DOI MOI: A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF VIETNAM’S ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION 1986-2000 Binh P. Le The Pennsylvania State University Abington, PA USA 2005 Table of Contents Acknowledgments …….…………………………………………………………………………...3 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………..4 General Economic Conditions ……………………..……………………………………………...7 Agriculture……………………….……………………………………………………………….50 State Sector……….. ..……………………………………………………………………………95 Industry…………. ………………………………………………………………………..…….114 Finance…………. ……………………………………………………………………..………..136 Foreign Direct Investment………………………………………………………….…………...178 Foreign Trade………...………………………………………………………………...………..189 Politics………….……………………………………………………………………..…………218 Vietnamese Communist Party…………………………………………………….……………..272 Law………………………………………………………………………...……………………294 Non-State Sector………...……………………………………………………...……………….313 Market/Socialist-Oriented Economy …………………………………….……………………324 Society………. ..…………………………………………………………...……………………355 Gender and Ethnicity…………………………………..………………………………………..406 ACKNOWLEDMENTS I would like to thank the following institutions for supporting this project: The Pennsylvania State University, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries, the Abington College, and the Australian National University. I would also like to thank especially the following individuals: Nancy Eaton, Dean of the Pennsylvania State University Libraries; Jack Sulzer, Associate Dean for the Commonwealth Campus Libraries of the Pennsylvania State University; Karen Wiley Sandler, Chancellor of the Abington College; Leonard Mustazza, Associate Dean of the Abington College; and T. Matthew Ciolek, Head of Internet Publications Bureau, Research School of Asian and Pacific Studies, National Institute for Asia and the Pacific of the Australian National University for their support. Without the support of these institutions and individuals, this bibliography would not have been possible. I would like to thank the following friends and colleagues at Penn State Abington: Pat Weaver, Glenn McGuigan, Lucy Wang, Kathleen Cinquino, Linda Kinter, Rachel Lang, Kathleen Pagano, Walter Cavalcanti, and specially Jeannette Ullrich. I would like to thank my wife Christine and our daughter Lida for their encouragement and support. While relying heavily on the resources available at and through the Pennsylvania State University Libraries in preparing this bibliography, I had also benefited greatly from many institutions on the east coast of the United States, particularly the Library of Congress and Cornell University. In fact, nearly fifty percent of the resources included in this work were located “manually”- for there are neither electronic nor printed bibliographic utilities for Vietnamese periodicals - from the Kroch Library of Cornell University. The help of Allen J. Riedy, Curator of the Echols Collection on Southeast Asia of the Kroch Library of Cornell University, was also deeply appreciated. Binh P. Le Associate Librarian INTRODUCTION At the early stages of the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese leaders disagreed over the issue of whether the Stalinist economic system, particularly with its strong focus on the development of heavy industry and total collectivization of agriculture, was appropriate under Vietnam‟s preexisting conditions. More importantly, they were not even confident that it was the right path for Vietnam‟s socio-economic development. Despite their misgivings about the Stalinist economic system, the government gradually implemented it in North Vietnam in the late 1950‟s. And following the unification of the country in 1975, the government also gradually imposed it in South Vietnam. And by the late 1970‟s, Vietnam completed the transformation of its semi feudal, semi capitalist, and semi Stalinist economy into a Stalinist economic system or centrally planned economy. Vietnam‟s Stalinist economic system, however, failed to deliver what Vietnamese leaders had hoped for. Broadly speaking, besides the inherent deficiencies of the Stalinist economic system, the lack of interest among peasants, especially the peasants in the South where most of Vietnam‟s agricultural land situated, toward collectivization; the primitive infrastructural and material conditions for industrialization; the wartime situation; and the economic embargo imposed on Vietnam by the United States were the decisive culprits for this failure. By the middle of 1980‟s Vietnam‟s worsening economic situations were further aggravated when foreign aid, especially Chinese economic aid, was significantly reduced. This was perhaps the final blow that decimated Vietnam‟s Stalinist economy. It is because for decades Vietnam relied heavily, if not totally, on foreign aid for its survival. The economic situations were so desperate that many agricultural collectives and state enterprises simply ignored government regulations and conducted their own economic activities, e.g., refusing to work on collective farms, establishing “khoan chui” (secret contract) between collectives and families or between state enterprises and private merchants, and the like. These practices were commonly known as “pha rao” (fence breaking). Vietnamese leaders now began to recognize that they had failed to even meet the very basic economic needs of the Vietnamese, as they had truly hoped for. In fact, by the early of 1980‟s, Vietnam became one of the impoverished countries in the world. In response to these crises, the Vietnamese Communist Party, at the Sixth Party Congress held in December 1986, decided to carry out a far-reaching political and economic reform program, commonly known as Doi Moi or Renovation. The main policies of Doi Moi were on decollectivization of agriculture, trade liberalization especially opening up the country for foreign direct investment, and marketization of state-owned enterprises. Interestingly, many of the fence breaking practices such as “khoan chui” (now the quotas contract system) became legal as well as important policies under Doi Moi. As it turned out, these policies not only helped in restoring the Vietnamese economy but also turning it into a vibrant economy. In fact, by the early 1990‟s Vietnam‟s economy became one of the fastest growing economies in the world. For example, Vietnam ranked third in rice export. And in 1996 Vietnam became a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, an economic integration that was unimaginable only a few years earlier. Although Vietnam had not officially abandoned its Stalinist economic system, the existing economic structure was radically altered. In fact, only a few years after the implementation of Doi Moi, many Western economists had already classified Vietnam‟s economy as a market economy. Vietnamese leaders intended to make Doi Moi a comprehensive economic, political, and social transformation. However, little progress has been made besides the economic realm. While there is no doubt that between1986 – 2000, Vietnam was more open (e.g., limited religious tolerance, ease on travel) than all of the decades preceding it, it is still a closed society. Vietnam is still a one-party state; the Communist Party of Vietnam is the only force in the society. In recent years Vietnamese leaders have allowed other political entities, besides the Communist Party, to play a limited role in the political system. However, Vietnamese leaders are still unwilling to transform their political system into democratic political system. Despite all this, the economic transformation in Vietnam is an important one, and yet only a small number of studies on this topic have been carried out outside Vietnam. This is unfortunate. The success of Doi Moi alone merits critical studies, especially under the conditions with which it was carried out. Furthermore, while it is true that Vietnam was a socialist state at the time of the transformation, many of its economic and political characteristics were similar to the characteristics of the economic and political systems of many developing countries, such as the nationalization of all natural resources, the large public sector, the predominant role of agriculture, and the one-party political system. Finally, the market economy with socialist orientation model – a new experimentation - is something worth studying. In other words, the economic transformation in Vietnam may offer valuable lessons not only to underdeveloped socialist but also non-socialist developing countries. This bibliography is composed of Vietnamese and English sources, published between 1986 and 2000, on the Doi Moi. As noted, Doi Moi was supposedly to be a comprehensive transformation; thus far, the only area with greatest achievements has been the economy. Consequently, the literature on Doi Moi has centered mostly on economic-related issues. On English language sources, the emphasis is on scholarly and primary sources, which include monographs, scholarly journal articles, working papers, government and non- governmental documents, and theses. On Vietnamese language sources, the emphasis is on government or government-related documents, monographs and journal articles. It is important to note that because of the very limited political openness in Vietnam, there are very few non- government sources. In fact, most of the entries, including monographs and journal articles, listed in this bibliography were published either by the government‟s publishing houses or under the government‟s sponsorship. To make the bibliography easily accessible, the work is organized into 14 chapters. Each chapter covers one topic area, e.g., agriculture, finance, politics, and state sector. In each chapter, entries are arranged alphabetically. For authors of English language publications, the arrangement of each entry is as follows: family name, first name, middle name. For authors of Vietnamese publications, the arrangement of each entry is as follows: family name, middle name, and first name. For example, the entry for Vo Nguyen Giap is Vo Nguyen Giap. Additionally, translation of Vietnamese titles into English is provided, except for entries that have already been translated. GENERAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 1. 1986. Tim Hieu Nghi Quyet Dai Hoi VI: Mot So Van De Thuoc Quan Diem Kinh Te (Understanding the Resolution of the 6th Congress: Economic Issues). Ho Chi Minh City: Ho Chi Minh. 2. 1987. “Hoi Nghi Lan Thu Hai BCHTUD (Khoa VI): Giai Quyet Nhung Van De Cap Bach ve Phan Phoi, Luu Thong,” (The 2nd Plenum of the CPV CC (6th Congress): Solving the Pressing Problems of Distribution and Circulation) Tap Chi Cong San 377:1-6. 3. 1988. “Nhung Tu Tuong Chi Dao Lon cua Ke Hoach Phat Trien Kinh Te Xa Hoi 5 Nam 1986-1990 va Nam 1988,” (Major Guiding Ideas of the Five-Year Plan of Social and Economic Development for 1986-1990 and 1988) Tap Chi Cong San 386:1-7. 4. 1989. “Nhung Muc Tieu Chu Yeu cua Kinh Te, Xa Hoi Nam 1989,” (The Main Targets of the Social and Economic Plan in the Year 1989) Tap Chi Cong San 397:1-6. 5. 1989. “Tong Ket Tot Kinh Nghiem De Tiep Tuc Day Manh Su Nghiep Doi Moi,” (Summing up Good Experiences to Promote the Renovation) Tap Chi Cong San 398:1-7. 6. 1990. “Nhung Muc Tieu Chu Yeu cua Ke Hoach Kinh Te Xa Hoi Nam 1990,” (The Main Objectives of the 1990 Socio-Economic Plan) Tap Chi Cong San 409:11-5. 7. 1990. Mien Nam trong Su Nghiep Doi Moi cua Nuoc (The South in the Transformation of the Country). Ho Chi Minh City: Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi. 8. 1990. Viet Nam, 1975-1990: Thanh Tuu va Kinh Nghiem (Vietnam, 1975-1990: Results and Experiences). Hanoi: Su That. 9. 1990. Vietnam’s Socio-Economic Situation in 2000. Hanoi: Review Planning. 10. 1991. Chien Luoc On Dinh va Phat Trien Kinh Te Xa Hoi Viet Nam den Nam 2000 (Vietnam‟s Strategy for Socio-Economic Stabilization and Development to the Year 2000). Hanoi: Su That. 11. 1991. Vietnam: Country File. Kuala Lumpur: Asian Pacific Development Center. 12. 1992. “Phan Dau Thuc Hien Tot Cac Nhiem Vu Kinh Te Xa Hoi Nam 1992,” (Striving to Implement the Socio-Economic Tasks of 1992) Tap Chi Cong San 433:6-9. 13. 1992. Is Vietnam the Next Asian Dynamo? Bangkok: Tilleke and Gibbins Consultants Limited. 14. 1992. Nhung Van De Quan Ly Kinh Te O Viet Nam (Economic Management Issues in Vietnam). Hanoi: Tu Tuong Van Hoa. 15. 1992. Tiem Nang Kinh Te Viet Nam Truoc Nguong cua Nhung Nam 2000 (Vietnam‟s Economic Potentials on the Threshold of the Years 2000‟s). Ho Chi Minh City: Uy Ban Nha Nuoc ve Hop Tac va Dau Tu, Ban Doanh Nghiep. 16. 1993. “Nhan Ro Cuc Dien Kinh Te Xa Hoi, Dua Dat Nuoc Tien Manh tren con Duong Doi Moi,” (Assessing the Socio-Economic Situation, Bringing the Country towards Renovation) Tap Chi Cong San 445:3-4. 17. 1994. “Vietnam‟s Economy over the First 9 Months of 1993: Growth Coupled with Low Inflation,” Vietnam Economic Review 4(22):38-41. 18. 1993. An Ninh Kinh Te va Nen Kinh Te Thi Truong Viet Nam (Economic Security and the Vietnamese Market Economy). Hanoi: Cong An Nhan Dan. 19. 1993. Nhung Van De Quan Ly Kinh Te O Nuoc Ta (Economic Management Issues in Our Country). Hanoi: Chinh Tri Quoc Gia. 20. 1993. Vietnam: Country Profile. Kuala Lumpur: Asian and Pacific Development Center. 21. 1993. Vietnam: Trien Vong Cong Cuoc Phat Trien -- Tai Lieu Dung Cho Hoi Nghi Cac Nha Tai Tro (Vietnam: Development Prospects -- Documents Prepared for the Donor Conference). Hanoi. 22. 1993. Vietnam: Which Way Now? Sydney: Macqurie University, Asia-Pacific Research Institute. 23. 1993. Vietnam: Year 2000 – An Economic Assessment and Business Guide. Montreal: TPIC, Inc. 24. 1994. “Dua Su Nghiep Doi Moi Tien Len Gianh Thang Loi To Lon Hon Nua,” (Pushing the Course of Renovation Forward in Order to Gain More Significant Achievements) Tap Chi Cong San 458:3-5. 25. 1994. “Vietnam‟s Economy Emerging from Crisis,” Vietnam Economic Review 4(26):42-4. 26. 1994. Country Strategy Note Formulation Exercise: Report - Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Draft 8/9/1994). New York: United Nations. 27. 1994. Phan Phoi Thu Nhap trong Nen Kinh Te Thi Truong: Ly Luan, Thuc Tien, Van Dung O Viet Nam (Allocation, Collection in Market Economy: Theory, Practice, Usage in Vietnam). Hanoi: Thong Ke. 28. 1994. The Vietnamese Economy in 1994. Manila: Asian Development Bank. 29. 1994. Vietnam: An Emerging Business Opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S.-ASEAN Council for Business and Technology. 30. 1995. “Decision No. 752/TTg of the 10th of December, 1994 of the Prime Minister on Commodity Policy and the Conduct of Import-Export Work in 1995,” Vietnam Economic Review 2(28):38-41. 31. 1995. “The Economic Situation over the First 8 Months of 1995,” Vietnam Economic Review 4(30):35-8. 32. 1995. Business in Vietnam: Shifting into Gear. Hong Kong: Economist Intelligence Unit. 33. 1995. Dynamic Vietnam. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies. 34. 1995. EIU Business Report: Vietnam. Wanchai, Hong Kong: Economist Intelligence Report. 35. 1995. Su Phat Trien Kinh Te Xa Hoi Viet Nam va Nhu Cau Dau Tu trong 5 Nam 1996-2000 (Socio-Economic Development and Investment, 1996-2000). Hanoi: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Vietnam. 36. 1995. Vietnam Commerce and Industry. Hanoi: Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Vietnam. 37. 1995. Vietnam: Winds of Change. Hong Kong: Asiamoney. 38. 1996. “To Concretize 10 Development Programs in the 1996-2000 Five-Year Socio- Economic Development Plan,” Vietnam Economic Review 5(35):3-6. 39. 1996. “To Strictly Economize Resources and to Ensure Their Relevant Use for Our Objectives,” Vietnam Economic Review 6(36):3-6. 40. 1996. Economy, Society and Environment in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Adelaide: Flinders and Adelaide Universities. 41. 1996. Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur: Asian and Pacific Development Center. 42. 1996. “Development Investments, 1991-1995,” Vietnam Economic Review 2(32):38-42. 43. 1997. “Glimpses of Vietnam‟s Socio-Economic Development during the Past 5 Years,” Vietnam Economic Review 5(40):3-5. 44. 1997. “Major Issues in the 1996-2000 Socio-Economic Development Plan and the Tasks for 1997,” Vietnam Economic Review 2(38):3-7. 45. 1997. “Resolution on the 5 Year Plan 1996-2000,” in Vietnam 1996-1997. Hanoi: The Gioi Publishers. 46. 1997. “Resolution on the Tasks for 1997,” in Vietnam 1996-1997. Hanoi: The Gioi Publishers. 47. 1997. “Reviewing the 1977 Plan to Work Out the 1998 State Plan,” Vietnam Economic Review 9&10(43):26-9. 48. 1997. “Some Lines and Measures for Executing the Socio-Economic Development Strategy in 1997,” Vietnam Economic Review 3&4(39):3-6. 49. 1997. “Ten Socio-Economic Events in 1996,” Vietnam Economic Review 2(38):7-11. 50. 1997. Business Opportunities in Vietnam. Singapore: Technical University. 51. 1997. Vietnam 1997: An Economic Profile. West Perth, WA: T.E.E. Revision Center. 52. 1998. “Assessing Economic Development during the Years 1996-1997,” Vietnam Economic Review 2(47):10-3. 53. 1998. “Nang Cao Hieu Luc va Hieu Qua Chi Dao, Dieu Hanh Ke Hoach Phat Trien Kinh Te Xa Hoi Nam 1998,” (Improving the Effectiveness and Result of the Guidance on the Socio- Economic Development Plan of 1998) Tap Chi Cong San 543:3-12. 54. 1998. Hoi Nghi Nhom Tu Van Cac Nha Tai Tro cho Viet Nam, Hanoi, 7-8/12/1998. Viet Nam: Vuot Len Thu Thach – Bao Cao Kinh Te Cua Ngan Hang The Gioi (Donor Conference, Hanoi, 7-8/12/1998, Vietnam: Rising to Meet the Challenge – Report of the World Bank). Hanoi: Ngan Hang The Gioi Tai Viet Nam. 55. 1998. Tu Lieu Kinh Te Xa Hoi 61 Tinh va Thanh Pho (Socio-Economic Statistical Data of 61 Provinces and Cities in Vietnam). Hanoi: Thong Ke. 56. 2000. “Dac Diem va Hien Trang The Che Thi Truong Lao Dong Viet Nam,” (Vietnam‟s Labor Market: Characteristics and Actual Situation) Vietnam Economic Review 5(69):39-42. 57. 2000. “Nhiem Vu Nam 2000 va Ke Hoach Phat Trien Kinh Te Xa Hoi, Ngan Sach Nam 2001,” (Socio-Economic and Budgetary Tasks of 2000 and Development Plan 2001) Vietnam Economic Review 12(76):3-15. 58. 2000. “Phat Trien Kinh Te Xa Hoi: 1999-2000,” (Socio-Economic Development: 1999- 1000) Vietnam Economic Review 1&2:(66):3-13. 59. 2000. “Thanh Tuu sau 10 Nam Doi Moi Kinh Te cua Viet Nam,” (Results of 10 Years of Economic Renovation in Vietnam) Vietnam Economic Review 11(75):9-11. 60. 2000. “Tong Quan Kinh Te Cac Tinh Phia Nam sau 25 Nam Giai Phong,” (25 Years Following the Liberation: An Overview of the Economic Situation of Southern Provinces) Vietnam Economic Review 6(70):40-. 61. Alliband, Graham. 1991. “Whither Vietnam?” in Dean K. Forbes, et al, eds. Doi Moi: Vietnam’s Renovation Policy and Performance. Canberra: Australia National University/Panther Publishing and Press. 62. Appold, Stephen and John D. Kasarda. 1995. Recent Spatial Developments in Vietnam. Pittsburgh, PA: H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University. 63. Asian Development Bank, Post-Evaluation Office. 1995. Country Synthesis of Post- Evaluation Findings in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Manila: Asian Development Bank, Post-Evaluation Office. 64. Asian Development Bank. (annual). Asian Development Outlook. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. 65. Asian Development Bank. (annual). Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. 66. Asian Development Bank. 1989. Economic Report on the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Manila: Asian Development Bank. 67. Asian Development Bank. 1994. The Vietnamese Economy in 1991. Manila: Asian Development Bank. 68. Asian Development Bank. 1995. Country Operational Strategy Study: Vietnam. Manila: Asian Development Bank. 69. Avery, Dorothy R. 1993. “Vietnam in 1992: Win Some; Lose Some,” Asian Survey 33(1):67-74. 70. Ban Chinh Sach va Quan Ly. 1993. Doanh Nghiep Nong Nghiep Nha Nuoc tren Duong Doi Moi (Trade, Agriculture, the State during the Transition Period). Hanoi: Bo Nong Nghiep. 71. Ban Chu Nhiem De Tai. 1991. “May Net Tong Quan ve Thuc Trang Kinh Te Xa Hoi Nuoc Ta qua Bon Nam Doi Moi: Van De va Giai Phap,” (Summaries of the Socio-Economic Situation after Four Years Renovation: Problem and Solution) in Pham Xuan Nam, ed. Doi Moi Kinh Te, Xa Hoi: Thanh Tuu, Van De va Giai Phap (Socio-Economic Renovation: Results, Problems and Solutions). Hanoi: Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi. 72. Banning, Jan. 1993. Vietnam: Doi Moi. Amsterdam: FOCUS. 73. Beresford, Melanie. 1988. “Issues in Economic Unification: Overcoming the Legacy of Separation,” in David G. Marr and Christine P. White, eds. Postwar Vietnam: Dilemmas in Socialist Development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 74. Beresford, Melanie. 1988. Vietnam: Politics, Economics and Society. New York: Columbia University Press. 75. Beresford, Melanie. 1989. National Unification and Economic Development in Vietnam. New York: St. Martin‟s Press. 76. Beresford, Melanie. 1991. “The Impact of Economic Reforms on the South,” in Dean K. Forbes, et al, eds. Doi Moi: Vietnam’s Renovation Policy and Performance. Canberra: Australia National University/Panther Publishing and Press. 77. Bo Chinh Tri. 1988. Nghi Quyet Bo Chinh Tri, So 10-NQ/TW (Political Bureau Decision, No. 10). Hanoi. 78. Bo Ke Hoach Dau Tu, Trung Tam Thing Tin. 1996. Trien Vong Kinh Te Viet Nam Nhung Nam Cuoi The Ky 20 va Dau The Ky 21 (Prospects of Vietnam‟s Economy at the End of the 20th Century and the Beginning of the 21st Century). Hanoi: Bo Ke Hoach Dau Tu, Trung Tam Thong Tin. 79. Bo Ke Hoach va Dau Tu, Vien Chien Luoc Phat Trien. 1998. Lua Chon va Thuc Hien Chinh Sach Phat Trien Kinh Te O Viet Nam (Select and Implement Economic Development Policy in Vietnam). Hanoi: Chinh Tri Quoc Gia. 80. Bogatova, E. 1988. “Vietnam: The Search for Avenues to Renovation,” Far Eastern Affairs 6:39-44. 81. Bogatova, E., and M. Trigubenko, 1987. “The 6th CVP Congress on the Strategy of Vietnam‟s Socio-Economic Development,” Far Eastern Affairs 3:1-13. 82. Bose, Rupa K. 1994. Vietnam: What’s Next? Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, Business Intelligence Program. 83. Braddock, R., ed. 1993. Vietnam: Which Way Out? Sydney: Asia-Pacific Research Center, Macquarie University. 84. Braulke, M., et al. 1995. Vietnam: Statistical Tables. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. 85. British Consultants Bureau. 1992. Vietnam: The Next Asian Tiger? London: British Consultants Bureau. 86. Brown, Frederick Z. 1993. “The Economic Development of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia,” Journal of Northeast Asian Studies 12(4):3-21. 87. Brown, Frederick Z. 1995. “Vietnam since the War (1975-1995),” Wilson Quarterly 19(1):64-87. 88. Bruton, Christopher. 1992. Vietnam Business Handbook. Bangkok: Chamber Publications and Vietnam Chamber of Commerce. 89. Bui Dinh Thanh 1990. Viet Nam: 45 Nam Chien Dau Xay Dung va Doi Moi (Vietnam: 45 Years of Struggle, Development, and Renovation). Hanoi: Su That. 90. Bui Duong Nghieu. 1999. “Kinh Cau: Mot Bien Phap Can Duoc Can Nhac Ky,” (To Stimulate Demand: A Measure that Should be Pondered Over) Nghien Cuu Kinh Te 8(255):23-6. 91. Bui Duong Nghieu. 1999. “Kinh Te, Tai Chinh Viet Nam Thoi Ky Doi Moi va Trien Vong,” (Vietnam‟s Economy and Finance during the Doi Moi Process and Prospects) Nghien Cuu Kinh Te 2(249):22-31. 92. Bui Tat Thang. 1994. “Doi Moi va Su Chuyen Dich Co Cau Kinh Te Theo Huong Cong Nghiep Hoa,” (Renovation and Economic Restructuring in the Direction of Industrialization) Nghien Cuu Kinh Te 2(198):42-9. 93. Bui Tat Thang. 1994. Su Chuyen Dich Co Cau Nganh trong Qua Trinh Cong Nghiep Hoa cua Cac Nen Kinh Te Moi Cong Nghiep Hoa O Dong A va Viet Nam (Sectoral Transformation in the Industrialization Process of the Newly East Asian Industrialized Countries and Vietnam). Hanoi: Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi. 94. Business Monitor International, Ltd. 1993. Vietnam 1993: Annual Report on Government, Economy, the Business Environment and Industry, with Forecast through End-1994. London: Business Monitor International, Ltd. 95. Carolyn L. Gates and David H. D. Truong. 1995. “Development Strategy and Trade and Investment Policies for Structural Change,” in Irene Norlund, Carolyn L. Gates and Vu Cao Dam, eds. Vietnam in a Changing World. London: Curzon Press. 96. Center for International Economics. 1997. Vietnam’s Trade Policy. Canberra and Sidney: Center for International Economics. 97. Central Institute for Economic Management. 1988. Vietnam’s Economy in 1997: A Policy Analysis. Hanoi: Central Institute for Economic Management. 98. Central Institute for Economic Management. 1990. Economic Reform and Development Policies in Vietnam. Hanoi: Central Institute for Economic Management. 99. Chau, Do Le. 1995. A Look at Vietnam in Renewal. Honolulu, HI: East-West Center, Program on Communication and Journalism. 100. Che Tuong Nhu. 1997. The Effects of Internal and External Trade Liberalization on Agricultural Growth: A Case Study of Vietnam. Ph. D. diss., Australian National University. 101. Che Viet Tan. 1988. “Mot So Quan Diem ve Phat Trien San Xuat Hang Hoa O Nuoc Ta,” (Some Viewpoints on the Development of Commodity Production in Our Country) Tap Chi Cong San 388:21-6. 102. Chen, Kang. 1996. “Decentralization and Changing: Central-Local Relations in Transitional Economies,” in Anthony T. H. Chin and Ng. Hock Guan, eds. Economic Management and Transition towards a Market Economy: An Asian Perspective. Singapore: World Scientific. 103. Chin, Anthony T. H. 1996. “Transport and Distribution in Vietnam,” in Anthony T. H. Chin and Ng. Hock Guan, eds. Economic Management and Transition towards a Market Economy: An Asian Perspective. Singapore: World Scientific. 104. Chu Van Lam. 1987. “Dai Hoi VI Dang Cong San Viet Nam va Nhung Van De Kinh Te Chinh Tri trong Thoi Ky Qua Do,” (The Sixth Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party and the Political and Economic Issues in the Renovation) Nghien Cuu Kinh Te 3(157):1-6. 105. Chu, Saukok. 1995. “Tiger in Adolescence: Prospects for Economic Prosperity in Vietnam,” Harvard International Review 17(3):58-9, 86-7. 106. Cima, Ronald J. 1989. “Vietnam in 1988: The Brink of Renewal,” Asian Survey 29(1):64-72. 107. Cima, Ronald J. 1989. “Vietnam‟s Economic Reform: Approaching the 1990‟s,” Asian Survey 29(8):786-99. 108. Cordes, Bernd. 1991. “Vietnam‟s Economic „Renovation,‟” Journal of Southeast Asia Business 7(1):71-84. 109. Cosslett, Tuyet L., and William R. Shaw. 1989. “The Economy,” in Ronald J. Cima, ed. Vietnam: A Country Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 110. Crosnier, Marie-Agnes. 1990. A First Assessment of Vietnam’s Economic Reform. Paris: CEDUCEE. 111. Cuc Thong Ke Ho Chi Minh City. 1996. Co So Kinh Te Tai Chinh Thanh Pho Ho Chi Minh (The Economic-Financial Structure of Ho Chi Minh City). Ho Chi Minh City: Cuc Thong Ke Ho Chi Minh City. 112. Cuc Thong Ke, Nghe An. 1992. So Lieu Co Ban Tinh Hinh Phat Trien Kinh Te Xa Hoi 1989-1991 Tinh Nghe An (Statistics on Nghe An Province‟s Socio-Economic Development, 1989-1991). Hanoi: Thong Ke. 113. Cuc Thong Ke, TP. Ho Chi Minh. 1994. So Lieu Vung Kinh Te Dong Luc, Thanh Pho Ho Chi Minh, Dong Nai, Ba Ria Vung Tau (Data on the Economic „Power‟ Region: Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, Ba Ria Vung Tau). Ho Chi Minh City: Tong Cuc Thong Ke. 114. Cuc Tong Ke, TP. Ho Chi Minh City. 1994. So Lieu Kinh Te Xa Hoi Thanh Pho Ho Chi Minh voi Ca Nuoc va Cac Thanh Pho Lon Trong Nuoc (Socio-Economic Data: Ho Chi Minh City in Comparison with the Country and other Big Cities). Ho Chi Minh City: Tong Cuc Thong Ke. 115. Culture Society of Hanoi. 1989. Thirty-Five Years of Construction and Development: Economy, 1954-1989. Hanoi: Culture Society of Hanoi. 116. Dam, D. D., ed. 1991. Some Aspects of the Economic Reform in Vietnam. Manila: Asian Development Bank. 117. Dang Bien, et al. 1989. Tay Nguyen tren Duong Phat Trien (Tay Nguyen on the Development Path). Hanoi: Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi. 118. Dang Cong San Viet Nam. 1987. Dai Hoi VI: Nhung Phuong Huong Co Ban cua Chinh Sach Kinh Te (The Sixth Party Congress: Fundamental Directions of the Economic Policy). Hanoi: Su That. 119. Dang Cong San Viet Nam. 1987. Thong Bao cua Hoi Nghi Lan Thu 4 BCHTU Dang ve Phuong Huong, Nhiem Vu Phat Trien Kinh Te Xa Hoi trong Ba Nam 1988-1990 va Nam 1988 (Report of the Fourth Plenum of the Central Committee on the Direction and Duties for Socio-Economic Development in 1988-1990 and 1988). Hanoi: Su That. 120. Dang Cong San Viet Nam. 1988. “Hoi Nghi Lan Thu Tu Ban Chap Hanh Trung Uong Dang (Khoa VI) (8-12-17-12-1987: Ve Phuong Huong, Nhiem Vu Phat Trien Kinh Te Xa Hoi Trong Ba Nam 1988-90 va Nam 1988,” (Report on the Fourth Plenum of the Sixth Central Committee on the Direction and Tasks of Socio-Economic Development during the Three years 1988-90 and in 1988) Tap Chi Cong San 385:1-7. 121. Dang Cong San Viet Nam. 1990. Du Thao Chien Luoc: On Dinh va Phat Trien Kinh Te Xa Hoi cua Nuoc Ta den Nam 2000 (Draft Plan: Stability and Socio-Economic Development of Our Country to the Year 2000). Hanoi: Su That. 122. Dang Cong San Viet Nam. 1990. 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