Teacher Externship

Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm
  Historic New England

        Submitted by:

      Linda G. Young
    Amesbury High School

        May 18, 2007
Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm, c. 1690
A Historic Landmark
5 Little's Lane
Newbury, Mass. 01951
(978) 462-2634


Open: June 1 through October 15                                                                                 Thursday
through Sunday: 11 a.m. - 5 p.m.
Wednesday open for group tours by appointment
Admission: Children $4, Adults $5, Families $18, Historic New England members free

Click here for information about school programs for this site.

The Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm is a family-friendly site for experiential learning. Family members of all ages will find
hands-on activities that teach about life on the farm over the centuries. Spend time with old- fashioned occupations and
pastimes, explore nature trails, and enjoy a picnic under the ancient maple trees. Feel what it's like to pump water from a
well instead of turning on a tap. Sit in a rocker and look through a stereo viewer instead of watching TV. Find out about
archaeology by piecing excavated "artifacts" together. There are activities for everyone from preschoolers on up, involving
history, archaeology, and nature observation. The farm is open on a drop-in basis; some programs require reservations.

Nature walks, family events, and lectures are held at the farm year round.

The Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm visitor center houses a museum gift shop offering books, gifts and local products. The
visitor center also features an orientation exhibition, changing exhibition space, and fully-equipped programming space
which is available for community use with advance notice. Please call for more information.

While in Newbury, visit the nearby Coffin House. In addition, two study properties -- the Swett-Ilsley House and the Rocky
Hill Meeting House -- are only a short drive away.

Directions: Take I-95 to Route 113, Newburyport. Route 113 turns into Route 1A (High Road). Follow Route 1A for 3.7
miles. Turn left onto Little's Lane.

Discover more about the Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm in the Historic New England magazine archives:
Linda G. Young
Teacher Externship Lesson Format
May 14, 2007

"What people do not understand, they do not value, what they do not value, they will not protect, and what they
do not protect, they will lose. "-- Charles Jordan

Lesson Title: Working on the Farm

Workforce Concept: Contributing to skills necessary for feeding animals in a farm setting.

Energizer: A quick, focused activity that introduces the concept or skill and engages student in future lessons
concerning the skill or concept.

   1. Ask if anyone has a pet at home. Discuss what the pet eats. What foods do you eat to stay healthy?
   2. Bring your dog to school and demonstrate care and feeding of your pet.
   3. Let students take turns putting a small scoop of dog food in the bowl and a small amount of water in the
   4. Read story about life on the farm. How is the food that these animals eat different from what the dog
      eats? From what you eat?

Amount of time needed for the activity: 45 minutes

The student will provide appropriate care and feeding for animals at the Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm according
to the guidelines established by the caretaker at the Farm.

Student will:

   1. Learn responsibilities on the farm by working in the actual farm setting.

       Establishing prior knowledge before visit to the Farm.

       Using Mayer Johnson pictures:

                   Identify farm animals by name: Horse, chickens, goats
                   Match picture of the animal to written name
                   Match baby picture of animal to its mother
                   Listen to the sounds the animals make: match the sound to the animal.

       Learning Activities may include:
       Sequence stories
       Word Search
       Complete the Pattern
       Farm books

2. Discriminate between food for horse, chicken, and goat by matching picture to the animal. Refer to actual
photographs taken at Farm and represented in picture chart.

Student will:

Feed the designated animals using appropriate feed/grain.

   1. At Farm, locate three feed barrels in barn. (Barrels are clean metal trash barrels.)

   2. Identify pictures of animals on each of the covers of the bins.

               Sheep and Goats
               Horse
               Chickens
   3. Identify each of three buckets for the feed bins.

               Purple bucket – Sheep and goats
               Black bucket – Horse (Mollie)
               Blue bucket – Chickens

   4.   Scoop out 1 scoop of feed/grain into each bucket.
   5.   Carry bucket to animal pen.
   6.   Pour grain into appropriate trough in the animal pen.
   7.   Return buckets to appropriate shelf in the barn.

Student will:

Using designated shovel, shovel manure from the animal pen and remove to appropriate fertilizer pile outside of

   1. Locate and identify appropriate shovel for manure. (Located in barn.) Look for red handle.
   2. Locate wheelbarrow in barn.
   3. Locate work gloves on shelf and put on.
   4. Put shovel in wheelbarrow and wheel the wheelbarrow and shovel out to the animal pen.
   5. Shovel up manure and place in wheelbarrow.
   6. Wheel the wheelbarrow to the manure pile located outside of pen.
   7. Shovel manure into manure pile.
   8. Put shovel into wheelbarrow.
   9. Bring shovel and wheelbarrow back into barn.
   10. Place work gloves back on shelf.
   11. Wash hands with soap and water.

Learning Activities:

Field trip to Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm in Newbury, MA

           Meet the staff
           Meet the animals.
           Tour the farm and the old homestead
           Climb on the tractor
Massachusetts Frameworks Addressed:

Content: English Language Arts
Strand 1: Language

General Standard 1: Discussion
       Students will use agreed upon rules for informal and formal discussions in small and large groups.
       Entry points to this standard:
       Student will participate appropriately in a discussion in a variety of ways (raise hand, wait, listen,
respond, ask a question, close a conversation).

General Standard 4: Vocabulary & Concept Development
       Students will understand and acquire new vocabulary and use it correctly in reading and writing.
       Entry points to this standard:
       The student will associate a line drawing/picture/icon with a familiar object, action, or event.
       The student will select the appropriate line drawing/picture to indicate a preference or choice.
       The student will sort groups of known vocabulary words into categories and identify labels for these

Strand 2: Reading and Literature

General Standard 7: Beginning Reading
        Students will understand the nature of written English and the relationship of letters and spelling
patterns to the sounds of speech.
        Entry points to this standard:
        Identify pictures found in personal environment
        Show interest in reading materials by listening to stories read aloud

Content: Mathematics
Strand: Number Sense & Operations
      Entry points to this strand:
      The student will demonstrate one-to-one correspondence between objects.
      Distinguish between more/less, bigger/smaller, and other simple number meaning comparisons.

Resources Needed:
Books about Life on the Farm,
Digital camera to take photos at the farm
Mayer Johnson software to generate animal pictures
Guiding Questions:

   1. Why is it important to use the correct food for each of the animals?
   2. What would happen if the animals did not get fed?

Assessment Piece (grading rubric):
      See attached paper
                        Farm Work Skills: Feeding Animals
       Teacher Name: Linda Young

       Student Name:   ________________________________________

              CATEGORY         4 Awesome              3 Admirable            2 Adequate          1 Attempted
           Finding             All materials were     2 buckets were         1 bucket was        No materials were
           appropriate         found: 3 buckets, 3    found; 2 food bins     found; 1 food bin   gathered
                               food bins              were found

           Scooping            The bucket is filled   3/4 of the bucket is   Less than half a    The bucket was
           appropriate         completely with        filled.                bucket is filled.   not filled.
                               appropriate amount
           amount of food      of food.

           Feeding             Horses, Goats,         3 of the four animals 2 of the animals     The animals were
           animals             Sheep and Chickens were fed with the         were fed with the    not fed.
                               were all fed with the appropriate food       appropriate food.
                               appropriate food

           Replacing           The materials were     3 out of 4 items were 2 out of 4 items     No items were put
           materials           put away               put away              were put away        away properly
                               appropriately:         appropriately         properly
                               buckets, scoops, lid
                               on barrels.


Rubric Made Using: RubiStar (http://rubistar.4teachers.org)
Adapted from Rubric ID 1238520
                                               Teacher Externship

                                             Historic New England

                                          Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm


In my position as special needs teacher at Amesbury High School for over 22 years, I have seen many changes

within the school system. As an educator, I believe that it is imperative that we prepare our students for an ever-

changing global economy in order to be certain that our youth are well prepared for the vocations and trainings

that will confront them.

The Merrimack Valley Workforce Investment Board is committed to this goal and offers Connecting Activities

Teacher Externships for interested teachers who “through professional development…can revitalize school

curricula with universal design and relevant workplace applications for all of their students, especially those

with special needs.”

I had the good fortune to participate in a teacher externship during Spring 2007 at the Spencer-Peirce-Little

Farm in Newbury, Massachusetts. This historic landmark is located on Little’s Lane just off of Route 1A and is

operated by Historic New England. As indicated on its website, “The Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm is a family-

friendly site for experiential learning. Family members of all ages will find hands-on activities that teach

about life on a farm over the centuries. Spend time with old- fashioned occupations and pastimes, explore

nature trails, and enjoy a picnic under the ancient maple trees. Feel what it's like to pump water from a well

instead of turning on a tap. Sit in a rocker and look through a stereo viewer instead of watching TV. Find out

about archaeology by piecing excavated "artifacts" together. There are activities for everyone from preschoolers

on up, involving history, archaeology, and nature observation. The farm is open on a drop-in basis; some

programs require reservations. Nature walks, family events and lectures are held at the farm year round.”

I had the opportunity to visit this farm on a few occasions with my younger daughter over the years and thought

that this could be a perfect place to investigate specific job responsibilities that would be necessary to work on a

farm and in particular, care for animals on a farm. The Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm is home to numerous

animals, and all of them are ready to greet visitors. From the resident horse, to the numerous chickens and

goats, to the turkey that proudly roams the entire farm, the opportunities to connect with calm farm animals are

numerous. And the need to care for these animals is obvious.

There has been a great deal of research conducted regarding the therapeutic benefits of working with animals

for students with physical disabilities, autism, and cognitive impairments. The University of California/Davis

has compiled an extensive bibliography outlining research on specific developmental disorders and physical

disabilities. (http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/CCAB/aat.htm)

Through this externship, I have devised appropriate workplace applications for my students with special needs

in order to prepare them for meaningful vocations within a working farm environment. The students I work with

at Amesbury High School typically choose to stay within the area once they graduate from high school. Many

of the students in my program have developmental disabilities and will need some modifications or

accommodations to their working environments. Most notably, they would need familiar school support staff

with them for on the job training before the natural supports of the working environment would comfortably

take over. Having the chance to spend a number of hours directly within the farm environment allowed me to

prepare a series of workplace applications related to the curriculum for the students that I could begin to

implement on a regular basis during our school day. There are a number of students who I currently work with

who love animals. The Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm offered a perfect place for the students to safely access a

farm and work directly with animals in a protected environment.
                  Program for Companion Animal Behavior
                    UC Center for Animal Alternatives
        School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis

                                        Gateway to
                                        information on
                                        Animal Assisted
                                        Therapy for
                                        Children with
                                        Special Needs

Articles On Specific Developmental Disorders and Physical Disabilities
           Attention Deficit       Emotionally Disturbed       Physical
           Hyperactivity                                       Disabilities

           Autism                  Other Congenital
                                  Therapy Programs
           Birds               Dolphins                    Dogs
           Fish                Horses                      Snakes
AAT Organizations & AAA-AAT Practitioners Links to AAT Organizations located throughout the United
AAA-ATT Facilities care giving locations where AAA-AAT occurs
Volunteer/Internship Opportunities & Therapy Animal Listings

UC Center for Animal Alternatives
School of Veterinary Medicine
University of California, Davis

Questions/comments: vita ng

                                  Other Congenital Disorders
Counseling Children with Bipolar Disorders: A Psychotherapist’s Notes Lynn, George.

Draper, Ronald J; Gerber, Gary J; Layng, E Marnie. Defining the role of pet animals in psychotherapy.
Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa. 1990.15(30):169-172.

Heimlich, Kathryn. Animal-Asssited Therapy and the Severely Disabled: A Quantitative Study. International
Family Institue. 2002. Online Abstract

Limond, J. A., Bradshaw, J.W. S. & Cormack, K.F.M. Behaviour of children with learning disabilities
interacting with a therapy dog. Anthrozoos. 1997. 10(2/3): 84-89.

Nathanson, D.E. Using Atlantic Bottlenose dolphins to increase cognition of mentally retarded children. The
Interactions Bibliography. 1993. June, 4(2): 8.
                                         Physical Disabilities
              Allen, K. and Blascovich, J. The value of service dogs for people with severe ambulatory
disabilities: a randomized
              controlled trial. Journal of American Medical Association. 1996. 275(13): 1001-1006.

            Baker, L. Cerebral palsy and therapeutic riding. NARHA Strides 1 (2). 1995.

           Camp, M. M. The use of service dogs as an adaptive strategy: a qualitative study. 2001. The
American Journal of
           Occupational Therapy. 2001. 55(5): 509-517.

           Carmack, B. J. Companion animals: Social support for orthopedic clients. 1998. Orthopedic
Nursing. 1998.
            33(4): 701-711.

Counsell CM, Abram J, Gilbert M. Animal assisted therapy and the individual with spinal cord injury. SCI
Nurs. 1997.14(2):52-55.

Eddy, J., Hart, L. A. and Boltz, R. P. The effects of service dogs on social acknowledgments of people in
wheelchairs. The Journal of Psychology. 1998. 122(1): 29-45.

Heimlich, K. Animal-assisted threapy and the severly disabled child: a quatiative study. Journal of
Rehabilitation. 2001. Oct-Nov, 1-15. Online.

Mader, B., Hart, L. A. and Bergin, B. Social acknowledgement for children with disabilities: effects of
service dogs. Child Development. 1989. 60(6): 1529-1534.
All, A. C., Loving, G. L. and Crane, L. L. Animals, horseback riding, and implications for rehabilitation
therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation. 1999. 65: 49-57.

Anderson, Robert K.; Hart, Benjamin L.; Hart, Lynette A. Therapeutic horseback riding in Europe and North
America. The Pet connection: its influence on our health and quality of life. P. 141-153

Angier, N. Four-legged therapists. Discover. 1983. (Aug) 87-89.

Baker, L. Cerebral palsy and therapeutic riding. NARHA Strides 1 (2). 1995. Online:
Bertoti, D. B. Effects of therapeutic horseback riding on posture in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of the
American Physical Therapy Association. 1988. 68(10): 1505-1512.

Biery, M.J. and Kauffman, N. The effects of therapeutic horsebackriding on balance. Adapted Physical
Acitivity Quarterly. 1989. 6:221-229.

Cawley, Roger; Cawley, Doreen, & Retter, Kristen. Therapeutic horseback riding and self-concept in
adolescent with special educational needs. Anthrozoos. 1994. 7(2):129-134.

Carlson, E. S. The effects of a program of therapeutic horsemanship on the self-concept and locus of control
orientation of the learning disabled. Dissertation Abstracts International. 1983. 43(12): 4123-B.
Fox, V. M., Lawlor, V. A. and Luttges, M. W. Pilot study of novel test instrument to evaluate therapeutic
horseback riding. Adapted Physical Acitivty Quarterly. 1984. 1:30-36.

Funk, Marcia S. M., Smith, Betsy A. Occupational Therapist and Therapeutic riding. Anthrozoos. 2000. 13(3):

Greenwald, Alsia J. The effect of a therapeutic horsemanship program on emotionally disturbed boys.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering. 2001. 62(2-B):1078

Goddard-Taylor, G. Hooved Healers. Online.

Griffith, J. C. Chronicle of therapeutic horseback riding in the United States, resources and references.
Journal of the American Kinesiotherapy Association. 1992. 46: 2-7.

Harpoth, U. Horseback riding for handicapped children. 1970. Physical Therapy 50(): 235-36.

Haskin, M. Bream J.A., Erdman W. J. The Pennsylvania horseback riding program for cerebral palsy. AmJ of
Physical Medicine. 1982. 61(6): 141-144.

Hedrickson, J. D. Horsebackriding for the handicapped. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.
1971. 52: 282-283.

Kaiser, L. Spence, L. J. Lavergne, A. G., Vanden Bosch, K. L. Can a week of Therapeutic riding make a
difference?--A pilot study. Anthrozoos. 2004. 17(1): 63-72.

MacKay-Lyons, M., Conway, C. and Roberts, W. Effects of therapeutic riding on patients with multiple
sclerosis: a preliminary trial. Physiotherapy Canada. 1988. 40: 104-109.

MacKinnon, J. R., Noh, S. and Laliberte, D. Therapeutic horseback riding: A review of the literature.
Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. 1995. 15: 1-15.

Mackinnon, J.R.; Noh, S.; Lariviere, J.; MachPhail, A.; Allen, D.E.; Laliberte, D. A study of the effects of
horseback riding for children with cerebral palsy. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. 1995.
15(1): 17-34.

Mason, M. J. Effects of therapeutic horseback riding program on self concept in adults with cerebral palsy.
Dissertation Abstracts International. 1989. 49(9-A)2590-2591.

Mayberry R. P. The mystique of the horse is a strong medicine: Riding as therapeutic recreation.
Rehabilitation Literature. 1978. 39: 192-196.

McGibbon, N.H., Andrade, C.K., Cintas, H.L. Effect of equine-movement therapy program on gait, energy,
and motor funtion in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.
1998. 40(11): 754-63.

Roberto MA. Animal-assisted therapy: a modality of treatment for the patient with spinal cord injury. SCI
Nurs. 2002.19(3):142-143.

Ruth, Rob. Animals are helping children overcome physical and emotional challenges. Interactions
Magazine. 1992.10(1):16     UC Center for Animal Alternatives 5/4/2005
Selected Journal Articles:
Brown, H.M. "Intrusion" and interaction therapy for riders with autism. NARHA Strides
Magazine (2). 1996. 3. Online.

Celani G. Human beings, animal sand inanimate objects: what do people with autism like?
Autism. 2002. 6(1):93-102.

Davis, BW., Nattrass, K., O'Brien, S., Patronek, G., MacCollin, M. Assistance dog placement
in the pediatric popluation: Benefits, risks, and recommendations for future application.
Anthrozoos. 2004. 17(2): 130-145.

<>Francois, Martin; Farnum, Jennifer. Animal-assisted therapy for children with pervasive
developmental disorders. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2002, 24(6):657-670.

Law, Sandra; Scott, Sandra. Tips for practioners: Pet care: A vehicle for learning. Focus on
Autistic Behavior. 1995, 10(2):17-18

Mader, B., Hart, L. A. and Bergin, B. Social acknowledgements for children with
disabilities: effects of service dogs. Child Development. 1989. 60(6): 1529-1534

Martin F, Farnum J. Animal-assisted therapy for children with pervasive developmental
disorders. West J Nurse Res. 2002. 24(6):657-70.

Redefer, Laurel A; Goodman, Joan F. Pet-facilitated with autistic children. Journal of
Autism & Developmental Disorder. 1989, 19(3):461-467
Additional Articles:
Cusack, Odean. Pets and Mental Health. The Haworth Press, Inc. 1988 P. 85-89

Exceptional Children

Myers, Gene. Children and Animals social development and our connections to other
species. P. 137-143

Pet Ferret Helps Autistic Child Autism PDD Service Animals Tilton, Adelle 8/2001.

Ruth, Rob. Animals are helping children overcome physical and emotional challenges.
Interactions Magazine. Vol.10 (1) 1992 P. 16

The Power of Pets. Abrahms, Sally

Thinking the way animals do. Grandin, Temple

Thomas, C.C. & Levinson, Boris. Pet Oriented Child Psychotherapy. Charles C Thomas
Publisher 1969. P.69-72

Tschochner, B. Autism and social disorder: The Animal Interaction-Grid as a new
method to monitor therapeutic processes. 1998. Paper presented at the 8th international
conference on Human-Animal Interactions, 10-12 September, Prague.

KEYWORDS USED FOR SEARCH: Autistic+Children+Pet/Animal+Therapy

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                                            (Answer ID # 0300683)
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