" (C) practicality of expanding the war into Communist China (D) diversion of troops desperately needed to protect Europe (E) Congress never declared war in the Korean Conflict. 73. Death of a Salesman (1949), The Crucible (1953), A View from the Bridge (1955), and The Misfits (1961) are all works attributed to which of the following artists? (A) Edna St. Vincent Millay (B) Arthur Miller (C) Jack Kerouac (D) John Steinbeck (E) Ernest Hemmingway. "Tonight I want to talk to the great confident majority of Americans, the generous, and the unfrightened, those who are proud of our strength, and sure of our goodness and who want to work with each other in trust. Regrettably, that confident majority did not include the Republican speechmakers in the campaign. How did they see America? They call sections of us dupes, and fellow travelers, men without a purpose and without a mind. But at all times they picture us as unworthy, scared, stupid, heartless. They thus betray the hopeful, practical, yet deeply moral America which you and I know." Which of the following spoke the words quoted above? (A) Dwight D. Eisenhower (B) Adali Stevenson (C) John F. Kennedy (D) Ross Barnwell (E) Orville Fabus. "Let us not assassinate this lad further, Senator. You have done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?" Which of the following spoke the words quoted above? (A) Dwight D. Eisenhower (B) Adali Stevenson (C) John F. Kennedy (D) Joseph Welch (E) Orville Fabus. "We are in an armaments race," he lamented in March 1953. "Where will it lead us? At worst, to atomic warfare. At best, to robbing every people and nation on earth of the fruits of their own toil." Which of the following spoke the words quoted above? (A) Dwight D. Eisenhower (B) Adali Stevenson (C) John F. Kennedy (D) Joseph Welch (E) Orville Fabus.
Pages to are hidden for
"World War II and the Cold War"Please download to view full document