ANNUAL 20REPORT 201987 by YL02220T

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 123

									                          Annual Reports 1987-88

                                    Contents
S.No.     CHAPTERS                                                     PAGES

I.        India's Neighbours                                           1-10
II.       South-East Asia                                              11-14
III.      East Asia                                                    15-21
IV.       West Asia and North Africa                                   22-26
V.        Africa (South of the Sahara)                                 27-31
VI.       Europe                                                       32-40
VII.      The Americas                                                 41-45
VIII.     United Nations and International Conferences                 46-67
IX.       Foreign Economic Relations                                   68-79
X.        Policy Planning and Research                                 80-82
XI.       External Publicity                                           83-86
XII.      Cultural Relations                                           87-94
XIII.     Indians Overseas                                             95-96
XIV.      Protocol                                                     97
XV.       Passport and Consular Services                               98-101
XVI.      Administration and Organisation                              102-105
XVII.     Foreign Service Training Institute                           106-107
XVIII.    Use of Hindi in Official Work                                108-109
          APPENDICES                                                   111-149
Introduction

INTRODUCTION

The continuity and consistency of purpose that characterises Indian Foreign Policy
was once again confirmed during this the Fortieth Anniversary Year of
Independence. India continued to strive for global peace, disarmament and
development through nonalignment and friendship with all countries, particularl y
neighbours. The enlargement of human freedom, unflinching opposition to
racialism and colonialism and the creation of equitable conditions conducive to
the peaceful and harmonious development of nations continued to guide its
conduct.

In the crusade for nuclear and general disarmament, India along with the other
five nations of the Six nation Initiative welcomed the INF Treaty bet - ween the
Soviet Union and USA as a historic first step. Their Declaration in St o- ckholm on
22 January appreciated resumption of the dialogue and called for verification and
compliance with agreements in this field. The Declaration call ed for immediate
suspension of all nuclear testing pending a comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. While
congratulating General Secretary Gorbachev and President Reagan, the Prime
Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi stressed that the goal must still remain the
destruction of all nuclear arsenals as a prelude to general and complete
disarmament. Throughout the year India continued to play a prominent role in
the UN in furthering this cause. Importance was given to the prohibitio n of
chemical weapons and a number of resolutions sponsored by India on nuclear
disarmament were adopted by large majorities. Our concern was also registered
against the militarisation of outer space.

Minister of State Shri K. Natwar Sin gh was elected President of the, General
Conference on Disarmament and Develop- ment under the aegis of the UN held in
New York in August/September 1987. The Final Document constituted a step
towards turning swords into ploughshares.

India sought, through international fora and through concerted action by like-
minded countries, to end the anachronistic system of apartheid. At the Vancouver
meeting of the Commonwealth Heads of Government, India played a major role
in rallying opinion in favour of the continuation of mandatory sanctions against
racist South Africa. India is a member of the Eight-member Committee of Foreign
Ministers formed at the Vancouver Summit to monitor the implementation of a
programme of action on Southern Africa concerned (iii) (iv) with sanctions
against South Africa, the rendering of assistance by the inte rnational community
to the Frontline States and other issues.

As Chairman of the Africa Fund, India was pleased to announce that
commitments had already reached a quarter billion US dollars within the year and
projects are being identified to help the Frontline States withstand the political
and economic onslaught of the Pretoria regime.

Nearer home, the degree of cooperation among the countries of South Asia in
agreed areas has grown. India handed over the Chairmanship of SAARC to Nepal
at the Third SAARC Summit in Kathmandu in November. Of the nearly 100
activities organised by SAARC, India hosted 45. The Third Summit meeting took
important decisions which will have a bearing on the future course of SAARC. A
Regional Convention was signed on the Suppres- sion of Terrorism which is
awaiting ratification. An agreement establishing a Food Security Reserve was
reached which would enable member states to draw on food stocks in an
emergency. Other important decisions were, to commission a study on
environment, to promote means of enhancing people-to-people con- tacts in
SAARC countries and to undertake studies on various aspects of plan-ning.

It was agreed to establish a meteorological centre and an agricultural information
centre in India and Bangladesh respectively. India announced a contribution of
Rs. 17.5 million for SAARC activities for 1988-89.

The Agreement to establish peace and normalcy in Sri Lanka signed in Colombo
on 29th July 1987, provided a framework for satisfying the legitimate aspirations
of the Sri Lankan Tamils within a united Sri Lanka. The hope of durable peace and
stability in Sri Lanka now rests upon the full implementation of this historic
accord. One of the Tamil groups, LTTE has, however, still been unwilling to make
the transition from militancy and restore the democratic process. By resorting to
large-scale killings, the LTTE attempted to prevent th e return of normalcy and
mounted attacks on the Indian Peace Keeping Force deployed in terms of the
Agreement to supervise the cease-fire and ensure the safety and security of all
communities in the North and East. This compelled the IPKF to start operations in
early October to disarm the LTTE.

The IPKF established effective control of Jaffna by the end of that month.
Simultaneousl y a major effort was mounted to provide relief to and rehabilitate
those affected by the fighting. Similar measures have been taken in other parts
of the Norther n and Eastern provinces. The restoration of peace and normalcy in
Sri Lanka through the full and faithful implementation of the Agreement remains
a cardina l objective of the Government of India.

India continued its quest for better relations with Pakistan.There was a meeting
between the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, and President Zia in New

(v)Delhi in February 1987, and between the Prime Ministers of India and Pakist
an in Kathmandu in November. Talks were held at Secretary level on matters
pertain- ing to maintaining tranquillity of the Indo-Pakistan border, preventing
traffic king in drugs and promoting economic cooperation and trade. Inspite of
India's genuine efforts to improve ties, Pakistan's response left much to be
desired.

The encouragement given by it to the Punjab terrorists, the use of its nuclear faci
lity for weapons production, its overarming with highly sophisticated weapons in-
cluding AWACS, unwarranted statements on Kashmir, and offensive military
actions in the Siachen area are some of the more glaring examples of this nega-
tive attitude, which cannot but jeopardise the process of normalisation outline d
during President Zia's visit to Delhi on Dec 17, 1985. India sought to strengthen
bilateral relations with Bangladesh. One significant step was the visit of Shri P. V.
Narasimha Rao, Minister for Human Resource Development to Bangladesh as the
Special Emissary of the Prime Minister of India in August. The problem of the
Chakma refugees in India was raised but no agreement has been reached
regarding their repatriation to Bangladesh.

The traditional ties of friendship and cooperation between India and Nepal were
nourished through increasing contacts at various levels. A highlight was the Prime
Minister's visit to Nepal in November for the SAARC Summit.

There were also several exchange of visits at Ministerial and official levels. India
continued to render assistance to Nepal in its socioeconomic development.

The meeting between the Prime Minister of India and His Majesty the King of
Bhutan during the SAARC meeting in Kathmandu provided an oppor- tunity to
further foster the close ties existing between the two countries. Ind ia continued
to help Bhutan in the industrial, economic, technical and educational fields. India
announced a relief assistance of Rs. 20 lakhs to the Government of the Maldives
to recover the loss, and to repair the damage, particularly to the international
airport at Male, caused by a tidal wave. Discussions were als o held on ways to
expand trade and industrial collaboration.

The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi and Shrimati Sonia Gandhi paid a visit to
Burma in December at the invitation of the Burmese Prime Minister. The meeting
between the Prime Minister and the Burmese leaders on matters of mutual
interest and benefit were marked by cordiality and is expected to raise
(vi) substantially the level of cooperation. During the visit of the Burmese Fore
ign Minister to India in September, Instruments of Ratification of-the Maritime
Boundary Agreement of 1986 were exchanged.

India has naturally taken active interest in developments with regard to
Afghanistan. The Soviet offer of withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan within a
limited time-frame and the steps taken by the People's Democratic Party of
Afghanistan to seek national reconciliation have brought about a quali - tative
change. in the situation. India maintained contacts with the various Afg han
elements, including those opposed to the Government, with a view to promoting
the objective of a peaceful, nonaligned and independent Afghanistan, free from
external interference or intervention.

Hopes of a negotiated settlement of the eight-year old Iran-Iraq war follow - ing
the passage of UN Security Council Resolution 598 have not been realised. India's
relations with Iran and Iraq, however, remain warm and cordial despite the
continuing conflict. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha led a Parliamentary delegation
to both countries in October and there were significant economic and commercial
exchanges with each. India's good offices continue to be avail-able to both the
antagonists to bring about a negotiated settlement. However, the escalation of
foreign naval presences in the Gulf has further exacerbated a n already
dangerous situation. India has consistently opposed the increase of naval
presences of outside powers in the Indian Ocean area and was disappointed over
the postponement of the proposed UN International Conference on the Indian
Ocean till 1990.

As pointed out by the Minister of State, Shri K. Natwar Singh, during the forty-
second Session of the UN General Assembly, the heightened military presence of
outside powers in the Indian Ocean is in confli ct with the UN Declaration in 1971
on making the Indian Ocean a Zone of Peace. India's traditionally close relations
with the Arab countries continued to grow on a basis of mutual interest. Support
for the UN proposed Inter- national Conference on the Middle East confirmed
India's commitment to the Palestinian cause. The visit of Chairman Arafat to India
and India's participa- tion in the Algiers Session of the Palestine National Council
reflected the conti- nuing close relations between India and the PLO. There were
meaningful ex- changes with Jordan, Syria and Egypt. India maintained very
good relations with the countries of the Maghreb region and, at the Twenty-fifth
Anniversary of Alg e- rian Independence in July, was represented by a high-level
delegation. With the opening of the Embassy of the Saharawi Arab Democratic
Republic (SADR) in Delhi, India's Ambassador to Algeria was concurrently
accredited to the SADR. With Libya and Tunisia, possibilities of further
cooperation in the industrial and economic fields were explored, More Indian
doctors, engineers and (vii) other personnel were recruited by Libya. Trade and
the presence of large numbers of Indian workers constituted the main links
between India and the six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council. It Was a
measure of the value of Indian Labour that, inspite of recessionary tendencies in
the Gulf, India was a ble to maintain her share in the Gulf labour market. There
has also been a growing desire of these countries to invest in India.

Relations with African countries continued to grow apace during the year. The
visits of the Angolan President, the Foreign Ministers of Uganda and of Ethiopia,
the Mauritian Minister of Health, the Nigerian Minister of Agri- culture and
Industries, and the Education Minister of Scychelles all served to enhance these
ties. The then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari, and the Minister for
Human Resource Development Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, visited Mauritius on the
occasion of the Presidential inauguration. India, alon g with the other member
states of the AFRICA Fund, sought to create an awareness about the Fund and
solicited active support for it. A special presentation on AFRICA Fund was made at
the meeting of the Association of West European Parliamentarians for Action
against Apartheid at Strasbourgh in May.

Indian Parliamentarians had visited a number of countries in this connection. A
Special Envoy of the Prime Minister of India visited some countries to mobilise
resources for the Africa Fund. At a meeting of senior officials of the Fund Com -
mittee held in Delhi in August, a number of donors and UN agencies were
present. India's cordial relations with the countries of South East Asia and the
Pacific area also continued to grow and was characterised by the exchange of
useful visits. Indian Ministers visited Brunei, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and
the Philippines. Within the framework of good political relations, important
discussions were held in the field of business and economic cooperation. A
Memorandum of Understanding between the Federation of Chambers of Com-
merce and Industries of Singapore and the Federation of the Indian Chambers of
Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and an agreement on the Avoidance of Double
Taxation with Indonesia, were some of the highlights of India's econo- mic
cooperation with the ASEAN Grouping. Indian trade exhibitions were held in Kuala
Lumpur and Singapore.

So far as the three Indo-China states were concerned, efforts were directed
towards finding a negotiated political settlement in Kampuchea with the
cooperation of all the opposing parties. The main thrust in this direction was to
reduce the gap in the perceptions between the ASEAN and the Indo- China states
and to foster a dialogue between the Kampuchean factions. A significant
breakthrough in the impasse was the opening of the dialogue between 344
EA/88--2
(viii) Prince Sihanouk and Prime Minister Hun Sen of Kampuchea. The visit of the
Minister of State Shri K. Natwar Singh, to the ASEAN countries in April 1987, and
to Indo-China in June-July 1987, helped pave the way for a serious attempt at a
negotiated settlement. India's cooperation with the two important countries of
the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand, continued to grow, especially in the
wake of the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi's visit to these countries in Oct ober
1986. With Australia, there was a Joint Business Council meeting in March 1987,
a senior officials' meeting in April and a visit by the Secretary in the Australian
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, in September. A Memoran- dum of
Understanding on Space Research was signed. The Joint Trade Com- mittee
between India and New Zealand had its first meeting in New Delhi in June.

The President of Vanuatu, Ati George Sokomanu, paid a goodwill visit in
December which served to strengthen the already friendly ties with this non-
aligned country in the South Pacific. India's traditional relations with Fiji, a
country in the South Pacific with a large number of ethnic Indians, suffered a set-
back following the milita ry coup there in May 1987. India was constrained to
express its deep concern over the overthrow of a democratically elected
Government and to condemn racial discrimination against ethnic Indians by the
military regime. Besides, I ndia has taken the position that any future viable
constitutional arrangement in Fij i should be equitable and acceptable to all
communities. As in the past, India conveyed to the Chinese Government its
desire to renew and revitalise its relations with the People's Republic of China.

The transit visits of Shri K. C. Pant, the then Minister for Steel and Mines to
Beijing in April 1987, and that of Shri N. D. Tiwari, the then Minister for External
Affairs in May, helped create a better atmosphere to carry forward the process of
dialogue especially on the Sino-Indian boundary issue. it was against this
background that the Eighth Round of official-level Sino-Indian tal ks were held in
New Delhi in November 1987. The talks were serious and positive.

Both sides felt that the border problem which had bedevilled mutual relations had
to be sorted out with patience. During the year, there were important ex-
changes between India and China in the fields of culture, science and technolo-
gy. A Sino-Indian trade protocol which was signed covering the period 1 January
1987 to 31 March 1988, envisages a trade exchange of US $ 150 to 200 million,
(ix) With Japan, there was an upswing in relations in the economic, com- mercial,
scientific and cultural fields. The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi tran- sited
through Tokyo in October 1987. The transit visit of the then Minister for External
Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari to Japan and the visits of the Japanese For eign Minister,
Mr. Kuranari, and of Prince Hiro, the son of the Crown Prince during 1987, helped
bring the two countries closer. There were increased contacts and exchanges at
the level of businessmen between the two countries.

Japan ranked as India's third largest trading partner and the highest donor of
Official Development Assistance (ODA). In the cultural field a Japan Month was
held in the metropolitan cities of India-an exposition of Japan's cultural life. A
Festival of India is scheduled to be held in Japan from April 1988.

Enhanced economic cooperation provided the underpinning to India's improving
relations with the Republic of Korea. The then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N.
D. Tiwari, paid an official visit when, besides his counterpar t, he called on the
President and the Prime Minister. There were significant ex- changes in the
economic, scientific and cultural fields between the two countri es.

India-Republic of Korea trade talks and a meeting of the Economic Cooperation
Committee were held in New Delhi. With the DPRK, the momentum of political
exchanges was sustained. Shri K. C. Pant, the then Minister for Steel and Mines,
led a delegation to the DPRK, as Special Envoy of the Prime Minister to attend the
Seventy-fifth Birth- day celebrations of President Kim Il Sung. This delegation
included Shri Eduard o Faleiro, the then Minister of State for External Affairs, and
Members of Parlia ment. The DPRK Vice-President had, in February 1987, visited
India for consul- tations for the Extraordinary Ministerial Conference of Non-
aligned Countries.

India participated in the film festival of Non-aligned countries held in Pyongy ang
in October 1987. The Prime Minister of DPRK paid an official visit to India in
February 1988. With Mongolia, the main highlight of relations was the visits of
the Governor of West Bengal, Prof. Nurul Hasan, and of a Mongolian
Parliamentary delegation to each other's countries. A cultural exchange
programme for 1987--89 was signed.

India's relations with Western Europe at the level of the European Community
and at the bilateral level with individual countries continued on an even keel. On
the political plane, there was a broad similarity of views on the need to reach
negotiated settlement of international problems. The EEC being the largest
trading bloc in the world, India continued to pursue vigorously her
(x) cooperation with the Community. The European Community is already a signi-
ficant trading partner of India. However, India has been having a deficit in th e
balance of trade with Western Europe and steps have been initiated to rectify the
imbalance.

India had made demarches to Western European countries regarding anti-Indian
activities being carried out from their soil and the response from
(x) cooperation with the Community. The European Community is already a signi-
ficant trading partner of India. However, India has been having a deficit in th e
balance of trade with Western Europe and steps have been initiated to rectify the
imbalance. India had made demarches to Western European countries regarding
anti-Indian activities being carried out from their soil and the response from
meetings of India's Joint Commissions with many of the East European countries
were held, the decisions of which gave a yet greater content to India's relatio ns
with these countries.

Indo-Yugoslav relations continued to be warm and cordial. There was close
cooperation relating to developments in the nonaligned world. Efforts are on to
increase technology transfer between the two countries and for industrial
cooperation in third countries. The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi paid a
working visit to Washington in October, after the Vancouver Summit. He had
wide-ranging discussions with President Reagan, senior US officials and important
members of the US Cong- ress. Areas of future bilateral cooperation were
identified which covered a wid e spectrum of fields and activities. The Minister of
State, Shri K.

Natwar Singh, had visited the USA in April 1987. The US decision to sell a
supercomputer to India was a measure of the confidence that had been built up
between the two countries. However, the US decision to waive its non-
proliferation laws in favour of Pakistan despite the evidence of that country's
clandestine weapon s- oriented nuclear programme was a cause for grave
concern. This has made more ominous the scale and sophistication of US military
assistance to Pakistan .

Indo-Canadian relations maintained a steady pace during the period under
review. There were significant exchange of visits between the two mem- bers of
the Commonwealth. The two Prime Ministers met during the Vancouver Summit
in October. Issues of bilateral and international significance were dis- cussed. The
Extradition Treaty signed by the two countries in February 1987, in New Delhi,
will have a salutary effect in combating extremism and terrorism aimed against
India.
(xii) As in the past, India's relations with the countries of Latin America and the
Caribbean were marked by warmth and cordiality. There were exchange of visits
and the signing of bilateral agreements. From India, Shri N. D. Tiwar i, the then
Minister for External Affairs, visited Trinidad and Tobago in March 1987. The then
Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, pa id an official visit to
Cuba and met President Castro, the Vice-President and the Foreign Minister. From
Latin America, the Uruguayan Foreign Minister and a Colombian Parliamentary
delegation were among the more important visitors.
India continued her support to the peace initiative of the Contadora Group and in
all international fora reiterated the call for a peaceful resoluti

on
of the crisis in Central America through dialogue and without outside inter-
ference. The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi congratulated Mr. Arias Sanchez,
the President of Costa Rica, on being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his
contribution to the Central American Peace efforts.

India sustained her efforts to create consensus within the Non-Aligned Movement
on major international issues and worked closely, with the other nonaligned
countries. She also emphasised the need for the Movement to play an
increasingly active role on global economic issues,particularly those con- cerning
the developing countries. She participated in the Extraordinary Ministe rial
Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-aligned Countries on Latin,
America and the Caribbean in Georgetown in Match 1987 and the Ministerial
Meeting of the NAM Committee of Nine on Palestine at Harare in April 1987, both
at the level of the Minister for External Affairs. India expressed her sol i- darity
with and support for the Contadora process by participating in a delega-tion of
the NAM Committee on Central America, to Managua and Caracas in August.

India continued to play a significant role in fostering greater coopera- tion among
the less developed countries themselves and in presenting common positions on
international economic issues in the UN and other organisations. She was an
active participant in the Extraordinary Ministerial Conference on South-South
Cooperation in Pyongyang in June. This meeting reviewed the implementation of
the existing programmes and ways to further such coopera-tion. At the forty-
second Session of the UN General Assembly, the developing nonaligned countries
took a common stand on important issues like external debt. While consensus of
the General Assembly on this issue could not be achieved it was possible to
secure consensus on the important issue of Environ- ment which was facilitated
by the efforts of the Indian delegation.
(xiii) In a climate in which the major developed countries paid less heed to
serious international negotiations in the UN on international economic problems ,
particularly on an issue like debt relief, India's main effort was to sustain t he
fundamental positions already achieved while working for progress in new areas.

As in the past, India actively supported all initiatives for enhancing cooperat ion
among the developing countries and participated in the Sixth Ministerial Meet- ing
of the Group of 77 in Havana in April 1987. The financial crisis facing the UN
engaged India's serious attention. India, along with other nonaligned countries
played an active role in getting a resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly
which requested the President of the General Assembly to keep under
consideration the possibility of recon- vening the forty-second Session of the
Assembly in 1988 to discuss the financia l situation facing the UN.

An appreciation of India's active and positive role in the UN was reflected in her
election to several UN bodies and international organisations. Among the more
important ones were the Economic and Social Council, the Committee for
Progress and Coordination, the Commission on Human Settle- ments and the
Executive Board of UNICEF. India's commitment to foster cooperation among the
developing countries was reflected, inter alia, in the enhanced bilateral exchange
program - mes with the developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America,
under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation programme (ITEC). The
monetary value of this assistance now stands at over Rs. 12 crores, starting from
a mode st outlay of Rs. 4.61 crores in 1964. India's economic and technical
assistance, for instance, to the Indo-China states was channelled through ITEC.
In Afghanistan, the ITEC programme covered fields such as public health, small-
scale industry and education. with the Overseas Indians and extended assistance
to them in consultation with the host country, in overcoming some of their
problems. Facilities for Non - Resident Indians (NRIs) to invest in India were
widely disseminated by Indian Missions abroad. The Ministry of External Affairs
also joined in sponsoring a Seminar to deal with the particular problems of NRIs
in the Gulf Region at which a number of their suggestions have been brought to
the notice of con- cerned Union and State Government Departments for
implementation.
(xiv) The External Publicity Division of the Ministry stepped up its projection of
information on India; various aspects of the country's foreign policy and th e
significant advances made in the fields of Indian agriculture, industry and sci
ence and technology. A particular form was provided by the continuing
celebrations of the Fortieth Anniversary of India's Independence. The Division
also sought to project the correct situation in sensitive areas like the Punjab and
Sri Lan ka. This was done through regular briefings of representatives of Indian
and foreig n press and television media and the despatch of literature through
Indian Missio ns abroad. Several foreign and Indian mediamen were taken to
Jaffna to witness the relief supplies given by India to Sri Lanka. This was
repeated later to wit - ness the surrender of arms by militant Tamil organisations.

Indian Missions abroad engaged actively in the Fortieth Anniversary celebrations
during the year in close cooperation with the Indian communities and friendship
societies and with the encouragement of host Governments. There has been a
positive response worldwide both in respect of these celebra- tions and in
preparation for marking the Jawaharlal Nehru Centenary in 1988-89. Dec 17,
1985
India's neighbours

CHAPTER I

INDIA'S NEIGHBOURS

During the year 1997-88 India sought to further develop relations of friend- ship,
cooperation and mutual understanding with its neighbours in South Asia. A major
step in this direction was the India-Sri Lanka Agreement signed by the Prime
Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi and President Jayewardene in Colombo on Jul 29,
1987. Although the Agreement has far-reaching benefits for all the parties
involved, the LTTE proved unwilling to make the transition from mili- tancy to
democratic means and set out to try and wreck the Agreement. This left the
Indian Peace Keeping Force with no choice but to move against the LTTE to
disarm them. But the Agreement has already resulted in substantial gains. Th e
Provincial Councils Act and the necessary constitutional amendments have been
passed to create the Provincial Councils and devolve substantial powers to them

. Over 3000 Tamil detenus have been released and nearly 10,000 Sri Lankan
refugees have returned to Sri Lanka from India. Efforts are now underway to
organise Provincial Council elections so that the aspirations of the Tamils can find
democratic expression. The Agreement thus meets the concerns of all the parties.
It preserves Sri Lanka's unity and integrity; recognises the historical habitation of
the Ta mils of Sri Lanka; provides for Tamil also as an official language of that
island an d secures for the Tamils, equal citizenship of that country. It safeguards
India' s strategic interests. It is an example of how two Non-aligned countries can
solv e major and complex problems bilaterally, without the involvement of
outside Powers.

The Government of India continued its efforts to maintain regular contact with
the Bangladesh Government and to strengthen friendly relations with Bangla -
desh. The Minister for Human Resource Development, Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao
visited Dhaka on 17 August 1987 as the Prime Minister's Special Emissary and
held extensive discussions with President Ershad on matters of mutual inter est.

344 EA/88--3 PG1

PG2
During this visit, the importance of Bangladesh taking urgent action to take back
the more than 49,000 Chakma refugees who had entered India from Bangladesh
after April 1986 was stressed. Unfortunately, despite the matter having been
raised with Bangladesh repeatedly, the problem continues unresolved and the
refugees are still in India unwilling to return without credible guarantees fro m
the Bangladesh Government about their safety. On the question of the sharing of
common river waters, the term of the Joint Committee of Experts engaged in
studying the subject was extended twice, first in May 1987 and then again in
November 1987.

India and Nepal continued to nurture their traditional and friendly rela- tions. The
Prime Minister visited Kathmandu in November 1987 for the SAARC Summit and
had wide-ranging and fruitful discussions with His Majesty the King of Nepal. The
King expressed great satisfaction at the growing under- standing between Nepal
and India. While transiting through Delhi, Prince Gyanendra called on the Prime
Minister in May 1987. After the External Affairs Minister's visit to Kathmandu in
January 1987 and the Nepalese Foreign Minister's visit to Delhi in June 1987 the
tradition o f frequent political consultations was further consolidated with the
Nepalese Foreign Minister transiting through Delhi twice in December 1987, in the
course of which, he called on the Prime Minister and had substantive discussions
with the Minister of State for External Affairs. The Nepalese Minister reiterated
appreciation for India's crucial assistance in Nepal's overall socioeconomic
development, and Nepal's commitment to further our multifaceted relationship.

A fresh fillip to the promotion of people-to-people relations and cooperatio n
among parliamentarians was given by the visit of an Indian Parliamentary dele-
gation to Nepal led by the Minister of State for Home Affairs (May-June 1987),
and a seventeen member Parliamentary delegation beaded by the Chairman of
the Rashtriya Panchayat to India (November 1987). The Nepalese delegation
called on the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister, the Speaker of the
Lo k Sabha anti the Minister for Parliamentary Affairs. Satisfaction was expressed
over the fact that our age-old historical and cultural ties have now been trans -
lated into a unique form of relationship where borders are free and trade barri ers
are minimal. The intensive Indo-Nepal economic collaboration received an added
dimen- sion with the signing of the Agreement on the setting up of the Indo-
Nepal Join t Commission in June 1987. This was a major breakthrough, since the
Agreement
PG3
covered virtually all aspects of our bilateral economic activity and brought all
inter-governmental bodies into the framework of the Joint Commission, thereby
enabling the effective monitoring and coordination of benefits accrued in diffe
rent sectors. A number of meetings covering fresh ground were held in the wake
of this Agreement, including the Committee on Inundation (May 1987), the Inter-
Governmental Committee on Trade, Transit and Unauthorised Trade (September
1987), the Karnali Committee (October 1987) and the Secretary level Water
Resources Committee (December 1987). It was also decided that the first
meetingof the Joint Commission would be convened in Kathmandu in the near
future. India's role as a leading partner in Nepal's socioeconomic development
con- tinued. Ongoing projects included the construction of a Museum Library-
cum- Documentation Centre at the Institute of Forestry in Hetauda, a Rural
Electrifi - cation Project to electrify 76 Nepalese villages and the construction of
214 km s.of the Western Sector of the East-West Highway adjoining the Indo-
Nepal border.

With the completion of the construction of the Out-patient Department of the Bir
Hospital with Indian aid and the sophisticated equipment provided by India, this
hospital has become a premier institution in the field of health care in Nepal. New
projects taken up included the setting up of a small-scale industria l estate at
Rajbiraj and Indo-Nepal telecommunications links through INSAT-IB. The
traditionally close and friendly relations between India and Bhutan were further
strengthened during the year. The SAARC Summit in Kathmandu (2 to 4
November 1987) offered an opportunity for discussions on subjects of mutual
interest at the highest level between His Majesty the King of Bhutan and the
Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. The discussions were marked by a close
identity of views and understanding of matters of mutual interest, reflec ting the
relationship of trust and cooperation that prevails between the two countri es. In
the economic field cooperation flourished. The most prestigious and by far the
largest project in Bhutan to-date is presently under execution with Ind ian
technical and financial cooperation. The 336 MW Chukha Hydro-Electric Pro- ject
costing approximately Rs. 244 crores had its first two turbines successful ly
commissioned in 1986. The third and fourth units are expected to be operational
shortly. As per the 1974 Chukha Agreement, the Government of India is
committed to the purchase of power surplus to Bhutan's internal requirements ,
Accordingly, parts of West Bengal and Assam have been receiving power from the
2 X 83 MW Units already commissioned and the Royal Government of Bhutan has
earned over Rs. 33.68 crores by selling power to India till the end of January
1988.
PG4
Discussions are underway to extend substantial financial assistance to Bhutan for
the implementation of Dungsum (Nanglam) Cement Project in Eastern Bhutan.
The 1500-tonne per day cement plant is estimated to cost over Rs. 130 crores
and the surplus cement production is to be purchased by India to meet the
demands in the North Eastern region. Discussions are also continuing on a
proposal to set up a 45 MW Hydro-Electric Project at Kurichu at an estimated cost
of over Rs. 100 crores. Economic cooperation continues during Bhutan's Sixth
Plan (1987-92).

Several mutually beneficial projects are either in an advanced stage of imple-
mention or are shortly to begin operations. The Khaling Mini Hydel Project (0.6
MW; Rs. 1.9 crores) was inaugurated by the Indian Ambassador to Bhutan in
March 1988. It has already started supplying power. The Gyetsa Mini Hydel
Project (1.5 MW; Rs. 3.84 crores) is expected to be completed by April 1988; the
Chukha Transmission Line Project (Rs. 18 crores) by mid-1988 and the River
Training Works at Dhoti Khola and Paro (Rs. 1.28 crores) by mid-1988. The
Taktichu Super Group Drop Project (Rs. 3.7 crores) and the Paro Airfield
Extension Project (over Rs. 6 crores) are expected to sta rt in early 1988. The
Broadcasting Station Project (Rs. 5.9 crores) is expected to be completed by
March 1989; the Bongaingaon-Gaylegphug Transmission Line Project (Rs. 8.55
crores) by December 1989 and the Thimpu-Paro Sub-Trans- mission and
Distribution Systems Project (Rs. 11.5 crores) by 1990.

Apart from the above, India provided experts and specialists to Bhutan in various
fields of forestry, industry, telecommunications, hydel-survey and education etc.
In education, India continues to offer opportunities for secondary as well as
higher education, for specialised training in various fields such as defence , police,
customs, medicine and engineering etc. Apart from the Government of India
scholarships to about 40 Bhutanese students, a large number of scholar- ships
were also provided under the Colombo Plan. Fruitful efforts were made to
strengthen bilateral cultural relations, Dele- gations from the Bhutan-Indian
Friendship Associations (BIFA), schools etc.

visited India during the year. Assistance was also provided by way of presenta-
tion of books and teaching aids etc. and ad hoc subsidies were also provided fo r
the repair of dzongs and monasteries. India continued to supply, at Bhutan's
request, certain essential commodi- ties such as wheat, rice, sugar, coal,
explosives, steel and edible oils at con trolled price.
PG5
tion of books and teaching aids etc. and ad hoc subsidies were also provided fo r
the repair of dzongs and monasteries. India continued to supply, at Bhutan's
request, certain essential commodi- ties such as wheat, rice, sugar, coal,
explosives, steel and edible oils at con trolled price.
PG5
The Burmese Foreign Minister U Ye Goung led a delegation to India from 12 to 17
September 1987. During the visit, Instruments of Ratification of the Maritime
Boundary Agreement, signed in Rangoon on 23 December 1986, were
exchanged. With this, the Indo-Burma Agreement on the Delimitation of the
Maritime Boundary has come into force.

The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi and Shrimati Sonia Gandhi paid a visit to
Burma or 15 and 16 December 1987 at the invitation of the Burmese Prime
Minister, U Maung Maung Kha. During the visit, our Prime Minister had extensive
meetings with U Ne Win, Chairman of the Burma Socialist Programme Party,
President U San Yu and also had a round of official talks with the Burmese Prime
Minister.

The talks centered around ways and means of expan- sion and further
consolidation of the existing friendly relations between the t wo countries. A
number of decisions were taken to give a fillip to bilateral relat ions between
India and Burma. The visit and meetings were marked by great cordiality and
understanding. During the visit, the Prime Minister visited the 2,500 year old
Shwedagon Pagoda and the tomb of Bahadur Shah Zafar. The Prime Minister also
returned to the people of Burma the palm leaf manuscripts containing the
despatches of the 19th century Burmese hero, General Mahabandoola, which
were brought by the British and kept in the Victoria Memorial, Calcutta for the
last 100 years.

India has maintained a continuous dialogue with Pakistan in order to improve
relations with that country. This is in keeping with our commitment to develop
cordial, cooperative and good-neighbourly relations with Pakistan in accordance
with the letter and spirit of the Simla Agreement. Apart from the PM-Zia Meeting
(New Delhi, 21 February 1987) and the PM-Junejo Meeting (Kathmandu, 4
November 1987), a number of impor- tant bilateral meetings were held during
the year. Pursuant to the first round of talks (New Delhi, 30 January to 4
February 1987), Shri A. S. Gonsalves, Secretary, Ministry of External Affairs, held
talks in Islamabad from 27 February to 4 March 1987 with the Pakistan Foreign
Secretary, Abdul Sattar on the defusion of border tension. The meeting resulted
in an agreement on de-escalation along the border.

As had been decided at the Home Secretary level talks in December 1986,
committees to evolve fresh Border Ground Rules and to deal with drug trafficking
and smuggling also met. Inspite of Pakistan's unwillingness to move towards
nondiscriminatory trade relations with India,
PG6
the meetings of Sub-Commissions I and II of the Indo-Pak Joint Commission,
dealing with economic cooperation and trade, were convened in August 1987,
followed in December 1987 by talks at the Planning Secretary and Commerce
Secretary level. Talks were also held in April 1987 to discuss other issues such as
the problems arising from the detention of fishermen and fishing vessel s by India
and Pakistan and the Tulbul Navigation Project.

Our sincere sentiments for good relations have not been reciprocated by
Pakistan, as is evident from a series of negative actions taken by it which hav e
initiated the atmosphere, adversely affecting our relations. These include its
weapons-oriented nuclear policy, its quest for sophisticated weapons like AWACS
far beyond its genuine defence requirements, its involvement with extremist
activities directed against India, its orchestrated and concerted efforts to in ter-
nationalize the Kashmir issue, its resorting to offensive military action in th e
Siachen area, its unwillingness to have non-discriminatory trade relations with
India and its reluctance to increase people-to-people contacts.

India took a careful note of developments concerning the Afghan situation.
During the year, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) initiated
the policy of national reconciliation under which it offered to share power with the
Afghan opposition both within and outside the country. Both the Soviet Union and
Afghanistan offered withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan in a period of
12 months or less provided this was accompanied by cessation of external
interference. India, as a country in the region, is deeply affected by the situation
in Afghanistan. Accordingly, we have initiated contacts with various Afghan
opposition elements and the countries involved in the Afghan situation in order to
help contribute towards a political solution. Our efforts are continuing. We are in
favour of a non-aligned, independent and stable Afghanistan.

India's bilateral relations with Afghanistan developed satisfactorily durin g the
year. President Najibullah made brief halts in New Delhi in December 1987 while
transiting through India en route to Vietnam and Kampuchea and back. This
opportunity was utilised for an exchange of views on matters of bilateral and
regional importance. Earlier, Foreign Minister Wakil had paid a visit to Delhi in
February 1987. The then External Affairs Minister, Shri N.D. Tiwari also visited
Kabul in May 1987 for attending the Eighth Session of the Indo-Afghan Joint
Commission on Economic, Technical and Trade matters.
PG7
India's ITEC programme in Afghanistan which is directed at benefit ing the
common man in areas such as public health, small-scale industry, education, etc.
was continued during the year under review. A major tidal wave hit the Maldives
in April 1987 causing extensive damage to property, especially to the
International Airport at Male. In res- ponse to a message from President Gayoom
to our Prime Minister requesting relief assistance and help in surveying the
damage to the Airport, the Prime Minister announced an assistance of Rs. 20
lakhs. Under this, 15 tonnes of bleaching powder and 48,000 doses of cholera
vaccine were rushed to the Maldives. A team from the International Airports
Authority of India also visited the Maldives from 18 to 20 April 1987 and their
report has been banded over to the Government of Maldives.

Relations with the Maldives continued to be close and cordial. In February 1987,
the Maldivian Trade Minister, Mr. Ilyas Ibrahim visited India along with a three-
member delegation to discuss ways and means of expanding trade and industrial
collaboration with India.

The Government remains firmly committed to the removal of the military
presence of extra-regional powers from the Indian Ocean and is concerned about
developments in the region which led to a build-up of foreign military forces. The
Government was therefore disappointed at the further postponement upto 1990,
of the deadline for convening an International Conference on the Indian Ocean as
a Zone of Peace under the aegis of the UN. SAARC experienced considerable
expansion in its activities during 1987- 88 alongside progress in the Integrated
Programme of Action in the eleven areas of cooperation (Agriculture, Prevention
of Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse, Health, Meteorology, Postal Services, Rural
Development, Science and Technology, Sports, Arts and Culture,
Telecommunications, Transport and Women in Development).

India handed over the Chairmanship to Nepal at the Third SAARC Summit in
Kathmandu in November 1987, at the end of a term during which almost 100
activities had been organised. Of these, India had hosted 45. The Summit
provided the occasion for a review of SAARC activities during 1987. The following
highlights of the Summit give an indica- tion of the work done in these areas
during the year :
PG8
1. SAARC Food Security Reserve (SFSR) Following extensive discussions at the
official level (initially under FAO auspices), the Council of Ministers which met in
New Delhi in June 1987 decided in principle to establish a SAARC Food Security
Reserve, by which member countries could draw on food stocks in the event of an
emergency.

The Agreement establishing the SFSR was signed at the Third SAARC Summit.
The Agreement is a landmark in regional cooperation. This is the first time that
countries of the region have decided to pool their resources to help one another
in an emergency.
2. Environmental Matters At India's initiative, a seminar on disaster relief
management was held in 1987 to consider the most fruitful ways of cooperating
in this area. At the Third SAARC Summit, the leaders decided to commission a
study on the causes and consequences of natural disasters and the protection
and preservation of the environment in the context of recurrent national disasters
in the region. The Secretary-General has been entrusted with the task of having
the study conducted.
3.Terrorism The Dhaka Summit had decided that SAARC should examine the
prob- lem of terrorism as it affected the region, with a view to cooperating in
combating this scourge. Following preliminary work at two meet- ings in Dhaka in
1986, a Group of Experts met in New Delhi in March 1987 and succeeded in
identifying offences which are to be regarded as terroristic, and which, for
purposes of extradition, are not to be regarded as political. There was also
agreement on action re- quired at the national, bilateral and regional levels such
as accession to existing international conventions, harmonisation of domestic
legislation, and exchange of information and expertise.

The Council of Ministers decided to concretise these efforts with the drafting of a
Regional Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, which was signed at the
Third SAARC Summit.
4. Expansion of Activities for People-to-People Contact Five new ideas approved
by the Heads of State or Government at the Bangalore Summit, to promote
people-to-people contact in SAARC
PG9
countries, were translated into full-fledged schemes. One of them, the SAARC
Audio-Visual Exchange (SAVE) was launched on 2 Novem- ber 1987, to coincide
with the opening of the Third SAARC Summit. Under this scheme, a television and
a radio programme from each of the member countries, by rotation, will be
broadcast throughout the region on the 1st and 15th of each month respectively.
Organised tourism, with facilities for limited convertibility of national currencies,
is to be launched by 1 July 1988. The scheme for SAARC Chairs
Fellowships/Scholarships is to begin from the academic year 1988.

India is to host a meeting of the Documentation Experts Committee in March
1988 in connection with the establishment of the SAARC Documentation Centre.
Arrangements are also being made for the launching of the SAARC Youth
Volunteers Programme.
5. Planning A second meeting of SAARC Planners took place in Islamabad in
October 1987 in pursuance of a decision of the Bangalore Summit (the first
meeting had been held in New Delhi in 1983). The meeting of Plan- ners is now
to take place annually. Based on the recommendations of the group, studies are
to be initiated in the following areas--analysis of trade regimes vis-a-vis industrial
protection policies of member countries, quantification of the benefits of intra-
regional trade expan- sion and establishment of a mechanism for financing short
duration trade imbalances, joint ventures and national systems of industrial
promotion and regulation.

A data bank on socioeconomic indicators of member countries is to be established
according to a format to be devised by the Documentation Expert Committee at
its first meeting.

As a follow-up to another recommendation of the Planners' meeting, India is to
host a meeting of experts in the field of developing energy mode!- ling
techniques. SAARC adopted uniform guidelines for the sharing of institutional
costs of regional institutions, and for other administrative and budgetary
procedures in this connection, at a meeting held in Kathmandu in May 1987.
Regional institutions are to be established in association with national institutions,
as far as possible, to save on capital expenditure, the guiding parameters for
their establishment being economy and efficiency.
PG10
Member: countries have agreed to establish a SAARC Meteorological Research
Centre and a SAARC Agricultural Information Centre in India and Bangladesh
respectively. The possibility of setting up regional institution in a few other areas
is also being considered.

Administrative and financial decisions regarding the SAARC Secretariat enabled it
to become fully functional during the year. India contributed a terracotta mural
from Rajasthan to the SAARC Secretariat for the Conference Hall. The third
session of the Council of Ministers took place as scheduled in New Delhi in June
1987 and was preceded by the eighth session of the Standing Committee and the
third session of the Programming Committee. All the three bodies met again in
Kathmandu prior to the Third Summit. India has announced a contribution of Rs.
17.5 million towards SAARC.

activities for the year 1988-89. India looks forward to further progress in the
growth of regional cooperation as envisaged by the SAARC Charter.
PG11
Jul 29, 1987
South-East Asia

CHAPTER II

SOUTH-EAST ASIA

India's friendly relations with the countries in the South-East Asian region
continue to progress smoothly. The mutual desire to further develop and diversify
bilateral cooperation, which found particular expression during the visit of the
Prime Minister of India to some of the countries in the region in October 1986 has
been further manifested in the form of increased high-level exchanges and
broadened interaction in economic, commercial and other areas.

The Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri K. Natwar Singh, visited Brunei,
Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore during March 1987 and the Philippines during
April 1987 and had a useful exchange of views on various matters of bilateral
interst and regional issues.

Mr. Daim Zainuddin, Minister of Finance, and Dr. Lin Keng Yark, Minister of
Primary Industries of Malaysia, visited India from 28 November to Dec 04, 1987,
and had discussions with Shri N. D. Tiwari, Minister of Finance and Commerce, on
possibilities of stepping up the India-Malaysia trade and reducing the trade
imbalance which continues to be in Malaysia's favour.

A delegation from the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
(FICCI) visited Malaysia in April 1987 and later in July 1987 for the first meeting
of the India-Malaysia Joint Business Cooperation Committee. An exclusive Indian
Trade Exhibition was organised in Kuala Lumpur from 14 to 23 January 1988.
The Minister of State for Commerce, Shri P. R. Das Munshi, visited Singapore to
inaugurate the Indian Trade Exhibition which was organised by the Trade Fair
Authority of India from 6 to 12 April 1987. A trade delegation from the Singapore
Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry, visited
PG12
India during April-May 1987 and signed a Memorandum of Understanding with
the Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).

An agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation with the Republic of Indonesia
was signed in Jakarta on 7 August 1987. A delegation of experts from Indonesia
visited India during December 1987 to discuss possible areas of cooperation in
the field of science and technology. An Agreement on Scientific and Technological
Cooperation with the Republic of Phillippines was signed on 8 April 1987 in Manila
during the visit of tie Minister of State or External Affairs, Shri K. Natwar Singh.
India's relations with the three Indo-China states remain extremely cordial.

India's efforts have been directed towards finding a peaceful, negotiated, poli tical
settlement in Kampuchea, involving all the concerned parties. The visit of Shri K.
Natwar Singh, the Minister of State for External Affairs, to the ASEAN and the
Indo-China states in April-May and June-July 1987 respectively, created a better
understanding between the ASEAN and the Indo-China states, and fostered a
dialogue between the Kampuchean factions. India has supported and helped to
foster the dialogue between Prince Sihanouk and Prime Minister Hun Sen of the
People's Republic of Kampuchea. It has been seen as a break- through in the
nine-year impasse and although interrupted, has started a proces s towards a
possible settlement.

India's economic and technical assistance to the Indo-China region con- tinued to
be channelled through the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC)
programme. Training in fields such as science and technology, management,
agriculture, fisheries, cinematography, forestry, space studies, atomic energy,
animal husbandry, classical dance and music, etc. under the ITEC and other
programmes were provided to the nominees from the Indo- China countries.
Indian experts were also deputed to these countries.

Credits, commodity loans and grant assistance were made available to Vietnam.
The various decisions of the Second Indo-Vietnamese Joint Commis- sion
(November 1985), were implemented during the year under review. Science and
Technology delegations have been exchanged and a working programme has
been finalised. The Indo-Vietnamese Treaty for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses
of Atomic Energy has been ratified and the programme for
PG13
cooperation has been finalised. An Indian telecommunication delegation visit ed
Vietnam and identified areas of cooperation. Two research centres, one in anima l
husbandry and forage, and the other in rice under the ITEC programme, are
functioning smoothly.

In Kampuchea, the Archaeological Survey of India commenced work on Phase II
of the Angkor Vat Restoration. The project is financed under the ITEC
programme. The Kampuchean authorities have appreciated India's assistance.
The hospital at Svey Rieng is also being renovated with Indian assistance, and
Indian doctors are being deputed to run the hospital. In collaboration with the
Kampuchean Government, India is processing the establishment of a rice seed
farm. Pumps for drought relief are being supplied to Kampuchea.

The Government of India gifted 55 pumps to Laos. India has been participating in
the Interim Mekong Projects with Laos as the target country. Relief medicines and
cloth are being supplied. India has pledged to establish one small-scale unit in
Laos. The friendly bilateral relations with the countries of the South Pacific, ex
cept for the regrettable exception of Fiji, continued throughout the year under
revi ew.

The Prime Minister's visits to Australia and New Zealand in October 1986 had
given the necessary impetus to the strengthening of bilateral relations with th ese
countries. Follow-up to the visit to Australia continued in the form of a meeti ng
of the Joint Business Council in March 1987, a senior officials' meeting in April
1987, and a visit by the Secretary in the Australian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and
Trade in September 1987. The last two meetings in particular aimed at reviewing,
monitoring and directing bilateral relations. India and Australia signed, during the
year under review, a Memorandum of Understanding on Space research. Progress
was also made on the conclusion of another Memorandum of Understanding on
cooperation in meteorology.

Business delegations were exchanged to step up trade and economic interaction.
The India-New Zealand Joint Trade Committee had its first meeting in June, 1987
in New Delhi.
PG14
The President of Vanuatu, Ati George Sokomanu, paid a goodwill, visit to India
from 13 to 16 December 1987.

Fiji was the only country in the South Pacific with which India's relations suffered
a set-back following a coup there on 14 May 1987. In the wake of the coup, a
systematic campaign was launched to deprive the Indian community in Fiji of its
guaranteed constitutional rights. The discrimination was being made solely on the
basis of the racial origin of the community. Moves were also afoot to change the
existing Constitution which had given the Indians a modicum of fair treatment
and parity. India expressed its deep concern at the overthrow of the
democratically elected popular government in Fiji.

India also condemned the racial overtone of the actions of the military regime in
Fij i at international forums like the United Nations General Assembly and the
Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting. India suspended bilateral trade
and economic cooperation with Fiji and India's High Commissioner to Fiji was
recalled for consultations. India has taken the position that any future
constitutional arrangements in Fiji, to be viable and effective, would have to be
fair and acceptable to all the communities there.

India offered cyclone relief worth Rs. 5 lakhs each to Fiji and Vanuatu.
PG15
Dec 04, 1987
East Asia

CHAPTER III
EAST ASIA

During the year under review, the Government's desire to renew and revitalise
relations with China and to build a climate of mutual trust between India and
China, was conveyed to the Chinese Government. Our Government's intention to
continue to make sincere efforts to reach a satisfactory and mutua lly acceptable
settlement of the boundary question was also emphasized. It was stressed that
good relations between India and China are important, not just for both
countries, but for Asia and for world peace. The transit visit of the then Minister
for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwa ri to beijing in May 1987, was a further
indication of the Government's desire to defuse tension on the border with China.
There was a better understanding of each other's positions as a result of the visit.
It was stressed that a new beg inning should be made to dispel any
misunderstanding and suspicions of the past. The Eighth Round of Official-Level
Talks between India and China was held in New Delhi from 15 to Nov 17, 1987.

The talks were held in a positive, and constructive atmosphere. The
Government's desire to reach a satisfactory boundary settlement, to maintain
peace and tranquillity on the bor der and to make progress in other spheres of
bilateral relations was conveyed to the Chinese delegation. It was recognised that
the border question is one which is deeply embedded in the psyche of both
peoples and that it will have to be tackled with patience and care.

The year under review witnessed a number of exchanges between the two
countries under the annual Cultural Exchange and Science and Technology
Exchange Programmes. A four-member delegation of scholars in Religion and
Philosophy visited China in May 1987. A Radio and Television delegation from
India visited China in April-May 1987. An Exhibition of Chinese Oil Paintings was
held in New Delhi in June 1987. Under the Scholarship Ex- change Scheme, which
forms a part of the Cultural Exchange Programme between India and China, 9
students from each country are studying in the other currently.

In the field of science and technology, an Indian delegation visited China in April
1987, to study the computer industry. Chinese delegations also visited India to
study the large-scale Construction Programme of Housing, the Design and
Construction of High Earth Rock Dams, Plasma Physics and Laser Techno-logy
PG16
and Instrumentation. Outside the Science and Technology Exchange Programme,
there was an exchange of scientists from the Indian National Science Academy
(INSA) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Exchanges between the Indian
Council for Social Science Research (ICSSR) and the Chinese Academy of Social
Sciences (CASS) were also pursued.

The Chinese Minister for Mineral Resources and Geology, Mr. Zhu Xun visited
India from 9 to 20 January 1988 at the invitation of the Minister of Steel and
Mines, Shri M. L. Fotedar. Both sides expressed their desire to explore the
possibilities of mutually beneficial cooperation in the mineral sec tor and briefed
each other on the experiences gained in both countries in the field of mineral
exploration and development. The delegation also visited organi- sations dealing
with geological surveys, exploration, public sector production enterprises for
ferrous and non-ferrous minerals and metals with a view to gaining knowledge of
India's progress and development in the mineral sector. A Trade Protocol
covering the period from 1 January 1987 to 31 March 1988, was signed between
the two countries in Beijing in May 1987. The Protocol envisages a total trade
turnover of US $ 150 to 200 million in this period. The President of the China
Council for the Promotion of International Trade, Mr. Jia Shi, also visited India
during March 1987, at the invitation of the Federation of the Indian Chambers of
Commerce and Industry (FICCI).

A five-member Chinese delegation led by Mr. Lin Huaxuan, Secretary- General of
the International Liaison Department of the Communist Party of China, attended
the Asian Relations Commemorative Conference in New Delhi, in October 1987.

Shri K. C. Pant, the then Minister for Steel and Mines, transited through Beijing in
April 1987, on his return from Pyongyang, where he had attended the Seventy-
fifth Birth Anniversary Celebrations of the President of the Demo- cratic People's
Republic of Korea, Kim Il Sung.
PG17
With Japan, the trend of cooperative and friendly relations which had received a
new impetus since the visit of our Prime Minister to Japan in 1985,continued with
greater exchanges in the economic, commercial, cultural, scienti fic and
technology fields between the two countries.

The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi met Prime Minister Nakasone of Japan in
October 1987 when he transited through Tokyo on his way to the Commonwealth
Heads of Government Meeting in Vancouver, Canada. Besides bilateral matters,
international matters of mutual interest were also discussed . The Japanese
Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr. T. Kuranari paid an official visit to India in August
1987. Discussions on various bilateral matters were he ld between Shri K. Natwar
Singh, Minister of State for External Affairs and Mr.

Kuranari. Mr. Kuranari also called on the President, the Prime Minister and the
Finance Minister. The bilateral discussions comprehensively covered the areas of
mutual interest and reflected the mutual recognition of the important roles of
both countries in the Asian and global context. Other important visito rs from
Japan included Prince Hiro, the son of the Crown Prince and Princess of Japan in
March 1987 and Mr. Y. Sakurauchi, former Foreign Minister and the President of
the India-Japan Association in August 1987. Several members of Parliament and
State legislatures also visited Japan during the year.

The Mayor of Hiroshima participated in the Asian Relations Commemorative Con-
ference in New Delhi in October 1987.

From Japan there was an increase in the visit of official delegations as also
delegations from various private companies. There was also an increase in tourist
traffic. Japan in March 1987 and Mr. Y. Sakurauchi, former Foreign Minister and
the President of the India-Japan Association in August 1987. Several members of
Parliament and State legislatures also visited Japan during the year. The Mayor of
Hiroshima participated in the Asian Relations Commemorative Con- ference in
New Delhi in October 1987.

From Japan there was an increase in the visit of official delegations as also
delegations from various private companies. There was also an increase in tourist
traffic. Japan became the largest donor to India of the Official Development Assis-
tance (ODA) on a bilateral basis in 1987. An ODA loan of Yen 68.447 billion was
announced in August 1987 marking an increase of about 41% over the ODA loan
of Yen 48.443 billion in the previous year. In October 1987, Japan announced an
additional loan of Yen 29.5 billion for drought relief assistance. India-Japan trade
continued to reflect Japan's position as India's third largest trading partner
though the trade volume remained low in the context of Japan's global trade.
Indian exports showed a slight upward trend and effort s to enhance our exports
in the face of the 7% increase in the value of the Yen were made. Exports of
manufactured items like ready-made garments, gems and jewellery, chemicals
and leather products registered a steady increase. The 344 EA/88--5
PG18
India-Japan bilateral trade talks were held in New Delhi in November 1987 and
the possibilities of increasing and diversifying Indian exports were furthe r
discussed. The Twentieth Joint Meeting of the India-Japan Business Coopera- tion
Committee took place in Tokyo in December 1987 and measures to promote
trade, investment, joint ventures and other collaborations between the Indian
and Japanese companies were further discussed. A Japanese Investment Survey
Mission including representatives of various Japanese companies visited India in
January 1988 to evaluate the current economic policies in India and the inve st-
ment environment. Several Indian delegations, both official and non-official ha ve
visited Japan to discuss enhanced economic, commercial and related coopera-
tion.

During the year under review, specific proposals for cooperation and interaction
in the field of science and technology were exchanged and efforts to implement
the decisions of. the Joint Committee under the Agreement on Cooperation in the
field of science and technology were continued.

The Japan Month was held in the metropolitan cities of India in October-
November 1987. The Month included a variety of cultural items and was the
largest ever exposition of Japan's culture in India. The Month was held in pursuit
of a decistheir meeting in November 1985 to enhance cultural exchanges. The
Festival of India in Japan is scheduled to be inaugurated in April 1988.

Preparations for this Festival continued during the year under review to ensure
that a variety of cultural items are presented during the six-month long festival in
Japan next year.

The Fortieth Anniversary of India's Independence was celebrated in Tokyo. An
Indian Naval ship INS Ganga paid a goodwill visit to Japan coinciding with these
celebrations. Japan also invited Indian youth as part of several ongoing exchange
programmes. A Japanese Maritime Safety Agency ship Chikuzen visited Madras in
November 1987.

An Indian agricultural scientist, Dr. G. S. Khush was awarded the Japan Prize,
alongwith two other scientists, for his research on rice strains and their
contribution to agricultural development in Asia.
PG19
India's relations with both the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) continued to reflect improvements in our
political dialogue and greater avenues for economic cooperation. Shri N. D.
Tiwari, the then Minister for External Affairs paid an official visit to the Republic of
Korea in May 1987. Besides holding talks on mattersof bilateral and international
concern with the Foreign Minister of the ROK, Shri Tiwari also called on the ROK
President and Prime Minister. Mr. Kyong Shik Kang, Chairman of the Office of
Policy Coordination of the Ruling Demo-cratic Justice Party, visited India in April
1987 as a Special Envoy of the ROK President. He paid a courtesy call on the
Vice-President and the Prime Minister and also held discussions with the Minister
for External Affairs. During his visit he invited a delegation of Indian economic
experts to the ROK. The Prime Minister deputed Dr. Y. K. Alagh, Member,
Planning Commission and Secretary, Industrial Development to visit the ROK in
September 1987 to study the econo- mic development of the country.

On the economic side, efforts were made to enhance the economic content of our
bilateral relationship with the ROK. India-ROK bilateral trade talks were held in
September 1987 and the need to enhance our trade Was mutually recognised.
The ROK side agreed to send a buying Mission to India at an early date to identify
new products of trade interest and to enhance availability of information on
Indian products. The India-ROK Economic Cooperation Committee also met in
New Delhi in September and provided a forum for exchange of views between the
private sectors. A six-member Parliamentary delegation from the Republic of
Korea paid a visit to India in April 1987. During the visit they called on the Vice-
Presid ent, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the then Minister for External Affairs
and other dignitaries.

A five-member Science and Technology delegation from India led by the
Secretary, Department of Science and Technology visited the ROK in April 1987
to further discuss cooperation and collaboration in various identified areas. The
Chief Justice, Shri R. S. Pathak visited Seoul for the Thirteenth Conference on the
Law of the World. Justice Nagendra Singh had also visited Seoul during the year.

The Cultural Exchange Programme for the year 1987-88 was discussed and
agreed upon during the visit of an Indian delegation to Seoul in April 1987.
PG20
Various other Indian delegations for international conferences- also visited the
Republic of Korea during the year. A team from the National Defence College of
the ROK visited India in October 1987 following the visit of an Indian team last
year.

The momentum of high-level political exchanges was maintained with the DPRK
during the year. Shri K. C. Pant, the then Minister for Steel and Mines led a
delegation as Special Envoy of the Prime Minister to the Seventy-fifth Bi rth- day
Celebrations of President Kim Il Sung. The delegation included Shri Eduardo
Faleiro, the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Bhuvnesh Chatur- vedi
and Shri M. C. Bhandare, Members of Parliament.

The Indian delegation met with President Kim Il Sung. The DPRK Vice Premier
and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Kim Yong Nam visited India in February 1987,
for consultations for the Extraordinary Ministerial Conference of Non-aligned
Countries on South- South, Cooperation which was held in Pyongyang in June
1987. The then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari visited Pyongyang
for the Con- ference and also held bilateral discussions on various subjects of
mutual concern with President Kim Il Sung.

The DPRK Prime Minister attended a public rally on the occasion of the Fortieth
Anniversary of India's Independence in Pyongyang, on which occasion a Festival
of Indian Films was also held.
The Cultural Exchange Programme was signed between India and the DPRK in
March 1987 at New Delhi for the year 1987-88. India participated in the first film
festival of Non-aligned countries held in Pyongyang in October 1987.

Mr. Li Gun Mo, the Prime Minister of the Administration Council of the DPRK
visited India from 18 to 21 February 1988. This was the first ever visit by a North
Korean Prime Minister and was preceded by an economic delegation.
The visit emphasised the friendly relations between our two Non-aligned countri
es and efforts to enhance bilateral economic relations were also made.

An Indian delegation led by Prof. Nurul Hasan, Governor of West Bengal, visited
Mongolia on the occasion of the Mongolian National Day in July 1987. Besides
holding discussions with the Mongolian Foreign Minister, Prof. Hasan also called
on Mr. Batmunkh, the Head of State of Mongolia. In April 1987, a three-member
Mongolian Parliamentary delegation led by Mr. B. Altangeral,
PG21
the then Chairman of the Great People's Khural, visited India and was received by
the Vice-President, the Prime Minister and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

Both these visits were greatly appreciated by the Mongolian leadership and serv
ed to maintain the momentum of exchanges between our two countries.

A Cultural Exchange Programme for 1987-89 was signed in August 1987 between
India and the Mongolian People's Republic. The Health Protocol was also renewed
for a further period of three years. A documentary film on Mongoli a, which was
jointly produced by India and Mongolia with Indian assistance under the ITEC
Programme, was successfully completed and the film was presented to the
Government of Mongolia in November 1987. Efforts to further enhance cultural,
scientific, agricultural and health exchanges were maintained during the year
under review.
PG22
Nov 17, 1987
West Asia And North Africa

CHAPTER IV

WEST ASIA AND NORTH AFRICA
India's relations in the political, economic and cultural fields with the countries of
the West Asia and North Africa region were further consolidated and diversified
during the year under review. India persisted with its policy of firm and
unequivocal support for the Palestinian cause. It has lent active support in all
relevant international for a such as the UN and NAM to efforts for a
comprehensive, just and equitable settlementof the Palestinian problem including
the proposal for a UN sponsored Inter- national Conference on the Middle East.
The visit of Mr. Yasser Arafat, Chair- man of the PLO, in August 1987 underscored
the strong ties between India and the Palestinian people. Shri B. Shankaranand,
the then Minister for Water Resources, had earlier represented India at the
Algiers session of the Palestin e National Council in April 1987. A close political
dialogue was maintained with Jordan and efforts to enhance bilateral economic
cooperation continued. The Indo-Jordanian Committee on Trade and Commerce
met in New Delhi in March 1987 to give a further boost to bilateral trade and
commercial relations.
Our relations with Syria also continued to strengthen. The Minister of State for
Agriculture visited Syria in May 1987 to discuss possibilities of increased bilateral
interaction in the field of agriculture. The Syrian Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Mr. Diaullah Al Fattal visited India in January 1988 for con- sultations.
Discussions were held on bilateral relations as well as regional an d international
issues of common interest.


The growing warmth in Judo-Egyptian relations continued during the year with
renewed interest in bilateral cooperation in various fields. Regular high- level
exchanges on various matters of regional and bilateral interest also took place.
An Egyptian Parliamentary delegation visited India in October 1987. Our Minister
of State for Health led a delegation to Cairo on a study tour in June 1987. A
number of proposals for cooperation in science and technology, agriculture,
energy, industry and trade with Egypt are under active considerati on.

Our relations with the three States in the Horn of Africa viz. Djibouti, Sudan and
Somalia continued to remain steady. In the Maghreb region we continued with
our close cooperation and con- sultations with Algeria, India was represented by
a high-level delegation led b y Shrimati Mohsina Kidwai, Minister for Urban
Development, at the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of Algerian Independence in July
1987. Shri B. Shankaranand, the then Minister for Water Resources, visited
Algeria in April 1987 to discuss pos si- bilities of Indo-Algerian cooperation in the
field of hydraulics. Further, duri ng the official visit of Dr. Ahmed Taleb Ibrahimi,
Foreign Minister of Algeria in January 1988, wide-ranging discussions were held
on bilateral relations and int er- national issues of mutual interest. With Tunisia
too, there were encouraging prospects of development of cooperation in the
industrial and economic fields.

Relations with Libya continued to be good and efforts to solve the problem of
outstanding payments to Indian companies continued. An ever-increasing number
of Indian doctors, engineers and other personnel were recruited for services in
various sectors of the Libyan economy. Following the opening of the Embassy of
the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic in Delhi, our Ambassador to Algeria has
been concurrently accredited to the SADR. Relief items worth several lakhs were
despatched to the Saharawi Red Cross Society during the year.

Relations between India and the six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council,
namely, Saudi. Arabia, the UAE, Kuwait Bahrain, Qatar and Oman continued to be
cordial during the year under review, These relations are chara c- terised by in
important economic dimension. Bilateral trade with the Gulf countries continued
to increase during the year. The presence of over 7 lakh Indian workers whose
services are valued constitutes a major link between India and these countries.
Despite recessionary tendencies owing to the fall in off p rices it was possible,
through our efforts, to maintain India's share in the Gulf lab our market. Indian
Missions which now have full-fledged officers looking after labo ur


work continued to provide necessary consular assistance to Indian, emigrant s in
these countries. During the year, these countries have shown greater interest in
investing in India. The Indo-OAPEC Seminar held in New Delhi in February 1987
and the Gulf Organisation for Industrial Consultancy (GOIC) Seminar held in Doha
in May 1987 provided investors from the Gulf countries a better understanding
about investment opportunities in India. The process of persuading the Gulf
countries about the advantages of investing in India is continuing.

A Special Envoy of the Amir of Kuwait visited New Delhi in June 1987 with a
message from the Amir for our Prime Minister relating to escalation of the conflict
in the Gulf. A direct telephone link between the UAE and India has been
established with the inauguration of the tele-link by the Minister of
Communications.

Relations with Iran have continued to grow. There were several exchanges of
visits between the two countries during the year. In February 1987 the Fourt h
session of the Indo-Iran Joint Commission was held in New Delhi. In October an
Indian Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha visited Iran.
In December the Iranian Minister of Heavy Industries visited India for discussions
on new areas of industrial cooperation. The Fifth session of the Indo-Iran Joint
Commission is due to be held in Tehran in the near future.

Relations with Iraq have been warm and cordial. An Indian Parliamentary
delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha visited Baghdad in October 1987.
An Iraqi Parliamentary delegation is due to visit in April 1988. India participated
in the Annual Baghdad International Trade Fair. A deferred pay- ment
arrangement with Iraq to settle outstanding payments due to Indian com- panies
has been working satisfactorily.

The Iran-Iraq war which has entered its eighth year continues with little apparent
prospect of a negotiated settlement. While the UN Security Council


Resolution 598 has been broadly supported its implementation is fraught with
difficulty. The already tense situation in the region was seriously aggravated
during 1987 by the escalation of foreign naval presence in the Gulf. India has
expressed concern over this enhancement of tension in a region neighbouring our
country. India has been in touch with both Iraq and Iran on the war. The Principal
Adviser to the Iranian President visited India and met the Prime Minister in
January 1987 to brief him on the Iranian position on the war. In February 1987
the Iranian Foreign Minister who was in Delhi in connection with the Joint
Commission meeting also put across Iran's perspective on the war. There were
further exchanges of views between the two sides during Secretary (West)'s visit
to Tehran in August 1987 and the Iranian Foreign Minister Velayati's visit to New
Delhi in November 1987.

Relations with the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) and the People's Demo- cratic
Republic of Yemen (PDRY) were consolidated during 1987. H. E. Dr. Yassin Saeed
Noman, Politburo Member and Prime Minister of the PDRY, made a halt in India
en route to Beijing from 11 to Mar 12, 1987. He had a fruitful exchange of views
with our Prime Minister on bilateral, regional and international matters.

A gift consignment of medicines worth Rs. 7.5 lakhs was given to the PDRY in
early 1987. India was represented in the YAR at the Silver Jubilee Celebrations of
the 'Twenty-sixth September Revolution" by Shri Bhagwat Jha Azad, M.P.

The first Indo-YAR Joint Commission meeting will be held in the near future.
Industrial, technical, agricultural, commercial and medical cooperation are some
of the major areas to be discussed at the meeting. This meeting would facilitate a
wider participation of Indian companies in the YAR's development.

344 EA/88--6


The second meeting of the Indo-Qatar Joint Committee meeting was held in Doha
in January 1988. The fifth meeting of the Indo-UAE Joint Commission and the
eleventh meeting of the Indo-Iraq Joint Commission are scheduled to be held in
the near future.

Mar 12, 1987
Africa (South Of The Sahara)

CHAPTER V

AFRICA (SOUTH OF THE SAHARA)
With the countries of Africa (South of the Sahara), India's relations conti- nued to
grow satisfactorily. Significant efforts were made to strengthen India' s links with
the Frontline States and Liberation Movements in South Africa. India continued to
play a major role in the struggle waged in Southern Africa for dis - mantlement of
the abhorrent system of apartheid and the abolition of the last vestige of
colonialism in that part of the world.

Shri Anand Sharma, MP, the then President of the Indian Youth Congress,
attended the International Conference on "Repression and the Law in Apartheid in
South Africa" in Harare from 24 to Sep 27, 1987. In June 1987, in New Delhi, an
African Festival was organised and Africa Day was celebrated. At the Meeting of
the Commonwealth Heads of Government, held in Van- couver in October 1987,
India succeeded in frustrating attempts at diluting man - datory comprehensive
sanctions against the Pretoria regime. A consensus for CHAPTER V At the Meeting
of the Commonwealth Heads of Government, held in Van- couver in October
1987, India succeeded in frustrating attempts at diluting man - datory
comprehensive sanctions against the Pretoria regime. A consensus for continuing
the sanctions remained solid.

India participated in the "Solidarity Conference" organised by the African National
Congress (ANC) in Tanzania from 1 to 4 December 1987 to celebrate its Seventy-
fifth Anniversary. The Indian delegation was led by the Minister of State for
Commerce, Shri P. R. Das Munshi. The Ministry of External Affairs provided
interpreters and supplied stationery for use during the conference.

The AFRICA Fund, established at the Eighth Conference of the Heads of State
Government of Non-aligned countries, has had an active year Following the


Summit meeting of the AFRICA Fund Committee, held in New Delhi on 24 and 25
January 1987, the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi had written to all the Heads
of State/Government forwarding a copy of the appeal and Plan of Action and
calling upon all nations to contribute generously to the AFRICA Fund. As part of
the efforts at mobilising resources for the AFRICA Fund, Shri N. Krishnan, Special
Envoy of the Prime Minister undertook fund raising missions to selected countries
accompanied by the Ambassador of Zambia to Sweden as the representative of
the Vice-Chairman of the Fund. The first missio n in March 1987 took them to
Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Italy and Belgium. In April 1987, they,
visited Kuwait and in May 1987 the UAE, Bahrain and Canada. Detailed
presentations were made on the AFRICA Fund, emphasis- ing the role of the Fund
as a catalyst for promoting additional flow of assista nce to the Frontline States
as well as liberation movements. During these visits sy m- pathy and support for
the objectives of the Fund were expressed. Most donors are already heavily
involved in developmental projects in the Southern Africa region bilaterally,
through the Southern African Development Coordination Con ference (SADCC)
and or through the UN and other multilateral agencies.

Discussions were also held with the UN agencies, the Secretary-General of the
Commonwealth and the European Economic Community (EEC). The Sec- retary-
General of the UN gave full personal endorsement and promised support of the
UN system to the AFRICA Fund. Meetings were held with the Inter- national
Labour Organisation (ILO), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
(UNHCR), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) as well as
an inter-agency meeting chaired by the Director General for Development and
International Economic Cooperation. As a result of these efforts, there is scope
for considerable Cooperation and, coordination between the UN agencies and the
AFRICA Fund. The UNDP have agreed to consider pro- viding technical assistance
for specific projects. The IFAD has earmarked funds
for technical assistance to an Indian-funded project in Mozambique. Shri Krishnan
and Ambassador Kazinga also called on the Secretary-General of the
Commonwealth, as a result of which, the Commonwealth Fund for Technical
Cooperation (CFTC) have made available many project profiles and agreed to
collaborate constructively through the provision of technical assista nce for the
AFRICA Fund projects.

Useful meetings were held with the European Economic Commission opening up
possibilities of coordination between the activities of the EEC and the AFRICA
Fund.


On the whole, the response to the AFRICA Fund has been encouraging and
contributions and pledges during the course of the year under review have
reached US $ 242 million as on 1 December 1987. The governments of a number
of States comprising the AFRICA Fund Committee including their leaders have
been active in creating, Awareness about the Fund and soliciting support for it.
Several other projects were taken up pu b- licising the objectives of the Fund and
for mobilising international public opi nion against apartheid. A special brochure
on, the subject of the AFRICA Fund was widely distributed through the India
Missions abroad to government leaders and officials, voluntary organizations,
academic and other institutions as well as emi- nent persons in different walks of
life. Special persons and groups active agai nst apartheid were identified in
various countries and contact established with the m with a view to spread the
message of the AFRICA Fund. The message of the AFRICA Fund was further
spread through seminars, conferences and meetings. A special, presentation on
AFRICA Fund was made at the meeting of the Asso- ciation of West European
Parliamentarians for Action against Apartheid held at Strassburg in May 1987.
Two delegations of Indian Parliamentarians visited a number of countries in
connection with the convening by the Parliamentarians Action for Removal of
Apartheid (PARA) (India Chapter) of a global prepara- tory meeting in Delhi in
August 1987 to prepare for an eventual world confer- ence of Parliamentarians
against apartheid.

A meeting of the senior officials of the AFRICA Fund Committee was held in Delhi
from 4 to 7 August 1987 to review the progress of the AFRICA Fund. The
subcommittee meeting was held on 6 August 1987 under the chairmanship of
Zambia at which all the Frontline States and liberation movements as well as
donor countries were present. The meeting enabled donor and recipient countries
to meet for the first time and take full advantage of the opportunity to intera ct
with each other and establish informal contacts. The Frontline States were able to
present updated list of their priority requirements. A number of donors and UN
agencies made brief references and, amongst others, India was able to announce
the list of projects which it intended to take up for implementation from its
contributions to the AFRICA Fund.

At the Summit meeting held in January 1987, the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv
Gandhi had announced India's contribution of Rs. 50 crores to the AFRICA Fund.
Thereafter an exercise was mounted to identify the specific projects that India
could take up for implementation keeping in view India's capability, ex- perience
and requirements of the Frontline States and liberation movements. At
the August 1987 meeting of the senior officials, India was able to give a list


of projects that it intends to take up. The value of the projects identified so far is
approximately Rs. 35 crores. Transport vehicles valued at approximately Rs. 4
crores were supplied initially to Tanzania and more are to follow soon. Essential
goods, including medicines and transport vehicles valued at Rs. 1.5 crores were
sent to the African National Congress (ANC). Transport vehicles, medicines and
other items are being supplied to South West Africa People's Organisation
(SWAPO) valued at Rs. 1.5 crores. Orders for supply of 100 railway wagons to
Zambia have been placed with the Projects and Equipment Corporation of India
Limited (PEC). Other projects relating to Mozambique, Botswana, etc. are under
active consideration. Agreements were reached with the Governments of Zambia,
Tanzania and Mozambique laying down the terms and conditions under which
Indian projects were being implemented under the AFRICA Fund.

Within India there has been considerable interest generated in the AFRICA Fund.
Public response would have been greater but for the unfortunate situation created
within the country on account of the unprecedented drought. Even so
contributions from the public totalling Rs. 30 lakhs have been received. A Soci ety
named Africa Fund has been established with the Prime Minister as the President
and registered with the Registrar of Societies, Delhi. A Government Body of
Senior Officials has been set up for supervising the activities of the Society.
Medicines valued at Rs. 25 lakhs were donated to Mozambique by the Society.

The second meeting of the senior officials of the AFRICA Fund Committee was
held in Brazzaville, Congo, from 14 to 16 January 1988. The Chairman's Report
on the activities of the Fund since the first meeting of senior official s in August
1987, was presented by India. The Committee noted with satisfaction the
progress achieved so far, and the fact that the pledges announced by over forty
countries are approaching US $ one quarter billion. The dynamic role played by
our Prime Minister and India was acclaimed. Bilateral relations with the countries
of Africa continued to grow. A number of high-level visits were, exchanged.

The Mauritian Minister of Health visited India in May 1987 and held discussions
with the then Minister of Health. The then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D.
Tiwari, visited Mauritius for the Indo-Mauritian Joint Com-mission meeting in July
1987. The Minister for Human Resource Development led the Indian delegation,
which included the Minister of State for Education a nd Culture, for participation
in Mauritius' Festival International de la Mer.


The Nigerian Ministers of Agriculture and Industries visited India. A Cultural
Exchange Programme between India and Nigeria was signed in August 1987. The
Angolan President, Jose dos, Santos paid an official visit to India in April 1987
and held wide-ranging discussions with our Prime Minister. An agreement in the
field of economic and technical cooperation was signed during the visit. The
Foreign Minister of Uganda visited India in August 1987 and hold talks with the
then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleir o, to identify new
areas of cooperation between the two countries.

A Cultural Exchange Programme with Ethiopia was signed in October 1987 during
the visit of the Vice Minister of Culture of Ethiopia to India. During t he Ethiopian
Foreign Minister's visit to India in November 1987 bilateral relation s were
reviewed. A Cultural Agreement was signed with Seychelles in December 1987
during the visit of the Minister of Education of Seychelles to India.


Sep 27, 1987 1987



Europe

CHAPTER VI

EUROPE

WESTERN EUROPE
Western Europe as a political and economic grouping constitutes an import- ant
factor in world affairs. Despite the inequities of size and economic potential these
countries have attempted to carve out for themselves, a role larger than they
would be in a position to play were they to seek it as individ ual nations. Together
they constitute an affluent and sophisticated market. With ju stabout 81/2% of
the world's population they account for about 50% of the world GDP and 40% of
international trade. The Twelve-Nation European Economic Community is perhaps
the largest trading bloc in the world and is a Significant trading partner of India.

India's relations with the countries of Western Europe continue to be cordial and
friendly. There was a broad similarity of views based on a belief in politi cal and
negotiated settlements for resolving international problems and reducing
tensions, even if there were difference's on specific issues. With Western Euro pe
increasingly seeking to play a more independent role and craft a more distinct
political personality, while remaining within the western alliances system, the ir
policy positions on questions of East-West and North-South relations are not
dissimilar to those of India. For India, Western Europe continued to remain
important as a major trad- ing partner, as a source of economic assistance and
for technology transfer. In addition, there is the need for political cooperation for
curbing terrorism and extremist activity designed to harm India's security
interests. For the West European countries India was seen as a growing economy,
supported by policies of liberalisation and political stability, providing enormous
opportunities for in- vestments and a market for goods and services. The highly
export dependant economics of Western Europe, which are constantly in search
for new markets


considered India as one of the most important areas in Asia. India has incre
asingly come to be recognised as the most important country in the South Asian
region and potentially one of the most promising political and economic systems
in Asi a.

The twelve members of the European Community continue to be our major
trading partners and cooperation with the community was pursued vigorously in
the fields of industrial cooperation, in science and technology and in investme nt.
Countries of the region, and more specifically the Scandinavian countries, exte
nd- ed economic assistance for projects in the fields of social welfare, health and
rural development. In an otherwise positive area of economic and commercial
interaction the only cause for concern was the deficit in the balance of trade
which continued to show an increase. While the overall exports to Western
Europe increased in volume, the range of products remained limited. The reasons
for this are the favourable investment climate in India, the liberalisation in the
import of cap ital goods and our enhanced requirements for the import of new
technology. A contri- butory factor has also been the protective trade policies of
the European Com- munity. Our concerns have been expressed clearly in bilateral
discussions with representatives of individual countries as well as to the European
Community and specific measures have been sought to be adopted to remedy the
imbalances. Meetings of the Joint Economic and Trade Committees were held with
Sweden and France during 1987. The expansion of Indian exports, commodity
and quantum-wise increase in investment, joint collaborations, transfer of tech -
nology and counter trade arrangements were the focus of discussions.

In order to curb anti-Indian activities carried out in and from countries in Western
Europe, we have closely monitored those activities and sought the co- operation
of individual governments. Most governments in Western Europe have been
responsive to our concerns and have, in specific cases, cooperated activel y in
curtailing these activities. Our specific concerns have been expressed to the
British authorities and their cooperation requested in curbing anti-Indian activities
in and from the U K. Some limited progress in this regard has been achieved.
Negotiations with the
344 EA/88--7


UK have been in course since 1986 for the edification of effective legal arr ange-
ments. International issues and bilateral relations were discussed with a number
of countries in the West European region during 1987. There were several
exchanges of delegations and visits of Ministers and Prime Ministers. The Prime
Minister of Norway visited India in July 1987 to discuss bilateral and international
issues . He attended the Conference of the World Commission on Environment
and Development. During the visit a Memorandum of Understanding on
Economic, Industrial and Technological Cooperation was signed. Our Prime
Minister met the Dutch Prime Minister during a transit visit to the Netherlands in
October 1987.

During the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi's visit to Sweden for the Six Nation
Initiative in January 1988, discussions were held with his Swedish counterpart on
international issues and matters of mutual bilateral interest. The Italian Prime
Minister, Mr. Giovanni Goria, paid an official visit to India in January 1988, the
first ever official visit by an Italian Prime Minist er. During discussions at the
levels of the two Prime Ministers and delegations, vi ews were exchanged on
international issues and matters of mutual bilateral interest . Three important
agreements were signed : a Memorandum of Understanding providing for Italian
credit of US $ 250 million in the Energy sector, a Memo- randum of
Understanding on Development Project for Maintenance Centre at the Regional
Engineering College, Srinagar, and a Memorandum of Understand- ing on Grant
Portion of Farakka Super Thermal Power Station.

The Indian Industry Minister, Shri J. Vengala Rao and Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao,
Minister for Human Resource Development, visited Sweden. The Ministers of
State for Foreign Affairs of Italy and France visited India ap art from the Minister-
President of North Rhine Westphalia (FRG) and other Ministers from the Federal
Republic of Germany.A Parliamentary delegation led by our Speaker, Dr. Balram
Jakhar visited Spain. In addition, there were numerous visits from industrial and
business groups, academicians, journalists and artists. Two major manifestations
of Indian culture were held in Sweden and Switzerland.


THE USSR AND EASTERN EUROPE

India's traditionally warm and friendly relations with the USSR and the other
socialist countries of Eastern Europe continued to grow and strengthen. Exchange
of visit at the highest level contributed in a large measure to this process;
simultaneously the decisions of the meetings of India's Joint Com- missions with
many of the countries, to increase substantially bilateral trade turnover,
accelerate technology transfer, increase scientific cooperation, gave a yet greater
substance to India's relations with these countries. The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv
Gandhi's visit to the USSR in July 1987 and the visit by the Chairman of the USSR
Council of Ministers, Mr. N. I. Ryzhkov to India in November 1987 continued the
process of dialogue between the two countries at- the highest level. During his
visit, the Prime Minister, Shri Raj iv Gandhi inaugurated the year-long Festival of
India in the USSR. He also had meetings with the Soviet General Secretary, Mr.
M. S. Gorbachev and the Soviet Prime Minister, Mr. N. I. Ryzhkov. These
discussions were continued during the Soviet Premier's visit to India in connection
with the inauguration of the Festival of the USSR in India. The discussions
revealed an identity or a close similarity of views between the two countries on
bilateral, regional and intern a- tional issues. During the Prime Minister's visit to
the USSR, a Long Term Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology
between India and the USSR upto the year 2000 A.D. was signed by him and
General Secretary, Mr. M. S. Gorbachev. Wider in its scope than any previous
agreement of cooperation in science and technology between the two countries in
the past, this programme would bring the two countries together in cooperating
in frontier areas of tech - nology, fundamental science and futuristic areas in
science and technology. During the visit of Prime Minister Ryzhkov the status of
wide-ranging Indo- Soviet economic and industrial collaboration was reviewed at
length and ways and means discussed to further enrich and diversify this
mutually fruitful coop e- ration. The Prime Ministers of India and the USSR signed
an Economic and Technical Cooperation Agreement, under which the Soviets
have agreed to extend a credit of Roubles 770 million (Rs. 1,150 crores) for
cooperation in the estab - lishment of the Karnal Oil Refinery and its associate
works as also a Thermal Power Station of 630 MW capacity. Agreements were
also signed at ministerial levels for Development of New Forms of Economic
Cooperation, Cooperation in Tourism as also Protocols for cooperation in the field
of higher education a nd training of students and highly qualified specialists and
the equivalence of ce rti- ficates, degrees and diplomas awarded by Universities
and other educational and
scientific organizations and institutions in the two countries.


The visit by Mr. A. P. Dobrynin, Secretary of the CC of the CPSU to India in May
1987 afforded another opportunity for contacts between the two countries at a
senior level. During his stay in India, Mr. Dobrynin also visited Kashmir.

The Festivals of India and the USSR in each other's countries have been planned
on an immense and unprecedented scale in both countries. These will not only be
an important landmark in the cultural life of the two countries, bu t would open
up new avenues of understanding and cooperation in diverse fields and
strengthen the friendship between our two peoples. The two countries also
celebrated the fortieth anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relation s
between the two countries, in April 1987.

India opened its second Consulate-General in the USSR in Tashkent in July 1987.
This would be of use not only to the Indian citizens travelling to, or at present
studying or working in the Soviet Central Asia, but also in expandin g the
historical relationship between Central Asia and India. The Indo-Soviet Consular
Convention, signed in November 1986, was ratified in Moscow in June 1987. The
Indo-Soviet Cultural Exchange Programme for 1987-88 was also signed in
Moscow in September 1987. The eleventh session of India-USSR Inter-
Governmental Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation
was held in Moscow on 5 and 6 June 1987, with the Indian delegation led by the
then Minister of External Affairs., Shri N. D. Tiwari, who apart from having
meetings with his Soviet counterpart, Co-Chairman of the Commission, Deputy
Prime, Minister, Mr. V. M. Kamentsev to review the various ongoing projects of
Indo-Soviet economic, scientific and technical cooperation and overseeing the
working of the Inter- Governmental Commission, called on General Secretary,
Mikhail S. Gorbachev and the Soviet Foreign Minister, Eduard Schevardnadze for
exchange of views on bilateral and international issues of mutual interest and
concern.

The Inter-Governmental Commission made an in-depth assessment of the various
programmes and plans of Indo-Soviet cooperation in the sectors of power oil
industry, coal, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, machine building, agri-
culture, water resources, communications, science and technology, computers
and electronics, etc. and considered the ways and means of further enriching and
diversifying this relationship especially in the context of the goal set by the
leadership of the two countries to raise the level of bilateral trade to 2.5 ti mes of
its level in 1986 by 1992. In this context, the two countries have set the T rade
Plan target of Its. 5,000 crores for 1988 which is 25% more than the estimated
Indo-Soviet trade turnover of Rs. 4,000 crores in 1987.


Cooperation with Hungary was intensified with the holding of a Special The Indian
side was led by Shri J. Vengala Rao, Union Minister for Industry. The Protocol
underlined the resolve of the two countries to double the current level of bilateral
trade by 1992 and to identify non-traditional high value-add ed items for bilateral
trade. A beginning in the latter has been made by the ship- ment of the first
consignment of 500 Maruti cars to Hungary. The Hungarian Minister of Transport,
Mr. Lajos Urban visited India in May 1987 for dis- cussions on possible
cooperation in this field between the two countries. The Hungarian Deputy
Foreign Minister, Dr. Jozsef Benyi visited India in July 1987. The Indo-Hungarian
Cultural Exchange Programme for 1988-90 was signed in October 1987.

Indo-GDR economic relations have shown satisfactory progress during the year
under review. The Seventh Session of the Indo-GDR Joint Commission was held
in September 1987, in Berlin, the delegation being led by the Union Minister for
Industry, Shri J. Vengala Rao. It was decided to double Indo-GDR bilateral trade
from its present level, over the next three years. The Joint Co m- mission also
decided to increase cooperation between the two countries in the fields of Science
and Technology and to increase technology transfer. This is e x- pected to give a
major push to the growth of Indo-GDR bilateral economic rela- tions. The GDR
Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Posts and Telecom- munications, Mr.
Rudolph Schulze visited India in May 1987, when an Agree- ment on Cooperation
in the Posts and Telecommunications field was signed with the GDR. The GDR
Deputy Foreign Minister, Mr. Winter visited India in December 1987, during which
an exchange of views on bilateral and interna- tional matters took place.
Relations between India and Yugoslavia continued to develop and grow. in the
political field the two countries have warm and friendly ties marked by a close
similarity of views, as well as close cooperation relating to development s in the
non-aligned world. The Yugoslav Federal Secretary for Information, Mr. Svetozar
Durutovic visited India in April 1987 and had an exchange of views with his
Indian counterpart, the then Minister of State for Information and Bro ad-
casting, Shri Ajit Kumar Panja and separately met the External Affairs Minister .

The follow-up action on the meeting of the Indo-Yugoslav Joint Committee has
contributed to growing bilateral trade; efforts are on to increase technology
transfer and explore possibilities for industrial cooperation in third countrie s.


Indo-Romanian trade and economic cooperation relations were reviewed at the
trade talks held in New Delhi from 25 to Sep 27, 1987. The Indo- Romanian
Trade Plan for 1988 concluded at these talks envisages a trade turn- over of Rs.
740 crores which represents a growth of 80% over the targeted turn- over for
1987. Session of the Indo-Hungarian Joint Commission in Budapest in October
1987.


Relations with Bulgaria were marked by continuing warmth and friendship. Indian
participation in the Plovdiv Fair in May 1987 was appreciated. India participated
in the International Festival of Red Cross and Health Films in Bulgaria and the
Hindi film Paar received an award. Cultural exchanges conti- nued at a
satisfactory pace with many artistic troupes visiting Sofia.

The Joint Sub-Commission for Science and Technology with Bulgaria met in New
Delhi in November 1987 to review ongoing cooperation. New avenues were
identified for further useful collaboration in the future. Mr. Petar Diulguerev,
President of the Central Council of the Bulgarian Trade Unions and Alternate
Member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist
Party visited India from 14 to 19 December 1987. He called on the Vice-President
of India.

Indo-Czechoslovak relations received further impetus by the visit of the then
Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari from 30 March to 1 April 1987 to
Prague at the invitation of the Czechoslovak Foreign Minister. The Minister for
External Affairs had meetings with all the top leaders, including President Gustav
Husak and Prime Minister Strougal. He also discussed economic cooperation with
the Foreign Trade Minister, Mr. Urban. Both sides reiterated their keen desire to
further improve Indo-Czechoslovak relations, especially in the economic,
commercial and scientific fields.

The Twelfth Session of the Indo-Czechoslovak Joint Committee for Economic,
Trade and Technical Cooperation was held in Prague from 21 to 24 May 1987.
The Indian delegation was led by the then Commerce Minister, Shri P. Shiv-
shanker. Besides meeting his counterpart, he also had fruitful talks with Mr.
Rohlicek, Deputy Prime Minister incharge of Economic Relations. The Joint
Committee discussed and identified concrete ways and means of expanding and
diversifying economic cooperation including industrial collaboration through

joint ventures and third country projects. It was decided to double the volum e of
bilateral trade turnover by 1990. The Annual Trade Plan for 1988 was finalised in
New Delhi in November in accordance with the results of the Joint Committee.

Indo-Czechoslovak Cultural Cooperation continued satisfactorily. A festival of
Indian films was inaugurated by the Minister for External Affairs during his visit in
April 1987. A reciprocal festival of Czechoslovak films was held in Delhi in May
1987. Both the festivals aroused great public interest. The Indo- Czechoslovak
Cultural Exchange Programme was renewed for 1987-89 in June 1987. An
exhibition of Indian handicrafts entitled, Magical India, was held at the Naprtsek
Museum in Czechoslovakia from 2 September to 7 October 1987 and attracted
immense public interest.

Mr. Alois Indra, Chairman of the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly, led a
Parliamentary delegation on a visit to India from 25 to 27 November 1987. It
marked the continuing tradition of regular parliamentary exchanges between the
two countries. Mr. Indra called on the President and the Prime Minister of Indi a.

The Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare, Kumari Saroj Khaparde
visited Czechoslovakia from 4 to 7 January 1988. An Agreement on Cooperation
in Health and Medical Sciences was signed between the two countries on this
occasion.


The Czechoslovak Defence Minister visited India from 2 to 5 December 1987, and
had discussions with his counterpart.

The visit of the then External Affairs Minister, Shri N.D. Tiwari to Poland from 2 to
5 April 1987, at the invitation of Foreign Minister, Mi. Marian Orzechowski
provided a fillip to Indo-Polish relations. During the visit, the External Affairs
Minister had meetings with the President, General Jaruzelski a nd the Prime
Minister, Zbignew Messner besides two sessions of discussions with hi s
counterpart. These meetings provided a useful occasion for reviewing the satis-
factory growth of Indo-Polish relations as well as for an exchange of views on
major bilateral and international issues. President Jaruzelski expressed his de ter-
initiation to consolidate and further strengthen friendship with India in accor
dance with the understanding reached with the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi,
duri ng General Jaruzelski's last visit to India in February 1985, The External
Affairs


Minister assured him that India was also resolved to expand and diversify it s
relations with Poland. At the invitation of the Polish Minister of Metallurgy and
Machine Industry, the then Minister of State for Mines, Shrimati Ramdulari Sinha
visited Poland from 2 to 6 June 1987. Some new areas of mutually beneficial
cooperation were identified. The Indo-Polish Joint Commission meeting was held
in Warsaw in October 1987. The Indian delegation was led by the Energy
Minister, Shri Vasant Sathe. He had meetings with all the top leaders of the
Government who reaffirm- ed their interest in promoting Indo-Polish cooperation
in all fields. The Joint Commission decided to make all efforts to double the
volume of Indo-Polish Trade by 1990. The Polish Secretary of State for Foreign
Economic Cooperation and Foreign Trade Minister, Mr. Wojcik visited India from
12 to 15 November 1987 to attend the inauguration of the International Trade
Fair in New Delhi. He had fruitful discussions with the business community
regarding production collabo- ration and joint ventures. He met the then Minister
of State for External Affai rs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro and apprised him of the
implementation of the second stage of economic reforms in Poland.


Sep 27, 1987
The Americas

CHAPTER VII

THE AMERICAS NORTH AMERICA India has consistently sought a fruitful and
cordial relationship with the USA. The historical tradition of intellectual interaction
and people-to-people contacts and shared faith in democratic values provide a
positive backdrop to the efforts to improve overall relations. The ongoing political
dialogue at all levels is an important element in this process.

A highwater mark in 1987, was the Prime Minister's working visit to Washington
on Oct 20, 1987 while returning from the Commonwealth Summit in Vancouver.
The Prime Minister had wide-ranging discussions with President Reagan and his
senior colleagues, and with key members of the US Congress. One of the main
objectives of the visit was to revitalise the relatio nship with a new agenda for the
next few years; and to this end a package of new initiatives for bilateral
cooperation were identified. Areas for greater mutual interaction that were
identified were : science and technology, trade and inves t- ment, technology
transfer, narcotics control, agricultural education, parliamen tary exchanges and
collaboration in defence related technology. The Ronald Reagan- Indira Gandhi
Science and Technology Initiative was extended for another three years beyond
1988.

The Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri K. Natwar Singh also visite d USA
in April 1987. Cooperation in different areas between India and the USA is an
incremental development arising from efforts by both sides to establish a surer
foundation for 344 EA/88--8


the relationship. Reflecting the increased confidence in bilateral ties was t he US
readiness to licence the sale of a supercomputer to India. The two Governments
also agreed to consult regularly to ensure that the US supercom- puter export
reflected the rapid pace of advancing technology and India's need for upgraded
capability. Notwithstanding the progress in Indo-US relations, some differences
remain on regional and international issues. Primary among these differences is
the respective approach of the two countries to the non-peaceful dimensions of
Pakistan's nuclear programme. The danger of nuclear weapons proliferation
transcends the sub-regional dimension ; it is an international responsibility t o
address the problem of horizontal and vertical proliferation. India is disappoi nted
that the USA has chosen to waive its own non-proliferation laws in favour of
Pakistan, During his visit to the USA, the Prime Minister of India reaffirmed that
India had no intention of producing nuclear weapons unless constrained to do so.
A good relationship between the two sovereign democracies is built on mutual
interest, trust and confidence and a recognition of each other's paramou nt
national interests. It is in this perspective that the relationship could rise above
well known differences and become more responsive to the needs and
expectations of the Indian and American people.

India and Canada have traditionally enjoyed good relations with each other. Both
are members of the Commonwealth and relations have been marked by an
exchange of visits and views at the highest level. The Prime Ministers of the two
countries met again during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting
(CHOGM) in Canada in October 1987 where they discussed issues of bilateral and
international concern. Indo-Canadian bilateral cooperation remained brisk and
active in 1987. Canada participated as a partner country at the Eighth India
Engineering Trade Fair. The Indo-Canadian Working Group on Coal met in New
Delhi in April 1987. The Minister of State for Industrial Development, Shri
Arunachalam, visited Canada in June 1987 for bilateral consultations. A five-
member Canadian Parliamentary delegation visited India in March-April 1987.
During their stay, they visited several parts of the country including Amritsar.


India and Canada continued to coop rate on combating the menace of extremism
and terrorism directed against India. The Extradition Treaty signed in February
1987 would go a long way in tackling this problem. CENTRAL AND SOUTH
AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN India's relations with the countries of Latin
America and the Caribbean continued to grow during the period under review.
Exchanges of visits, signing of bilateral agreements, cooperation in international
issues as well as in the sphere of bilateral interests, and India's support for peace
in the region cont ri- buted towards strengthening our traditionally cordial and
friendly ties with th e countries of the region.

A significant event was the visit in March 1987 by the then Minister for External
Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari, to Trinidad & Tobago and Guyana. A bilateral Cultural
Agreement was signed during the visit for promoting intensiv e cooperation
between India and Trinidad & Tobago. The Minister for External Affairs called on
President Hoyte of Guyana during his visit for the Foreign Ministers' Meeting of
the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) on Latin America and the Caribbean at
Georgetown.

The Foreign Minister of Uruguay, Mr. Enrique V. Iglesias, paid an official Visit to
India in March 1987. He held discussions on various international and bilateral
issues. India continued to express concern over the Central American crisis and
extended its unstinted support to the Peace initiative of the Contadora Group and
its Support Group. On various occasions in the fora of the UN and the Non-
Aligned Movement, India reiterated its position that the crisis should be resolved
peacefully through dialogue amongst the countries of the region withou t outside
interference or introduction of big-power rivalries. India has welcomed the signing
of the Accord in Guatemala City in August 1987 by the Presidents of the
Republics: of Costa Rica, El-Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua on the
procedure to establish a firm and durable peace in Central America and expressed
the hope that the process of negotiations and dialogue


would result in a just and lasting settlement, based on the respect for the r ight
to self-determination of each country of the region and ensuring the security,
sovereignty and, independence of all States of the region, free of external int er-
vention or threat of such intervention. A thirteen-member Colombian
Parliamentary delegation led by Dr. Jorge Cristo Saiun, Vice-President of the
Colombian Senate, visited India in May 1987 .

The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, during an
official visit to Cuba from 2 to 5 December 1987 met with President Castro, Vice-
President Rodriguez and the Foreign Minister, Malmierca. He handed over a letter
from the Indian Prime Minister to the Cuban President. India once again co-
sponsored a resolution in the UN General Assembly calling upon Argentina and
the UK, to hold negotiations with a view to resolve their dispute over Falklands
Malvinas. The resolution was adopted by 114 votes to 5 with 36 abstentions. The
Chief of Staff of the Guyanese Defence Forces, Major-General Norman Mclean,
who was in India as Assistant Manager of the West Indies Cricket Team

that toured India in November-December 1987, held discussions with the Chief of
Army Staff and other officials and visited some of India's military training
institutions.

The Commonwealth of Dominica has opened a resident Mission in New Delhi with
Her Excellency Mrs. Gilda Thebaud Mansour as its first High Commissioner to
India. A two-member technical delegation from Nicaragua visited India in October
1987 to identify areas for technology transfer and setting up of joint ventures .
The delegation evinced keen interest in India's cooperation and assistance in


various sectors, including jute cultivation, coconut processing and the setti ng up
of in artificial limbs-fitting centre in Nicaragua.

India and Venezuela signed a bilateral Agreement on Science and Techno- logy in
April 1987. Bolivia has designated its Charge d'Affaires (CDA) at Kuala Lumpur,
Mr. Llano, as its first CDA to India, resident in Kuala Lumpur. India gifted
medicines to Ecuador for relief to the victims of a severe earthquake which struck
the country causing extensive destruction in March 1987.

In November 1987, Suriname held general elections to its fiftyone-seat National
Assembly under its new Constitution which was approved by referendum in
September 1987. The "Front for Democracy and Development"--an alliance oil
the country's three main political parties won a resounding victory with 41 seats.
The then Minister of State for Mines, Smt. Ramdulari Sinha, led a good- will
delegation from India in January 1988 to attend the inauguration of the President
of Suriname. The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, sent congratulations to Costa
Rica's President, Oscar Arias on the award to him of the Nobel Peace Prize for his
contribution to the Central American Peace efforts. A Ramayana Ballet Troupe of
the Sriram Bharatiya Kala Kendra, New Delhi, visited Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago
and Suriname in October-November 1987 giving tremendously successful
performances. The performances, attended by Heads of State and other high
dignitaries of these countries, besides a cros s section of the population, evoked
keen interest amongst the people in Indian ar t and culture.

Oct 20, 1987
United Nations And International Conferences

CHAPTER VIII

UNITED NATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES

India continued to play an active and constructive role in the United Nations, as
well as in major international conferences organised by the United Nations and its
specialised agencies during 1987. The Prime Minister's address at the UN General
Assembly session on Oct 19, 1987 on Environment and Development reflected
the high importance which India attaches to the UN and its work. The Minister of
State for External Affairs, Shri K. Natwar Singh, who led the Indian delegation to
the forty-second session of the UN General Assembly, summarised the Indian
position on the principal issues on the UN agenda in his speech to the UN General
Assembly on 29 September 1987, The improved atmosphere between the Super
Powers benefited to some extent, the deliberations of the forty-second session.

India played a major role in the UN Conference on Disarmament and
Development which was held in New York in August-September 1987. Shri K.
Natwar Singh, Minister of State for External Affairs, was unanimously elected
Chairman of the Conference. The success of the Conference was mainly due to
Indian initiative and efforts, which were largely instrumental in the adoption of
the final consensus document. India's keen interest and active participation in the
activities of the Commo n- wealth and the Non-Aligned Movement were generally
acclaimed. Political Issues India's position on Afghanistan was reiterated during
the debate in the forty-second session of the UN General Assembly. India's
Ambassador to the United Nations, quoting the Prime Minister said : "We agree
on the need for an early political settlement in Afghanistan and support the
efforts of the UN


Secretary-General. I believe that a just solution must ensure a sovereign, in de-
pendent and non-aligned Afghanistan. Foreign intervention and interference must
cease. The Afghan refugees must be allowed to return to their homes in honour,
dignity and security. We would welcome any earnest effort in this direction."
During the session, India was closely involved in consultations aimed at obtaining
a consensus on a resolution on Afghanistan which would have been acceptable to
all the parties concerned. Though India would have liked to see these efforts
come to a satisfactory conclusion, a consensus could not be achieved.

India welcomed the efforts of the UN Secretary-General and his personal
representative Mr. Diego Cordovez. The UN Secretary-General, in his report, had
referred to the need for "innovative diplomatic approaches" to resolve the Afghan
issue. The text of the draft resolution that was presented to the General
Assembly, was similar to the ones presented in earlier years and did not
adequately reflect, in India's view, the dynamic situation prevailing at th e time
regarding the solution of the Afghan question. India therefore abstained on the
resolution. The resolution was adopted by a recorded vote of 123 in favour, 19
against and 11 abstentions.

As in earlier years, the question of Kampuchea came up for discussion in the
Plenary Session of the UN General Assembly as well as in the Credentials
Committee. In the Credentials Committee, some countries expressed reserva-
tions on the credentials of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea.

The substantive resolution was adopted by a recorded vote of 117 in favour, 21
against and 16 abstentions. India abstained on the resolution since it was one-
sided and inflexible and did not take into account the considerable movemen t
towards a solution to the problem brought about through diplomatic exchanges.
Proposals made over the past months towards a solution and the views reflected
in the debate on this issue in the UN General Assembly were also not taken into
account in the resolution. The forty-second session of the UN General Assembly
adopted 8 resolu- tions in regard to the situation in West Asia-4 on the Question
of Palestine an d 4 relating to the Situation in the Middle East. During the debate
on the situat ion in the Middle East, the then Minister of State for External Affairs,
Shri Eduar do


Faleiro, reaffirmed India's firm support to the Palestinian people in their f ight for
their right to self-determination and a homeland of their own. The Minister also
told the General Assembly that the situation was continuously evolving and that
new perspectives were developing on the international scene and that in this
context peace and security was vital to all States in the Middle East.

India joined other nations in condemning, in the Security Council on 16 December
1987, the "iron fist" policy of Israel in the occupied territories whi ch had resulted
in the death and wounding of many Palestinian men, women and children. India
characterised the popular uprising in occupied territories as a reflection of the will
of an entire people for an independent homeland.

India hosted an Asian Regional Seminar and Non-Governmental Organiza- tion
(NGO) Symposium on the Question of Palestine in New Delhi from 8 to 12 June
1987. The meetings were held in cooperation with the UN Committee on the
Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People. The conflict between
Iran and Iraq was the major issue before the UN Security Council in 1987. After
extensive discussions, the Security Council adopted resolution 598 which
demands that, as a first step towards a negotiated settlement, Iran and Iraq
observe an immediate ceasefire, discontinue all milit ary action on land, at sea
and in the air and withdraw all forces to the internatio nally recognised
boundaries without delay. The resolution also requests the Secretary - General to
explore, in consultation with Iran and Iraq, the question of entrust ing to an
impartial body the task of enquiring into responsibility for the conflict .


The resolution also decided that the Security Council would meet again as
necessary to consider further steps to ensure compliance with this resolution.
Following the adoption of the resolution on 20 July 1987, the Secretary-General
has been involved in wide-ranging consultations with Iran and Iraq and members
of the Security Council with the objective of securing implementation of Securi ty
Council resolution 598.

Despite significant efforts made by all concerned, negotiations between countries
party to the Antarctic Treaty and non-members of the Treaty failed to produce a
consensus resolution on the Question of Antarctica. Two resolu- tions were
subsequently introduced in the First Committee. The first called for the exclusion
of the racist apartheid regime of South Africa from participa tion in the meetings
of the consultative parties at the earliest possible date. The


second resolution, dealing- with the substantive, aspects of the question of
Antarctica and the Antarctic Treaty System, inter alia, called upon the Antarct ic
Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCPs) to invite the Secretary General of his
representative to all meetings of the treaty parties including their consultati ve
meetings and minerals regime negotiations; and called, upon the ATCPs to
impose a moratorium on the negotiations to establish a minerals regime until
such time as all members of the international community can participate fully in
such negotiations.

India voted in favour of the first resolution along with other Antarctic Treaty
Consultative Parties. India did not participate in the voting on the second
resolution. The fourteenth meeting of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties
was held in Rio de Janeiro in October 1987. Italy and the German Democratic
Republic (GDR) were admitted in ATCPs. Meanwhile discussions on the ongoing
minerals negotiations took place in Montevideo, Uruguay, in May 1987, and in
Auckland, New Zealand, in November 1987. The situation in Southern Africa, the
vulnerability of the Frontline States to South African aggression and the policies
of apartheid of the Pretoria regim e continue to be a focal point of international
concern and indignation. The raci st regime has resorted to increasing repression
and violence and has now imposed draccnian press and media censorship. As a
member of the Special Committee against Apartheid, India continued to voice its
concern in the UN General Assembly at those developments and reiterated its call
for the imposition of co m- prehensive and mandatory sanctions under Chapter
VII of the United Nations Charter, as the only peaceful means to effect a change
whereby South Africa can have a non-racial democratic society. India was also a
member of the Special Committee on the implementation of the United Nations
resolutions on collabo- ration with South Africa, the task force on women and
children under apartheid and the task force on political prisoners. India
participated actively in vario us meetings held in different parts of the world. It
co-sponsored seven resolution s in the General Assembly on the policies of
apartheid of the Government of South Africa, each of which was adopted by very
large majorities. The Security Council met on two occasions to discuss the
situation in Namibia and adopted Resolution 601 requesting the Secretary-
General to proceed with the United Nations plan to facilitate Namibian
independence. It also met to discuss South Africa's aggression against Angola
and, in Resolution 602, 344 EA/88--9




set a deadline of 10 December 1987 for withdrawal of South African forces from
its territory. At the specific request of the concerned States and the Afr ican,
group, India participated in these meetings and reaffirmed-its call for the Com
plete isolation of the Pretoria regime internationally as the means to terminate its
policies of aggression, colonialism and apartheid. India's Permanent Represen-
tative was re-elected Vice-President of the United Nations Council for Namibia.

The Council held a special session at the level of Ministers from member states in
New York on 2 October 1987. Reference was made at the meeting to it having
been held on Gandhi Jayanti. The Council also convened an Extra- ordinary
Plenary Meeting in Luanda, Angola, in May 1987, which gave members the
opportunity to see-camps where refugees from the Namibian occupied terri- tory
were being looked after by the Angolan Government. India's role as Chairman of
the AFRICA Fund was reflected in appreciative references by delegations at
various United Nations forums. Specific references to the Fund were included in
the principal resolutions on apartheid, Namibia, decolonisation and the
Organization of African Unity (OAU). A process of high-level consultation between
the Fund and the Council for Namibia was initiated with the visit to New Delhi, in
May 1987, of a delegation led by the Council President which called on India's
Prime Minister and had detailed discussions in the Ministry of External Affairs.

India maintained its traditional position on the question of decolonisation,
stressing the criticality of the United Nations and of the negotiation process in this
regard. Principal resolutions on decolonisation, on the particular questio ns of
Western Sahara and the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and on scholarships and
educational assistance to students from colonial territories, continued to be c o-
sponsored by India. In its statements, India made clear its belief that the fut ure
of a colonial territory belongs to all its people and as such must be. freely
determined by them. in his statement before the Plenary Session of the forty-
second UN General Assembly, the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri K.
Natwar Singh, said : "The heightened military presence of outside powers (in the
Indian Ocean) is in conflict with the Declaration of 1971 on the Indian Ocean as a
Zone of Peace. It demonstrates vividly that the main objective behind the 1971
Declaration is as valid today as it was when the Declaration was made. What is
more, it shows the futility of efforts to dilute the thrust of the primacy i n the
objective of the Declaration,! which is to tackle the external threat in the


Indian Ocean. It is in this context that we believe that for, the proposed
international conference on the Indian Ocean to achieve meaningful results, it,
would be necessary to ensure that all big powers with military presence i n the
Indian Ocean participate." The consensus resolution, adopted by the UN General
Assembly, calls for the convening of the Conference on the Indian Ocean at
Colombo at an early date but not later than 1990. The. resolution also requests
the Ad Hoc Committe e to hold three preparatory sessions in 1988, each of a
duration of one week, one session of which could be held in Colombo in
accordance with a decision to be taken by the Committee at its first session in
1988. The resolution was adopted both in the First Committee and in the Plenary
Session without vote.

India's application for registration and allocation of a mine-site of 150,00 0
square kilometres in the Central Indian Ocean was unanimously accepted by the
Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) for the International Seabed Authority and
for the International. Tribunal of the Law of the Sea at its resumed fifth session in
July-August 1987 held in New York. India thus achieved the unique distinction of
becoming the first registered Pioneer Investor under Resolution II of the Final Act
of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea signed in 1982. The decision of the
PREPCOM gives India the right to explore and develop the resources of the deep
seabed which contain rich deposits of polymetallic nodules, which include
important minerals like manganese, nickel, copper and cobalt.


India's achievement was welcomed by the Commonwealth Summit held in
Vancouver, Canada, in October 1987, by the Non-Aligned Movement at its
Ministerial meeting in New York in October 1987, as well as. by the UN General
Assembly, which in a resolution on the Law of the Sea adopted at its forty-second
Session termed the decision to register India's application for a mine-site a
"historic" one. Disarmament Issues During 1987, India played a leading role in
the three main multilateral disarmament fora, namely, the conference on
Disarmament, the UN Disarma- ment Commission and the First Committee of the
UN General Assembly. This


was in keeping with the consistent Indian belief that in the nuclear age, di sarma-
ment is necessary not just for the maintenance of peace but for the very surviv al
of mankind, India continued to emphasise the validity of the multilateral
approach by reiterating that the search for unilateral security through nuclear
deterrence must be replaced by a search for global security through nuclear
disarmament. In the Conference on Disarmament, the sole multilateral
negotiating body, India maintained a position of principle and played a leading
role in the group of neutral and non-aligned countries by calling for
commencement of negotia- tions on critical issues of prevention of nuclear war,
cessation of nuclear arm s race and nuclear disarmament and a comprehensive
Nuclear Weapons Test Ban Treaty. In the negotiations for a convention on
Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, India took the stand that nothing in the
Convention should be used to hamper the development of chemical industry and
international cooperation in this field for peaceful purposes.

In the UN Disarmament Commission, the deliberative body dealing with
disarmament issues, India continued to stress the importance of retaining the
priorities attributed to nuclear disarmament and other weapons of mass destruc-
tion. India also chaired the Working Group dealing with the development of
guidelines on nuclear disarmament. In the first committee of the UN General
Assembly, the Indian resolu- tions on Convention on non-use of nuclear weapons
and nuclear freeze were adopted by large majorities, as in the previous years.
India played an importan t role in the adoption, without a vote, of a resolution on
the Third Special Sess ion of the General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament
(SSDD-III). This session will be held from 31 May to 25 June 1988. It is to be
preceded by a meeting of the Non-aligned Foreign Ministers. The First Committee
adopted 63 resolu- tions and India supported the vast majority of these. At the
first Preparatory Committee Meeting for SSDD-III, the only new item on the
agenda relating to the technological imperative of the arms race was added on
the initiative of India. The Special Political Committee of the UN General
Assembly considered the report of the Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Outer
Space (COPUOS) in November 1987. On 3 November 1987, Austria introduced
the draft, resolu- tion entitled "International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of
Outer Space"


on behalf of the Working Group. The resolution was adopted without a vote both
in the Committee and in the General Assembly, As usual, India voiced its serious
concern over the militarisation of outer space and made a strong plea for keeping
space free from the arms race. No decision could be reached on the issue of new
items for the agenda. India reiterated its strong plea for peacefu l uses of nuclear
energy. India participated in the events connected with the Int er- national Year
of Peace. Eight Indian organisations and the city of New Delhi were awarded
"Messenger of Peace" certificate.

The UN Conference on Disarmament and Development was held in New York from
24 August to 11 September 1987. India was elected President of the Conference
by acclamation. Earlier, India had been elected Chairman of the forty-four
member Preparatory Committee for the Conference. The success of the
Conference was in no small measure due to the efforts of the Indian delegation to
the Preparatory Committee as well as the delegation to the main Conference.
Although the USA did not attend the Conference, the Western allies of the US
attended and displayed a positive attitude towards the relationship between Dis -
armament and Development. The Conference, where the relationship between
Disarmament and Development was discussed for the first time at a political level
inter-governmentally, was a historic one and was able to adopt the Final
Document by consensus.

In 1987-88, the leaders of the Six Nation Initiative continued their efforts to bring
about the first steps towards complete nuclear disarmament. To mark the Third
Anniversary of the First Appeal issued by the Six leaders, another joint statement
was released in May 1987. The statement takes into account developments in
1987, the major development being the Soviet offer of an agreement on the
Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) in Europe. Follow- ing the "agreement
in principle" reached between the Super Powers on the INF in September 1987,
the Six Nations, in a joint statement issued on 7 October 1987, welcomed this
development, calling it "a historic first step in the direc tion of our common goal,
namely, total nuclear disarmament".

Just before the Summit meeting between President Reagan and the Soviet
General Secretary Gorbachev, the Six Nations sent a message on 7 December
1987, wishing the two leaders success in their efforts to achieve nuclear
disarmament. The message further expressed the hope that the Summit

meeting would yield a spirit in which more far-reaching disarmament agreemen ts
can be quickly elaborated and concluded.

The Six leaders met for their third Summit in Stockholm from 21 to 22 January
1988 and issued the Stockholm Declaration. The Declaration notes that when the
Initiative was launched, more than three years ago, prospects for disarmament
looked grim. Since then, the Six have welcomed the resumption of the dialogue
between the Soviet Union and the United States. The signing in Washington on 8
December 1987, of the INF Treaty is a historic first step, and no time should be
lost before more far-reaching nuclear disarmament agreements are achieved. The
Declaration reiterates the call for a Comprehensive Test Ball Treaty (CTBT) and
pending that, an immediate suspension of all nuclear testing, and the call for
preventing an arms race in space. Recognizing the importance of verification of
compliance with disarmament agreements, the Declaration notes the need for the
establishment of an integrated multilateral verification system within the United
Nations.

The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, in his address at the Summit, congra-
tulated General Secretary Gorbachev and President Reagan on their vision and on
the sensitivity they had shown to the need to dismantle and destroy the nucl ear
weapon system. Further, he described the INF Treaty as a historic beginning and
said that "there can be no relapsing into the complacency of coexisting with the
instruments of our own destruction." The goal must remain the dismantling of all
nuclear arsenals as the precursor to general and complete disarmament.
Therefore, the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi continue, the INF Treaty should
constitute the commencement of a time-bound process of nuclear disarmament.

Economic Issues The overall climate before the start of the forty-second session
of the UN General Assembly was perhaps somewhat better than that before the
forty-first
session as a result of the positive outcome of the seventh session of the UN Co n-
ference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD-VII) which adopted its Final Act as
a consensus document. Further, the modest recovery in the industrialized
countries, had been sustained in the, period under review, thus slightly improv
ing the world economic situation. The developing countries, however, continued
to face serious economic problems. Though there was greater recognition of the
need


for sustained, and increased economic growth as a means of overcoming
international economic problems, this common understanding did not result in
any meaningful progress in concrete areas. Except for the consensus outcome of
UNCTAD-VII, the overall standstill in international economic negotiations in the
UN fora continued in 1987. The industrialized countries, particularly the United
States, have been following a strategy whereby the role of the UN is confined to
acting as a forum for genera l exchange of views rather than for serious
negotiations on concrete issues. Such negotiations are increasingly being
restricted to the domain of specialised for a, such as the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World
Bank, where developed countries enjoy greater weightage in decision-making.
The major industrialized countries also show. a tendency to consult and reach
agreements on far-reaching issues among themselves without fully involving the
wider international community, especiall y the developing countries. In this
difficult negotiating climate, India's effort s were aimed at preventing any erosion
of fundamental positions of the developing countries while simultaneously
continuing to work for progress in new areas.

The Indian delegation played a constructive role in negotiations leading to the
Declarations adopted at the Ministerial Meetings of the Group of 77 and of the
Non-aligned countries, both held immediately prior to the General Assembly
Session in New York. At the forty-second Session of the General Assembly,
negotiations in the field of international economic relations were dominated by
the issue of external debt and related subjects, environmental matters and the
critical economic situation in Africa. On environment and on the critical econo mic
situation of Africa, the General Assembly was successful in reaching consensus
positions. Regrettably, there was no such consensus on the issue of debt and th e
Assembly had to resort to a vote. The Indian delegation played an active role i n
facilitating consensus on the resolutions on environment. Protracted discussion s
were necessary to take account of the concern of developing countries that in-
creased international attention to environmental issues should not lead to the
introduction of new conditionalities in development assistance given by the mul
ti- lateral financial institutions and that increased financial and other resources
should be made available to the developing countries to respond effectively to en-
vironmental challenges. The conciliatory role played. by India in this matter w as
greatly appreciated.

In some other important areas too, the UN General Assembly reached consensus
positions mainly because the action sought was of a limited or proce- dural
nature such as in the, field of science and technology, the substantial N ew


Programme of Action for the Least Developed, Countries, the Global Shelter
Strategy to the Year 2000 and the Plan to Combat Desertification and Drought.

The Pledging Conference for the Operational Activities for Development for 1988
showed an increase in nominal terms in the pledges for the major funds and
programmes of the United Nations. Partly, this was attributable to exchange rate
variations. However, the UN Fund for Population Activities continued to face a
difficult situation because of the withholding of contribution by the Un ited States.
India's efforts for enhancing cooperation among the developing countries
continued in various fora. India participated actively at the Sixth meeting of the
Inter-Governmental Follow-up and Coordination Committee held in Havana in
September 1987, which adopted the guidelines for the operation of the Perez
Guerero Trust Fund and conducted a sectoral review of the Caracas Programme
of Action for cooperation among developing countries. The Indian delegation also
participated actively in the Sixth Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77 held in
Havana in April 1987 in preparation for the Seventh Session of the Unit ed
Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD-VII).

Administrative and Budgetary Matters Though the severity of the financial crisis
of the UN, which had dominated the discussions in the UN General Assembly
during its. 1986 session abated some - what in the period under review, the
financial difficulties of the organisation and its cash flow problems are far from
over. However, after a gap of several years, the Fifth Committee of the UN
General Assembly was successful in avoiding any negative vote from the major
contributors on the budget for 1988-89 for which a figure of US $ 1.769 billion
was approved. The USA, Japan and Australia, which in the recent past had voted
against the budget, abstained; the European Economic Community (EEC)
countries changed their vote from negative to that in favour. Israel was the only
country to cast a neg ative vote. The greater support to the organisation's budget
can be seen in the light of the new budget process mandated by the UN General
Assembly during its 1986 session, which had called for the broadest possible
agreement in decision- making and which had put a cap on overall expenditure.

The Fifth Committee of the UN General Assembly adopted by consensus a non-
aligned resolution on the current financial crisis facing the Organization.




India played an active part together with other Non-aligned countries. The
resolution requests the President of the General Assembly, in consultation with
the Secretary-General, to keep under consideration the possibility of re-conven
ing the forty-second session of the General Assembly at an appropriate time in
1988 to discuss the financial situation of the organization. It requests the Secreta
ry- General to inform all member states on the magnitude of the current financial
crisis, to seek their views on the financial situation of the organization and to
prepare a report for the consideration of the General Assembly.

India supported an initiative taken by a number of developing countries to correct
the present geographical imbalance in the composition of the Com- mittee for
Programme and Coordination, an Inter-Governmental Committee which
recommends priorities among UN programmes. This body has been given new
responsibilities in recommending an overall level of the budget and in monitori ng
the implementation of the General Assembly resolution 41/123 on the review of
the Efficiency of the Administrative and Financial Functioning of the United
Nations. The membership of the Committee was increased from, 21 at present to
34, with 7 seats for Asian States, 9 for African States, 7 for Latin America n
States, 7 for West European and other States and 4 for East European States. In
the elections held for the new seats this year, India,Bangladesh, Pakistan and
Bahrain were declared elected with India getting the largest number of votes.

The Fifth Committee also decided this year to incorporate the population figure of
member states as an additional factor, with a 5% weightage, for the purpose of
deciding the indicative range of recruitment of their nationals to t he UN
Secretariat, subject to geographical distribution. While the need for inclus ion of
the population factor was recognised by the General Assembly 25 years ago,
this factor had so far been applied region-wise. India was among the countries
which pointed out that the composition of the UN Secretariat would continue to
be inequitable unless the population of individual member states was given
separate weightage.

Social and Humanitarian Issues India continued to take an active interest in social
and humanitarian issues considered in the UN General Assembly, the Commission
for Human Rights and other related Human Rights fora in the United Nations.

344 EA/88--10
Indian representatives at the forty-third Session of the Commission on, Human
Rights, held in Geneva in February-March 1987, and the thirty-nineth Session of
the Sub-Commission for the Prevention of Discrimination and Protec- tion of
Minorities, held in Geneva in August 1987, made statements and moved
resolutions on the most serious human rights situations in the world arising fr om
apartheid in Southern Africa, the continued colonisation of Namibia and the
occupation by Isreal of Arab territories, including Palestine. India also conti nued
its positive contribution to the ongoing standard-setting exercise of drafting
conventions relating to the rights of the child and rights of migrant workers, as
also the ongoing discussions on the practical measures to implement the Dec-
laration on the Right to Development adopted in the forty-first Session of the UN
General Assembly.

The situation of Tamils in Sri Lanka came up for discussion during the forty-third
Session of the Commission on Human Rights. In March 1984, the Commission
had appealed to the parties concerned in Sri Lanka to take, inter alia, necessary
measures to strengthen and maintain peace and restore harmony and had
expressed the hope that they would succeed in achieving a satisfactory solution
to the problem. As the situation had since deteriorated further, the Commission,
by consensus, adopted for the first time a resolution on Sri Lanka calling upon all
parties and groups to renounce the use of force and acts of violence and to
pursue a negotiated political solution. During deliberations in the Commission,
India had stressed that only a negotiated political settlement could resolve the
problem in Sri Lanka and that India was prepared to continue its good offices for
this purpose. She recalled that India and Sri Lanka were friendly countries with
many common values and aspirations and with a common stake in peace,
stability, progress and development and that India stood for a peaceful solution
of the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka where the aspirations of all communities were
met within the integrity and unity of Sri Lanka.

On 16 March 1987, India presented its 8th and 9th periodic reports to the
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in accordance with its
reporting obligations under the International Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Racial Discrimination. Members of the Committee were briefed on the
steps taken by India to combat apartheid, racism and racial discriminati on both
at the national and international levels. Members of the Committee congra-
tulated the Government of India for the instructive and comprehensive report an
d expressed satisfaction at the results achieved.

In the forty-second Session of the UN General Assembly, India continued to play
an important role in the deliberations of the Third Committee, which adopt -


ed 72 resolutions out of which 52 resolutions were adopted without vote and 20
by recorded votes. India co-sponsored, among others, resolutions relating to th e
future work of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, the
United Nations Working Group on Migrant Workers, resolutions calling for
humanitarian assistance to Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia, and a procedural
resolution welcoming the appointment of the Special Rapporteur to investigate
"Mercenarism". India also co-sponsored a resolution on "Right to Development".

A traditional resolution initiated by India on "National institutions for the p ro-
motion and protection of human rights" attracted far more co-sponsors this year
and was adopted by consensus in the General Assembly.

Elections to UN Bodies and other International Organizations India's role in the
United Nations was reflected in the results of elections to important bodies. India
was elected to the Economic and Social Council and to the Committee for
Programme and Coordination, securing in both cases the highest number of votes
among candidates from the Asian Group. Earlier in the year, India was also
elected to the Commission on Human


Settlements, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, the Executive Board of UNICEF
and the Com- mittee on Transnational Corporations. India's Permanent
Representative to the UN was elected Chairman of the Commission on
Transnational Corporations. India also successfully contested elections to the
following international bodies : the Council of the International Maritime
Organisation, the Programme and Budget Committee of the United Nations
Industrial Development Organiza- tion (UNIDO), and the Council of the Food and
Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the UN. India's nominee for the post of
Executive Director of the Internatio nal Centre for Public Enterprises, an inter-
governmental organization based in Yugo - slavia, also successfully contested the
election for the post.

Activities of the Non-Aligned Movement Even after handing over the
Chairmanship of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) to Zimbabwe in September
1986, the Indian role and activity in the Movement has remained at a high pitch.
India worked closely with the other member countries to create consensus within
the Movement on major inter- national issues. India also emphasised that the
Movement should play an in-


creasingly active role on global economic issues, particularly those concern - ing
the developing countries. India actively participated in various meetings or-
ganised during the period under review.

The Extraordinary Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-
aligned countries on Latin America and Caribbean issues was held in Georgetown,
Guyana, from 9 to 13 March 1987. India was among the two Asian countries who
attended at the level of the Minister for External Affairs. India 's presence was
highly appreciated and remarked upon as symbolic of the importance that India
attaches to this region. The Ministerial Meeting of the NAM Committee of Nine on
Palestine was held at Harare on 14 and 15 April 1987. The Indian delegation was
led by the then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari. The meeting was
addresse d by Mr. Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). It adopted a declaration focussing on the
conven - ing of an International Peace Conference on the Middle East.

India was also an active participant at the Extraordinary Ministerial Con- ference
on South-South Cooperation held at Pyongyang, the Democratic People's


Republic of Korea (DPRK), from 9 to 13 June 1987. The meeting undertook an
overall review of the present status of South-South Cooperation and consider ed
appropriate measures to speed-up implementation of existing action program-
mes of the Non-aligned and other developing countries and future approaches
and policies aimed at increasing cooperation. India also participated in a
delegation of the NAM Committee on Central America which went to Managua and
Caracas from 20 to 23 August 1987, to ex press the solidarity and the support of
the Movement for the Contradora pro- cess and the regional peace initiative
symbolised by the Guatemala Accord. The delegation was led by the Zimbabwean
Foreign Minister.

The meeting of the Ministers' and the Heads of delegation of the Non- aligned
countries to the forty-second session of the United Nations General Assembly was
held at New York from 5 to 7 October 1987. The meeting adopted a communique
with a view to facilitate the coordination of positions and action s of the members
of the Movement during the General Assembly.


The NAM Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation of which India
is a member, met at Pyongyang in June 1987 and subsequently at New York in
October 1987. Its mandate, inter alia, is to strengthen and broaden the position
of the Non-aligned and other developing countries in regard to multilateral
economic cooperation. An important development during the year under review
was the obtaining of the 30 required signatures for the operationalisation of the
NAM Centre for Science and Technology of the Non-aligned and other developing
countries in New Delhi.

Commonwealth Summit Conference at Vancouver India continued to play an
active role in the Commonwealth of Nations. The Vancouver Summit, in which the
Prime Minister of India participated, undertook a comprehensive review of the
international political and economic situation. The Summit demonstrated the
Commonwealth's determination for a continued thrust and momentum in the
campaign against apartheid. It adopted a broad framework for the programme of
action on Southern Africa which includes, inter alia, continued efforts for
universalisation of sanction against South Africa, moni- toring and evaluation of
sanctions on a continuous basis, commissioning of an expert study on Southern
Africa's relationship with the international financial systems, call to the
international community to provide material assistance to the Frontline and
neighbouring States and, in particular, the setting up of a speci al Fund to provide
technical assistance to Mozambique, efforts for promoting real


internal dialogue and increasing Commonwealth contacts with South Africans of
differing view points and high priority to counteracting South African propa-
ganda and censorship. An eight-member Foreign Ministers' Committee, which
includes India as a member, was set up to ensure continuing momentum and
follow-up on the programme of action on South Africa.

The other major positive results of the Summit were, the Commonwealth's
disapproval of the events in Fiji based on racial overtones and acknowledgement

that Fiji's membership of the Commonwealth lapsed with the emergence of a
republic; acclamation of the Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement as an act of the highest
statesmanship which would ensure regional peace and stability; a declaration on
world trade which expressed concern on global protectionist barriers and under-
scored the need to give special consideration to the interests of the develo ping
countries ; and progress in Commonwealth functional cooperation, in particular,
the decision to establish a Commonwealth University and College net-work in the
field of Distance Education.

International Law : Development and Activities During the year under review,
India was successful in concluding an Extra- dition Treaty with Canada which was
signed in February 1987 in New Delhi and subsequently ratified. The Indo-
Canadian Treaty is a unique and most recent extradition treaty which India has
signed and ratified, Many of its provisions were formulated with a view to
combating problems relating to terrorism and it also provides for a framework for
promoting expeditious extradition between the two countries. A significant
feature of the treaty relates to identificatio n of certain grave offences like
offences against civil aviation, hijacking, hostage - taking, kidnapping, damage to
property or disruption of public facilities ail offences relating to fire-arms,
weapons, explosives or dangerous substances, wh ich shall be regarded as
terroristic and not as political for purposes of extraditi on.

Another significant feature of the Extradition Treaty with Canada is that, breaking
away from the previous tradition of listing extraditable offences, it adopts a 'no
list' method whereby any conduct constituting an offence punishabl e by the laws
of both the contracting States by a term of imprisonment for a peri od of more
than one year is designated as an extraditable offence.

Yet another significant feature of the Treaty is that even if the request for
extradition may be refused by the requested State, the person whose extra-
dition is sought may be tried for the extradition offence in its own Courts.
However, in deciding whether or not to refuse a request for extradition, the re -
quested State shall consider which contracting State has felt or will feel the
effects or consequences of the offence more gravely or immediately.

During the year under review, yet another landmark in combating terrorism at a
regional level was taken when the seven SAARC countries signed a Regional
Convention on Suppression of Terrorism at the Third SAARC Summit held in
Kathmandu, Nepal, on 4 November 1987. The SAARC Convention is conceived as
an umbrella Convention which incorporates in Article I the same list of seri ous
offences as are contained in the Indo-Canadian Treaty to identify them as


terroristic offences which for purposes of extradition shall not be treate d as
political. The SAARC Convention also provides that any processing of the reques t
of extradition between any two parties shall be in accordance with the laws and
regulations of the requested State. It also specifies that the requested State shall
have absolute discretion to refuse extradition for reasons specified in Article VII
of the Convention.

The SAARC Convention signed in Kathmandu on 4 November 1987, is subject to
ratification by all the States before it comes into effect. India, l ike the other
member states of SAARC, is examining its laws with a view to giving full effect to
the provisions of the SAARC Convention before it could ratify the same. The
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) held its
twentieth session in Vienna from 20 July to 14 August 1987. At this session, the
Commission adopted a Draft Convention on International Bills of Exchange and
International Promissory Notes and a Legal Guide on Drawing up International
Contracts for Construction of Industrial Works. India played an active part in the
negotiations and drafting of the Draft Convention and the Legal Guide.

The Draft Convention comprises 91 articles and is designed to overcome
difficulties arising from the present disparities between major legal systems o f
the world by establishing universally acceptable legal rules for new bills of excha
nge and promissory notes which trading parties and banks could use in their
credit of financing transactions. It proposes a self-contained system of negotiable
in stru- ments and attempts to minimise departures from the contents of existing
princip al systems-civil law and common law. When the systems differ, a choice
or com- promise between the divergent rules has been made on the basis of
current commercial practice and needs. The new convention would allow
international bills of exchange and promissory notes to be denominated as
payable in monetary uints of account such as Special Drawing Rights (SDRs).

It would also allow those instruments to have floating interest rates, varying
according to market conditions thus permitting them to qualify as negotiable
instruments. The Legal Guide is designed to assist persons involved in the
drafting and negotiations of industrial works. It reviews the full range of issues
arising i n connection with the construction of industrial works from the initial
stages of

a project to its completion and suggests ways in which those issues might be
dealt with in the contract. The discussions in the Legal Guide and the solution s


recommended therein are intended to achieve a balance between the interests of
the parties to the contract and to enable the parties, especially developing
countries, to formulate equitable contractual provisions.

Although the UNCITRAL had recommended that the Draft Convention be adopted
through a resolution by the General Assembly, the Sixth Committee decided to
refer the Draft Convention for examination by a Working Group of Experts. At its
twentysixth session held at New York from 16 March to 3 April 1987, the Legal
Sub-Committee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space continued
its discussion on draft principles relating to the use of nucle ar power sources in
outer space and matters relating to the definition and delimit a- tion of outer
space and the character and utilisation of the geostationary orbi t.

Welcoming the draft principles on the use of nuclear power sources in the
working paper submitted by Canada, India expressed the hope that a consensus
would emerge regarding their adoption. According to these draft principles,
States launching space objects with nuclear power sources on board would bear
international responsibility for their activities, and would be internationally liable
to pay compensation for damage caused by those space objects.

During the discussions on definition and delimitation of outer space, India
stressed that it was a necessary step to achieve a clear distinction between the
legal regime of airspace, with its inherent features of State sovereignty, terr
itorial integrity and security, and that of the outer space regime in which outer
space treaties applied.

Regarding the use of the geostationary orbit, India reiterated its view that, being
a limited natural resource, this orbit should be used for the benefit of all mankind
and that all countries should have equal and equitable access to it as opposed to
the currently prevailing first-come-first-served system. India also stressed the
urgent need to develop criteria and arrangements for the rational and equitable
use of the geostationary orbit and the radio frequency spectrum based on the
genuine needs of all countries, present and future.

The General Assembly in 1986, vide Resolution 41164, asked the Legal Sub-
Committee to recommend the choice of a new item for inclusion on its


agenda. The Group of 77 reiterated its request for a new item on "Legal aspe cts
related to the access of States to the benefits derived from the exploration ad d
utilisation of outer space". In all, five proposals were made, but the Sub-Com-
mittee could not reach agreement on any one of them.

At its thirty-nineth Session held in Geneva from 4 May to 17 July 1987, the
International Law Commission dealt with the Draft Code of Offences against
Peace and Security of Mankind, non-navigable uses of international rivers, inte r-
national liability for injurious activities not prohibited by international law , the
second part of the topic of the relations between States and international orga -
nisations and the programme and working methods of the ILC.

On the basis of the fifth Report submitted to it, the Commission was able to refer
certain draft Articles to the Drafting Committee. The Drafting Com- mittee was
able to finalise some Articles and postponing others due to lack of time. During
this Session, the question of establishing an International Criminal Cou rt with an
optional jurisdiction was discussed with some members including the Indian
member expressing doubts about the desirability and acceptability of establishing
such a Court.

On the question of non-navigable uses of international rivers, the Com- mission
discussed the Third Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on certain
procedural questions dealing with the duty to cooperate, notification, ex- change
of data and information in the case of projects likely to cause serious, adverse or
appreciable harm to the co-riparian State and settlement of disputes .

The view was expressed by some members, including the Indian members, that
the duty to cooperate should not be construed in vacuum and should be treated
as having reciprocal obligations and that the duty to notify, exchange data and in
- formation should be subject to the more fundamental principle of sovereignty of
a State over its natural resources and the duty to avoid legal harm to the, co-
riparian State and that the principle of settlement of disputes should be subje ct
to the State's right to have free choice of means.

The question of liability was discussed on the basis of the Third Report submitted
by the Special Rapporteur which proposed that the State of Origin of
an accident should owe liability for all the damages or consequences arising ou t
of it provided it has the knowledge or the means to know that the activity in
question is carried out within its territory or in areas within its control and that it
created an appreciable risk causing trans-boundary injury. This concept of liability
received criticism from different perspectives. The Indian member hel d 344
EA/88--11

the view that in the case of the operation of multi-national corporations wi thin a
State, particularly developing countries which had no means to control the acti -
vities of such corporations or compel them to share all relevant information, t he
liability should be placed more at the door-step of the multi-national corporat ions
itself. The subject of the relations between States and international organisat ions
dealt with an outline submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the privileges and
immunities of the organisation, of officials, and of experts and special missio ns
for, or persons having official business with the organisation. The Drafting
Committee during the course of this Session dealt with the draft Articles on the
Draft Code and non-navigational uses of international wat er courses.

The Commission also discussed the rationalisation of its working methods
including the need to develop target based programmes for the entire five years
so that work could be completed on several of the pending topics before it. The
item on International Terrorism was subject to lengthy and intricate debate in the
Sixth Committee (Legal) of the UN General Assembly because of the Syrian
proposal for convening a conference to define international terroris m and to
distinguish it from the struggle of peoples for national liberation. The re were
prolonged negotiations among the West Europeans, the East Europeans and the
Non-aligned relating to the draft resolution on the item. As a result, a si ngle
draft resolution was prepared reflecting the viewpoints of the three groups aft er
giving due weight to the Syrian proposal. It was adopted by the Sixth Committee
by a vote of 128 in favour, 1 against and one abstention.

The draft resolution is considered to be a victory for the Non-aligned coun-
tries in that A recognizes that the effectiveness of the struggle against terro rism
could be enhanced by establishing a generally agreed definition of internationa l
terrorism. It urges all States to fulfil their obligations under international law and
take effective and resolute measures for the speedy and final elimination o f
international terrorism. Taking into account the proposals made during the fort y-
second session of the General Assembly to hold an international conference on
international terrorism, the resolution requests the Secretary-General to seek the
views of member states on international terrorism in all its aspects and on way s
and means of combating it, including, inter alia, the convening, under the aus-
pices of the United Nations, of an international conference to deal with inter-
national terrorism.

The subject of non-use of force was under consideration of the General Assembly
of the United Nations since 1976. The General Assembly in 1978, constituted a
Special Committee on Enhancing the Effectiveness of the Principle s of Non-Use of
Force in International Relations. The Special Committee was charged with the
task of preparing the draft of a treaty on the subject, as req uested by the USSR.
Since then opinions were highly divided in the Special Com-
mittee as to whether it is advisable for the Special Committee to engage in the
task of drafting a treaty on the subject. In 1986-87, the preponderant opinion in
the Special Committee was in favour of preparing a declaration on the subject a
nd not a treaty. After extensive consideration, a draft of a declaration was prepa
red by the Special Committee and submitted to the United Nations General
Assembly.
On 18 November 1987, the declaration was adopted by the General Assembly
without a vote. The declaration states that every State had a duty to refrain in its
international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial
integrity or political independence of another State. It further st ates that no
consideration of whatever nature could be invoked to warrant such a threat or
use of force and that States must fulfil their obligation under internationa l law to
refrain from organising, instigating, assisting or participating in paramili tary,
terrorist or subversive acts, including acts of mercenaries.

During 1987, India concluded 74 treaties and agreements of which a list is given
at Appendix III. Of particular importance is the Indo-Burmese Maritime Boundary
Agreement which was signed in Rangoon on 23 December 1986 and which came
into force with effect from 14 September 1987, upon exchange of Instruments of
Ratification in New Delhi.
pg68

Foreign Economic Relations

CHAPTER IX

FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS

World Economic Situation

The world economy is on the verge of recession with only a modest expan- sion
in recent years. The slow growth path is evident from the rates of growth of
output which declined somewhat from 3% in 1985 to 2.8% in 1986. Trade
continued at 4% growth in 1986; commodity prices declined further; new lend-
ing, to developing countries has contracted and debt service has
become even mo re difficult. Recent figures indicate that the total debt of
developing countries reached US $ 1.1 trillion by the end of 1986. The continuing
stagnation of capital flows to developing countries resulted in a net transfer of
resources of around US $ 30 billion in the fiscal year 198 6,from South to North.
Official Development Assistance (ODA) remained below half the internationally
agreed level of 0.7%.

Many developing countries experienced a decline in per capita income and the
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of developing countries as a group came down to
3.6% in 1986 from 4.2% in 1985. The Asian economies continued to out-perform
the rest of the developing world with a GDP increase rate of almost 6% in the
medium term, according to IMF reports. The fall in the oil prices and interest
rates have offered some relief altho ugh the forecasts of a consequent recovery in
overall global economic growth have not proved accurate. The real interest rates
moreover stand at historically hig h levels.


The exchange rates, despite some stabilisation of the US dollar and inter- vention
by the major industrialised countries, in the currency markets remained uncertain
and unstable. Policy coordination among the large industrialised coun - tries has
been strengthened although the focus seems to be more on exchange rat es
stabilisation. while solutions are required on a wide variety of macro-economic
policies together with surveillance in a process in which developing countries also
have a say. The scope for more expansionary macro-economic policies in the
developed market economies as a whole, led by the surplus countries, is now
beyond reasonable doubt. Inflation has been surmounted and inadequate demand
is placing constraints on investment. The need for growth in surplus countries has
been accepted. Japan has recently announced a major new programme of public
expenditure. Other countries should follow suit or adjust their policies
accordingly.

The Wall Street crash of October 1987 proved the consequences of conti- nuing
large deficits in the budget and trade balance of the USA. The US appears to be
moving now towards greater seriousness in reducing budget deficits. How- ever,
unless measures are taken to stimulate growth and expansion in the South and
not only in the surplus countries, the recessionary trends may continue.
Protectionism has continued to increase despite repeated declarations of
governments and the agreement to launch the new round of Multilateral Trade
Negotiations (MTNs). Recent months have witnessed a significant escalation of
trade disputes and "gray area measures". The underlying causes included tech-
nological change, subsidies to production, past exchange rates misalignment and
most important, slow growth in global income and expenditure.

Growth in international trade in services has matched the growth of trade in
goods with information based business services expanding more rapidly than
traditional ones. Arresting the continuing slide in commodity prices is a task of
considerable urgency and the pace of world economic recovery would play a
crucial role in
nological change, subsidies to production, past exchange rates misalignment and
most important, slow growth in global income and expenditure. Growth in
international trade in services has matched the growth of trade in goods with
information based business services expanding more rapidly than traditional
ones.

Arresting the continuing slide in commodity prices is a task of considerable
urgency and the pace of world economic recovery would play a crucial role in this
regard. Similarly, arresting of protectionism would also require a faster growth.
Substantive flows of financial resources for development from surplus countries to
developing countries, has secured a broad consensus. Japan has


already announced a programme for recycling US $ 30 billion over 3 years,
mainly to the indebted developing countries. A new wave of scientific and
technological revolution in process in the global economy is fundamentally
transforming the socioeconomic life of nations with very significant implications,
potentials, challenges and opportunities fo r the South. Amazingly rapid advances
ranging from superconductivity to the optical fibre, the micro-chip to the bio-chip
and a host of related development s herald an era in which-these new science
and technologies would be the principa l factors in growth, production and
development.

Given also the key and emerging co-relationship between technology, trade and
production, the growth and development process with orderly adjustment would
necessitate enhanced international cooperation in this area. The inter-
dependence between North and South is now widely recognised and them is
evidence that this is on the increase. Developed and developing countries have,
however, been transmitting slow growth to each other. The drop in exports to the
South has been the main reason for the slowing down of growth in developed
market economy countries and the further rise in unemploy- ment.

Both short and long term action and measures are required for stimulat- ing
growth and development as well as addressing the structural and systemic issues
and problems between developed and developing countries. The develop- ment
process must, however, form an integral part of these endeavours.

Multilateral Economic Relations

The Seventh and Eighth NAM Summits at New Delhi and Harare had
proposed constructive and pragmatic approaches for the revival of growth and
development through multilateral cooperation and for arresting the retreat from
multilateralism for development. These also proposed, at the same time, longer
term structural reforms towards the attainment of the New International
Economic Order (NIEO). Reforms in the global and inter-related systems of
money, finance, debt, trade, technology and development are, called for. Macro-
economic policies of key industrialised countries need to be consistent and


coordinated with the objective of stimulating demand and providing growth
impulses to the world economy. A wide measure of consensus now exists that
coordination in promoting exchange rates stability must be accompanied by more
fundamental shifts in macro-policies for these to be meaningful ; that the USA
must reduce budget deficits and that the FRG and Japan, the surplus countries
must expand demand.

Some moves in this direction were being made and the shocks of the Wall Street
crash has led --- more serious moves on the part of the US for reduction of the
budget deficit.

The Venice Summit of industrialised nations of May 1987, reiterated the
commitment to continue and strengthen the process of promoting coordination of
macro-economic policies of the key industrialised nations with enhanced
surveillance as well as resolved to progress towards the target of 0.7% of GNP as
ODA. Some welcome progress has been achieved in this regard especially in
reducing exchange rate misalignment. More concrete actions in pursuit of these
commitments are called for. The recent consensus at the IMF-World Banks
meetings for a General Capital increase in the World Bank's resources Is also a
welcome development as is the agreement on an enhanced International
Development Association VIII (IDA-VIII). The IMF should improve "condi-
tionality" to growth oriented criteria and provide for enhanced liquidity ; the
World Bank's resource base should be strengthened and exchange rate stability
ensured. The phenomenon of net reverse outflow of resources from South to
North should be treated reversed. The Commonwealth Summit stressed the
desirability of substantially increased net outflows from developed to developi ng
countries for greater support to growth-oriented adjustment and development.
The, overall objective of the developing countries as put forward at the Sevent h
NAM Summit of New Delhi for a comprehensive reform of the global monetary
and financial system through an International Conference on Money and Finance
for Development remains valid. Despite considerable work in the IMF and the
World Bank on possible reforms or improvements in the system by the G-24 and
G-10, very little progress has been made in this direction.

The UNCTAD-VII Conference which was held in August 1987,
presented some positive elements in areas relating to resource transfers,
commodities, trade and external debt. Effective follow-up is needed. In the
resources area, on debt, there were detailed negotiations concerning the debt
strategy and how the treatment of the debt crisis could be improved,


An agreement was reached on the strategy for the debt problem which was
recognised to be a shared responsibility. This strategy had three elements which
included for the first time the responsibility by major market economy countrie s
to improve through suitable policies the international economic environment ; the
second element was adjustment by the debtor country concerned which it was
agreed, should be growth-oriented ; the third element was renewed and
increased financial flows from the creditors. On financial flows, the ODA targets
were reaffirmed and official creditors as well as banks were urged to increase
financial flows. A call was made for meeting expeditiously by donors, their
commitment for the IDA-VIII replenish- ment and for ensuring that IDA terms
and conditions remain highly conces- sional.

On commodities, the most important development was the decision by the USSR
to rectify the Common Fund. This led to renewed interest in the possi- bility of its
being made operational and encouraged several other countries including Ivory
Coast, Peru, the Ecuador to announce their ratification, or in- tention to do so,
bringing it close to operationalization. In the international trade sector a mandate
was given to the UNCTAD on elaborating proposals to strengthen the
international trading system including the implicit notion of establishing an
International Trading Organisation for which UNCTAD could itself provide the
nucleus. The conference also called for reviewing and strengthening UNCTAD's
mandate to carry out work on services in the context of the Uruguay Round of
MTN and there was also a reaffirmation of "roll-back" and "stand-still" within the
UNCTAD and an affirmation that the existing multilateral commitments would not
be made conditional on new concessions in other sectors.

The new round of multilateral trade negotiations remains the single most
important forum for the large part of the international community to strengthen
and liberalize the global trading system with due regard to concerns and intere
sts of the South and to improve the GATT machinery. The issue of services
requires some detailed expert studies on definitional and statistical aspects t o
improve the database in the first instance. Services of interest to the third w orld
need to be addressed and the developmental dimensions of this issue should be
central to the discussion of services. Cross-linkages between goods and service s
should be avoided consistent with the consensus reached at the UNCTAD-VII and
the Uruguay Ministerial Compromise for separation of pods and services


in the new Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN)--the hitter outside the GAT T
framework. Full respect for national legislations and socioeconomic priorities and
objectives in any consideration of this issue, will be of essence. The issu e of
technology transfer needs to be addressed in tandem with the new MTN,
especially since many services are highly technology intensive and issues relat
ing to intellectual property are being taken up. In the light of rapid developments
in the services issues and their importan t implications for the South, we have
suggested that the newly established South Commission examine the full
implications of these developments for useful inputs to the positions of the
developing countries, since services are a relat ively new areas where rapid
changes are taking place.

The USA has proposed a GATT based intellectual property agreement, covering
goods and services which would effectively amend the existing Paris Convention
of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), seeking to extend their
coverage and make norms more mandatory ; many developing countries have
been critical as these go beyond the jurisdiction of the GATT. India has rejected
these, calling for such issues to be dealt with in WIPO. The Commonwealth
Summit of October 1987 adopted a declaration, on World Trade highlighting that
special consideration be given to developing countries in the New Multilateral
Trade Negotiations (MTN).


India has taken initiatives to facilitate the enhancement of the capacities of the
South to adapt and develop new science and technologies through a NAM and G-
77 Conference to meet in New Delhi in May 1988. It also took the initiative in the
United Nations to commence a new process of international cooperation for
sharing the fruits of these scientific and technological develo p- ments for the
promotion of peace and a better quality of life, especially for Committee on
Science and Technology which was held in August 1987, at our initiative, a
Resolution was adopted by consensus seeking programmes, projects for shared
development and cooperation in research, information and training technology
forecasting and assessment in New and Emerging Science and Technology
(NEST).

With a view to revitalising the strategies of the South in international economic
cooperation and enriching its negotiating platform, the Eighth NAM 344 EA/88--
12

developing countries. During the nineth Session of the UN Inter-Governmental
Summit had approved the establishment of a Standing Ministerial Committee of
NAM with a little over 25 members from Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe.
The Committee has held two meetings in 1987. South-South cooperation has
evolved as a major objective of the Non- Aligned Movement and the Group of 77
(developing countries) for the attainment of collective self-reliance and economic
independence and for enhancing the leverage of the South in the world economy
and in international economic relations as an important part of efforts to establish
the New International Economic Order (NIEO).


The key issues in the programmes of cooperation of the South are
(i) science and technology, especially new and high science and technologies an d
Technical Cooperation Among Developing Countries (TCDC),
(ii) Global System of Trade Preferences,
(iii) regional and inter-regional payments and clearing arrangements for financing
trade,
(iv) galvanising of information, exchange arrangements-Multi Sectoral
Information Network and expansion of Research and Information System (RIS).
The setting up of an Independent Commission of the South for develop- ment
issues can provide positive inputs on important economic issues. The Commission
has commenced functioning with its Headquarters located in Geneva. Dr.
Manmohan Singh, former Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, has
been appointed Secretary-General. There are 28 members, all eminent
personalities from developing countries, including Shrimati Devki Jain from India.
It has received pledges for contributions totalling almost US $ 5 millio n from
around 18 countries. India is the largest contributor having paid US $ 400,000 to
the South Commission Fund.

The Commission has formally commenced functioning with a first meeting held
recently from 2 to Oct 05, 1987. The next meeting of the Commission will take
place in March 1988 in Kuala Lumpur. We have informally provided inputs to the
Secretary-General that while development experiences of the South as well as
future prospects be reviewed and assessed, the principal theme of the
Commission may more usefully be facilitating the attainment of collective self-
reliance of the South and provid ing suggestions for revitalising the North-South
dialogue to enable an improved external environment for development. We have
made several suggestions regarding the issues to be considered in the work
programme.


Intensive efforts are underway within the Group of 77 to implement the Caracas
Programme of Action in eight spheres of economic activities. One of the important
initiatives taken under the ECDC, in which considerable progress
has been made, is the establishment of the Global System of Trade Preferences
(GSTP) for which negotiations have already begun. Over 60 developing countries
have so far signified their willingness to join the negotiations and arrive at
expanding, creating and diversifying intra-South trade based on preferential
arrangements. The negotiations would cover not only tariff but also non-tariff
barriers and direct trade measures, i.e., long term contracts e tc.The proposal for
a NAM Centre on Science and Technology was initiated around a decade ago (in
1975) for providing a firm foundation to NAM's efforts at collective self-reliance in
this important area. India's offer to ho st the Centre was accepted in 1978. The
NAM Coordinating Bureau also finalised and adopted the Statute of the Centre in
1985.

The Statute required a minimum of 30 signatures for its entry into force as well
as ratification. To enable an early operationalisation of the Centre we launched a
massive diplomatic campaign to lobby for obtaining the required signatures as
well as simplifying procedure to enable its entry into force on a provisional basis.
These efforts reached a successful outcome at the recent NAM Ministerial
Conference on South-South Cooperation at Pyongyang which was held in June
1987. We are now in the process of inviting nominations to the Governing Council
to enable its constitution and its first meeting in New Delhi daring 1988-89.

According to the Statute, the Centre will seek to promote collaboration among
scientists and technologists from developing countries and will assist in
establishing links between nations and technology. It is envisaged that the Centre
will have a mobilising and catalytic role. Its main task would be to function as a
clearing house of information on technological needs, capacities of the South,
maintain a registry of scientific and technical experts and appoi nt panels of
outstanding experts for preparing state-of-art reports on technologie s of direct
relevance to developing countries. India will be hosting the first Inter-
Governmental Consultative Conference of Experts on new and high technologies
of interested Non-aligned and deve- loping countries at New Delhi in May 1988.
Invitations have been sent to 25 developing Countries in August 1987 together
with the agenda and theme paper of the Conference. A Technology Pool of the
South for collective research,


development and application of science and technologies, information and dat a
exchange and cooperative arrangements for training and consultancy ; a Pre-
ferential Technology Arrangement for facilitating transfer and exchange of
technologies within the South and an Inter-Governmental Consultative Group of
new and high science and technologies to meet on a continuing basis, have been
proposed by us. These have already secured a broad endorsement at the South-
South conference of NAM Ministers at Pyongyang in June 1987.

At the nineth Session of the UN Inter-Governmental Committee for Science- and
Technology (August, 1987), the international community adopted by consensus,
our proposal that South-South cooperation be accorded priority in the
programmes and projects of the UN Centre for Science and Technology and the
UN Fund for Science and Technology.

NAM Ministers met at Pyongyang in June 1987, to review the entire gamut of
issues and activities in the South-South cooperation. Among the more important
features of the outcome of the conference was that the decision to, operationalise
the NAM Centre on Science and Technology in New Delhi and the endorsement
and welcoming of our initiative in new and high science and technologies. It also
made significant recommendations in regard to regional and inter-regional
payment and clearing arrangements for expanded trade ; and political support to
important exercises such as the Global System of Trade Preferences (GSTP) and
the Research and Information System (RIS). It reviewed the, progress in the
implementation of the decision of the New Delhi Ministerial Meeting and the
Harare Summit to rationalize and streamline the Action Programme for Economic
Cooperation of NAM, compressing the 23 sectors of cooperation to 13, taking into
account the
inter-relationships of is sues. Harmonisation and coordination of activities
between G-77 and NAM were also furthered.

The annual review of the Caracas Programme of Action on South-South
cooperation has recently been undertaken at Havana at the Inter-Governmental
Follow-up and Coordination Committee-VI (IFCC-VI), meeting from 7 to 12
September 1987. The meeting conducted a sectoral review of the 8 spheres of
economic cooperation in the Caracas Programme of Action, namely,
trade,technology, food and agriculture, energy, raw materials, finance,
industrialisation and tec h-


nical cooperation and made recommendations with a view to providing stimulus
to the more worthwhile activities in South-South cooperation for concrete results.
Bilateral Cooperation through ITEC

India's commitment to promote cooperation, in the spirit of South-South
cooperation, with the other developing countries of the world in Africa, Asia and
Latin America, found expression in the bilateral scheme of assistance under the
Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) Programme operated by the
Ministry of External Affairs. This bilateral programme of assistance supplements
other multilateral schemes such as the Colombo Plan and the Special
Commonwealth African Assistance Programme. The ITEC Programme which was
launched in 1964 with a modest outlay of Rs. 4.61 lakhs, has steadily expanded
over the years to cover, presently, over 60 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin
America, with a budgetary outlay of over Rs. 12 crores.

The salient features of the ITEC Programme are : providing technical training in
India to the nominees of the developing, countries in various field s, deploying
Indian Experts to developing countries to assist them in upgrading, the skills of
their technicians and experts, undertaking feasibility and techno - economic
studies, sponsoring visits of Indian experts/delegations to developing countries to
provide consultancy services and of experts of developing countrie s to India to
study our technical, economic and industrial projects and progress, organising
workshops and special training programmes, execution of various projects and
supply of equipment.

As in previous years, during 1987-88 also, 700 slots were earmarked for
nominees of developing countries for training in Indian institutions. Nearly 15 0
Indian experts were placed in developing countries on short or long term
assignments. Some of the ITEC activities during 1987-88 of which mention may
be made, have been The Fourth Session of the Indo-Mauritian Joint Commission
on Economic, Technical and Cultural Cooperation held in Mauritius from 20 to


22 July 1987. Under the Agreed Minutes, India agreed to provide to Mauritius
techno-economic assistance of the value of Rs. 100 million. The important
projects taken up for assistance during the year are the construction and
equipping of the Jawaharlal Nehru Hospital and the equipping of the
Subrahmaniya Bharati Eye Hospital.

Among the other significant socioeconomic and industrial infrastructure projects
accepted for implementation under the ITEC Programme during the year are :
(a) Construction and equipping of the Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health--
expansion Project--in Kabul ;
(b) Provision of medical equipment to the hospital in Kampuchea and the
restoration and preservation of the Angkor Vat Temple in Kampuchea
(c) Supply of equipment for the Buffalo and Forage Research Centre and Rice
Research Centre in Vietnam;
(d) Setting up of Pilot Weaving Centre and Water Development and Management
Project in Ethiopia
(e) Setting up of an Electronic Design Centre Laboratory in Thailand, and
(f) Several other projects in a number of developing countries.

Some of the other notable ITEC activities during 1987-88 have been : (a) A
three-member team of experts from the National Small Industries Corporation
(NSIC) was deputed to Aden (PDRY) to conduct feasi- bility studies for the setting
up of an Industrial Estate-cum-Training Centre ;
(b) An expert in bio-gas technology Was deputed to Uganda to conduct a
feasibility study on the setting up of bio-gas units there
(c) A two-member team of Indian Railways was deputed to Mozambique to
participate in a workshop on Computerized Wagon Control
(d) A two-member NSIC team was deputed to the Philippines to advise them on
the setting up of Small Scale Units ;
pg79

(e) A three-member team visited Vietnam to examine and review the functioning
of the Buffalo and Forage Research Centre and the Rice Research Centre ;
(f) A three-member medical specialists team visited Aden (PDRY) for special
treatment of patients there ;
(g) An expert in textile technology was deputed to Nicaragua to examine and
advise the Nicaraguan authorities on the modernization of their textile mills. A
two-member team of experts from Nicaragua visited India to study various
industrial fields to identify projects for bilateral cooperation. The Ministry of
External Affairs also assisted foreign Governments in recruiting Indian experts on
a bilateral basis. It also made its contribution towards the promotion of Indian
economic interests through its representation in bodies such as the Inter-
Ministerial Joint Venture Committee, the EXIM Bank, the Export Credit and
Guarantee Corporation (ECGC), the Federation of Indian Engineering Organisation
(FIEO), the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT), the Project and Equipment
Corporation (PEC), the Overseas Construction Council of India (OCCI), the
Educational Consultants India Ltd. (EDCIL) and the Hospital Services Consultancy
Corporation India Ltd. (HSCCIL).
pg80

Oct 05, 1987
Policy Planning And Research

CHAPTER X

POLICY PLANNING AND RESEARCH

The Policy Planning Division of the Ministry continued to function under the
overall guidance of Foreign Secretary and the supervision of an Additional
Secretary. During the year under review, the Policy Planning Division interacte d
with other Divisions of the Ministry and the officials participated on a regula r
basis in inter-Ministerial and inter-departmental meetings. The Policy Planning
Division continued to maintain active contacts with the Area Study Centres of
various Universities specializing in international af fairs. Among the Seminars and
Symposia, which were partly financed by the Policy Planning Division, particular
mention may be made of the following
(i) A conference on "Media and the Struggle against Apartheid" was or- ganized
from 26 to May 27, 1987 by the NAMEDIA Foundation in New Delhi. It was
attended by 90 distinguished journalists and media personalities from India and
Africa. One of the main objectives of the Seminar was to create increased
awareness about the struggle being waged against apartheid by the black
majority of South Africa. In the concluding session, the Seminar was addressed
by the then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari. The participants issued
by consensus a statement called the "New Delhi Media Statement Against
Apartheid", at the conclusion of the Seminar.
(ii) A Seminar on "NRI's (Non-Resident Indians) in the Gulf' was organis- ed in
Goa by the Economic Development Corporation of Goa from 6 to 7 June 1987 to
discuss the problems regarding NRI investments in India.
(iii) An Anti-Apartheid Meeting was held in Goa on 8 June 1987, organis- ed by
the Anti-Apartheid Committee of Goa. This was inaugurated by Shri Eduardo
Faleiro, the then Minister of State for External Affairs.


An exhibition was also organised by the DAVP on the occasion. The meeting was
also attended by the Ambassador of SWAPO and the Chief Representative of ANC
in India.
(iv) A Seminar was organised in New Delhi by the Indian Centre for Studies on
Indo-China, New Delhi, on the "Problems of Peace and Security in Asia :
Perception of countries of Indo-China" in July 1987. The Seminar discussed the
security problems facing the Indo-China region from various dimensions.
(v) A Seminar on "Africa : Today & Tomorrow" by the Centre for East African
Studies, University of Bombay, was held from 5 to 7 October 1987 at Bombay.
The Seminar dealt with the following themes : the role of External Powers and
the Apartheid System; Struggle against Apartheid; Struggle for Freedom in
Southern Africa-India's Contri- butions; etc. The Seminar was inaugurated by
Shri Eduardo Faleiro, the then Minister of State for External Affairs, at the
Bombay Univer- sity.
(vi) A Young Afro-Asian Writers' Symposium was held from 22 to 26 October
1987 by the Afro-Asian Writers' Association in New Delhi. The Symposium, inter
alia, discussed the role of young writers and scholars in highlighting the freedom
struggle movement in the Afro- Asian countries. It specifically discussed the role
of Indian writers in this context. The Conference was inaugurated by the Vice-
President and the valedictory address was delivered by the then Minister of State
for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro.
(vii) A Seminar on "The Changing International Peace and Security Scenario,"
was organised on 27 November 1987 by the India Inter- national Centre, New
Delhi. It was held on the occasion of the first anniversary of the signing of the
New Delhi Declaration of 26 Novem- ber 1986 and focussed the attention on the
international impact produced by it.

Besides providing the underpinning for Foreign Policy issues with back- ground
notes from a historical perspective, the Historical Division also prepar ed a large
number of research papers on topics of current international importance . In this
endeavour, the Division maintained close liaison with various Divisions of the
Ministry and other concerned Ministries and Departments of the Government of
India. Such interaction and interchange helped enhance the quality of the wo rk
(tone in the Historical Division which in turn helped make available, the resul t of
such studies, to Indian Missions abroad as well as to other Governmental
agencies. 344 EA/88--13


An important function of the Historical Division has been to examine the depiction
of India's external boundaries appearing in maps published abroad and in India
and to take remedial action in cases of incorrect depiction of boundar ies. The
Division participated in all boundary talks with countries with which India is
seeking negotiated settlement of boundary issues. To support the research efforts
a well stocked Library exists which has over one hundred thousand books and
documents in its collection. During 1987 alone, 2140 books, 490 maps, 700
pamphlets and 54 reels of microfilm were added. The Library subscribes to 563
periodicals (446 foreign and 117 Indian) besides 36 daily newspapers (23 foreign
and 13 Indian). Back-files of The Hindu (Madras), Bangladesh Observer (Dhaka),
Daily Review, Izvestia and Pravda (Moscow), Dawn (Karachi), Pakistan Times
(Rawalpindi), Egyptian Gazette (Cairo) Guardian (Rangoon), International Herald
Tribune (Hong Kong), Renmin Ribao and China Daily (Beijing), Sun (Colombo),
Suna (Khartoum), Standard (Nairobi) and the Times (London) are being
maintained.

The Library is equipped with a microcomputer, a microfilm reader printer and a
plain paper photocopier. From April 1986 the Library has initiated a
computerisation of Documenta- tion/Bibliographic Service. All new documents,
books, periodicals, articles etc .

are being fed into an in-house microcomputer to create Database on Foreign
Affairs. Using this Database, the Library provides Current Awareness Service and
bibliographical services. In addition the Library regularly issues a monthl y
Chronicle of Events, a Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin and an annotated
monthly list of books added to the Library.

From June 1987, Loan Records of the Library are also being maintained on the
Microcomputer. During 1987 action has been initiated on the creation of
following Databases

*Statements on Foreign Affairs by PM/EAM/MOS/FS

*Country Notes

*List of Indian Treaties/Agreements in force.


May 27, 1987
External Publicity

CHAPTER XI

EXTERNAL PUBLICITY

The year-long celebrations of the Fortieth Anniversary of India's Independ- ence
starting Aug 15, 1987 helped to give a new impetus to the already conti- nuing
efforts of the External Publicity (XP) Division to project the image of a modem
and dynamic India and to promote widespread awareness of India's progress in
diverse fields--economic, industrial, scientific and technological besides its rich
cultural heritage and the resilience of its democratic institu tions. The foreign
press in Delhi was briefed regularly about India's policy on various issues. Our
Missions abroad also kept in regular touch with the foreign media to brief them
about the current developments in India and to provide them with factual
material on matters of current interest. To that end, the XP Divis ion provided
information bulletins mainly by twice daily transmissions to 74 Missions/Posts
abroad. Besides 49 Missions received bi-weekly press cables and 15 posts
received regular information bulletins by diplomatic bags.

The XP Division continued to undertake the printing and publication of high
quality Publicity literature on India depicting different facets of India' s national
life in English, French, Spanish, German and Arabic. These publication s have
been widely circulated by our Missions abroad and have been found to be
extremely popular and useful.

For the year-long celebrations of the Fortieth Anniversary of India's
Independence, the XP Division chalked out a comprehensive programme to make
world-wide impact as follows :
(1) A package of 13 feature films was dubbed into various languages viz. English
(5 sets), French (2 sets) and Spanish and Arabic (1 set each). These were sent to
our Missions abroad for organising film festivals during the year-long
celebrations.


(2) The XP Division acquired 3 sets of an exhibition consisting of high quality
photographs showing progress made by India in different fields under the theme
India-Tryst with Destiny for organising photo exhibitions by our Missions abroad.
Each set has 45 panels, with a panel having more than one photograph and a
write-up suitably ex- plaining the exhibition. The photographic exhibitions have
already been organised by a number of Missions and such exhibitions are to be
arranged during the rest of the Fortieth Anniversary year in a number of other
Missions.
(3) A thirty-minute TV Documentary, A Nation on the March on the achievements
of India during the last 40 years was supplied to all our Missions abroad. This was
shown on National TV hook ups in over 40 countries.
(4) The XP Division assisted in the publication of supplements by leading
newspapers abroad on the occasion of the Fortieth Independence Anniversary
celebrations. Besides, some other leading newspapers, also brought out
supplements or published special articles on the occasion.
(5) The XP Division distributed 30 feature articles, especially commis- sioned, to
our Missions abroad for being used by the local media on the occasion of the
Fortieth Anniversary of India's Independence cele- brations. 30,000 photographs
were sent to our Missions abroad to supplement and illustrate these articles.
(6) 147 colour slides each were sent to about 100 Indian Missions for use during
the year-long Independence Anniversary celebrations.
(7) Two elegant publications viz. India-A Democracy on the Move, and India-Four
Decades of Democracy and Develoment have been brought out in English, Arabic,
French, German and Spanish languages. Another high quality hard cover
publication, India-Continuity in Change has been brought out in English. All these
publications have been widely distributed by our Missions abroad. The XP Division
helped to bring in sharp focus the ongoing ethnic problem in Sri Lanka. In June
1987 the XP Division took about 100 foreign
and Indian mediamen to accompany the relief supply to Jaffna in Sri Lanka. Later
35 foreign and Indian correspondents were taken in aircrafts which dropped relief
supplies to the people in Jaffna. After the signing of the Indo-Sri Lanka Accor d in
July 1987, the XP Division took over 80 foreign and Indian mediamen to observe
the surrender of arms by the militant Tamil organisations. The coverage in the
International Press on the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord and. the subsequent


developments was generally favourable. The XP Division continued to brief
regularly the foreign and Indian mediamen on the day-to-day developments. A
high quality booklet on the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord was produced in English,
French, German and Arabic languages and distributed widely through our
Missions abroad.
Apart from the regular publication of a fortnightly magazine, Indian and Foreign
Review, its French counterpart Courrier de L' Inde and the monthly Foreign
Affairs Record, the XP Division brought out about a score of elegant publications-
some of a regular nature like the Prime Minister's statements on foreign policy,
some others of a general nature and some relating to specific occasions to
achieve optimum results. Since last year the External Publicity Division has been
placing increasing emphasis on the circulation of audio-visual material by Indian
Missions abroad. By now all Indian Missions have been authorised to equip
themselves with tele- vision sets and video cassette recorders. The video libraries
provided to our Missions abroad depicting India's agricultural, industrial, scientific
and tech nolo- gical progress and different facets of our cultural heritage, apart
from topics of contemporary interest, were updated and strengthened. In close
cooperation with Doordarshan, the XP Division continued to regularly send a
Television capsule entitled India Magazine every week to all our Missions abroad
about develop- ments in India. These capsules were widely welcomed. These
programmes were also lent out by our Missions abroad to individuals, cultural
organisations and educational institutions for wider impact. These programmes
have proved to be extremely useful in catering to the needs of the Indian
community and to the people of Indian origin abroad. They are being used
extensively by the Indian ethnic television stations in the USA and in Canada, and
are being viewed not only by the Indian community but also by other foreign
expatriates.

Keeping in view the increasing popularity of Indian films across the world, the XP
Division acquired a number of high quality feature films which are in the process
of being subtitled in French and Arabic. All these films have alrea dy been
subtitled in English and have been sent to our Missions abroad for circula - tion
and screening on the Missions' premises. The XP Division also provided our
Missions with documentary films produced by the Films Division covering different
aspects of India's national life.

The photo libraries of our Missions abroad containing photographic slides on
different facets of developments in India were strengthened. The Missions ar e


also being regularly supplied with photographs of current developments in In dia.
During the 9 months ending December 1987, about 50,000 news-photographs
and 13,000 colour transparencies were sent to our Missions abroad. The XP
Division continued to maintain close liaison with the media rep- resentatives from
abroad, and with the resident foreign and Indian media rep- resentatives
accredited to the Press Information Bureau and rendered them assistance in
doing their work. During the year under review, the XP Division made complete
logistical arrangements, with the help of our Missions abroad, for the media
parties which accompanied the Prime Minister abroad on his visits to Moscow (2
to 4 July 1987), Sri Lanka (29 to 30 July 1987), Japan, Canada and USA (11 to
21 October 1987), Nepal (2 to 4 November 1987) and Burma (15 to 16
December 1987). On these occasions, press kits and audio-visual material were
sent to ou r Missions abroad in the countries concerned for a pre-publicity build-
up. Simi- larly, the XP Division made logistical arrangements including Press
Conferences for visiting foreign dignitaries and the accompanying media parties.

The XP Division continued to subscribe to the feature news services of news
agencies and commissioned special articles on the occasion of the Republic Day
and the Independence Day for dissemination abroad. The publication of special
supplements on India by foreign newspapers journals magazines were facilitated.

With the assistance of the Ministry of Home Affairs, the XP Division con- tinued to
regularly brief our Missions abroad on the developments in the Punjab and to
counter extremist propaganda against India. Our Missions abroad have adopted a
multi-pronged approach, including keeping in close touch with the resident Indian
communities to brief them regularly about the developments in India including
the situation in the Punjab, with a view to isolate the hostile elements. Selected
Missions abroad were also provided with information from the Punjab
Government about the developments in the Punjab.
pg87

Aug 15, 1987
Cultural Relations

CHAPTER XII

CULTURAL RELATIONS

The activities of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations diversified furt her
during the year 1987-88. Cultural delegations sponsored by the Council toured
different regions of the world. The Council provided Indian audiences an oppor-
tunity to witness some of the best performing groups from abroad. During the
year the Council sponsored visits of over 31 cultural troupes and provided
assistance to a large number of artistes to perform abroad. These in- cluded
troupes which were sent to participate in various important festivals an d
celebrations held by various countries. The Council arranged for over 24 eminent
Indians to travel abroad to present various facets of India's culture before
international audiences. These include d scholars, theatre experts, poets and
other eminent personalities. The Council handled a number of foreign cultural
troupes as part of various cultural events such as the Africa Festival and the
Festival of USSR in India. A thirteen-member Chinese performing group visited
India during January- February 1987 as part of their tour of South Asia.

The Council received over 25 distinguished personalities which included scholars,
poets and academicians. Student delegations from Bhutan and Bangla- desh were
also received. The Council organised several large scale cultural manifestations
during the year such as the Africa Festival in India and India in Switzerland 1987.
The latter was a major cultural presentation undertaken by the Council entirely
on its own, and was inaugurated in Geneva- and Zurich by the then Vice-
President


of India, Shri R. Venkataraman. The collaborators for the Festival from the Swiss
side were Pro-Helvetia, an autonomous cultural institution funded by the Swiss
Federal Government. The Festival which was organised in seven Cantons of
Switzerland presented Indian culture in its multiple facets. Prominent artis tes
who participated in this festival were musicians like Bismillah Khan, Imrat Kha n,
Lakshmi Shanker, the Dagar Brothers and eminent dancers like Durgalal,
Malavika Sarukai and Sanjukta Panigrahi. There were exhibitions of Indian
architecture, photography and cartoons. The world premier in English of Peter
Books' Mahabharata in Zurich was a part of the Festival. The Council was also
entrusted with the performing arts component of the Festival of India in, the
USSR Indian Manifestation in Sweden and International Ocean Festival in
Mauritius. The Council also handled within India the leading performing troupes of
the Festival of USSR in India. Brief details of these festivals are as under :

The total lumber of artistes selected by the Council for the Festival of Indi a in
USSR was 1,502 including distinguished artistes like Pt. Ravi Shankar, M. S.
Subbulakshmi and Bismillah Khan. The Festival was inaugurated in Moscow on Jul
03, 1987 by the Prime Minister of India and the General Secretary of the Soviet
Communist Party. ICCR presented inaugural classical concerts in Moscow at the
Kremlin Palace of Congresses from 4 to 10 July 1987 featuring, among others,
Shrimati M. S. Subbulakshmi, Ustad Bismillah Khan, Ustad Imrat Khan, Shri
Lalgudi Jayaraman, Shri Chitti Babu and Shrimati Parveen Sultana. The Classical
concerts were also organised by the Council during the inaugural events at
Leningrad and Tashkent.

Eminent artistes who participated in these concerts included Dr. Dorai- swamy
Iyengar, Pt. Birju Maharaj, Pt. Ram Narayan, Pt. Hari Prasad Chaurasia and Shri
Shiv Kumar Sharma. The artistes who participated in the inaugural events also
visited 110 cities of the USSR to give per- formances. A special concert was
organised in Moscow on 15 August 1987 on the occasion of the Fortieth
Anniversary of the Independence of India. The Kalakshetra Dance Troupe and
Ustad Amjad Ali Khan performed before a distinguished audience which included
Dr. Shanker Dayal Sharma, the then Governor of Maharashtra.

The Indian Manifestation in Sweden was officially inaugurated on 21 August 1987
by Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, Minister for Human


Resource Development and the Prime Minister of Sweden. The Council handled
the performing arts component of the Festival. The Council sent about 106 folk
artistes to participate in the inaugural Mela for three days on 21, 22 and 23
August 1987 respectively. The inaugural events included concerts by Pt. Bhimsen
Joshi and a Lai Haroba group of Manipur. Forty-two folk artistes participated in
the Park Circuit tour after the inaugural Mela.

The Council coordinated the participation of 213 performing artistes in the
International Ocean Festival in Mauritius. Classical artistes of inter- national fame
who participated were, Padma Subramanyam, Guru Jaya and Banashree Rama
Rao, Madhavi Mudgal and Savita Devi. Fourteen folk groups from various parts of
India also participated. The ITDC organised a Food Festival and the Trade Fair
Authority of India organised a Fashion Pageant. INS Vidyagiri of the Indian Navy
was despatched to Mauritius for the festival.

The Africa Festival gave the people of India a glimpse of the vibrant richness of
the culture of Africa. This festival was organised in India from 25 May to 7 June
1987 with the participation of 6 African countries. The countries represented at
the Festival were Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mauritius, Nigeria and Senegal.
The Festival of USSR in India was inaugurated on 19 November 1987. The
Council was entrusted with the presentation of the leading performing troupes of
the Soviet Festival including the Bolshoi Ballet and the Soviet Circus. The
proceeds were donated to the PM's Relief Fund. These events included the
following :

The inaugural concert of the Masters of Soviet Arts programme was held on 22
and 23 November 1987, in the presence of the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi,
and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, Mr. N. I. Ryzhkov. The
Masters of Soviet Arts Prog- ramme in Bombay was held on 8 December 1987 at
the NCPA Theatre.

The State Brass Orchestra group performed on 25 and 26 November 1987 at
Talkatora Stadium. The group also performed in Karnal, Sonepat, Bombay,
Bangalore and Calcutta.

Puppet shows by the group, Vinius Puppet Theatre Lele were organis- ed on 25,
26 and 27 November 1987 at Azad Bhavan with the 334 EA/88--14


collaboration of UNIMA India. The programme was also arranged in Hissar,
Bhiwani, Karnal, Haridwar and Bombay. The world famous Bolshio Group
performed Giselle and Love for Love at Siri Fort Auditorium with live orchestral
accompaniment. The inaugural concert was held in the presence of the President
of India, Shri R. Venkataraman. The Group also gave concerts in Bombay,
Bangalore and Calcutta but with recorded music.

The Circus, Carnival of the World and Rhythms of the Planet (Soviet Circus) gave
38 shows in Delhi, 33 shows in Calcutta and 31 shows in Bombay. The State Folk
Dance Company of Igor Moiseey performed on 29 and 30 November 1987 at the
Talkatora Stadium. The Council awarded 30 scholarships to foreign students
under its Cultural Scholarship Scheme for 1987-88. It also disbursed scholarships
on behalf of other agencies of the Government of India, besides rendering
assistance in the form of reception on arrival, location of accommodation and
social get-together s. An Inter-Ministerial Standing Committee on Foreign
Students has been set up with the Ministry of External Affairs as the nodal
Ministry and the Council as its Secretariat. The Committee would function as a
coordinating agency to oversee and monitor all arrangements in respect of
foreign students.

During the period under review, the Council organised six study tours for foreign
students to places like Kashmir, Ajanta, Ellora, Bombay, Goa, Alwar, Chittorgarh,
Udaipur, Jaipur, Bangalore, Mysore and Hyderabad and combined sightseeing
with visits to industrial establishments. Receptions were hosted for foreign
students on the occasion of Indian Independence Day, Republic Day and Foreign
Student's Day (11 November) at Headquarters and Regional Offices as well as in
Missions abroad. The Council organised a meeting of the Foreign Students
Advisors on 3 November 1987. The meeting discussed in particular the role of the
FSA in the context Of various steps taken by the Government of India in 1987 to
upgrade and streamline the facilities for foreign students.


The Council also organised Orientation Courses for foreign students, for IFS
Probationers, for the staff recruited for Indian Cultural Centres abroad an d for
the visiting Professors sent on deputation to foreign universities. The Council
continued to publish six quarterly journals, namely, India Horizons, Africa
Quarterly, Gagananchal, Thaqfaud Hindi, Recontre Avec I' Inde and Papeles de la
India. The Council has undertaken publication of Vision of India (reprint),
Readings from India (reprint), Buddhism and National Culture and International
Symposium on India and World Literatures. An Editorial Board has been
constituted to bring out the Maulana Azad Commemorative Volumes on the
occasion of Maulana Azad's Centenary in 1988.

During the period under review the ICCR sponsored eight exhibitions abroad and
received three from outside. An exhibition of contemporary paintings by well-
known Indian artists was sent to the Frankfurt Book Fair and thereafter circulated
to a number of cities in the GDR and Poland. An exhibition of Madhubani
paintings, Indian Musical Instruments and Masks was sent to Italy and
Switzerland.
Switzerland also received an exhibition each on contemporary Indian art and on
Indian archi- tecture.

An exhibition of contemporary Indian Art by eminent Indian women artistes was
sent to Algeria to participate in the Algerian Biennale and it won a number of
awards. The Council participated in the First Art Biennale of Pakistan through an
exhibition of paintings and sculpture at Lahore on 12 January 1988. Under the
Indo-Mexican Cultural Exchange Programmes the Council organised an exhibition
of 80 caricatures by a leading Mexican painter and muralist, Jose Clemente at
Azad Bhawan Art Gallery in April 1987.

The Council sponsored the Young Afro-Asian Writers Symposium from 22 to 26
October 1987 through a special grant from the Ministry of External Affairs. The
Council also organised a function on 16 December 1987 at Azad Bhavan to mark
the International Solidarity Day with the People of Palestine.


The Council functions as the Secretariat for the Indo-US Sub-Commission on
Education and Culture. The joint Media Committee of the Sub-Commission met on
1 and 2 February 1988 at Los Angeles. Thereafter, the Joint Committee on
Cultural Heritage and Endeavours met at the same venue on 5 February 1988.
Based on the recommendations of these two Committees, the Sub-Commission
met in New Delhi from 1 to 2 March 1988 to finalise the work programme for the
forthcoming year.

For promoting greater awareness and appreciation of Indian Cultural Heri- tage
abroad, the Council has established Indian Cultural Centres in Suva (Fiji),
Geogetown (Guyana) and Paramaribo (Suriname), Indian music and dance as
well as Hindi are taught regularly at the Centres by the Indian teache rs posted
by the Council. These Centres maintain libraries, reading rooms and organise
lectures, symposia, exhibitions, essay competitions, staging of plays, screening of
films, publication of news bulletins and develop contacts with a wide cross section
of local citizens including students, teachers, scholars and cultural personalities.
Formalisation of the courses taught at the Centres thro ugh affiliation to
recognised Indian academic institutions universities is at an ad vanced stage.


The Council is taking steps to implement the decisions taken last year to open
new Cultural Centres at Port Louis (Mauritius), Jakarta (Indonesia) and Port of
Spain (Trinidad & Tobago). It has taken possession of the 7-acre plot of land
allotted by the Government of Mauritius for construction of the Centre' s building.
The foundation stone was laid by the Prime Minister of Mauritius on 22 July 1987.
Shri Satish Gujral has been appointed as the Architect for the Centre and the
construction work is expected to commence by April 1988. In Indonesia the
Centre will be functional from February 1988. In respect of Trinidad procedural
formalities are in progress.

The Council deputes Professors of Indology, Languages and allied subjects to
foreign universities. The Council's Visiting Professors of Hindi are located in the
University of Sofia (Bulgaria), the University of Warsaw (Poland), the J agiel-
Ionian University, Cracow (Poland), the National Institute of Higher Educaton,
Research, Science and Technology, Port of Spain (Trinidad), the Humboldt Uni-
versity, Berlin (GDR) and the University of Bucharest (Romania). A Professor of
Tamil is located in the University of Warsaw (Poland) while a Professor of Sanskrit
and Indian Cultural History is based in Udayana University, Bali (Indonesia). The
Council has also deputed a Professor of Vedanta Philosophy to Chiangmai
University (Thailand).


Under the guidelines issued by the Central Cultural Committee of the Gov-
ernment of India in 1971, foreign cultural centres and foreign libraries in pla ces
other than those in which foreign Missions have diplomatic or
consular repre- sentation, are to be managed and supervised by the ICCR. In
pursuance of this the management of British Libraries in various cities, of the
House of Soviet Culture in Trivandrum and supervision of the Max Mueller
Bhavans and of the Alliances Francaise in India have been undertaken by the
Council. During the year, the Council administered the British Libraries located at
Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Patna, Pune, Ranchi and
Trivandrum. The British Library at Ranchi celebrated its Silver Jubilee this year
which was attended by the representatives of the ICCR and the British High
Commission. The Council also administered the House of Soviet Culture,
Trivandrum which conducted Russian Language classes, film shows, exhibitions,
chess tournaments etc. The Council continued its supervision of the activities of
the Max Mueller Bhavan and the Alliance Francaise.

The Council has sent books worth Rs. 4 lakhs for presentation through Indian
Missions abroad. Object d'art reproductions of Indian paintings, handi- craft items
etc. were also sent to the Missions from time to time. A bust of Shrimati Indira
Gandhi was sent to the Indian High Commission, Mauritius for presentation to the
Julien Village Council in Mauritius. The Council also des- patched several hundred
sets of musical instruments on cost-sharing basis to th e Government of
Mauritius. Essay competitions were organised by some of our Missions abroad for
which the Council bad made available prizes in the form of books, musical
records, cassettes, re-productions of paintings, art objects etc.

The ICCR Library continued to offer its specialized reference service to research
scholars working on various aspects of Indian culture. The Centre for Africa was
established within the framework of the ICCR to encourage greater interaction
between India and the countries of Africa. The Centre has an Advisory Panel of
twenty eminent persons under the chairman- ship of the Minister of State for
External Affairs. The Centre organised the inaugural function of the newly formed
Indo- African Society on 24 May 1987. It also coordinated the Africa Festival and
the Ocean Festival in Mauritius. The Hindi Advisory Committee of the Ministry of
External Affairs met in June 1987 and on 15 December 1987 to discuss matters
relating to Hindi and


the Council's work. The computerisation of accounts in the Council has been
undertaken. Payroll and Provident Fund accounts have already been computeris-
ed. A meeting of the Departmental Promotion Committee (DPC) of the Council
also took place during the year and cleared a large backlog of confirmations an d
promotions. A cadre review of the Council has been undertaken. Recommenda-
tions of the Fourth Pay Commission as applicable to the Council have been
implemented.
pg95

Jul 03, 1987

Indians Overseas

Jan 01, 1987

CHAPTER XIII

INDIANS OVERSEAS

Overseas Indians are increasingly being recognised as a potential bridge of
understanding and cooperation between the country of their domicile and India.
They, in turn, have evinced greater interest in developing their cultura l and
economic ties with India to which the Government of India has responded
positively with due regard for the mutual benefit of India and the host country .
Therefore, while the Government of India has always held that persons of Indian
origin should identify themselves with and integrate in the country of their
domicile, it remains alive to their general interests and welfare and has encou
rag- ed promotion of cultural contacts with them. As regards Indian nationals, the
Government of India naturally holds itself responsible for their safety and wel fare
and takes all necessary steps in this regard. Indian Missions abroad are the first
point of contact for the Overseas Indians, and have been instructed to maintain
close contact with the Indian Com - munity living in the country(ies) of their
accreditation and to assist them to the extent possible in overcoming the
problems they may face. Although the require- ment of registering on first arrival
with our Missions exists not many Indian nationals do so. During the year, our
Mission in Bahrain has undertaken a successful exercise of registering Indians
living there despite the large numbe rs involved, which was welcomed by the
Government of Bahrain. The term Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) covers Indian
nationals residing abroad as well as persons of Indian origin at least one of whose
grandparents was an Indian national and the wives of such persons, for matters
pertaining to investment in India. With the liberalisation of rules and procedures
relatin g to investment by NRIs, the Indian Missions abroad are called upon to
respond to queries on a wide-range of subjects connected with investment. They
also extend assistance to NRIs in this regard consistent with laws and regulations
o f the countries of their accreditation. The Special Coordination Unit within the


Ministry keeps the Missions informed about the modifications in rules pertain - ing
to investment by NRIs.
In this context the seminar on "Investment Opportunities in India for NRIs with
particular reference to NRIs in the Gulf" which was organised by the Ministry of
External Affairs in Panaji, Goa, from 6 to 7 June 1987 in collabo- ration with the
Economic Development Corporation of Goa, Daman and Diu proved useful. The
seminar was attended by prominent Gulf NRIs, representa- tives from Central
Government and State Governments and financial institutions and was
inaugurated by Shri Eduardo Faleiro, the then Minister of State in the Ministry of
External Affairs. A number of practical recommendations made at the seminar
were sent to the concerned Ministries Departments of the Govern- ment for
follow-up action which is in progress.

The Special Coordination Unit of the Ministry has a nodal responsibility for dealing
with problems relating to Overseas Indians that may arise from time to time and
participates actively in inter-ministerial meetings dealing with NR I investment in
India.

pg97
Protocol

CHAPTER XIV

PROTOCOL

During 1987, Heads of the Foreign Missions of the following 25 countries left
India on completion of their assignment : United Kingdom, Tunisia, Nigeria,
Japan, Cuba, China, Burkina Faso (non-resident), the Netherlands, Ethiopia,
Turkey, the Federal Republic of Germany, Lebanon, Bhutan, France, Sweden,
Oman, Austria, the Republic of Korea, Sudan, Venezuela, Thailand, Uru- guay
(non-resident), Rwanda (non-resident), the EEC, Czechoslo- vakia and Nepal.

During the year 1987, Heads of Missions of the following 26 countries Presented
their credentials to the President of India : The Saharawi Arab Democratic
Republic, the UAE, Nicaragua, Brazil, Japan, the Arab Republic of Egypt, Tunisia,
Turkey, China, Cuba, Iceland (non-resident), Sweden, the Netherlands, Nigeria,
France, Venezuela, the Federal Republic of Germany, Bhutan, the Republic of
Korea, Sudan, Oman, Niger (non-resident), Brunei Darussalam (non-resident),
Mali (non-resident), Benin (non-resident) and Thailand.

The Commonwealth of Dominica opened its first resident Mission in New Delhi.
The first resident High Commissioner, Her Excellency Mrs. Elizabeth Gilda
Thebaud Mansour presented her credentials to the President on Nov 04, 198 7@.

India opened its first resident Mission in Botswana.
The list of foreign dignitaries who visited India during 1987 can be seen at
Appendix XVIII.
344 EA/88--15

pg98
Passport And Consular Services

CHAPTER XV
PASSPORT AND CONSULAR SERVICES

During the year under review, efforts to render prompt and efficient service to
the public in passport offices continued. Passport issue procedures were further
streamlined and simplified. Presently there are 20 Passport Offices spread all over
the country. A statement showing the number of applications for fresh passport
miscellaneous services received and the number of passports issued
miscellaneous services rendered during the period 1 January to Dec 31, 1987 is
given at Appendix VII. During 1987 the passport offices earned a total revenue of
Rs. 10.64 crores. They incurred an expenditure of Rs. 4.05 crores. A detailed
statement in this regard is given at Appendix VIII.

It was decided to open a new Passport Office at Panaji, Goa. The Passport Office
started functioning from February 1988. The All India Passport Offices Conference
was held from 14 to 16 January 1.988 at New Delhi. The question of issue of
passport was discussed in all its facets and recommendations were made for the
further simplification of existing procedure with a view to cutting down delays.

Inspection of Passport Offices proceeded apace. Emphasis was laid on the training
of the personnel of the Central Passport Organisation in various subjects through
appropriate training institutions like the Foreign Service Training Institute and the
Institute of Secretariat at Tr aining and Management, New Delhi.


The Government decided to computerise Passport Offices in a phased manner
with a view to improving their efficiency. In the first phase computers were
installed in Passport Offices in Delhi, Bombay, Madras and Cochin. 12 other
Passport Offices in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Calcutta,
Chandigarh, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Lucknow, Patna, Srinagar and Panaji will be
computerised in the second phase. The work of the Consular Passport and Visa
(CPV) Division of the Ministry is also being computerised. Systems like the public
grievances system and document system have been developed.

A Committee formed under the Chairmanship of Additional Secretary (Pol.) in the
Ministry has suggested both short and long term measures for improving the
quality of the passport booklet as also for the phased introducti on of machine
readable passport. The recommendations are being implemented. Existing
procedures have been streamlined with a view to identifying areas where
passports could be issued on a priority basis. In order to curb malpractices,
comprehensive guidelines have been formulated to deal with cases of lost and
damaged passports.

During the year 1987, a total of 2480 cases of complaints regarding delay in
issue of fresh passports or renewals were received by the
Complaints and Gri ev- ances Cell of PV Division. Out of those, 1621 complaints
were settled by issuin g passports and rendering the desired services. 35 cases of
Appeals against the order of impounding or refusal of passport facilities to Indian
nationals by the passport offices were received. In 12 cas es, the Chief Passport
Officer heard Appeals and passed orders allowing or rejectin g consideration. 45
cases of forgery of entries in the passports or visas were reported to th e Ministry
Investigations are being made in all these cases of forgeries. 160 applications
were received for issue of Certificates of Identity to stateless persons, most of
them being Tibetan refugees. In most of the cases,


Certificates of Identity have been issued to the applicants. A few cases re- ceived
recently are in the process of being disposed off. 107 requests were received in
the Ministry from Indian Passport holders for grant of endorsement for South
Africa. These cases were disposed of on merits in consultation with the Territorial
Divisions in the Ministry. During the year under review, 876 applications from
Travel Agents were received for recognition to deal with the Passport Offices in
passport matters under the new criteria introduced with effect from September
1986. Out of these, 298 Travel Agencies were approved. The remaining
applications are either in the process of consideration or have been rejected for
non-fulfilment of the prescribed criteria.

Consular Matters
During 1987, a total of 785 cases of deportation came to the notice of the
Ministry. Most of these were from the Gulf countries. Indian Missions Posts
abroad repatriated 478 Indian nationals in distress in foreign countries besides
extending financial assistance, wherever necessary. 447 cases of the deaths of
Indian nationals abroad came to the notice of the Ministry and action was
initiated to claim wage dues, death compensations for the heirs of the deceased
through respective Indian Missions. 236 cases of death of foreign nationals were
also handled. 90188 documents submitted by the public for production to foreign
autho- rities were attested authenticated by the Consular Section. A Regional
Consular Officers meeting was held in Washington on 9 and 10 June 1987. It was
attended by the Consular Officers from Indian Missions in the USA and Canada.
The Head of the Consular Passport and Visa Division of the Ministry as also the
Head of the Foreigners Division of the Ministry of Home Affairs addressed this
conference. Procedures relating to the expeditious disposal of passport and visa
applications as also consular matters were discussed and clarifications given on
various points raised by the Consular Officers.


During the period under review, a number of important changes have been
brought about in visa matters. On reciprocal grounds visa fees were reviewed vis-
a-vis 29 countries. Non-resident Indians proposing to set up industrial ventures in
India would henceforth be granted long term multiple entry visas for two years by
Indian Missions abroad. Foreigners of Indian origin who are above 65 years of
age and wish to return to India to settle down permanently and their spouses
without any age limitation would be granted one year long term visas by the
Indian Missions abroad, under their own powers. The visa manual has been
revised and is presently under print. Singapore and Ireland have introduced visa
regimes for Indian nationals in 1987.




Administration And Organisation


CHAPTER XVI

ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANISATION
Shri N. D. Tiwari relinquished charge as Minister for External Affairs on Jul 25,
1987 and took over as Minister of Finance and Commerce. The Ministry was
placed under the charge of the Prime Minister. Shri K. Natwar Singh has
remained as Minister of State in the Ministry. Shri Eduardo Faleiro relinquished
charge as Minister of State for External Affairs on 14 February 1988 and took
over as Minister of State for Banking and Economic Affairs.
Shri K. P. S. Menon has continued as Foreign Secretary. So has Shri
A. S. Gonsalves as Secretary (West). Shri A. B. Gokhale took over as Secretary
(E & ER) on 9 March 1987. S Shri P. L. Sinai, M. Dubey and A. G. Asrani have
continued as Addi- tional Secretaries. Shri A. K. Banerjee has continued as
Additional Secretary and Financial Adviser. A new Mission at Gaborone in
Botswana and a Consulate General in Tashkent, USSR, were opened during the
year under review. The Ministry thus has 140 resident Missions/Posts abroad
manned by officials from India. The total sanctioned strength of IFS and IFS(B)
both at Headquarters and in Indian Missions abroad is 3651. This includes 28
officers of the Combine d Research Cadre and 30 officers of the Interpreter's
Cadre. The Cadre-wise strength is given in Appendix IX. In addition, there are
1495 locally recruited staff in Indian Missions/Posts abroad.


The Committee of Secretaries had recommended restructuring of the Supply
Wing of the Indian High Commission in London with a view to re- ducing the staff
and; effecting economy. Their recommendations have since been implemented in
consultation with the Ministry of Defence. A list showing the number of officers of
this Ministry who have qualified in various foreign languages is given in Appendix
XI. A record number of Missions were inspected during the year under review.
The nineteen Missions/Posts inspected were Harare, Lusaka, Luanda, Baghdad,
Kuwait, Beijing, Jakarta, Port Louis (Mauritius), Saint Denis (Reunion Island),
Lilongwe, Gaborone, Cairo, Moscow, Stockholm, Helsinki, Ottawa, Vancouver,
Toronto and Thimpu. The Ministry also conducted periodic reviews of the
emoluments of home-based officials as well as locally recruited staff in a very
large number of Missions.

As a means of streamlining administrative procedures and as a measure of
economy, the Ministry has discontinued the practice of supply of crockery to
representational officers other than Heads of Missions and Posts, and has
replaced it with a lump sum grant. The Ministry have also rationalised Rules and
Regulations regarding entitlements abroad of spouses who are also employees of
the Government of India so that discriminatory position of sexes was eliminated.

This year has seen important improvements in telecommunication network of the
Ministry of External Affairs. The staff strength of the Zonal Telex Cent res at New
York, London, Bahrain, Moscow and Tokyo has been doubled to enable them to
work round-the-clock in pace with the Telegraph Section at the Ministry of
External Affairs. A Satellite Teleprinter link has been established with Kathmandu
providing 24-hour communication in place of the old wireless station which was
not working properly. A new facsimile service has been inaugurated. Approval in
principle has been obtained for a project to set up 26 wireless stations in selected
Indian Missions. The Headquarters Station and Wireless Transmitter Stations in
five Missions abroad are proposed to be set up in the next phase. Improvements
have also been effected in the functioning of the CCB.

The work on computerisation of the Ministry was taken up in earnest and
adequate training imparted to officials for this purpose. Several Divisions of


the Ministry have been provided with computers to facilitate information sto rage
and retrieval and to expedite the decision-making process. Funds available for
office automation upgradation of facilities were also fully utilised in order t o
modernise the working environment. The Ministry has strictly implemented
guidelines regarding the purchase of bilingual electronic typewriters and has
acquired considerable capacity in this regard. The Computer Cell with the help of
the National Informatics Centre (NIC), Department of Electronics, has made
considerable progress in the development of application software for
headquarters. A Personnel Information System (PIS) has been developed for the
Administration Division and substantial data entry completed. Similarly, on the
Establishment side, systems have been developed to keep track of the
Immovable Property Purchase and the Rentals paid in respect of hired property.
The hardware and the application software which has been handed over to the
Economic Division, is being put to daily use as a Decision Support System for the
Indian Technical and Economic Coope- ration (ITEC) programme. On the Finance
side also, four software packages have been developed and these are in daily
use. Systems study on the Country Data Banks for use in the Territorial Divisions
has been completed and applica- tion software is being developed. Data entry has
been completed on an Indian Overseas Data Bank. For the Protocol Division, the
gross design of a system to monitor the Duty Exemption Certificates has been
prepared. A Cadre Review System for the IFS(B) prepared for the Cadre Cell of
the Ministry
is at the trial run stage.

For the Ministry of External Affairs' Library, a database on Foreign Affairs and
Diary of Events are operational whereas data entry is in progress on Countr y
Briefs and Statements on Foreign Policy by the Prime Minister, the Minister for
External Affairs and the Minister of State for External Affairs etc. as wel l as a
system on Maps Information. Headquarters' accounts are being computerised on
a regular basis from September 1987. Computers are operational at the Regional
Passport Offices (RPOs) at Delhi, Madras, Bangalore and Cochin. Site-preparation
is in progress at the RPOs at Bhopal, Hyderabad, Lucknow and Goa. Eight other
RPOs are to be computerised in the near future. A Public Grievances Information
System for the RPOs and a Passport Information System for the Passport Visa
Division are functional whereas the Financial and Accounting Package for Passport


Offices is in the trial run stage. For the Indian Council for Cultural Rela tions
(ICCR), systems have been developed for an Artist Data Bank, Cultural Festival
Management System and a Social Welfare Accounting System. During the year
under review, the NIC has provided about 10 PCs, 2 PC/ XTs and 8 PC/ATs to the
Ministry of External Affairs and the ICCR for their computerisation programmes,
besides the minis and other computers purchased for the RPOs from the
Ministry's budget. The Ministry continued to pursue vigorously the policy of
acquiring good properties abroad for residences as well as for offices. As in 1986-
87, the Ministry is confident of fully utilising the available funds in acquiring valua
ble real assets abroad despite the enhanced budget of Rs. 22 crores, in 1987-88.
In addition to major renovations of important existing buildings in major capi-
tals, the Ministry acquired Chanceries at Paris, Accra, Seoul and Budapest.
Residences for Heads of Mission were acquired at Harare, Lima, Budapest and
Kinshasa. Accommodations for other officials of the Missions were acquired in
Kuala Lumpur, the Hague, Colombo and Lilongwe.

Construction projects for the Chanceries at Colombo and Nicosia as well as
residence complexes at Nairobi were completed during the year, under review.
The Chancery project at Islamabad is nearing completion. The Ministry has
finalised the preparation for the construction projects at Lagos and Kuwait and
actual construction is expected to begin in the last quarter of the financial y ear
1987-88. The project for the Chancery at Kuala Lumpur has been approved and
preparation for the construction project, already approved, at Riyadh is moving
ahead. The Conference Cell continued to play. a useful role in providing logistical
support and managerial assistance to the Ministry of External Affairs and other
Departments of the Government of India in organising various International
Conferences. An illustrative list of Meetings and International Conferences whe re
the Conference Cell played an active role is given at Appendix XVI. With the
expertise developed in the Conference Cell in organising inter- national
conferences, the Government of India has been able to save considera- ble
expenditure, including foreign exchange, on such occasions.
334 EA/88--16

pg106



Foreign Service Training Institure (FSTI)

Jan 01, 1987

CHAPTER XVII

FOREIGN SERVICE TRAINING INSTITUTE (FSTI)
During the period under review, the FSTI initiated functional training programmes
for the officials of the Ministry of External Affairs proceeding on transfer to
Missions abroad, and started training programmes on computer appreciation. The
FSTI also conducted courses for the IFS probationers and organized one
Refresher Course for the Head of Missions. During 1987, the number of officials
trained by the FSTI more than doubled from 122 (in 1986) to 289. The number of
Courses increased from 17 (in 1986) to 23. The Courses are detailed in Appendix
XVII.

The twentysix-week course for new recruits to the Indian Foreign Service
consisted of modules on core subjects including (i) India's Foreign Trade, (ii)
Foreign Policy and Extrenal Relations, (iii) National Security, (iv) Inter - national
Law, (v) Indian Culture, (vi) External Publicity, (vii) Consular works , (viii)
Administration & Accounts and (ix) Behavioural Sciences. It also include d an on-
the-job training. The FSTI conducted ten Basic Professional Courses for about 200
Section Officers, Assistants, Upper Division Clerks and Lower Division Clerks, pro-
ceeding on transfer to Indian Missions abroad covering modules on adminis-
tration, accounts, consular and general areas. The Basic Professional Courses
were further re-designed in segments to include Under Secretaries, Private
Secretaries and Personal Assistants. Additional optional segments on areas such
as commercial work, external publicity, office automation were introduced.
Courses on working level knowledge of computers for Directors, Deputy
Secretaries and Under Secretaries were also initiated. Operational level traini ng
programme on computers was initiated for Section Officers, Private Secretaries,
Assistants and Personal Assistants.


One high-level Refresher Course for Heads of Indian Diplomatic Missions in Latin
America was organised to provide conceptual and information update to the
Heads of Missions. As a part of mid-career training programme, modules on
India's Foreign Policy and National Security in the Nuclear Age were open to
Deputy Secretaries and Under Secretaries.

Some of the modules meant for IFS Probationers were open to Defence Attaches
proceeding on assignment to our Missions abroad. Courses on Indian Culture
were open to spouses of the Ministry of External Affairs officers.
pg108



Use Of Hindi In Official Work

Jan 01, 1987

CHAPTER XVIII

USE OF HINDI IN OFFICIAL WORK

During the year under review, the Ministry continued making efforts for the
progressive use of Hindi in official work, both at Headquarters and in Missions
abroad. A Hindi Advisory Committee is functioning in the Ministry under the
Chairmanship of the Minister of State for External Affairs. During the year the
Committee met twice and reviewed the progress made in the use of Hindi in the
Ministry. The Committee made various suggestions on which suitable follow-up
action was taken. In addition, an Official Language Implementation Committee is
also functioning in the Ministry under the Chairmanship of Additional Secretary
(10).

Pursuant to the targets fixed in the Annual Programme for the year 1987-88
regarding the use of Hindi, issued by the Department of Official Language, the
Ministry inspected its Passport Offices at Bombay, Chandigarh, Bangalore,
Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Jaipur, Patna, Cochin and Kozhikode with a view to
assessing the progress in the use of Hindi in these offices. Necessary instruct ions
were issued to the concerned offices for compliance with Government orders
regarding the Official Language. Besides, various sections in the Ministry itse lf
were inspected with the same objective.

During the year, Hindi workshops were conducted in the Ministry with a view to
encouraging officials to do their official work in Hindi. A 'Hindi Week ' was also
organised for the same purpose. Besides this, a Hindi Essay Competi- tion was
also organised.

The Ministry continued its efforts to propagate Hindi abroad. Several standardized
sets of Hindi books on various facets of India as well as text-boo ks
pg109

Devanagari typing machines, Hindi Linguaphone cassettes and records, childre n's
literature and Hindi charts were sent to various Indian Missions abroad for hel p-
ing them to build standard Hindi libraries as well as for donation presentation to
the deserving governmental and non-governmental institutions organisations
engaged in propagation of Hindi abroad. There has been considerable progress in
the Children's Hindi Teaching Scheme abroad. Seven more Missions began
organising Hindi classes for children.

As in the previous years, OSD (Hindi) of the Ministry was sent to PMI, New York
to assist the Indian delegation to the UN General Assembly.
pg113

Appendix-I Division-wise List of Countries/Organisations


Jan 01, 1987

APPENDIX I

Ministry of External Affairs-Division-wise List of Countries/Organisations
   AFRICA DIVISION                    AFRICA DIVISION-Contd.

1. Angola                        34.Seychelles
2. Benin                         35.Sierra Leone
3. Botswana                      36.South Africa
4. Burkina Faso                  37.Swaziland
5. Burundi                       38.Tanzania, United Republic of
6. Cameroon                      39.Togo
7. Cape Verde                    40.Uganda
8. Central African Republic      41.Zaire
9. Chad                          42.Zambia
10.Comoros                       43.Zimbabwe
11.Congo
12.Cote d'Ivoire                    AMS DIVISION
13.Equatorial Guinea             1. Canada
14.Ethiopia                      2. United States of America
15.Gabon
16.Gambia
17.Ghana                              AP DIVISION
18.Guinea                        1. Afghanistan,
19.Guinea-Bissau                 2. Pakistan
20.Kenya
21.Lesotho
22.Liberia                            BSM DIVISION
23.Madagascar                    1.   Bangladesh
24.Malawi                        2.   Burma
25.Mali                          3.   Indian Ocean
26.Mauritius                     4.   Maldives
27.Mozambique                    5.   Sri Lanka
28.Namibia
29.Niger
30.Nigeria                         EAST ASIA DIVISION
31.Rwanda                       1. China, People's Republic of
32.Sao Tome and Principe        2. Hong Kong
33.Senegal                      3. Japan

     334 EA/88--17
                                                                         pg114
     EAST ASIA DIVISION-Contd. EW DIVISION-Contd.
4.   Korea, Democratic People's 24.Turkey
     Republic of                25.United Kingdom of Great Britain and
                                   Northern Ireland
5.   Korea, Republic of
6.   Mongolia
     EE DIVISION                   GULF DIVISION
                                1. Bahrain
1.   Albania                    2. Democratic Yemen
2.   Bulgaria                   3. Iran, Islamic Republic of
3.   Czechoslovakia             4. Iraq
4.   Garman Democratic Republic 5. Kuwait
5.   Hungary                    6. Oman
6.   Poland                     7. Qatar
7.   Romania                    8. Saudi Arabia
8.   Union of Soviet Socialist  9. United Arab Emirates
     Republic
9.   Yugoslavia                 10.Yemen

   EW DIVISION                       LAC DIVISION
1. Austria
2. Belgium                      1.   Antigua and Barbuda
3. Cyprus                       2.   Argentina
4. Denmark                      3.   Bahamas
5. Finland                      4.   Barbados
6. France                       5.   Belize
7. Germany, Federal Republic    6.   Bolivia
   of
8. Greece                       7. Brazil
9. Holy See, The                8. Chile
10.Iceland                      9. Colombia
11.Ireland                      10.Costa Rica
12.Italy                        11.Cuba
13.Liechtenstein                12.Dominica
14.Luxembourg                   13.Dominican Republic
15.Malta                        14.Ecuador
16.Monaco                       15.El Salvador
17.Netherlands                  16.Grenada
18.Norway                       17.Guatemala
19.Portugal                     18.Guyana
20.San Marino                   19.Haiti
21.Spain                        20.Honduras
22.Sweden                       21.Jamaica
23.Switzerland                  22.Mexico
                                                                      pg115
   LAC DIVISION-Contd.             SOUTHERN DIVISION-Contd.
23.Nicaragua                   13.Philippines
24.Panama                      14.Samoa
25.Paraguay                    15.Singapore
26.Peru                        16.Society Islands
27.Saint Christopher and Nevis 17.Solomon Islands
28.Saint Lucia                 18.Thailand
29.Saint Vincent and the       19.Tonga
   Grenadines
30.Suriname                    20. Tuvalu
31.Trinidad and Tobago         21.UN Trust Territories in South
32.Uruguay                         Pacific
33.Venezuela                   22.Vanuatu
                               23.Vietnam
   NORTHERN DIVISION
                                   WANA DIVISION
1. Bhutan
2. Nepal                       1. Algeria
                               2. Djibouti
   SOUTHERN DIVISION           3. Egypt
                               4. Israel
1. Australia                   5. Jordan
2. Brunei Darussalam           6. League of Arab States
3. Fiji                        7. Lebanon
4. Indonesia                   8. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
5. Kampuchea                   9. Mauritania
6. Kiribati                    10.Morocco
7. Lao People's Democratic     11.Palestine Liberation Organization
   Republic
8. Malaysia                    12.Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
9. Nauru                       13.Somalia
10.Now Caledonia               14.Sudan
11.Now Zealand                 15.Syrian Arab Republic
12.Papua Now Guinea            16.Tunisia

                                                                      pg116




Appendix-II Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of
the NAM

APPENDIX II

Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
during April to December 1987



 Sl.No.   Name of Meeting/Conference   Venue        Date
(1)   (2)                              (3)         (4)




1.    Eleventh Meeting of              Harare      30 March to Apr 02,
      Coordinators of Non-aligned                  1987
      Countries in the field of
      Health.

2.    Ministerial Meeting of the       Harare      14 and 15 April 1987
      NAM Committee of Nine on
      Palestine.

3.    Nineth Meeting of the Inter-     Harare      8 and 9 June 1987
      Governmental Council for the
      Coordination of Information
      and Communication of Non-
      aligned Countries.




4.    Extraordinary Ministerial        Pyongyang   9 to 13 June 1987
      Conference of Non-aligned
      Countries on South-South
      Cooperation.




5.    Meeting of Information           Harare      10 to 12 June 1987
      Ministers of Non-aligned and
      other Developing Countries.




6.    Meeting of Senior Officials of   New Delhi   4 to 7 August 1987
      AFRICA Fund Committee.

7.    Seventh Meeting of the           Belgrade    7 to 13 September
      Coordinating Countries and                   1987
      the Third Meeting of Exparts
      of the Non-aligned and other
      Developing Countries on
      Standardisation,Measurement
          and Quality Control.

 8.       Meeting of Foreign Ministers    New York    5 to 7 October 1987
          and Heads of Delegations of
          Non-aligned Coun-tries to the
          Forty-second Session of the
          UN General Assembly.

                                                                            PG117

 (1)      (2)                             (3)         (4)

 9.       Meeting of the Standing         Now York    8 October 1987
          Ministerial Committee for
          Economic Cooperation.

 10.      Meeting of the NAM              Now York    9 October 1987
          Committee of Nine on
          Palestine.

 11.      Third General Conference of     Limassol    14 to 16 December
          Broadcasting Organisations                  1987
          of Non-aligned Countries.

                                                                            PG118

Appendix-III Treaties/Conventions/Agreements

APPENDIX III

Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by India with other cou
ntries in 1987*
 St.No.   Title of                        Date of     Date of         Date
          Convention/Treaty/Agreement                                 of

                                          signature   Ratification/   Entry
                                                                      into

                                          Accession   force




 (1)      (2)                             (3)         (4)             (5)




          MULTILATERAL

          European Economic Community
1.   Financing Agreement between         Mar 24,    24-3-1987;
     the Republic of India and the       1987
     European Economic
     Community-Integrated
     Watershed Management in
     Revinous Areas (U. P.) mainly
     funded by the Supply of
     Fertilizers .




2.   Financing Agreement between         7-7-1987   7-7-1987;
     the Republic of India and the
     European Economic
     Community-Hydrological
     Computerised Modelling
     System (SHE)International
     Maritime Satellite
     Organisation(INMARSAT)




3.   Protocol on the Privileges and      7-10-      6-11-1987
     Immunities of the                   1987
     International Maritime
     Satellite Organisation
     (INMARSAT)International
     Telecommunications Satellite
     Organisation (INTELSAT)




4.   Protocol on INTELSAT                14-10-     13-11-1987
     Privileges. Ex-emptions and         1987
     Immunities Oil Pollution




5.   International Convention on         1-5-1987   30-7-1987
     Civil Liability for Oil Pollution
     Damage, 1969 as Amended
     by the Protocol of 1976South
     African Development
     Coordination Conference
     (SADCC)
6.      Memorandum of                          7-10-     7-10-1987
        Understanding on Indo-                 1987
        SADCC Cooperation and
        Assistance in Industrial
        Programmes




        * This list is not exhaustive.

                                   pg119




(1)   (2)                                (3)           (4)           (5)




7.    Space and Rescue Satellite         23-11-1987    23-11-1987
      System Agreement among
      the Department of
      Space,Government of India
      and the Department of
      National Defence of Canada,
      the Centre National 'D'
      Etndes Spatiales of France,
      the National Oceanic and
      Atmospheric Administration
      of the United states of
      America, the ministry of
      merchant marine of the
      Union of Soviet Socialist
      Republics concerning the use
      of the COSPAS-SARSAT
      Search and Rescue Satellite
      System and the operation of
      COSPAS-SARSAT Local User
      Terminal by India Space
      Research

8.    Memorandum of                 19-3-1987   19-3-1987
      Understanding between
      Indian Space Research
      Organisation and
      commonwealth Scientific and
      Industrial Research
      Organisation on Cooperation
      in Space Research and
      Applications United Nations
      Development Programme
      (UNDP)

9.    Agreement between India       30-4-1987   30-4-1987
      and the United Nations
      Development programme
      regarding Project No.
      IND/87/003/A/01/37-
      Develop-ment of Amorphos
      Silicon Solar Cells

10.   Agreement between India       30-4-1987   30-4-1987
      and the United Nations
      Development Programme
      regarding project No.
      DP/IND/87/007/A/01/37-
      Development of Novel Shape
      Selective Zeolite Catalysts

11.   Agreement between India       5-6-1987    5-6-1987
      and the United Nations
      Development Programme
      regard-ing Project No.
      IND/87/008/A/01/01-
      Training in Public
      Administration

12.   Agreement between India       18-8-1987   18-8-1987
      and the United Nations
      Develoment Programme
      regarding Project No.
      IND/87/010/A/01/14-
      Approa-ches to Treatment
      and Prevention of Leprosy

13.   Agreement between India       26-8-1987   26-8-1987
      and the United Nations
      Development Programme
      regard-ing Project No.
      IND/86/040/D/01/01-Esta-
      blishment of Mineral
      Processing Labora-tory in
      India

                                                                    pg120




(1)   (2)                            (3)          4)           5)




14.   Agreement between India        31-8-1987    31-8-1987
      and the United Nations
      Development Programme
      regard-ing Project No.
      IND/86/002/A/01/01-Solar
      Energy Centre

15.   Agreement between India        10-9-1987    10-9-1987
      and the United Nations
      Development Programme
      regarding Project No.
      IND/87/002/A/01/99-
      Satellite Data Analysis for
      Oceanographic
      Investigations

16.   Agreement between India        9-12-1987    9-12-1987
      and the United Nations
      Development Programme
      regarding Project No.
      IND/87/017/A/01/02-Plant
      Improvement using Modern
      Biotechnology.

17.   Agreement between India        24-12-1987   24-12-1987
      and the United Nations
      Development Programme
      regarding Project No.
      IND/87/009/A/01/99-
      Training of Personnel in
      Petroleum
      Technologies,Dehra Dun

18.   Agreement between India        31-12-1987   31-12-1987
      and the United Nations
      Development Programme
      regarding Project No.
      IND/87/018/A/01/99-
      Molecular Biology and
      Biotechnology applied to the
      study of Parasites
      BILATERAL Bangladesh

19.   Protocol on Inland Water        4-10-1987    4-10-1987
      Transit and Trade between
      India and Bangladesh
      Bhutan

20.   Agreement between the           22-6-1987    22-6-1987
      State Bank of India and the
      Royal Government of Bhutan
      Burma

21.   Agreement between the           23-12-1987   14-9-1987   14-9-1987
      Republic of India and the
      Socialist Republic of the
      Union of Burma on the
      Delimitation of the Maritime
      Boundary in the Andaman
      Sea, in the Coco Channel
      and in the Bay of Bengal
      Canada

22.   Extradition Treaty              6-2-1987     10-2-1987   10-2-1987
      betweenIndia and Canada

23.   Bilateral Air Agreement         10-2-1987    10-2-1987
      between Indiaand Canada

                                                                     pg121




(1)   (2)                             (3)          (4)         (5)

24.   Memorandum of                   9-3-1987     9-3-1987
      Understanding between the
      Government of the Republic
      of India and the Government
      of Canada for the
      Professional Development
      and Training Facility Project

25.   Amendment to the Loan           5-5-1987     5-5-1987
      Agreement between the
      President of India and the
      Govrenment of Canada for
      the Idukki Hydroelectric
      Project

26.   Amendment to the Loan           5-5-1987     5-5-1987
      Agreement between the
      President of India and the
      Government of Canada for
      the Andhra Pradesh Social
      Forestry Project

27.   Amendment to the Loan         5-5-1987     5-5-1987
      Agreement between the
      President of India and the
      Government of Canada for
      the Power Sector Line of
      Credit

28.   Amendment to the Loan         5-5-1987     5-5-1987
      Agreement between the
      President of India and the
      Government of Canada for
      the Oil and Gas Sector Line
      of Credit

29.   Amendment to the Loan         5-5-1987     5-5-1987
      Agreement between the
      President of India and the
      Government of Canada for
      the Minerals Sector Line of
      Credit

30.   Amendment to the Loan         5-5-1987     5-5-1987
      Agreement between the
      President of India and the
      Government of Canada for
      the Chamara Hydroelectric
      Project

31.   Memorandum of                 16-10-1987   16-10-1987
      Understanding between the
      President of India and the
      Government of Canada
      relating to Oil and Gas
      Exploration and
      Development

32.   Memorandum of                 16-10-1987   16-10-1987
      Understanding between the
      Government of Canada and
      the Government of the
      Republic of India for the
      Oilseeds Development
      Project-Phase IICongo

      Agreement on Economic,        11-5-1985    2-7-1987     2-7-1987
33.   Scientific and Technical
      Cooperation between the
      Govern-ment of the Republic
      of India and the Gover-
      nment of the People's
      Republic of Congo
      Czechoslovakia

                                                                    pg122




(1)   (2)                             (3)         (4)         (5)

34.   Agreement between the           27-1-1986   13-3-1987   13-3-1987
      Government of India and the
      Czechoslovak Socialist
      Republic for the Avoidance
      of Double Taxation and the
      Prevention of Fiscal Evasion
      with respect to taxes on
      Income Denmark

35.   Financing Agreement             22-12-      22-12-
      between the Govern-ment of      1987        1987
      India and the Government of
      Den-mark German
      Democratic Republic

36.   Agreement on Cooperation        21-1-1987               21-1-1987
      in the Field of Radio between
      All India Radio, Ministry
      ofInformation and
      Broadcasting in the Gover-
      nment of the Republic of
      India, and the State
      Committee for Sound
      Broadcasting at the Council
      of Ministers of the German
      Demo-cratic Republic

37.   Agreement on Cooperation        29-1-1987               29-1-1987
      in the Field of Television
      between Doordarshan
      India,Ministry of Information
      and Broadcasting in the
      Government of the Republic
      of India and the State
      Television Committee at the
      Council of Ministers of the
      German Democratic Republic
38.   Agreement between the           28-5-1987              28-5-1987
      Government of the Republic
      of India and the Government
      of the German Democratic
      Republic on Cooper-ation in
      the field of Posts and
      Telecommuni-cations
      Germany, Federal Republic
      of

39.   Agreed Minutes of the           9-4-1987    9-4-1987
      Negotiations on
      Development Cooperation
      between India and the
      Federal Republic of Germany
      .

40.   Agreement between the           3-6-1987               3-6-1987
      Government of the Republic
      of India and the Government
      of the Federal Republic of
      Germany concern-ing
      Financial Cooperation
      Hungary

41.   Convention between the          30-10-      7-1-1987   7-1-1987
      Government of the Republic      1986
      of India and the Government
      of the Hungarian People's
      Republic for the Avoidance
      of Double Taxation with
      respect to Taxes on Income
      Indonesia

                                                                   pg123

(1)   (2)                             (3)         (4)        (5)

42.   Agreement between the           7-8-1987    19-12-     19-12-
      Republic of India and the                   1987       1987
      Republic of Indonesia for the
      Avoi-dance of Double
      Taxation and the Preven-tion
      of Fiscal Evasion with
      respect to Taxes on Income
      Japan

43.   Exchange of Notes between       30-3-1987              30-3-1937
      India and Japan regarding
      Japanese Grant Aid of Yen
      600 million for 1986-87 for
      import of Fertilizer from
      Japan

44.   Exchange of Notes between       10-8-1987             10-8-1987
      India and Japan regarding
      Japanese Cultural Grant
      Assistance of Yen thirty-
      eight million(supply of
      Sports Equipment to
      National Institute of Sports,
      1986-87)

45.   Exchange of Notes between       21-9-1987             21-9-1987
      India and Japan regarding
      Japanese Grant Assistance of
      one billion three hundred
      and forty-six million Yen
      (Equipment for Sanjay
      Gandhi Post-Graduate
      Institute)

46.   Exchange of Notes between       21-9-1987             21-9-1987
      India and Japan regarding
      OECF loan of sixty-eight
      billion, four hundred and
      seventy-seven million Yen
      Mauritius

47.   Agreed Minutes of the Fourth    22-7-1987             22-7-1987
      Session of the Indo-
      Mauritius Joint Commission
      on Economic, Technical and
      Cultural Co-operation
      Mongolia

48.   Programme of Cooperation        21-8-1987             21-8-1987
      between the Ministry of
      Health and Family Welfare
      for the Republic of India and
      the Ministry of Public Health
      of the Mongolian People's
      Republic in the field of
      Health and Medical Sciences
      for 1987-88 Nepal




                                                                pg124

(1)   (2)                             (3)         (4)     (5)

49.   Agreement between the           18-1-       18-1-
      Government of the Republic      1987        1987
      of India and His Majesty's
      Go-vernment of Nepal for
      setting up of an Industrial
      Estate at Rajbiraj

50.   Agreement between the          20-6-      20-6-
      Government of the Republic     1987       1987
      of India and His Majesty's
      Go-vernment of Nepal on
      the setting up of a Joint
      Commission(Provisionally)
      Netherlands

51.   Loan Agreement between         2-6-1987   2-6-1987
      the President of India and
      De Nederlands
      Investeringsbank Voor
      Ontwikkelingslanden N.V. for
      ninety-one million six
      hundred thousand guilders

52.   Agreement between the          30-6-      30-6-
      President of India and De      1987       1987
      Nederlands Investeringsbank
      Voor ontwikkelingslanden
      regarding a loan of one
      hundred and thirty-three
      million Neder-lands guilders

53.   Memorandum of                  19-9-      19-9-
      Understanding between the      1987       1987
      Department of
      Telecommunications of the
      Republic of India and the
      Ministry of Transport and
      Public Works of the Kingdom
      of the Netherlands for
      Cooperation in the Field of
      Telecommunications
      Nicaragua

54.   Cultural Agreement between     9-9-1986   4-8-1987   4-8-1987
      the Government of the
      Republic of India and the
      Government of the Republic
      of Nicaragua Norway

55.   Memorandum of                  6-7-1987   6-7-1987
      Understanding between the
      Government of the Republic
      of India and the Government
      of the Kingdom of Norway
      on Economic, Industrial and
      Technological Cooperation
      Romania

56.   Convention between the          10-3-    14-11-   14-11-
      Government of the Republic      1987     1987     1987
      of India and the Government
      or the Socialist Republic or
      Romania for the Avoidance
      of Double Taxation and the
      Prevention of Fiscal Evasion
      with respect to Taxes on
      Income Spain




                                                        pg125




(1)   (2)                             (3)      (4)      (5)




57.   Air Transport Agreement         10-4-    10-4-
      between the Government of       1987     1987
      the Republic of India and the
      Government of Spain
      provisionally) Sri Lanka

58.   Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement to     29-7-    29-7-
      Establish Peace and             1987     1987
      Normalcy in Sri Lanka

59.   Credit Agreement between        19-11-   19-11-
      the Republic of India and the   1987     1987
      Government or the Demo-
      cratic Socialist Republic of
      Sri Lanka Trinidad & Tobago

60.   Agreement between the           30-7-    25-9-    25-9-
      Government of the Republic      1985     1987     1987
      of India and the Government
      of the Republic or Trinidad &
      Tobago conce-rning
      Technical and Scientific
      Cooperation

61.   Cultural Cooperation            13-3-    18-11-   18-11-
      Agreement between the           1987     1987     1987
      Government of the Republic
      of India and the Government
      of Trinidad & Tobago United
      Arab Emirates

62.   Exchange of Letters between     28-10-   28-10-
      India and the United Arab       1987     1987
      Emirates for Extension of the
      agreement establishing the
      Indo-U.A.E.Joint Commission
      United Kingdom of Great
      Britain and Northern Ireland

63.   Exchange of Notes between       13-3-    13-3-
      India and the United            1987     1987
      Kingdom regarding United
      Kingdom/India Coal Projects
      Grant, 1987

64.   Exchange of Notes between       13-3-    13-3-
      India and the United            1987     1987
      Kingdom regarding United
      King-dom/India Hindustan
      Zinc Aid Arrange-ment, 1987

65.   Exchange of Notes between       16-9-    16-9-
      India and the United            1987     1987
      Kingdom regarding United
      King-dom/India
      Nagarjunasagar Power
      Project Grant, 1987 Union of
      Soviet Socialist Republics

                                                        pg126
(1)   (2)                              (3)        (4)        (5)




66.   Long Term Programme of           12-2-      12-2-
      Cooperation between the          1987       1987
      Ministry of Agriculture of the
      Republic of India and the
      State Agro-Industrial
      Committee of the Union of
      So-viet Socialist Republics in
      the Field of Agriculture upto
      2000 A.D. .

67.   Protocol between the             14-2-      14-2-
      Ministry of Commu-               1987       1987
      nications of the Republic of
      India and the Ministry of
      Posts and Tele-
      Communications of the
      Union of Soviet Socialist
      Republics

68.   Programme of Cooperation         14-2-      14-2-
      in the field of                  1987       1987
      Telecommunications
      between the Ministry of
      Communications of the
      Republic of India and the
      Ministry of Posts and Tele-
      communications of the Union
      of Soviet Socialist Republics

69.   Agreement between the            9-4-1987   9-4-1987
      Government of the Republic
      of India and the Government
      of the Union of Soviet
      Socialist Republics on
      Cooperation in the field of
      Telecommuni-cations and
      Posts

70.   Integrated Long-term             3-7-1987   3-7-1987
      Programme of Cooperation
      in Science and Technology
      bet-ween the Republic of
      India and the Union of
      Soviet Socialist Republics

71.   Consular Convention              27-11-     5-6-1987   4-7-1987
      between the Republic of         1986
      India and the Union of
      Soviet Socialist Republics

72.   Agreement between the           24-11-      24-11-
      Government of the Republic      1987        1987
      of India and the Government
      of the USSR on Economic
      and Technical Co-operation

73.   Protocol between the            for 1987-   24-11-   24-11-
      Ministry of Human Resource      88          1987     1987
      Development Department of
      Education, Government of
      India, and the Ministry of
      Higher and Secondary
      Specia-list Education of the
      Union of Soviet So-cialist
      Republics on Cooperation in
      the spheres of Higher
      Education and Training of
      students and highly qualified
      specialists




                                                           pg127




(1)   (2)                             (3)         (4)      (5)




74.   Protocol between the            24-11-      24-11-
      Government of the Republic      1987        1987
      of India and the Government
      of the Union of Soviet
      Socialist Republics on the
      Equivalence of Certificates,
      Degrees and Diplomas
      Awarded by Universities and
      other Educational and
      Scientific Organi-sations and
      Institutions in the Republic
      of India and the Union of
      Soviet Socialist Republics

75.   Agreement between the           24-11-      24-11-
      Government of the Republic      1987        1987
      of India and the Government
      of the USSR on the
      Development of New Forms
      of Economic Cooperation

76.   Protocol between the             24-11-     24-11-
      Government of the Republic       1987       1987
      of India and the Government
      of the USSR on Cooperation
      in the field of Tourism United
      States of America

77.   Agreement between the            7-1-1987   7-1-1987
      Government of the Republic
      of India and the Government
      of the United States of
      America on Educa-tional,
      Cultural and Scientific
      Cooperation

78.   Project Grant agreement          27-7-      27-7-
      between the President of         1987       1987
      India and the United States
      of America for Vaccine and
      Immunodiagnostic
      Development of the Indo-US
      Vaccine Action Programme

79.   Grant Agreement between          31-8-      31-8-
      the President of India and       1987       1987
      the United States of America
      for Private Voluntary
      Organisations for Health
      (PVOH) II-AID Project No.
      386-0511 Vietnam

80.   Agreement between the            25-3-      14-5-      14-5-
      Government of the Republic       1986       1987       1987
      of India and the Government
      of the Socialist Republic of
      Vietnam for Co-operation for
      the Utilization of Atomic
      Energy for Peaceful Purposes




                                                                pg128
Appendix-IV Major International
Conferences/Meetings/Seminars

APPENDIX IV

Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc. organized by Inter-Gov
ernmental Organizations at which Government of India was represented in
1987-88
3.
 Sl.No.   Title of Conferences etc.        Venue            Date




 (1)      (2)                              (3)              (4)




 1.       Preparatory Commission for       Kingston         30 March to
          International Sea-Bed                             Apr 16, 1987
          Authority and for the
          International Tribunal for the
          Law of the Sea

          11th Session of ILO Building,    Geneva           1 to 9 April
 2.       Civil Engineer-ing and Public                     1987
          Works Committee

          10th Session of UN               Nairobi          6 to 16 April
          Commission on Human                               1987
          Settlements (UNCHS)

 4.       Annual Session of the            Berne            23 April to 15
          Executive Council of the                          May 1987
          Universal Postal Union

 5.       ILO Tripartite Preparatory       Geneva           27 to 29 April
          Meeting on Em-ployment                            1987
          and Structural Adjustment

 6.       Antarctic Mineral Regime         Montevideo       11 to 20 May
          Meeting                                           1987

 7.       Preparatory Meeting of XIV       Rio-de-Janerio   4 to 8 May
          Antarctic Treaty Consultative                     1987
          Party

 8.       40th World Health Assembly       Geneva           4 to 16 May
                                                       1987

9.    Tenth World Meteorological      Geneva           4 to 29 May
      Congress                                         1987

10.   39th Session of International   Geneva           4 May to 24
      Law Commission                                   July 1987

11.   ILO Meeting of Experts on       Geneva           5 to 13 May
      Harmful Sub-stances in work                      1987
      establishments.

12.   First Regular Session of        New York         5 to 29 May
      Economic and Social Council                      1987
      (ECOSOC)

13.   236th Session of the ILO        Geneva           21 to 30 May
      Governing Body                                   1987

14.   44th Session of the Board of    Turin            22 May 1987
      International Centre for
      Advanced Technical and
      Voca-tional Training

                                                               pg129




(1)   (2)                             (3)              (4)




15.   23rd Session of the             Rome             25 May to 4
      Committee on Food Aid                            June 1987
      Policies and Programmes of
      World Food Pro-gramme

16.   34th Session of UNDP            New York         26 May to 19
      Governing Council                                June 1987

17.   39th Session of WMO             Geneva           1 to 5 June
      Executive Council                                1987

18.   UNFPA Sponsored Global          Egypt & Mexico   1 to 13 June
      Meeting                                          1987
19.   73rd Session of the              Geneva      3 to 24 June
      International Labour                         1987
      Conference

20.   13th Ministerial Session of      Beijing     8 to 11 June
      the World Food Council                       1987

21.   ILO/ARTEP Workshop on            New Delhi   10 to 12 June
      Maximising Deve-lopment                      1987
      Benefits from Overseas
      Migration

22.   58th Session of IMO Council      London      15 to 19 June
                                                   1987

23.   2nd Regular Session of the       Geneva      23 June to 9
      ECOSOC                                       July 1987

24.   237th Session of the ILO         Geneva      25 and 26
      Governing Body                               June 1987

25.   ILO Informational Network        Kathmandu   2 to 4 July
      International Labour                         1987
      Migration Inter-
      Governmental Meeting

26.   5th Session of the               New York    26 July to 22
      Preparatory Commission of                    August 1987
      the International Seabed
      Authority and of the
      International Tribunal for the
      Law of the Sea

27.   Vth Session of the ESCAP         Bangkok     17 to 21
      Committee on Population                      August 1987

28.   Annual Session of the            Beijing     24 August to 1
      Executive Council of the Asia                September
      Pacific Postal Union and                     1987
      Governing Board Meeting of
      the Asia Pacific Postal Tra-
      ining Centre

29.   International Conference on      New York    24 August to
      the Relationship between                     11 September
      Disarmament and                              1987
      Development

30.   11th Conference of Asian         Seoul       1 to 4
      and Pacific Labour Ministers                 September
                                                   1987
31.   6th Session of WHO Regional     Guangzhou(China)   7 to 11
      Association-II Working                             September
      Group on Meteorological                            1987
      Tele-communication

                                                                 pg130




(1)   (2)                             (3)                (4)




32.   Management Labour               Jakarta            7 to 19
      Intensive Project under                            Septembe
      TCDC Programmer                                    1987

33.   Inter-Country Meeting on        Jakarta            15 to 17
      Social Security Protection of                      September
      Migrant Workers                                    1987

34.   42nd Session of UN General      NewYork            15 September
      Assembly                                           to December
                                                         1987




35.   Governing Bodies of World       Geneva             21 to 30
      Intellectual Pro-perty                             September
      Organisation (WIPO) and                            1987
      Unions administered by
      WIPO

36.   74th (Maritime) Session of      Geneva             24 September
      the International Labour                           to 9 October
      Conference                                         1987

37.   UNCTAD Asian Seminar on         Bangkok            28 September
      Restrictive Business                               to 2 oct 1987
      Practices---ESCAP

38.   ILO Workshop on Return          Ankara             29 September
      Migration                                          to 7 October
                                                         1987

39.   ILO Workshop on Safety &        Bangkok            13 to 16
      Health Informa-tion                                October 1987
      Dissemination for selected
      Asian and Pacific countries

40.   Commonwealth Summit             Vancouver          13 to 17
                                                         October 1987
41.   Annual Session of the          Berne          18 to 30
      Consultative Council for                      October 1987
      Postal Studies (CCPS)

42.   ILO/ARTEP Technical            New Delhi      20 to 30
      Workshop for esta-blishing a                  October 1987
      Regional clearing House of
      Infor-mation on Improved
      Technology for Cottage
      Industries

43.   24th Session of the General    Paris          20 October to
      Conference of UNESCO                          21 November
                                                    1987

44.   14th Session on ESCAP          Bangkok        27 October to
      Committee on Natu-ral                         2 November
      Resources                                     1987

45.   Fourteenth International       Geneva         28 October to
      Conference of Labour                          6 November
      Statisticians                                 1987

46.   Conference of the              Ljubljana      31 October to
      International Centre for       (Yugoslavia)   6 November
      Public Enterprises (ICPE)                     1987




                                                            pg131




(1)   (2)                            (3)            (4)




47.   ARTEP Consultants meeting      New Delhi      2 and 3
      on Trade and Employment                       November
      amongst South Asian                           1987
      Countries

48.   45th Session of the Board of   Geneva         6 November
      International Centre for                      1987
      Advanced Technical and
      Voca-tional Training

49.   24th Session of the FAO        Rome           7 to 26
      Conference                                    November
                                                   1987

50.   29th Session of the              Geneva      9 November
      International Institute of                   1987
      Labour Studies

51.   238th Session of the ILO         Geneva      9 to 20
      Governing Body                               November
                                                   1987

52.   15th Session of IMO              London      9 to 20
      Assembly                                     November
                                                   1987

53.   ILO High-Level Meeting on        Geneva      23 to 25
      Employment and Structural                    November
      Adjustment                                   1987

54.   ILO Tripartite Meeting on        Geneva      24 November
      Salaried Authors and                         to 2 December
      Inventors                                    1987

55.   UN ESCAP Expert Group            Bangkok     1 to 4
      Consultative Meeting on                      December
      Technical Cooperation                        1987
      among Developing Countries
      (TCDC) in Water Re-sources
      Development

56.   Third ILO Tripartite Technical   Geneva      2 to 10
      Meeting for the Clothing                     December
      Industry                                     1987

57.   WMO Second Regional              Calcutta    14 to 19
      Cyclone Storm Surge                          December
      Workshop                                     1987

58.   ARTEP Regional Workshop          Bangkok     17 and 18
      on Maximising Development                    December
      Benefits from Overseas                       1987
      Migration

59.   Meeting of WMO Regional          New Delhi   11 to 15
      Association-it Working Group                 January 1988
      on Agricultural Meteorology




                                                          pg132
Appendix-V Major International
Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc
APPENDIX V

Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc. organized by Non-
Gove rnmental Organizations in which Indian experts participated in their
personal capacity w ith Government assistance, in 1987-88
 Sl.   Title of Conferences etc.              Venue          Date
 No.




 (1)   (2)                                    (3)            (4)




 1.    Meeting of ISO/TC-72/SC 1/SC 2         Beijing        7 to Apr 10,
       "Textile machinery and allied                         1987
       machinery and acces-sories"

 2.    Meeting of Regional Liaison Officers   Geneva         3 May 1987
       of ISO (RLOs)

 3.    ISO Development Committee              Geneva         4 May 1987
       (DEVCO) Workshop

 4.    22nd Meeting of ISO Council            Geneva         5 and 6 May
       Committee on Development (DEVCO)                      1987

 5.    Meeting of ISO/TC 147 "Water           Vienna         6 to 15 May
       Quality"                                              1987

 6.    Meeting of ISO Council Committee on    Geneva         7 and 8 May
       Con- formity Assessment (CASCO)                       1987

 7.    Meeting of ISO/TC 46 and its sub-      Moscow         18 to 22 May
       committee "Documentation"                             1987

 8.    Meeting of ISO/TC 149/SCI/SC2          Montegrotto    18 to 22 May
       "Cycles"                                              1987

       Meetings of IEC Council and            Prague         6 to 18 July
 9.
       Committee of Action.                                  1987

 10.   19th IUGG/IASPEI General Assembly      Vancouver      9 to 22
                                                               August 1987

 11.      Fourth United Nations International    Geneva        7 to 9
          NGO Meeting on Question of Palestine                 September
                                                               1987

 12.      Meeting of ISO/TC 113 and its sub-     28            9 October
          commit-tees "Measurement of liquid     September     1987
          flow in open channels" London          to




                                                                       pg133




Appendix-VI Miscellaneous Major International Conferences

APPENDIX VI

Miscellaneous Major International Conferences etc. in 1987-88 at which Gov
ernment of India was represented or in which Indian experts participated with
Government of India's assistance in their personal capacity
 Sl.No.    Title of Conferences etc.             Venue       Date




 (1)       (2)                                   (3)         (4)




 1.        International Conference on           Sofia       21 to Apr 24,
           Personal Computers'Perscomp 87'.                  1987

 2.        5th Meeting of SAARC Technical        Male        23 to 25 April
           Committee on Meteorology                          1987

 3.        SAARC Seminar on Meteorological       Karachi     27 to 30 April
           Instrumentation -                                 1987

 4.        6th International Meeting on          Ottawa      31 May to 5
           Radiation Processing                              June 1987

 5.        UN Asian, Regional Seminar/NGO        New Delhi   8 to 12 June
           Symposium on the Question of                      1987
           Palestine
6.    2nd International Conference on      Sweden       15 to 17 June
      Hot Isostatic Pressing -                          1987

7.    1987 Institute of Electrical and     Blacksburg   15 to 19 June
      Electronics Engineers Antennas                    1987
      and Propagative Society, URSI
      International Symposium.

8.    8th International Congress of        Edinburgh    19 to 24 July
      Radiation Research                                1987

9.    20th Session of UNCITRAL United      Vienna       21 to 26 July
      Nations Commission on                             1987
      International Trade Law

10.   Law of the Sea's Institutes Annual   Honolulu.    3 to 6 August
      Conference Hawaii(USA)                            1987

11.   6th International Conference on      St. Louis    4 to 7 August
      Mathematical Modelling                            1987

12.   39th Session of Sub-Commission       Geneva       10 August to 4
      on Prevention of Discrimination                   September
      and Protection of Minorities                      1987

13.   SPIE's 31st Annual International     San Diego    16 to 21 August
      Technical Symposium on Optical                    1987
      and Optoelectronics Science and
      Engineering Applied

                                                                 PG134




(1)   (2)                                  (3)          (4)




14.   International Conference on          Srinagar     17 to
      Combinatics, optimization and                     21August1987
      Statistics organised by Indian
      Management Development
      Institute

15.   International Conference and         Bangalore    2 to 11
      Workshop on Electromagnetic                       September
      Interference and Compatibility                    1987

16.   SWIFT International Banking          Canada,      7 to 17
      Operations Seminar(SIBOS)87          USA          September
                                                        1987
 17.     6th Meeting of SAARC Technical      Kathmandu    10 and 11
         Committee on Meteorology                         September
                                                          1987

 18.     International Symposium on 'New     Pune
         Technology organised Testing in
                                                          24 to 26
         Hydraulic Research' in Model by
         Central Board of Irrigation and
                                                          September 1987
         Power, New Delhi

 19.     International Conference on         New Delhi    27 to 30
         "Computer Communication for                      October 1987
         Developing Countries" organized
         by CMC Ltd.

 20.     International Textile Conference    New Delhi    27 to 29
         1987                                             November 1987

 21.     International Conference on Thin    Delhi        17 to 11
         Films at IIT Delhi                               December 1987

 22.     Working Group on World Level        Luxemburg    14 to 22
         Classifications convened by                      December 1987
         UNSO/SOEC -

         International Symposium on Fibre    Madras       16 to 19
 23.
         Reinforced Concrete -                            December 1987

 24.     International Symposium on          Calcutta     17 to 19
         "Adoption of New Techniques far                  December 1987
         Power Distribution Systems"
         organised by Central Board of
         Irrigation and Power

 25.     SAARC Seminar on Agricultural       Kathmandu    21 to 24
         Meteorology                                      December 1987

                                                                    PG135

Appendix-VII Statement showing number of Passports

Jan 01, 1987

APPENDIX VII

Statement showing number of Passports/Miscellaneous service's applications r
eceived and number of Passports issued/Miscellaneous services rendered during
the period Ja nuary to December 1987
Sl.No.Station        No. of         No. of    No. of         No. of
                     passport       passports applications   Misc.services
                     applications   issued    for Misc.      rendered
                     received                 services       received
(1)   (2)           (3)             (4)        (5)           (6)

1.    Ahmedabad 70,186              69,296     34,852        34,217
2.    Bangalore      44,015         42,308     23,703        23,553
3.    Bareilly       53,626         43,688     19,030        19,033
4.    Bhopal         15,786         14,278     7,745         8,049
5.    Bhubaneshwar3,333             2,963      1,550         1,388
6.    Bombay         2,32,287       2,22,343   1,49,504      1,48,969
7.    Calcutta       49,761         47,695     24,045        23,897
8.    Chandigarh     62,551         61,025     29,258        28,756
9.    Cochin         81,980         68,081     77,613        76,151
10.   Delhi          85,569         78,500     51,903        47,548
11.   Guwahati       3,764          3,631      1,185         1,138
12.   Hyderabad      64,806         64,645     47,035        46,905
13.   Jaipur         29,414         27,430     18,973        17,538
14.   Jalandhar      57,249         35,445     49,005        44,883
15.   Kozhikode      72,097         63,219     65,500        63,846
16.   Lucknow        39,029         32,897     12,037        12,431
17.   Madras         68,565         71,132     47,791        47,688
18.   Patna          10,000         8,394      7,061         6,974
19.   Srinagar       7,478          6,059      3,738         3,570
20.   Tiruchirapalli 56,105         56,286     37,503        35,343
21.   Panaji (Goa) 10,362           10,480     10,313        10,272

      TOTAL         11,17,963       10,29,7957,19,344        02,149

                                                                        PG136




Appendix-VIII Statement showing revenue and expenditure

Jan 01, 1987

APPENDIX VIII

Statement showing revenue and expenditure in respect of Passport offices in
Ind ia during the period January to December 1987
Sl.No. Station              Revenue earned                      Expenditure
                                 (in Rupees)                         incurred
                                                                (in Rupees)
(1)     (2)                              (3)                              (4)

1.     Ahmedabad              67,17,849.15                     24,69,402.06
2.     Bangalore              42,28,367.50                     21,11,096.70
3.     Bareilly               45,25,411.50                     20,32,959.45
4.     Bhopal                 14,46,761.00                      7,19,790.00
5.     Bhubaneshwar            2,83,125.40                      3,74,192.15
6.     Bombay               2,02,91,495.71                     69,49,470.30
7.     Calcutta               39,12 841.00                     16,95,360.00
8.     Chandigarh             58,84,474.66                     27,94,780.36
9.    Cochin                      84,44,298.79                         30,15,178.25
10.   Delhi                       88,88,691.64                         45,88,223.59
11.   Guwahati                     4,73,849.00                          3,15,007.18
12.   Hyderabad                   61,37,590.00                         22,84,471.65
13.   Jaipur                      29,36,158.00                         16,26,251.00
14.   Jalandhar                   63,99,030.00                          1,51,245.00
15.   Kozhikode                   69,38,655.75                         19,37,325.55
16.   Lucknow                     34,37,464.50                         16,75,059.10
17.   Madras                      67,23,136.63                         26,74,863.07
18.   Patna                       10,95,522.00                          6,68,088.20
19.   Srinagar                     7,48,115.00                          3,71,934.00
20.   Tiruchirapalli              55,40,649.00                         20,01,539.00
21.   Panaji (Goa)                13,91,616.00         Not available as it is incurred
                                                             by State Government.
      TOTAL                 10,64,45,102.23                          4,04,56,236.61

                                                                               PG137




Appendix-IX Cadre strength at-Headquarters

Jan 01, 1987

APPENDIX IX

Cadre strength at-Headquarters and 140 Missions/Posts abroad during 1987-88
Sl.No. Cadre/Post                    Posts at Head- Posts at Missions          Total
                                           quarters           abroad           Posts
(1)    (2)                                       (3)                   (4)       (5)


       IFS


1.     Grade I                                    3                    18         21
2.     Grade II                                   3                    25         28
3.     Grade III                                 20                    79         99
4.     Grade IV                                  15                    65         80
5.     Sr. Scale                                 56                   200        256
6.     Jr. Scale                                  5                    42         47
7.     Training Reserve (Prob.)                  25                    25
       Jr. Scale
8.     Training Reserve for all                  10                    10
       Grades
9.     Leave Reserve                             19                    19
10.    Deputation Reserve                        20                    20
          IFS(B)
1.        Grade I                                  62                   63       125
2.        Grade II/III                            167               163          330
3.        Grade IV                                359               516          875
4.        Grade V/VI                              451               196          647
5.        Grade II of Cypher Sub-                  81               119          200
          Cadre
6.        Selection Grade of                       17                   35        52
          Steno Cadre
7.        Grade I of Steno Cadre                   32               164          196
8.        Grade II of Steno Cadre                 204               238          442
9.        Grade III of Steno                       42                   79       121
          Cadre
          Combined Research                        22                    6        28
          Cadre
          Interpreter's Cadre                      15                   15        30


          TOTAL                                  1628              2023       3651



                                                                             PG138




Appendix-X Cadre strength of IFS

Jan 01, 1987

APPENDIX X

Cadre strength of IFS during 1987-88
Sl. No.                             Grades                         Total Posts
(1)                                 (2)                            (3)


1.                                  Grade I                        21
2.                                  Grade II                       28
3.                                  Grade III                      99
4.                                  Grade IV                       80
5.                                  Sr. Scale                      256
6.                                  Jr. Scale                      47
7.                                  Training Reserve (Prob.) Jr.   25
                                  Scale
8.                                Training Reserve for all   10
                                  Grades
9.                                Leave Reserve              19
10.                               Deputation Reserve         20


                                  TOTAL                      605


                                                                   pg139




Appendix-XI Foreign Language Chart

Jan 01, 1987

APPENDIX XI

Foreign Language Chart

Sl.No. Language      Total No.
       Know         of Officers
                   Passed/the
                    Language
(1)    (2)                 (3)


1.     Arabic               84
2.     Bahasa                7
       Indonesia
3.     Burmese               2
4.     Chinese              42
5.     Dutch                 1
6.     French               78
7.     German               44
8.     Gorkhali              4
9.     Hungarian             1
10.    Italian               4
11.    Japanese             25
12.    Kiswahili            11
13.    Malay                 2
14.    Persian              16
15.    Polish                1
16.    Portuguese           12
17.    Russian              65
18.    Serbo-                4
       Croatian
19.    Sinhalese             3
20.    Spanish              54
21.    Swedish               1
22.    Thai                  2
23.    Tibetan               3
24.    Turkish               1
25.    Vietnamese            2



                        pg140




Appendix-XII Revenue expenditure of the Ministry

Jan 01, 1987

APPENDIX XII

Revenue expenditure of the Ministry during the Financial year 1987-88
 Revised Estimates                                      1987-88 (Rs. in
                                                        lakhs)




 Headquarters                                           22,20.00
 Mission/Posts Abroad                                   93,50.00
 Supply Wing Washington/London                          2,00.00
 Other Items
 Contribution to UN, Commonwealth Secretariat, SAARC
 Secretariat
 and other International Institutions                   4,75.00
 Central Passport Organisation                          9,00.00
 Special Diplomatic Expenditure                         71,50.00
 Grant-in-aid to ICCR and other organisations             4,89.00
 Other Misc. Items                                        8,50.00
 Aid
 Aid to Bangladesh                                        2,66.00
 Aid to Bhutan                                            63,00.00
 Aid to Nepal                                             13,16.00
 Aid to other Developing Countries(including Rs. 1200     46,99.00
 lakhs to Sri Lanka and Rs. 350 lakhs to Maldives)
 ITEC Programmes                                          12,95.00
 SAARC programmes                                         1,25.00
 Aid under AFRICA
 Fund                                                     16,66.00


 TOTAL                                                    3,73,01.00


                                                                        pg141




Appendix-XIII Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts
Abroad

Jan 01, 1987

APPENDIX XIII

Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts Abroad and Headquarters during 1987-8 8
The estimated expenditure on the Headquarters Organisation of the Ministry
during the financial year 1987-88 is expected to be Rs. 2220.00 lakhs out of
which Rs. 273 .00 lakhs will be on External Publicity; Rs. 222.00 lakhs on Travel
Expenses; Rs. 587.00 lakhs on Salaries and Wages of Establishment; Rs. 7. 00
lakhs on Subsidy to Departmental Canteen; Rs. 565.00 lakhs on Rents and
Maintenance and Rs. 566.00 lakhs on other items. The total estimated
expenditure on Indian Missions abroad including Supply Wings (Washington &
London) is expected to be Rs. 9550.00 lakhs. This amount comprise s Rs.
3675.00 lakhs, on Salaries, Wages, Allowances including Foreign Allowance; Rs.
1162.00 lakhs on Transfer and Home Leave Passages and Local Tours; Rs.
2302.00 lakhs on Rents, Rates & Taxes as well as on Maintenance and Repairs
of accommodation owned/rent ed for Missions abroad and Rs. 2411.00 lakhs on
other Miscellaneous Items.

Average expenditure per Mission Abroad is expected to be Rs. 67.25 lakhs. The
expenditure mentioned above on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad
including expenditure on Publicity works out to approximately 31.55% of the
total estimat ed Revenue Expenditure of this Ministry. The remaining 68.45 %
of the Revenue Estimates of the Ministry are being spent on various aid
programmes to neighbouring and other developing countries, aid under the
AFRICA Fund, contributions to United Nations and other Internatio nal Bodies,
Passport Organisations, Hospitality and other Miscellaneous items.
                                                                         pg142
Appendix-XIV Statement showing the total number of
employees

APPENDIX XIV

Statement showing the total number of employees (both permanent and
temporary ) in the Ministry of External Affairs under various groups and
representation of Scheduled Cast es and Scheduled Tribes therein (Position as
on Dec 31, 1987)

Group                 Total         Scheduled % of          Scheduled % of
                      No. of        Castes      Total       Tribes      Total
                      Employees                 Employees               Employees
(1)                   (2)           (3)         (4)         (5)         (6)
Group 'A'             744           96          12.90%      38          5.10%
Group 'B'             1795          161         8.97%       25          1.39%
Group 'C'             882           104         11.79%      39          4.42%
Group 'D'             468           110         23.5%       7           .5%
(Excluding
Sweepers)
Group 'D'             28            14          50%
                                                                               pg143
Dec 31, 1987

Appendix-XV Statement showing the number of
appointments

Jan 01, 1987

APPENDIX XV

Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment
and promotion) made in various Groups in the Ministry of External Affairs and
reserved vacancies filled by Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes during the year
1987

Group       No.of vacancies      Total       Number of            Number of
            dereserved due to    Number      vacancies            reserved
            nonavailability of   of          reserved for         candidates
            reserved             Vacancies   Scheduled            appointed
           candidates         filled for Castes/Scheduled Scheduled
           Scheduled          reserved Tribe              Castes/Scheduled
           Castes/Scheduled   candidates                  Tribes
           Tribes
(1)        (2)       (3)      (4)       (5)         (6)         (7)   (8)
Group 'A' 038        07       04        04          1
Group 'B' 112        28       14        18          5           3
Group 'C' 037        07       02        07          7
Group 'D' 040        04       01        04          1
(excluding
Sweepers)
                                                                            PG144




Appendix-XVI International Conferences/Meetings

APPENDIX XVI

International Conferences/Meetings hosted by the Ministries Departments of the
Government of India and other Organisations during 1987 for which logistical
arrange- ments were male by the Conference Cell of the Ministry of External
Affairs

Sl.No. Title of Conference/Meeting                        Date




(1)     (2)                                               (3)



1.      AFRICA Fund Summit                                19 to 20 JAN 1987

        d Summit                                          19 to @@1987012

2.      Meeting of Experts from the SAARC                 23 to 26 February
        Countries on Expanding and Strengthening          1987
        Regional Cooperation

3.      Meeting of Group of Experts from SAARC            15 to 18 March 1987
        Countries on Terrorism

4.      Meeting of Non-Governmental
        Organisations(NGOs)

        on Palestine Liberation Organisation(PLO)         8 to 12 June 1987
        question sponsored by the United Nations

5.      3rd Session of the Council of Ministers from
        SAARC
        Countries                                        14 to 19 June 1987

6.      Meeting of Senior Officials of AFRICA            4 to 7 August 1987
        Fund Committee

7.      Global Steering Committee Meeting of
        Parliamentarians

        Action for Removal of Apartheid                  17 and 18 August
                                                         1987

8.      SAARC Sub-Committee Meeting on Air Traffic
        Control

        and Communication                                16 to 18 September
                                                         1987

9.      Ist Meeting of SAARC Audio-Visual Exchange

        Committee                                        21 and 22 September
                                                         1987

10.     Commemorative Conference on the 40th
        Anniversary of

            the Asian Relations Conference               2 to 5 October 1987

11.     Second Meeting of the SAARC Audio-Visual
        Exchange

        (SAVE) Committee                                 2 and 3 February
                                                         1988



                                                                       PG145




Appendix-XVII Training Programmes organised by the
Foreign Service

APPENDIX XVII

Training Programmes organised by the Foreign Service Training Institute (FST I)
during 1987
Sl.No.Title of the Training Programme   Date

(1)   (2)                                    (3)

1.    First Basic Professional Course        5 to Jan 2,1987
      Äÿ3 Ba c Professional Course           5 to @@1987012
2.    Second Basic Professional Course       2 to 23 February 1987
3.    India's Foreign Trade-Six-week
      Course organised at
      Indian Institute of Foreign Trade   2 March to 13 April
                                          1987
4.    Third Basic Professional Course     2 to 27 March 1987
      5.                                  Fourth Basic             1 to 30
                                          Professional Course      April 1987
6.    Fifth Basic Professional Course     4 to 28 May 1987
7.    India's Foreign Policy              1 to 12 June 1987
      and External Relations
8.    4th Refresher Course for
      Heads of Diplomatic Missions
      (Americas)                           12 to 20 June 1987
9.    Consular and Passport Work           22 to 26 June 1987
10.   National Security in the Nuclear Age 6 to 17 July 1987
11.   Sixth Basic Professional Course      6 to 31 July 1987
12.   Administration and Accounts          20 to 31 July 1987
13.   International Law-Current Issues     27 to 31 July 1987
      of Importance to India
14.   Cultural Work                        3 to 14 August 1987
15.   Orientation for IFS Probationers of 12 to 21 August 1987
      1987 Batch
16.   External Publicity                   17 to 21 August 1987
17.   Computer Appreciation                17 to 21 August 1987
18.   Seventh Basic Professional Course 24 Aug. to 25 Sep.
                                           1987
19.   Communications and Security          24 to 28 August 1987
20.   Eighth Basic Professional Course     5 Oct. to 6 Nov. 1987
21.   Ninth Basic Professional Course      16 Nov. to 18 Dec.
                                           1987
22.   First Course on Personal Computers 14 to 18 December
                                           1987
23.   Tenth Basic Professional Course      25 Dec. 1987 to 29
                                           January 1988




No. of those who availed of programmes organised by FSTI during 1987

Heads of Indian Diplomatic Missions                                         11
Military Attaches                                                           10
IFS Probationers (1985 batch)                                               12
IFS Probationers (1986 batch)                                               12
Directors                                                                    4
Deputy Secretaries                                                           7
Under Secretaries                                                           16
RP Os                                                                        4
Section Officers                                                            61
Assistants                                                                 130
PSs/PAs                                                                      4
UDCs                                                                        11
LDCs                                                                 2
Foreign Service wives                                                5

TOTAL                                                              289
                                                                 PG147



Appendix-XVIII VVIP visits to India
APPENDIX XVIII

VVIP visits to India during 1987-88

Sl.   Heads of State/Government           Date
No.

(1)   (2)                                 (3)

1.    H. E. Mr. Poul Schlueter
      Prime Minister of Denmark and       11 to Jan 18, 1987
      Mrs.Schlueter
2.    H.E. Dr. Alan Garcia Perez
      President of Peru                   23 to 29 January 1987
3.    H.E. Dato' Seri
      Dr. Mahathir Mohamad
      Prime Minister of Malaysia          29 January to 1 February
                                          1987
4.    H.E. Mr. Mauno Koivisto
      President of Finland                2 to 5 February 1987
      and Mrs. Koivisto
5.    H.E. General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq
      President of Pakistan               21 to 23 February 1987
6.    H.E. Mr. R.F.M. Lubbers
      Prime Minister of the Netherlands   2 to 4 March 1987
      and Mrs. Lubbers
7.    H.E. Mr. Nicolae Ceausescu
      President of Romania                9 to 12 March 1987
      and Mrs. Ceausescu
8.    H.E. Mr. Jose Eduardo Dos Santos
      President of Angola                 1 to 4 April 1987
9.    H.E. Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland
      Prime Minister of Norway            6 to 9 July 1987
10.   H.E. Mr. Yasser Arafat
      Chairman of the Palestine           3 to 5 August 1987
      Liberation Organisation
11.   H.E. Mr. J. R. Jayewardene
      President of Sri Lanka              5 to 7 November 1987
      and Mrs. Jayewardene
12.   H.E. Mr. N. I. Ryzhkov              20 to 25 November 1987
      Prime Minister of USSR
      and Mrs. Ryzhkov
13.   H.E. Ati George Sokomanu
      President of Vanuatu                      13 to 16 December 1987
      and Mrs. Sokomanu
14.   H.E. Mr. Giovanni Goria
      Prime Minister of Italy and               8 to 10 January 1988
      Mrs. Eugenia Goria
15.   H.E. Mr. J. R. Jayewardene
      President of Sri Lanka                    25 to 30 January 1988
      and Mrs. Jayewardene
16.   H.E. Mr. Li Gun Mo                        18 to 21 February 1988
      Prime Minister of the
      Democratic People's Republic of Korea
      This does not include Heads of
      State/Government
      who visited for the AFRICA Fund Summit.
                                                                      PG148

(1)   (2)                                       (3)

      FOREIGN MINISTERS

1.    H.E. Mr. Sahabzada Yaqub Khan
      Foreign Minister of Pakistan              15 and 16 January 1987
2.    H.E. Mr. Charles Joseph Clark
      Foreign Minister of Canada                5 to 11 February 1987
3.    H.E. Mr. Abdul Wakil
      Foreign Minister of Afghanistan           7 to 11 February 1987
4.    H.E. Dr. Ali Akbar Velayati
      Foreign Minister of Iran                  19 and 20 February 1987
5.    Sir Satcam Boolell
      Foreign Minister of Mauritius             19 Feb. to 2 March 1987
6.    H.E. Mr. Kim Yong Nam
      Foreign Minister of DPR Korea             26 to 28 February 1987
7.    H.E. Mr. Jean Bernand Raimond
      Foreign Minister of France                5 and 6 March 1987
8.    H.E. Mr. Shailendra Kumar Upadhyay
      Foreign Minister of Nepal                 23 to 26 March 1987
9.    H.E. Dr. Enrique V. Iglesias
      Foreign Minister of Uruguay               26 and 27 March 1987
10.   H.E. Mr. Shailendra Kumar Upadhyay
      Foreign Minister of Nepal                 20 and 21 June 1987
11.   H.E. Mr. T. Kuranari
      Foreign Minister of Japan                 10 and 11 August 1987
12.   H.E. Mr. Ibrahim Mukibi
      Foreign Minister of Uganda                16 to 21 August 1987
13.   H.E. U Ye Goung
      Foreign Minister of Burma                 12 to 17 September 1987
14.   H.E. Mr. Berhanu Bayih
      Foreign Minister of Ethiopia              26 to 29 November 1987
15.   H.E. Dr. Ali Akbar Velayati
      Foreign Minister of Iran                      17 to 20 November 1987
16.   H.E. Mr. Shailendra Kumar Upadhyay
      Foreign Minister of Nepal                     7 and 8 December 1987
17.   H.E. Dr. Ahmad Taleb Ibrahimi
      Minister of Foreign Affairs of Algeria Mrs.   25 to 30 January 1988
      Ibrahimi

                                                                       PG149



OTHERS

(1) (2)                                               (3)




1. H.E. Mrs. Lisbeth Palme
   Wife of late Prime Minister of Sweden              25 January to 2 Feb.
                                                      1987
2. H.E. Sir Charles Gaetan Duval
   Deputy Prime Minister of Mauritius               29 Jan. to 6 Feb. 1987
3. H.I.H. Prince Naruhito of Japan                  19 to 25 Match 1987
4. H.R.H. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of        10 to 28 March 1987
   Thailand
5. H.E. Mr. V. M. Kamentsev
   Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers 7 to 12 April 1987
6. H.E. Mr. Junius Nyerere
   Former President of Tanzania                     17 and 18 April 1987
7. H.E. Mr. Anatoly F. Dobrynin
   Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist
   Party
   of the Soviet Union                              20 to 27 May 1987
8. H.E. Mrs. V. S. Shevtchenko
   Vice-President of U.S.S.R.                       13 to 26 August 1987
9. H.E. Dr. A. Ranganathan
   Special Adviser to the President of Tanzania     18 Aug. to 3 Sep. 1987
10.H.E. Dr. S. S. Ramphal
   Secretary-General of Commonwealth                3 to 5 September 1987
11.Mama C. T. Kadzamira
   Official Hostess of Malawi                       1 to 6 October 1987
12.H.E. Mr. Otto Stich
   Vice-President of Switzerland                    11 to 16 October 1987
13.Mr. Jonannes Rau
   Minister-President of North Rhine Westphalia     22 to 29 November
   (FRG)                                            1987
14.H.E. Dr. S.S. Ramphal
   Secretary-General of Commonwealth                6 to 11 December 1987
15.H.E. Mr. Piet Bukeman
   Minister for Development Cooperation of the
   Netherlands                                  10 to 19 January 1988
16.H.E. Mr. Diaullah Al Fattal
   Vice Minister For Foreign Affairs of Syria   11 to 15 January 1988
17.H.E. Mr. U Khin Muang Gyi
   Minister for Trade of Burma                  23 Jan. to 8 Feb. 1988

								
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