102

Document Sample
102 Powered By Docstoc
					k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@



      g]kfndf ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf k|of; / pko'Qm
                  :j?ksf] klxrfg



                                                    – o'j/fh kf08]

k[i7e"ld

ljs]Gb|Ls/0f cToGt k|rlnt /fhgLlts cjwf/0ff xf] . ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf
klg ljs]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ Pp6f l;4fGtsf] k|lti7f k|fKt /x]sf] b]lvG5 .
d'n'ssf] ljsf; hg;fwf/0fsf] ;xeflutf / ;+nUgtfljgf ;+ej 5}g eGg]
wf/0ffn] a9\bf] dfGotf kfpFb} u/]sf] jt{dfg ljZj kl/j]zdf
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cjwf/0ffn] ljutsf] t'ngfdf cem a9L ;dy{g kfpg
yfn]sf] h:tf] cg'ej x'G5 . To;}n] jt{dfg ljZjdf ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf]
cfjZostf / dxTjsf ljifodf s'g} ljjfb /x]sf] b]lv+b}g . ljs]Gb|Ls/0f
cfjZos 5 / ug'{k5{ eGg] s'/fnfO{ ;j}n] :jLsf/ ub{5 . To;}n]
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cfjZostfsf] ljifodf s;}nfO{ ;xdt agfpg'kg]{
cfjZostf clxn] b]lv+b}g . t/ ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] pko'Qm :j?k s:tf]
x'g'k5{ eGg] ljifodf km/s–km/s b[li6sf]0fx? b]lvg ;S5g / To:tf
ljleGg b[li6sf]0fx?sf] klxrfg / d"Nof+sg u/]/ ;jf{lws pko'Qm
:j?ksf] 5gf}6 ug]{ sfd Tolt ;xh / ljjfb/lxt gx'g ;S5 .

ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cjwf/0ffl;t lgIf]k0f (Devolution) sf] cjwf/0ff klg
hf]l8P/ cfpg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] Pp6f ljlzi6
z}nLnfO{ lgIf]k0f elgg] x'gfn] g} ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cjwf/0fl;t
lgIf]k0fsf] cjwf/0ff hf]l8Psf] xf] . a}+sdf hDdf u/]/ /flvPsf]


    ;lrj, :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno .

                                   1
k};fnfO{ lgIf]k elgg] x'gfn] lgIf]k0f eGg] zJbn] hDdf ug]{ sfo{ jf
k|lqmofnfO{ klg hgfpg ;Sg] b]lvG5 tfklg ljs]Gb|Ls/0f /
s]Gb|Ls/0fsf] ;Gbe{df               lgIf]k0fsf] cjwf/0ffn]           clwsf/sf]
s]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ ghgfP/ ljs]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ hgfpg] u/]sf] kfOG5 .
To;n] clwsf/ s]Gb|df y'kfg]{ jf /fVg] sfdnfO{ lgIf]k0f elg+b}g,
clwsf/ s]Gb|af6 lems]/ c? lgsfonfO{ k|bfg ug]{ sfdnfO{ lgIf]k0f
elgG5 . c+u|]hL zAb l8ef]n';g (Develution_ sf] ;§fdf g]kfnL zAb
lgIf]k0fsf] k|of]u x'g] u/]sf] jf x'g yfn]sf] s'/fn] klg lgIf]k0fsf]
k|lqmofn] clwsf/nfO{ Ps} 7fpFdf s]lGb|t gagfP/ w]/} 7fpFdf
5g]{ jf afF8\g] sfdnfO{ hgfpF5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ :ki6 kfg{ d2t
k'¥ofpg] b]lvG5 . cS;kmf]8{ c+u|]hL zAbsf]ifn] s]Gb|Lo lgsfo
jf ;/sf/af6 :yfgLo If]qdf ;+rflnt ljsf; jf ;/sf/nfO{ zlQmsf] x:tfGt/0f
ug]{ sfo{ (The act of giving power from a central authority or government to an
authority or a government in a local region) nfO{ l8ef]n';g (Devolution) sf]
cy{sf] ?kdf pNn]v u/]sf] b]lvG5 . c+u|]hL zAbsf]zn] lbPsf]
c+u|]hL zAb l8ef]n';g (Devolution) sf] cy{nfO{ l8ef]n';g
(Devolution_ jf lgIf]k0fsf] cy{sf] ?kdf :jLsf/ ubf{ lgIf]k0fsf] cjwf/0ff
:ki6?kn] kl/eflift x'g;S5 eGg] dfGg ;lsG5 . To;}n] s]Gb|Lo:t/sf
lgsfodf /x]sf] clwsf/ :yfgLo:t/sf lgsfonfO{ x:tfGt/0f ug]{ sfdnfO{
clwsf/sf] lgIf]k0f elgG5 . clwsf/sf] lgIf]k0f ubf{ :yfgLo:t/sf
lgsfonfO{ sfg"gn] g} zlQm jf clwsf/ k|bfg ug]{ x'gfn] clwsf/sf]
lgIf]k0f clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg eGbf k[ys k|lqmof xf] eGg]
a'em\g'k5{ . clwsf/ k|Tofof]hgaf6 clwsf/ k|fKt ug]{ lgsfo jf
kbflwsf/Ln] cfk"meGbf dflysf] kbflwsf/L jf lgsfosf] OR5f /
lg0f{oaf6 To:tf] clwsf/ kfPsf] x'G5 eg] clwsf/sf] lgIf]k0faf6
clwsf/ k|fKt ug]{ lgsfo jf kbflwsf/Ln] sfg"gåf/f g} To:tf] clwsf/
kfPsf] x'G5 .

To;}n] ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] ;+:yfut ;'b[9Ls/0fsf nflu clwsf/sf]
k|Tofof]hgnfO{ eGbf clwsf/sf] lgIf]k0fnfO{ a9L k|efjsf/L tl/sfsf]
?kdf lnOG5 .

g]kfndf ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] k|of;



                                       2
6f]n jf ufpF3/sf ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug{sf lglDt 6f]n jf ufpF3/sf
a'9fkfsf / hfGg] a'em\g] dflg;x?sf] ;+u7g jf srx/Lsf] jf e]nfsf]
lgdf{0f ug]{ sfdsf] yfngLnfO{ ljs]GbLs/0fsf] k|f/lDes ljGb'sf]
?kdf lng ;lsG5 . o;/L, ;fgfltgf e}m–emu8fx? 6f]n jf ufpFs}
;//Nnfxaf6 ldnfpg] / ;–;fgf ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfdx? klg cfk}m ldnL
;DkGg ug]{ k|rngsf] hudf g} ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cjwf/0ffsf] lgdf{0f /
ljsf; ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 .

t/ To;/L ufpF jf 6f]n:t/df eb|enfb\dL / a"9fkfsf dflg;x?sf srx/L jf
e]nfx? u7g ug]{ sfdsf] yfngL g]kfndf l7s s'g a]nfaf6 ePsf] lyof]
eGg g;lsP klg lnR5jLsfn / dNnsfndf ;d]t To:tf e]nf jf srx/Lsf]
cl:tTj /x]sf] s'/fnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ gldNg] b]lvG5 tfklg ljs]lGb|t
zf;g Joj:yfsf] jt{dfg dfGotf cg'?k To;a]nfsf] zf;g k|0ffnL d"ntM
s]Gb|Ls[t zf;g k|0ffnL g} lyof] eGg] s'/fnfO{ klg sf6\g ldNg]
cj:yf b]lv+b}g .

To;}n] lj=;+= !(%@ df g]kfnnfO{ !@ lhNnf / @# tx;Lndf ljefhg
u/L :yfgLo:t/sf sfo{sf] ;Dkfbg :yfgLo:t/af6 g} ug]{ k4ltsf] cf/De
ug]{ sfdnfO{ g} g]kfndf ljs]lGb|t zf;g k4ltsf] cf/De ljGb'sf] ?kdf
lng'kg]{ xf] ls eGg] lgisif{df k'Ug ;lsG5 . To;a]nf kxf8L If]qsf]
e"efunfO{ txl;n / t/fO{ If]qsf] e"efunfO{ lhNnfdf ljefhg ug]{ sfd
ePsf] kfOG5 . kl5 rGb| zdz]/sf] kfnfdf kxf8L If]qsf txl;nx?nfO{
klg e"–If]q ljefhg u/L lhNnfdf kl/0ft ug]{ sfd ePkl5 lhNnfsf]
;+Vof #% x'g k'u]sf] kfOG5 . o;/L lhNnfx?df ljefhg u/L
:yfgLo:t/sf ;d:ofx?sf] ;dfwfg :yfgLo:t/sf lgsfo / kbflwsf/Laf6}
ug]{ k4ltsf] cf/De / ljsf; ePsf] eP klg To;a]nfsf] zf;g k|0ffnL
s]Gb|Ls[t k|0ffnLs} ?kdf lng'kg]{ cj:yf lyof] eGg] s'/fdf ljjfb 5}g
.

lj=;+= !(&^ ;fndf zx/L If]qdf gu/kflnsfsf] u7g / !(*# df ufpF:t/df
dfGohg srx/Lsf] :yfkgfn] :yfgLo :jzf;g / ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf lbzfdf
7"nf] km8\sf] df/]sf] dfGg'k5{ . o;} qmddf ;Djt\ !(*# ;fndf klxnf]
k~rfot ;gb\ hf/L ePsf] lyof] . To;j]nf ;gbx? P]g ;/x x'Gy] .
To;}n] !(*# ;fndf hf/L ePsf] k~rfot ;gbnfO{ clwsf/sf]
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ sfg"gL dfGotf lbg] k|of;sf] cf/De ljGb'sf] ?kdf


                                 3
lng ;lsG5 . To; ;gb\ cg';f/ bfËb]pv'/L lhNnfdf klxnf]k6s dfGohg
srx/L u7g ePsf] lyof] .

bfªb]pv'/Ldf ePsf] dfGohg srx/Lsf] :yfkgf ug]{ klxnf] k|of;sf]
cg'z/0f ub}{ lj=;+= !(*& df eQmk'/ lhNnfdf @ j6f, nlntk'/
lhNnfdf ^ j6f / sf7df8f}+ lhNnfdf Pp6f u/L hDdf ( j6f k~rfotx?
u7g ul/P . kl5 lj=;+= !((# ;fndf j8fxflsdx?nfO{ k|To][s $ jf %
ufpF df}hf cGt/ut Pp6f Pp6f k~rfot u7g ug]{ clwsf/ lbOPkl5
qmdzM k~rfotx?sf] lj:tf/ eof] . t/ To;/L u7g ePsf k~rfotx?n]
dfnkf]t ;+sng ug]{ / :yfgLo zflGt–;'/Iffdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] sfd
uy]{ . tL k~rfotx?nfO{ tfn'sbf/, lhDjfn -dfnkf]t ;+sng ug]{
JolQmx?_ n] g]t[Tj k|bfg uy]{ / c? ;b:ox? ufpFn]x?n] 5fGg]
uy]{ .

lj=;+= @))# ;fndf ;/sf/n] ljz]if P]g hf/L u¥of] / t/fO{sf lhNnfdf yk
k~rfotx? u7g ug]{ lg0f{o u¥of] . To; P]gn] k~rfotdf Ps hgf
;/sf/L k|ltlglw / * hgf :yfgLo dflg;x?n] 5fg]sf JolQm ;d]tsf ( hgf
/xg] Joj:yf u/]sf] lyof] . P]gn] k~rfotnfO{ ;fgfltgf e}m–emu8f
x]g]{ Goflos clwsf/ ;d]t lbPsf] lyof] . Pszo ?k}ofF;Ddsf] w/f}6L
lng] / kRrL; ?k}ofFF;Dd hl/jfgf ug]{ clwsf/ k~rfot ;+u7gnfO{
lbOPsf] lyof] . To;a]nf cfly{s >f]t ;+sng ug{sf lglDt k~rfotx?n]
dfnkf]tdf %) k|ltztdf ga9fO{ / Jofkf/df s]xL /sd lkm; lng kfpg]
clwsf/ ;d]t kfPsf lyP . o;/L @))# ;fndf k~rfotx?nfO{ Goflos
lg0f{o ug]{ / s/ ;+sng ug]{ sfg"gL clwsf/ ;d]t k|bfg ul/Psf]
x'gfn] @))# ;fnb]lv g]kfnsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] k|of;n] gofF prfOF
k|fKt u/]sf] b]lvG5 .

lj=;+= @))& ;fn;Dd g]kfndf hDdf !&! j6f k~rfot ;+:yfx? u7g
ePsf lyP eg] @)!@ ;fndf ltgsf] ;+Vof &(! k'u]sf] lyof] . lj=;+=
@))$ ;fndf cfPsf] j}wflgs sfg"gdf u|fd k~rfot, gu/ k~rfot / lhNnf
k~rfot u7g ug]{ / ltgLx?nfO{ ljsf; lgdf{0f ;DaGwL s]xL
clwsf/x? k|bfg ug]{ k|:tfj ul/Psf] lyof] . t/ ljsf;sf] p2]Zoaf6
ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ug]{ tTsfnLg ;f]r k"/f gx'Fbf kb\d zdz]/ zf;g;Dd
5f]8]/ ef/tlt/ nfu]sf / To;kl5sf k|wfgdGqL df]xg zdz]/n] kb\d
zdz]/sf kfnfdf tof/ ePsf] j}wflgs sfg"gn] k|:tfj u/] adf]lhdsf]


                                 4
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] sfo{nfO{ cufl8 a9fpg] k|oTg gu/]sf] s'/f ;d]t
To;a]nfsf] Oltxf;sf] cWoog ubf{ :ki6 x'G5 .

@))& ;fndf /f0ff zf;gsf] cGTo ePkl5 hf/L ePsf] g]kfn cGtl/d
zf;g ljwfg @))& n] klg u|fd k~rfotx?nfO{ sfod} /fvL gofF u|fd
k~rfotx? vf]Ng] / kl5 s]xL yk clwsf/x? lbg] sfd x'Fb} uPsf] /
@)!@ ;fndf k~rfotsf] ;+Vof &(! k'u]sf] kfOG5 .

@)!% ;fndf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)!% n] klg ljs]lGb|t zf;g
Joj:yfsf] gofF k|f?k cl3 ;fg{ vf]h]sf] / To;a]nfsf #% lhNnf
;b/d'sfddf /xg] u/L ljsf; clws[tx?sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] b]lvG5 . @)!*
;fndf b]znfO{ !$ c~rn / &% lhNnfdf ljefhg ug]{ sfd ePsf]
b]lvG5 .

@)!( ;fndf hf/L ePsf] g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg @)!( n] ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf]
l;4fGtnfO{ c+ufNg] k|0ffnLaf6 dfq b]z / hgtfsf] ;jf]{Qd lxt ;+ej
5 eGg] dfGotf c+ufn]sf] / ljs]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ /fHo;+rfngsf] d"n
cfwf/sf] ?kdf :jLsf/ u/]sf] b]lvG5 . @)!( ;fndf hf/L ePsf] ;+ljwfg
cg';f/ ufpF, gu/, lhNnf / c~rn:t/sf :yfgLo k~rfotx?sf] /
/fli6«o:t/df /fli6«o k~rfotsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof] . kl5 c~rn k~rfot
vf/]h ul/of] . ufpF k~rfot P]g, @)!*, gu/ k~rfot P]g, @)!( /
lhNnf k~rfot P]g, @)!( cg';f/ ufpF, gu/ / lhNnf k~rfotsf] u7g /
;~rfng k|lqmof lglZrt ePsf] lyof] . oL ljleGg P]gsf] dfWodaf6
b]ze/ @)$^ ;fnsf] cGTo;Dddf hDdf @)!% ufpF k~rfot, ## gu/
k~rfot / &% lhNnf k~rfotsf] u7g ePsf] b]lvG5 .

lj=;+= @)!( ;fnsf] ;+ljwfg cg';f/ k~rfotsf ljleGg txsf] /fhgLlts
:j?ksf] lgwf{/0f ePsf] eP klg ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] :ki6 :j?ksf] lgwf{/0f
ug]{ sfd afFsL g} lyof] . To;}n] @)@) ;fn a}zfv @( ut] :j= >L
% dx]Gb|af6 tTsfnLg /fli6«o k~rfotsf cWoIf >L laZjaGw'
yfkfsf] cWoIftfdf k|zf;g zlQm ljs]Gb|Ls/0f cfof]u u7g ePsf]
lyof] ul/aS;]sf] lyof] . ;f] cfof]un] @)@! ;fndf k]z u/]sf k|ltj]bgdf
k//fi6« / /Iff afx]ssf cGo ljifosf ljleGg clwsf/x? :yfgLo
lgsfox?nfO{ lbg] l;kmfl/z ul/Psf] lyof] . ;f] cfof]usf] l;kmfl/zsf
cfwf/df @)@@ ;fn k'if ! ut] :yfgLo k|zf;g cWofb]z @)@@
hf/L eof] . To;} qmddf #% k|zf;sLo lhNnf / &% ljsf; lhNnfsf]

                                  5
e]b ;dfKt u/L &% lhNnf sfod ul/of] / klxnf]sf] u9L, uf}+8f,
uf]Zjf/fsf] Joj:yf x6fO{ a8fxflsd / dlhi6«]6sf] Joj:yf ul/of] .
ljZjaGw' yfkf cfof]un] zflGt–;'/Iffsf] clwsf/ klg qmdzM lhNnf
k~rfotnfO{ x:tfGt/0f ug]{ l;kmfl/z ;d]t u/]sf] lyof] .

@)@# ;fndf :yfgLo k|zf;g / ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] jLrdf ;dGjo sfod
ug{ k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/Ln] lhNnf k~rfotsf] ;lrjsf] ?kdf sfd
ug'{kg]{ ;d]tsf s]xL gofF Joj:yfx? ePsf] kfOG5 . To;a]nf
lhNnfsf] zflGt–;'/Iff ;DaGwL sfdsf] lhDdf ljz]if clws[tnfO{
lbOPsf] lyof] . @)@$ ;fndf tTsfnLg /fli6«o k~rfot ;b:o ef]h/fh
l3ld/]sf] cWoIftfdf ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ;ldlt @)@$ u7g eof] . To;
;ldltn] c~rnfwLzsf] clwsf/ a[l4 ug'{kg]{, lhNnf k~rfotsf] vr{sf]
n]vfk/LIf0f klg c~rnfwLzn] g} ug'{kg]{ nufotsf ;'emfjx? lbPsf]
lyof] .
To;kl5 @)@^ ;fndf tTsfnLg /f=k=;= >L hok|sfzsf] cWoIftfdf
csf]{ pRr:t/Lo cfof]usf] u7g ul/of] . To; cfof]un] l3ld/] cfof]usf
w]/}h;f] ;'emfjsf] ;dy{g u/]sf] / ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] l;4fGtnfO{
Jojxf/df ptfg{ s]Gb|Lo:t/sf] k|lta4tfnfO{ cfjZos 7x¥ofPsf] lyof] .

:yfgLo zflGt–;'/Iffsf] clwsf/ ;xfos c~rnfwLz / ljz]if clws[tåf/f
k|of]u x'g] / k|=lh=c= d"ntM ljsf; clws[tsf] ?kdf /xg] Joj:yfdf
k|=lh=c= / ljz]if clws[tsf] jLrdf ;dGjosf] sdLsf] cg'ej x'g yfn]kl5
ljz]if clws[tsf] kb vf/]h u/L zflGt–;'/Iff / kzf;lgs ;'Aoj:yfsf] lhDdf
k|=lh=c= nfO{ lbg] / ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] th'{df / ;+rfngsf] lhDdf
lhNnf k~rfotnfO{ lbg] gLlt lng pko'Qm x'G5 eGg] ;f]+rsf] ljsf;
x'g yfn]sf] kmn:j?k :yfgLo k|zf;g P]g, @)@* / lhNnf k|zf;g
of]hgf @)#! cg';f/ k|=lh=c= nfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg agfpg] sfd eof]
. To;} qmddf ljsf; sfo{qmd ;DaGwL lhNnf:t/Lo sfof{nox?nfO{
lhNnf sfof{no cyf{t k|=lh=c= sf] sfof{nosf zfvfdf kl/0ft ug]{ sfd
eof] . lhNnf ljsf; of]hgf th'{dfsf lgldQ ljleGg of]hgf th'{df ;ldltx?
u7g u/L lhNnf ;efaf6 kfl/t of]hgfsf] dfq sfof{Gjog x'g] / k~rfot
ljsf; clwsf/Ln] lhNnf k~rfotsf] ;lrj eO{ sfd ug]{ Joj:yf ;d]t lhNnf
k|zf;g of]hgf @)#! n] u/]sf] lyof] . To; cl3 :yfgLo k|zf;g P]g,
@)@* n] g} k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/LnfO{ lhNnf k~rfot ;lrjaf6 lemsL
zflGt–;'/Iff sfod ug]{ / lhNnf k~rfotsf] lg0f{o sfof{Gjog ug]{
/]vb]v ug]{ / ;dGjo ug]{ bfloTj lbPsf] / k~rfot ljsf; clwsf/LnfO{

                                  6
lhNnf k+rfotsf] ;lrjsf ?kdf sfd ug]{ u/L tf]s]sf] kfOG5 . @)#&
;fndf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnosf] :yfkgf ePsf] lyof] / ;f] dGqfnosf]
p2]Zo, gLlt / sfo{qmd ;DaGwL sfo{kqdf of]hgf th'{df /
sfof{Gjogdf pkef]Qmf ;ldltsf] u7g ug]{ / lhNnf k~rfotsf] ;lrj /
ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] ;dGjostf{sf] ?kdf sfd ug{ :yfgLo ljsf; clwsf/L
lgo'Qm ug]{ ;d]tsf Joj:yfx? /x]sf lyP . To; cl3 PsLs[t k~rfot
ljsf;sf] k|f?k @)#% n] ufpF / lhNnfsf] jLrdf ;Dks{ s8Lsf] ?kdf
sfd ug]{ ;]jf s]Gb|sf] cjwf/0fnfO{ hGd lbPsf] kfOG5 .

ljsf; sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{ lhNnf:t/Lo sfof{nox/nfO{ lhNnf
sfof{nosf zfvfsf] ?kdf ;~rfng ug]{ / ljsf; sfo{qmdx?sf] ;~rfng /
th'{dfsf] sfd lhNnf k~rfotn] ug]{ k|lqmof ckgfpFbf ljsf;
sfo{qmdsf] ;+rfngdf ck]lIft ultzLntf cfpg g;s]sf] / ljsf; sfof{qmd
;~rfng ug]{ sfof{nosf k|d'vx? ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] ;~rfng ug]{ s'/fdf
eGbf k|=lh=c= nfO{ v'zL kfg]{ sfddf a9L s]lGb|t x'g yfn]sf]
c'gej x'g yfn]kl5 @)#* ;fndf tTsfnLg /f=k=;= /0fwL/ ;'Aafsf]
cWoIftfdf Pp6f pRr:t/Lo ljs]Gb|Ls.0f pk;ldltsf] u7g eof] . o;
pk;ldltn] ljsf;l;t ;DaGwLt lhNnf:t/Lo sfof{nox?nfO{ lhNnf
k~rfotsf zfvfsf] ?kdf /fVg] / ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ;DaGwL 5'§} P]glgod
agfO{ To:tf P]glgod;Fu afFlemg] cGo P]glgodx? :jtM /4 x'g]
Joj:yf ug]{ h:tf s'/fdf hf]8 lbPsf] kfOG5 . To; pk;ldltn] u/]sf]
l;kmfl/z adf]lhd ljs]Gb|Ls/0f P]g, @)#( / ljs]Gb|Ls/0f lgodfjnL,
@)$! sf] th'{df ePsf] s'/fnfO{ ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ug]{ k|of;sf] Oltxf;df
pNn]vgLo pknlAwsf] ?kdf cf}+Nofpg ;lsG5 .
k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u @)$* sf] k|ltj]bgn] ljleGg ljifout If]q ;DaGwL
sltko clwsf/x? ufpF, gu/ / lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ k|bfg ug{ l;kmfl/z
u/]sf] b]lvg5 . To;cl3 @)$^ ;fndf k~rfotL Joj:yfsf] cGTo ePkl5
;fljssf ufpF, gu/ / lhNnf k~rfotx?sf] gfd ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf
/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltdf kl/0ft ug]{ sfd ePsf] b]lvG5 eg] @)$* ;fndf
;+;bsf] lxpFb] clwj]zgaf6 ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt P]g, @)$*, gu/kflnsf
P]g, @)$* / lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt P]g, @)$* sf] lgdf{0f ePsf] kfOG5 .

o;} qmddf @)%# ;fn a}zfv @$ ut] tTsfnLg k|wfgdGqL >L
z]/axfb'/ b]pjfsf] cWoIftfdf Ps pRr:t/Lo ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ;ldlt @)%#
u7g ePsf] b]lvG5 . o; ;ldltn] klg ljutdf ul7t ljleGg ;ldlt /
cfof]ux?n] e}+m ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cfjZostfdfly hf]8 lbPsf] /

                                  7
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] s:tf] lsl;dsf] 9fFrf g]kfnsf] lglDt pko'Qm x'G5
eGg] ljifodf ;'emfjx? lbPsf] b]lvG5 . o; ;ldltn] >L % sf] ;/sf/n]
:yfgLo k|s[ltsf of]hgfsf] th'[df / ;+rfng ug]{ clwsf/ :yfgLo:t/sf
:yflkt eO{ lqmofzLn /x]sf hgk|ltlglwd"ns ;+:yfx?nfO{ lgIf]k0f
ug{ / :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ ;Ifd / ;jn agfP/ ltgnfO{ cf–cfkm\gf]
If]qsf] ljsf; / Joj:yfkgdf lg0ff{os e"ldsf v]Ng ;Sg] clwsf/ lbg
ckl/xfo{ ePsf] s'/fdf hf]8 lbPsf] b]lvG5 . o; ;ldltn] lbPsf
;'emfjsf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ p2]Zon] hf/L ePsf] :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g
P]g @)%% n] ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ug]{ g]kfnL k|of;sf] Oltxf;df ;jf{lws
dxTjk"0f{ k|oTgsf] klxrfg af]s]sf] b]lvG5 . :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g
lgodfjnL, @)%^ / :yfgLo lgsfo -cfly{s k|zf;g_ lgodfjnL, @)%^
sf] th'{df / sfof{Gjog eO;s]sf] 5 .

ljs]Gb|Ls/0f sfof{Gjog sfo{of]hgf, @)%* cg';f/ k|fylds lzIff,
cfwf/e"t :jf:Yo, s[lif k|;f/ tyf kz' ;]jf / x'nfs ;]jf u/L rf/ ljifout If]qsf
clwsf/ / lhDd]jf/L s]Gb|Lo lgsfoåf/f :yfgLo lgsfodf lgIf]k0f ug]{
lg0f{o @)%* df ePsf] / ;f] cg'?k lgIf]k0f ug]{ sfo{ tTkZrft
k|f/De ePsf] b]lvG5 .

bzf}+ k~raifL{o of]hgf -@)%(–@)^$_ n] klg lgDg $ /0fgLltx?
cl3 ;f/]sf] b]lvG5 M

!_ :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%% sf] p2]Zo cg'?k sfo{ ug{
   :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ :jfoQtf k|bfg ug]{,
@_ :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ / pQ/bfoL9+un] ;~rfng
   ug]{ ;+:yfut Ifdtfsf] clea[l4 ug]{,
#_ :yfgLo ljsf; k|lqmofdf Jofks hg;xeflutf clea[l4 ug]{, Pj+
$_ :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ cfGtl/s Pj+ afXo >f]t kl/rfng ug{ ;Ifd
   agfpg] .

o;/L ljs]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ d'n'sn] cfkm\gf] dfu{bz{s gLltsf] ?kdf
clËsf/ u/]sf] / To; cg';f/ ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ug{sf lglDt ljleGg
sfo{qmdx?sf] th'{df / sfof{Gjog ub}{ cfPsf] b]lvG5 . o;} qmddf
cfly{s jif{ @)^@.^# sf] cfoJoosf] ;fj{hlgs hfgsf/L jQmJodf >L
% sf] ;/sf/n] :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g adf]lhd :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ ;zt{
cg'bfgsf] k|fjwfg ;lxt lzIff, :jf:Yo, s[lif k|;f/ / :yfgLo k"jf{wf/sf]

                                      8
;Dk"0f{ sfo{ lgIf]k0f ug]{ sfd cfly{s jif{ @)^@.)^# df sDtLdf !$
lhNnfdf ;DkGg ug]{ / lgIf]lkt sfd;Fu ;DaGwLt Pj+ ;/sf/L sd{rf/L
;DaGwLt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltdf v6fO{ To:tf kb l/Qm ePkl5 lhNnf
ljsf; ;ldltn] g} kbk"lt{ ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] k|lta4tf JoQm ul/Psf] 5
.

cfly{s jif{ @)^@.^# sf] ah]6 aQmJodf pNn]v eP cg';f/ :yfgLo
:jfoQ zf;g P]g adf]lhd :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ ljsf; of]hgf / sfo{qmd
;DaGwL sfo{sf] lgIf]k0f ug{ / :yfgLo:t/sf ljsf; sfo{qmdsf]
Joj:yfkgdf :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg / ;Ifd agfpgsf] lglDt
ag P]g, lzIff P]g / ;fj{hlgs ;8s P]g h:tf ljifout If]ql;t ;DaGwLt
P]g, lgoddf :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%% n] u/]sf Joj:yfx?l;t
afFlemg] vfnsf Joj:yfx? 5g\ eg] To:tf Joj:yfx?sf] klxrfg u/]/
:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g cg'?k tL Joj:yfx?df ;'wf/ / ;+zf]wg ug'{k5{
eGg] s'/fdf cWo]tf tyf cg';Gwfgx? / ljZn]ifsx? ;xdt b]lV5g .
ljifout If]ql;t ;DaGwLt sltko P]glgodn] ;DaGwLt ljifout If]ql;t
;DaGwLt sfo{qmdsf] th'{df / ;+rfng ;DaGwL clwsf/ :yfgLo
lgsfonfO{ k|bfg gu/]/ ;DaGwLt ljifout If]ql;t ;DaGwLt ;/sf/L
lgsfo / kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] cj:yf ljBdfg /x]sf] v08df
To:tf sfo{qmdsf] ;~rfng ug]{ sfddf :yfgLo lgsfosf] clwsf/ :yflkt
x'Fb}g eGg] ts{ / dfGotfsf cfwf/df ljifout If]ql;t ;DaGwLt
P]glgodx?df :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g cg'?ksf] ;+zf]wg x'g'k5{
eGg] b[li6sf]0f ag]sf] / :jLs[t ;d]t ePsf] xf] eGg] s'/f klg :ki6 5 .

o;/L g]kfnn] zlQmsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ug{sf lglDt nfdf] ;do
cufl8b]lv k|of; ub}{ cfPsf] / To; qmddf sltko pknlAw ;d]t xfl;n
u/]sf] b]lvG5 t/ clxn] klg :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ x'g'kg]{ hlt clwsf/
;DkGg / ;Ifd agfpg ;lsPsf] 5}g / To;}n] clxn] klg :yfgLo
lgsfonfO{ ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] Joj:yfkgdf ;Ifd / clwsf/ ;DkGg
agfpgsf] lglDt k|of;x? eO/x]sf b]lvG5g\ .

:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g @)%% n] u/]sf k|d'v
Joj:yfx? jf cl3 ;f/]sf] lgIf]k0f÷ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] :j?k



                                  9
:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g @)%% n] :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ k|bfg u/]sf
clwsf/x? :yfgLo lgsfox?n] jf:tljs?kn] pkef]u ug{ kfpg] /
k|efjsf/L9+un] pkef]u ug{ ;Sg] cj:yfsf] l;h{gf ug'{k5{ eGg] s'/fdf
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] l;4fGtsf cWo]tf, tyf cg';Gwftf tyf ljZn]ifsx?sf]
;fy;fy} gLlt lgdf{tfx? / ;/sf/sf gLlt / sfo{qmd ;DaGwL b:tfj]hx?df
;d]t ;fdfGotof ;dfg b[li6sf]0f / ;xdlt /x]sf] s'/fn] g} :yfgLo :jfoQ
zf;g P]g ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] lglDt d'n'sn] u/]sf k|oTgx?sf] Oltxf;df
Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ pknlAwsf] ?kdf :yflkt / ;fdfGotof :jLs[t 5 eGg]
s'/f                                                             :ki6
kf5{ . To;}n] :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g @)%% n] cl3 ;f/]sf]
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] 9fFrf s] s:tf] 5 eGg] s'/fsf] klxrfg / d"Nof+sg
dxTjk"0f{ / cfjZos 5 eGg] s'/f klg :ki6 g} 5 .

:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g @)%% sf] k|:tfjgfdf ;f] P]g lgDg sfo{ ug{
jfG5gLo ePsf]n] agfOPsf] s'/f pNn]v ePsf] 5 –

    -s_ ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] dfWodåf/f ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGg hgtfnfO{
        zf;g k|lqmofdf cflwsfl/s dfqfdf ;lDdlnt x'g] cj;/ h'6fO{
        k|hftGqsf nfex?sf] pkef]u ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf ug{,
    -v_ cfkm\gf] If]qsf] ljsf;sf] nflu ;fwg >f]tsf] kl/rfng,
        ljlgof]hg / ljsf;sf] k|ltkmnsf] ;Gt'lnt tyf ;dfg ljt/0fdf
        ;fdflhs ;dfgtf Nofpg] sfo{df hghflt, cflbjf;L, blnt /
        ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s b[li6sf]0fn] lk5l8Psf ju{ ;d]tsf ;du|
        hgtfsf] ;xeflutfdf clea[l4 ub}{ ljsf; k|lqmofnfO{ ;+:yfut
        ug{,
    -u_ of]hgfx?sf] th'[{df / ;~rfng ug{ cfjZos lhDd]jf/L /
        clwsf/ :yfgLo:t/df g} k|bfg u/L hjfkmb]xL axg ug{
        ;Sg] :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] ;+:yfut ljsf; ug{, /
    -3_ :yfgLo g]t[Tjsf] ljsf; u/L hgtfsf] b}lgs cfjZostf tyf
        hghLjgnfO{ c;/ kfg]{ ljifox?df lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg] u/L
        :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g k4ltsf] ljsf;sf] nflu :yfgLo lgsfox?sf]
        u7g ug{ .

P]gsf] bkmf # df :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;gsf] ljsf;sf] nflu b]xfosf l;4fGt /
gLltx?sf] cjnDjg ul/g] s'/f pNn]v ePsf] 5 –


                                  10
      -s_ :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;gdf :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ ;Ifd / k|efjsf/L
          agfpg cfjZos kg]{ clwsf/, lhDd]jf/L / >f]t–;fwg lgIf]k0f
          ug]{,
      -v_ :yfgLo lgsfodf :yfgLo hgtfsf] nflu ;f]Rg] / hjfkmb]xL
          axg ug{ ;Sg] ;+:yfut ;+oGq / sfo{ut ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f
          u/L ljsf; ug]{,
      -u_ :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ ;'lDkPsf sfd, st{Jo / lhDd]jf/Lx? /
          hjfkmb]xL axg ug{sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ >f]t ;fwgx?
          ;+nUg / kl/rfng ug]{ clwsf/ ;'Dkg] .
      -3_ :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ lgIf]lkt sfo{ ubf{ k|hftflGqs
          k|lqmof, kf/bzL{ Jojxf/, hgpQ/bfloTj / hgtfsf]
          ;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t gful/s ;dfhsf] :yfkgf ug]{tk{m pGd'v
          u/fpg],
      -ª_ :yfgLo g]t[Tjsf] ljsf; ug{sf] lglDt :yfgLo lgsfonfO{
          cfkm\gf] If]qdf hgtfk|lt pQ/bfoL agfpg k|efjsf/L
          ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug]{,
      -r_ lbuf] ljsf;sf] nflu cfwfl/t ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ sfo{df :yfgLo
          :jfoQ zf;gsf lghLIf]qnfO{ ;xefuL x'g k|f]T;flxt ug]{ .

o;/L :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%% n] :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{
cfkm\gf] If]qleq ljsf; lgdf{0f ;DaGwL of]hgfsf] th'{df / sfof{Gjog
ug]{, s/ p7fpg] / d'b|f x]g]{ h:tf clwsf/x? k|bfg u/]sf] b]lvG5 . o;
k[i7e"lddf :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gn] u/]sf k|d'v Joj:yfx?nfO{ lgDg
a'Fbfdf pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 –

 1.   ufpF ljsf; ;ldltn] 3/ hUuf s/, dfnkf]t jf e"lds/, xf6–ahf/–k;n
      s/, ;jf/L ;fwg s/, dgf]/~hg s/, axfn–lj6f}/L s/, lj1fkg s/,
      Joj;fo s/, Jofj;flos lel8of] s/, k|fs[lts >f]t pkof]u s/ / tf]lsP
      adf]lhdsf cGo s/ nufpg kfpg] Joj:yf P]gn] u/]sf] 5 . ufpF
      ljsf; ;ldltn] cfkm\gf] If]qleq cfk"mn] pknAw u/fPsf] ;]jf afkt
      ;]jf z'Ns nufpg / ;/sf/L ktL{ hUufsf] df6f], ;'s]sf] sf7, bfp/f
      cflb j:t'x? ljqmL ug{ gjLs/0f b:t"/, aS;f}gL b:t"/ tyf l;kmfl/z
      b:t"/ lng kfpg] Joj:yf ;d]t P]gn] u/]sf] 5 . ufpF ljsf; ;ldltn]
      c;"n ug{ jf nufpg kfpg] ;j} s/, z'Ns / b:t"/x? gu/kflnsfn] klg
      lng jf nufpg kfpF5 . gu/kflnsfn] cfk"mn] Joj:yf u/]sf] ;jf/L
      kfs{df kfls{Ë z'Ns nufpg kfpF5 . lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] cfk"mn]

                                   11
     lgdf{0f u/]sf] jf cfk"mnfO{ x:tfGt/0f eO{ cfPsf ;8s, af6f],
     k'n, l;+rfO, s'nf], kf]v/L cflbdf / pmg, vf]6f], h8La'6L, jgs;
     -v/_, sjf8L dfn, 9'Ëf, Kn]6, jfn'jf tyf k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd
     lgif]lwt hLjhGt' afx]s cGo d[t hLjhGt'sf] xf8, l;+u, 5fnf,
     KjfFv cflb tyf tf]lsP adf]lhdsf cGo j:t'df s/ nufpg kfpg]
     Joj:yf P]gn] u/]sf] 5 . To;}u/L lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] cfkm\gf]
     If]qleq gbLx?df 8Ln ljxf/ ug]{, 8'+uf tyf t'xg rnfpg] / df5f
     dfg]{ cg'dlt tyf gjLs/0f b:t"/ Pj+ kfgL3f6sf] btf{ tyf
     gjLs/0fsf] b:t"/, l;kmfl/z b:t"/ / tf]lsP adf]lhdsf c? b:t"/x?
     lng / gbLgfnfsf] afn'jf, lu6L, 9'+uf, :n]6, df6f], bxt/ axt/
     cflb tf]lsP adf]lhd ljqmL ug{ ;Sb5 .

2.   P]gn] ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt / gu/kflnsfnfO{ s]xL d'2fx?sf] z'?
     sf/jfxL / lsgf/f ug]{ clwsf/ ;d]t k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . cfk"m ;dIf
     bfo/ ePsf d'2fsf] sf/jfxL / lsgf/f ug{ :yfgLo lgsfox?n]
     dWo:y ;ldltsf] u7g ug'{k5{ .

3.   P]gn] ufpF ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ s[lif ;DaGwL, u|fdL0f vfg] kfgL
     ;DaGwL, lgdf{0f tyf oftfoft ;DaGwL, lzIff tyf v]ns'b
     ;DaGwL, l;+rfO{ / e"Ifo tyf gbL lgoGq0f ;DaGwL, ef}lts
     ljsf; ;DaGwL, :jf:Yo ;]jf ;DaGwL, jg tyf jftfj/0f ;DaGwL,
     efiff / ;+:s[lt ;DaGwL, ko{6g tyf 3/]n' pBf]u ;DaGwL / ljljw
     clwsf/x? k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . P]gn] gu/kflnsfnfO{ cy{ ;DaGwL,
     hn>f]t jftfj/0f / ;/;kmfO ;DaGwL, lzIff tyf v]ns"b ljsf;
     ;DaGwL, ;+:s[lt ;DaGwL, lgdf{0f tyf oftfoft ;DaGwL,
     :jf:Yo ;]jf ;DaGwL, ;dfh sNof0f ;DaGwL, pBf]u tyf ko{6g
     ;DaGwL / ljljw clwsf/x? k|bfg u/]sf] b]lvG5 . P]gn] lhNnf
     ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ s[lif, u|fdL0f vfg]kfgL tyf a:tL ljsf;, hnljB't,
     lgdf{0f tyf oftfoft, e"ld;'wf/ tyf e"ld Joj:yf dlxnf ljsf; tyf
     c;xfosf] ;+/If0f, jg tyf jftfj/0f, lzIff tyf v]ns'b ljsf;, >dsf]
     Hofnf, l;+rfO / e"Ifo tyf gbL lgoGq0f, ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/, efiff /
     ;+:s[lt, 3/]n' pBf]u, :jf:Yo ;]jf / ko{6g If]ql;t ;DaGwLt
     clwsf/x? / cGo s]xL ljljw clwsf/x? k|bfg u/]sf] 5 .

4.   :yfgLo lgsfon] cfkm\gf] If]qsf] ljsf;sf] lglDt of]hgf th{df /
     sfof{Gjog ug'{k5{ / ug{ kfpF5g\ .

                                  12
5.   ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf / lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] n]vf k/LIf0f
     ;DaGwL Joj:yfdf leGgtf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf]
     cfgtl/s n]vf k/LIf0f lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] u5{ / clGtd n]vf k/LIf0f
     ufpF kl/;/af6 ul7t n]vf ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/zdf lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn]
     :jLs[t u/]sf] n]vfk/LIfsaf6 u/fpg'k5{ . gu/kflnsfn] cfkm\gf]
     cfo / Joosf] cfGtl/s n]vf k/LIf0f cfk}mn] u/fpF5 .
     gu/kflnsfsf] cfo / Joosf] clGtd n]vfk/LIf0f n]vf ;ldltsf]
     l;kmfl/zdf gu/ kl/ifbaf6 5gf}6 ePsf btf{jfn n]vfk/LIfsaf6
     u/fpg'k5{ . lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] clGtd n]vf k/LIf0f dxfn]vf
     k/LIfsaf6 x'G5 / cfGtl/s n]vf k/LIf0f ;ldltsf] cfGtl/s
     n]vfk/LIf0f zfvfn] u5{ .

6.   :yfgLo lgsfon] cfk"mnfO{ cfjZos kg]{ sd{rf/Lsf] b/jGbL
     kl/ifb\af6 :jLs[t u/fO{ cfk}mn] l;h{g ug{ ;S5g\ . b/jGbL
     :jLs[t ubf{ ;DaGwLt kl/ifb\n] sd{rf/lsf] nflu rflxg] tnj, eQf,
     ;+ro sf]if sl§ /sd, pkbfg tyf lgj[lQe/0f cflbsf] nflu nfUg]
     vr{sf] Joj:yf ;d]t ug'{k5{ . sd{rf/Lsf] kfl/>lds lghfdtL ;]jfsf
     sd{rf/Lsf] tnadfgnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL kl/ifb\n] g} lgwf{/0f u5{ .

7.   :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] b}lgs sfo{ ;+rfngsf] nflu >L % sf] ;/sf/n]
     ;lrjsf] lgo'lQm u5{ .

8.   :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] sfo{ ;+rfngsf] nflu P]gåf/f :yfgLo ;]jf u7g
     ug]{ Joj:yf ;d]t P]gn] u/]sf] 5 . :yfgLo ;]jf u7g
     gx'~h]n;Ddsf nflu :yfgLo lgsfosf] ;lrj afx]s cGo sd{rf/Lx?
     :yfgLo lgsfox?n] lgo'Qm ug{ kfpF5g\ .

9.   lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] lhNnf ljsf; If]qleq ug]{ ljsf; lgdf{0f
     ;DaGwL sfo{sf] nflu tf]lsPsf] dfkb08sf] cfwf/df cf–
     cfkm\gf] sfof{nodf ljifout zfvf :yfkgf ug{ ;S5 . lhNnf ljsf;
     ;ldltn] ljifout zfvf :yfkgf ul/;s]kl5 ;f]xL sfdsf nflu >L % sf]
     ;/sf/sf ljifout sfofnox? g/xg] Joj:yf klg P]gn] u/]sf] 5 .
     ljifout sfof{no g/xg] ePkl5 tL sfof{nosf ejg / ef}lts ;'ljwfx?
     lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/g] s'/f ;d]t P]gn] :ki6 u/]sf]


                                  13
      5 . gu/kflnsfn] klg tf]lsPsf] dfkb08sf] cfwf/df cfkm\gf]
      sfof{nodf ljifout zfvfx? vf]Ng ;S5g\ .
10.   :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g / lgodsf] cwLgdf /xL :yfgLo lgsfon]
      cfkm\gf] sfo{ ;+rfng ug{ ljlgod agfpg ;S5 .

11.   :yfgLo lgsfon] cfkm\gf] If]qleq s'g} ljsf; tyf lgdf{0f
      ;DaGwL sfd ;+rfng ug{ hUuf k|fKt ug'{kg]{ ePdf ;f] sfdsf]
      nflu cfjZos kg]{ hUuf k|rlnt sfg"gsf] /Lt k'¥ofO{ ;DaGwLt
      hUufwgLnfO{ hUufsf] d'cfAhf lbO{ k|fKt ug{
      ;S5 .

12.   s;}n] s;};Fusf] gftfsf] k|df0fkq rflxof] egL ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt jf
      gu/kflnsfdf lgj]bg lbg cfPdf cWoIf jf k|d'vn] hfFra'em u/L
      l7s 7x/]df tf]lsPsf] b:t"/ lnO{ gftf k|dfl0ftsf] k|df0fkq lbg
      ;S5 .

13.   :yfgLo lgsfox?n] ljb]zL ;/sf/, cGt/f{li6«o ;+3, ;+u7g,
      s'6g}lts lgof]u / cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf;Fu ;Dks{ /fVbf
      >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] k"j{ l:js[lt lng'k5{ .

14.   :yfgLo lgsfon] >L % sf] ;/sf/;Fu ;Dks{ /fVbf :yfgLo ljsf;
      dGqfno dfk{mt /fVg'k5{ .

15.   k|To]s jif{ >L % sf] ;/sf/n] :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ tf]lsPsf]
      Go"gQd cg'bfg pknAw u/fpF5 . ;DaGwLt :yfgLo lgsfosf]
      hg;+Vof, ljsf;sf] :t/, /fhZj kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg] ;+efJotf / Ifdtf,
      ljQLo ;fwgsf] cfjZostf, cem / Joosf] lgoldt clen]vg sfo{,
      n]vfk/LIf0fsf] l:ylt, cfly{s cg'zf;gsf] l:ylt h:tf cfwf/df yk
      cg'bfg pknAw u/fpg ;S5 . >L % sf] ;/sf/n] lbg] cg'bfg
      /sdsf] vr{ k|0fnL / sfo{ljlw >L % sf] ;/sf/n] tf]Sg ;S5 .

16.   >L % sf] ;/sf/n] :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ k|rlnt sfg"gåf/f tf]lsPsf]
      sfo{x? u/] gu/]sf], lk5l8Psf hghflt, dflxnf tyf jfnjflnsfsf]
      lxtnfO{ cfjZos k|fyldstf lbP glbPsf], kof{j/0f ;Gt'ng h:tf
      ljifon] k|>o kfP gkfPsf] h:tf ljifox?sf] lgoldt cg'udg u/L
      cfjZos lgb]{zg lbg ;S5 / To:tf] lgb]{zgsf] kfngf ug'{ :yfgLo

                                   14
      lgsfosf] st{Jo x'G5 . ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt / gu/kflnsfn] cfkm\gf]
      of]hgfsf] th'{df / ;+rfng ug]{ ;DaGwdf /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u,
      >L % sf] ;/sf/ / lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] lbPsf] lgb]{zgsf] kfng
      ug'{k5{ . lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] klg ;f] ljifodf /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u
      / >L % sf] ;/sf/n] lbPsf] lgb]{zgsf] kfngf ug'{k5{ .

17.   s'g} :yfgLo lgsfon] b]xfosf] s'g} sfdsf/jfxL u/]sf] 5 eGg]
      kof{Kt cfwf/ ePdf >L % sf] ;/sf/n] g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf
      k|sflzt u/L To:tf] :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ lgnDjg ug{ ;S5 .
      -s_ g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& ljkl/t x'g] u/L g]kfn
           clw/fHosf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, cv08tf, /fli6«otf jf ;fDk|bflos
           ;xefjgfdf cfFr cfpg] s'g} sfdsf/jfxL u/]df,
      -v_ :yfgLo lgsfosf] ;DklQ jf cfo lxgfldgf u/]df .
      -u_ sfa' aflx/sf] kl/l:ylt k/]sf]df afx]s Ps jif{;Dd :yfgLo
           lgsfosf] j}7s a;fO{ :yfgLo lgsfosf] sfo{;Dkfbgdf jfwf
           pTkGg u/]df .

18.   :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] If]qdf sfd ubf{ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?n] :yfgLo
      lgsfo;Fu ;dGjo /fVg'k5{ .

ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] pko'Qm 9fFrfsf] klxrfg / cjnDjgsf]
cfjZostf

ljs]Gb|Ls/0f d'n'ssf] Pstf / ljsf;sf] lglDt cfjZos 5 eGg] s'/fdf cfh
s'g} ljjfb b]lv+b}g . To;}n] ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] s:tf] 9fFrf xfdLx?n]
cjnDjg ug{'k5{ eGg] s'/fdf dfq ts{–ljts{ / jfbljjfb x'g ;Sg] ;+efjgf
/x]sf] b]lvG5 . :yfgLo:t/sf ljsf; lgdf{0fsf of]hgf / sfo{qmdsf] rog
sfof{Gjog :yfgLo lgsfon] g} ug{ kfpg' k5{ eGg] s'/fdf /
hg;fwf/0fn] cfkm\gf] hLjgdf k|efj kfg]{ lg0f{o ug]{ k|lqmofdf
;xefuL x'g] cj;/ kfpg'k5{ eGg] s'/fdf klg s;}sf] ljdlt b]lv+b}g .
To;}n], :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g @)%% n] cl3 ;f/]sf]
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] 9fFrfdf s]–s:tf sdL–sdhf]/Lx? 5g\ eGg] s'/fdf
5nkmn / ljrf/ ljdz{ ug]{ 7fpF /x]sf] b]lvP klg ljs]Gb|Ls/0f cfjZos
/x]sf] s'/fdf ;j}sf] ;xdlt /x]sf] ;Gbe{df ljs]Gb|Ls/0f cfjZos /



                                    15
pkof]uL 5 ls 5}g eGg] ljifodf jfbljjfb ug'{kg]{ cj:yf / a]nf clxn]
/x]sf] 5}g .

ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] s'/f ubf{ :yfgLo lgsfosf] Ifdtfsf] s'/f klg hf]l8P/
cfpF5 eg] To;nfO{ c:jfefljs dfGg ldNb}g . oyfl:yltnfO{ dflg;sf]
:jfefljs k|j[lQsf] ?kdf lng] xf] eg] kl/jt{gsf] s'/fk|lt w]/} dflg;x?n]
z'?df :jfefljs ?kn] cfz+sf ug{ ;S5g eGg] s'/fnfO{ klg :jfefljs g}
dfGg'k5{ . cem :yfgLo lgsfosf sfd–sf/jfxLdf cfly{s cg'zf;g
kf/blz{tf b]lvPg / ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] lxt / cfjZostfsf] s'/fk|lt tL
lgsfodf ;d'lrt ;+j]bgzLntf ;d]t b]lvPg eg] :yfgLo lgsfonfO{
clwsf/ k|bfg ug]{ s'/fsf] cf}lrTo / cfjZostf dfly zs ug{sf] lglDt yk
cfwf/ k|fKt x'g ;S5 . csf{lt/ s;}nfO{ s'g} sfd ug]{ cj;/ glbP;Dd
p;df ;f] sfd ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ;d'lrt ljsf; ;+ej 5}g eGg] csf]{ ts{nfO{ klg
cfwf/xLg 7x¥ofpg ldNg] b]lv+b}g . k]ml/ :yfgLo lgsfox?n]
P]g–lgodn] lgwf{l/t u/]sf] ;Ldfsf] pNn+3g u/]/ /sdsf]
afF8kmfF8 / ljlgof]hg Pj+ vr{ ug]{ u/]sf] / :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] vr{
b]lvg] u/]sf] a]?h'sf] cg'kft ;/sf/L lgsfox?sf] vr{df b]lvg] u/]sf]
a]?h'sf] cg'kft eGbf em08} bf]Aa/n] a9L ePsf] cj:yfnfO{ klg
a]jf:tf ug{ ;Sg] cj:yf b]lv+b}g . :yfgLo lgsfosf] Ifdtfsf] ljsf;
gul/sg :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ a9L clwsf/ lbg' x'Fb}g eGg] ts{ /
:yfgLo lgsfonfO{ sfd ug]{ clwsf/ glbOsg :yfgLo lgsfosf] sfd
ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; x'Fb}g eGg] ts{df :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ sfd ug]{
clwsf/ glbO{sg tL lgsfosf] sfd ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ;d'lrt ljsf; x'Fb}g
eGg] ts{ a9L u?Ëf] 5 eGg] csf]{ ts{nfO{ klg pk]Iff / a]jf:tf ug{
;ls+b}g . To;}n], ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] pko'Qm 9fFrfsf] klxrfg ug]{
k|oTg ubf{ To:tf] 9fFrfdf zlQm / clwsf/sf] lgoGq0f / ;Gt'ngsf]
Joj:yf x'g ;s]sf] 5 ls 5}g eGg] s'/fsf] ;d]t lgSof}{n ug'{kg]{ cj:yf
/xG5 .

:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gn] :yfgLo lgsfon] >L % sf] ;/sf/n] lbg]
cg'bfgsf] vr{ ubf{ To; ;DaGwdf >L % sf] ;/sf/n] lbPsf]
lgb]{zgsf] kfngf ug'{kg]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] eP klg :yfgLo lgsfon] >L
% sf] ;/sf/n] lbPsf] To:tf] lgb]{zgsf] kfngf gu/]df klg >L % sf]
;/sf/n] :yfgLo lgsfodfly sf/jfxL ug{ kfpg] :ki6 Joj:yf gu/]sf]
s'/fnfO{ :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] sdhf]/ kIfsf] ?kdf ljZn]ifsx?n]
cf}+Nofpg ;Sg] 7fpF P]gn] lbPsf] 5 eGg] ts{ ug{ ;Sg] 7fpF klg

                                   16
P]gn] lbPsf] b]lvG5 . csf{lt/ :yfgLo lgsfosf] /fhZj kl/rfng ug{
;Sg] ;+efJotf / Ifdtf ljQLo ;fwgsf] cfjZostf, cfo / Joosf] lgoldt
clen]vg sfo{, n]vfk/LIf0fsf] l:ylt / cfly{s cg'zf;gsf] l:ylt h:tf
cfwf/df :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ >L % sf] ;/sf/n] yk cg'bfg /sd pknAw
u/fpg] Joj:yf P]gn] u/]sf] x'gfn] P]gn] zlQmsf] lgoGq0f /
;Gt'ngsf] ;d'lrt Joj:yf ldnfpg] k|oTg u/]sf] 5 eGg] csf]{ ts{ klg
ug{ ;lsG5 .

To;}u/L :yfgLo ;]jfsf] u7g ug]{ P]gsf] kl/sNkgf eP klg To:tf]
:yfgLo ;]jfsf] kbdf ul/g] lgo'lQmsf] k|lqmof s:tf] x'G5 eGg]
s'/fsf] :ki6 9fFrf cufl8 ;fg{ P]gn] ;s]sf] 5}g eGg] csf]{ ts{df klg
kof{Kt jhg /x]sf] kfOG5 . :yfgLo ;]jf cfof]u gfd u/]sf] Pp6f
/fli6«o :t/sf] cfof]u u7g u/]/ To; cfof]uaf6 :yfgLo ;]jfsf sd{rf/Lsf]
5gf}6 ug]{ k|lqmof ckgfpg] xf] eg] To;af6 sd{rf/Lsf] rog /
lgo'lQmsf] k|lqmofdf :yfgLo lgsfosf] k|efjsf/L lgoGq0f sfod
gx'g] cj:yf /xg] xf] ls eGg] z+sf klg p7\g ;S5 . csf{lt/ :yfgLo
lgsfosf sd{rf/Lsf] 5gf}6 / lgo'lQmsf] clwsf/ :yfgLo lgsfonfO{
lbg] xf] eg] :yfgLo lgsfodf sd{rf/Lsf] :yfloTj sfod x'g g;Sg] xf]
ls eGg] csf]{ cfz+sf klg /xG5 . To;}n], :yfgLo ;]jfsf] :j?ksf]
lgwf{/0f ug]{ sfd klg cToGt r'gf}tLk"0f{ /x]sf] b]lvG5 .

k]ml/, :yfgLo lgsfosf] n]vfk/LIf0f u/fpg] jf n]vfk/LIfs lgo'Qm
ug]{ clwsf/ ;DaGwLt :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ lb+bf :yfgLo lgsfonfO{
clgoldt lg0f{o ug{ jf clgoldt vr{nfO{ lgoldt u/fpg an k'Ug] xf] ls
eGg] csf]{ z+sf klg p7\g ;Sg] b]lvG5 . To;}u/L, jgk}bfjf/ /
aGohGt' h:tf k|fs[lts ;Dkbfdf xfgL gf]S;fgL k'¥ofpg] kIfdfly
sfg"gL sf/jfxL rnfpg] h:tf clwsf/x? :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ lb+bf To:tf
;Dkbfsf] ;d'lrt ;+/If0f x'g g;Sg] xf] ls eGg] vfnsf ts{ klg p7\g]
u/]sf b]lvG5g\ .

:yfgLo lgsfonfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg agfpg] k|oTg ubf{ cfk"mn]
kfPsf] clwsf/sf] b'?kof]u ug{ :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ k|f]T;fxg gldNg]
vfnsf] 9f+rfsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] :j?ksf] klxrfg ug]{ sfd cToGt
r'gf}tLk"0f{ / sl7g 5 eGg] s'/fdf ljjfb 5}g . t/ s'g} sfd sl7g 5
eGb}df Tof] sfd ug{ cufl8 g} g;g]{ xf] eg] Tof] sfd slxNo} klg
x'Fb}g eGg] s'/fnfO{ klg lj;{g ldNb}g . csf{lt/ ljs]Gb|Ls/0f

                                  17
gePsf] cj:yfdf clwsf/sf] k|of]u u/]/ kmfObf p7fPsfx?n] :yfgLo
lgsfosf] Ifdtfsf] k|Zg p7fP/ ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] k|oTgnfO{ k|efjxLg
t'Nofpg vf]Hg] ;+efjgfnfO{ klg c:jLsf/ ug{ ;Sb}g . To;}n] :yfgLo
lgsfox? k"0f{?kn] ;r]t / ;Ifd ePkl5 dfq} ljs]Gb|Ls/0f u/]/ cfk"mdf
/x]sf] zlQm u'dfpg jf 36fpg grfxg]x?sf] kIfkf]if0f ug{ vf]h]sf] 5
5}g eGg] s'/fdf klg xfdLx? ;ts{ x'g'kb{5 .

oxfFg]/ ljs]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ s]Gb|sf] clwsf/ / ufpF, gu/ / ;d'bfosf]
clwsf/ ;j} lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltdf y'kfg]{ k|lqmofsf] ?kdf lng pko'Qm
gx'g] s'/fdf klg xfdLx? ;hu x'g'kg]{ b]lvG5 . ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt /
gu/kflnsf tyf ltgsf j8f, 6f]n / jfl;Gbfx?, pkef]Qmf tyf
;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf :yfgLo ;d"xx?n] pkef]u ul//x]sf] clwsf/ ltgsf xftaf6
lems]/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ lbg] sfd ug{ vf]lhof] eg] To;nfO{
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] ?kdf kl/eflift gu/]/ s]Gb|Ls/0fsf] ?kdf kl/eflift
ug'{kg]{ cj:yf x'G5 . To;}n] ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] qmddf :yfgLo
lgsfosf] pko'Qm cfsf/ / ;fOhsf] klxrfg dxTjk"0f{ x'g ;S5 tfklg
ufpF, gu/, j8f, 6f]n / hg;fwf/0fsf] ;zQmLs/0f To;eGbf klg
dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ klg lj;{g gldNg] x'G5 .

o;/L, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f xfd|f] cfjZostf xf] / of] cfjZostf k"/f ug]{ lbzfdf
:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] th'{df ;d]tsf k|of;x?af6 7f]; d2t ;d]t
k'u]sf] 5 tfklg ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] pko'Qm 9fFrfsf] klxrfg u/]/
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ Jojxf/df kl/0ft ug]{ lbzfdf cfk}m yk k|oTg ug]{
cfjZostf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . t/ ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cfjZostf k"/f ug{sf]
lglDt xfdLn] ;dosf] k|tLIff gu/]/ kfOnf cl3 ;fg]{ / To; qmddf
cfjZostf cg';f/ cfk"mnfO{ ;RofpFb} hfg] z}nLsf] cjnDjg cfjZos
b]lvG5 .

;Gbe{–;fdu|Lx?

    :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%%
    bzf}+ of]hgf, @)%(–@)^$
    ljs]Gb|Ls/0f tyf :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g ;DaGwL k|ltj]bg,
     @)%#
    o'j/fh kf08], ljsf; k|zf;g -@)^)_


                                  18
 8f= eLdb]j e§, ljsf; k|zf;g -@)%%_
 OXford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English.
 x]d/fh lxDs/, ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] ;}4flGts kIfM g]kfndf o;sf]
   k|of; -gljgtd k|zf;lgs b[li6sf]0fx?, ;f]kfg, @)^!_
                              
                             




                              19
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


        g]kfndf pQ/bfoL lghfdtL ;]jfsf] lgdf{0f




                                            –cRo'taxfb'/ /fhe08f/L
pQ/bfoL ;]jf

pQ/bfoL ;]jf eGg] s'g} gjcfljis[t ljifo cjZo xf]Og . sfd / sfdsf]
pQ/bfloTj ;fy;fy} hGd]sf ljifoj:t'x? x'g\, / j:t' / To;sf] 5fof+ h:t}
;+u;+u}                                                           g}
rln/xG5g\\ . To;}n] pQ/bfoL ;]jf eGgfn]] ;]jsn] ug{' kg]{ wd{ /
;kmntf k|fKt ug]{ sd{ klg xf] t/ slxn] o;nfO{ sd{rf/Lsf] ljj]s /
O{dfGbf/Lsf] gfddf JoQm ul/G5 eg], slxn] g"gsf] ;f]emf]
ug]{Æ eGg] zJbfjnLleq /x:odoL jgfOPsf] kfOG5 . k+rtGqsf]
æk[i7t] ;]jot\ efg', h7/]0f x'tf;gf, :jfdLg+ ;j{ efj]0fÆ eGg]
Znf]saf6 ;]js dflnssf] nflu ;j} k|sf/af6 pQ/bfoL jGg' k5{, To;df
s'g} ;Ldf /flvg' x'\Gg eGg vf]lhPsf] b]lvG5 t/ To:tf c;Lldt
wf/0ffn] rflx+ wf]sf x'g uPsf]] klg ToxL k+rtGq syfn] bzf{pg
vf]lhPsf] x'+bf sfdsf] pQ/bfloTj eg]sf] dflnsn] ;]jssf] Ifdtf /
cfkm\gf] rfxgf cg';f/ ;do–;dodf lglZrt ul/g'' kg]{ s'/f xf] eg]/
j'em\g' g} Jojxf/;+ut x'g] b]lvG5 . o; lx;fjn]] x]bf{ sfdsf]
pQ/bfloTj tf]Sg] sfd km]l/ dflnss} x'g hfG5 .

x'g klg ;fdGtLsfnb]lv k|hftflGqs /fHoJoj:yf;Dd ;j} j]nf cfkm\gf
sd{rf/Lx?n]]      pQ/bfloTj sxfF s;/L lgefpg' kb{5 eGg] s'/fsf]
lgwf{/0f k|jGwsx?n] g} ub{5g\ t/ s'g–s'g j]nf pQ/bfloTjsf] 9f+rf
s;/L tf]lsg] uYof]{ eGg] s'/f rflx+ j9L dxTj /fVg] / rf;f] /fVg' kg]{]
ljifo ePsf] 5 . ;fdGtL Joj:yfdf ;]jsn] d'Votof dflnsk|lt g} pQ/bfoL


    k"j{ ;lrj, >L % sf] ;/sf/ .

                                   20
x'g'kg]{ cj:yf kb{5 eg] k|hftGq elgg] hgk|ltlglwTjd"ns
/fHoJoj:yfdf lghfdtL ;]jfsf] pQ/bfloTj /fHosf] k|ltlglw, ;/f]sf/jfnf
;+:yfx? tyf ;]jf k|fKt ug]{ hgtf oL ;j}lt/ x'g] s'/f 3fd h:t}}+ 5n{Ë
5.

/fhgLlts tyf zf;lgs pQ/bfloTj

jL;f}+ ztfJbLsf] k"jf{w{;Dd k|hftGqk|]dLx?sf] hf]8 zf;sLo
ls|ofsnfkdf hgk|ltlgTjsf] k|e'Tj j9L ;] j9L dfqfdf k|j]z u/fOg' k5{{
eGg]df lyof]] lsgeg] hgk|ltlglwx? :jefj}n] hgtfsf] cwLg /
lgoGq0fdf /xg] hLj x'+bf ltgLx? Hfgtf cled'vL geO{ /xg
;Qm}gg\ eGg] ljZjf;n] ;j}nfO{ dGqd'Uw kf/]sf] lyof]] . o;} ljZjf;df
;+;bLo k|hftflGqs k4ltsf] kljq hu hgk|ltlglwTjdfly g} v8f ul/of] .
o; k4lt cg';f/ /fhgLlts pQ/bfloTjnfO{ g} /fHozf;gsf] r'/f] jgfO{ o;}
;"qsf] cfwf/df ljleGg /fhgLlts tyf zf;sLo ;+/rgfx?sf] th{'df ul/of],
h; cg';f/ d+lqkl/ifbn] s'g} klg cj:yfdf ;+;bsf] ljZjf; k|fKt u/L g}
/xg'' kg]{, k|To]s d+qLn] cfkm\gf] sfdsf] nflu ;+;bdf pQ/bfoL
x'g'kg]{, ;/sf/sf] jflif{s gLlt / sfo{qmd /fi6«fWoIo dfkm{t ;+;bdf
k]z ul/g' kg]{, ;/sf/L sfo{;+kfbg ;+aGwL ljleGg kIfsf jflif{s
k|ltj]bgx? lgoldt?kn] k|ltlglw;efdf k]z x'g'kg]{,] hgk|ltlglwx?sf]
;bg df}h"bf g/fvL d+lqkl/ifbn] ^ dxLgfeGbf j9L zf;g ug{ gx'g]
OToflb Joj:yfx?nfO{ ;/sf/sf] j}wflgstfsf] s;Lsf] ?kdf lnOof]] .

o;/L ;+;bLo zf;g Joj:yfn] Ps ztfJbL nfdf] ofqf ul/;s]kl5 hj jL;f}+
ztfJbLsf] dWolt/ cfO{ hgk|ltlglwx?sf] /fhgLlts pQ/bfloTj s]jn
/fhgLltdf -cyf{t ;+;bleq, bnleq / cGt/bnLo ls|ofsnfk tyf lgjf{rg
If]qleq_ ;Lldt x'g yfn]sf] hgtfnfO{ tLSt cgej x'g yfNof], tj
hgkIfn] k|hftflGqs /fhgLltsf] ;+rfng ug]{ / ;'zf;g ;+kfbg ug]{
pQ/bfloTjx? Ps} lgoltsf] eP tfklg k[ys wf/x?af6 k|jflxt u/fpg'
kg]{ cfjZostf dx;"; ug{ yfn]] . Ps} ;fy ;+rflnt ubf{sf] cg'ejaf6 of]
klg b]lvof] ls /fhgLlts pQ/bfloTjsf] t8\sft8\sLsf] aLr ;'zf;gsf]
hgqm0bg w]/} h;f] cj:yfdf uf}}0f x'g] jf cf]em]ndf kg]{ ;+efjgf
j9L /x]5 .

ptflt/ /fhgLlts bfloTj jf]s]sf hgk|ltlglwx?n] klg /fhgLlts
pQ/bfloTjnfO{ s]jn k|hftflGqs Joj:yf ;+rfng ug,]{ hgtfnfO{

                                 21
/fhgLlts pkfb]otfx? k|bfg ug]{ tyf ltgLx?sf] /fhgLlts zlQmnfO{
;+t'i6L lbg] s'/fx?nfO{ k|fyldstf lbO{ To;tkm{ g} j9L lqmofzLn
ePsf] pbfx/0fx? k|i6};+u k|bz{g u/] . km]l/ csf]{lt/, /fhgLlts
g]tfx?df j9L /fhgLlts ;+:sf/ / em'sfj, pko'Qm zf;sLo Ifdtfsf] sdL,
k|lt:kwL{ /fhgLltdf tNnLg tyf logLx?sf]] lgoGq0f hgtfaf6 eGbf
/fhgLlts bnaf6 j9L x'g] ePsf]n] klg ltgLx?sf]] Wofg ;'zf;g
;Dkfbglt/ hfg ;s]g .

To;}n] jL;f}+ ztfJbLsf] pQ/fw{ e/ hgtf ;'zf;gsf]] pQ/bfloTj lng]
j}slNks jf ;xfos Joj:yfsf] vf]hLdf nfu]sf] b]lvG5 . oxL l;nl;nfdf
ljleGg b]zx?n] cfkm"nfO{ leGg} lsl;dsf] ;'zf;lgs ;+oGq lgdf{0f
tyf gLltut Joj:yfx?sf]] k|ltkfbg u/]/ of] gof+ hgcfsf+IffnfO{
;Djf]wg ug{ vf]h] .

o; l;nl;nfdf l;+ufk'/n] hgtfsf] oyfy{ l:ylt a'emL sfd ug{ ;Sg]
lsl;dsf] r':t lghfdtL ;]jf lgdf{0f ug{'sf] ;fy} hgtfnfO{ k|bfg ug]{ ;]jf
:t/Lo jgfpg Pp6f 5'6\6} ljefu Service Quality Improvement Unit (SQIU_
vf]n]/ k|wfgd+qLsf] sfof{noaf6 ;+rfng ug]{ Joj:yf u/] . hfkfgn]
sd vlr{nf] lghfdtL ;]jf jgfpgsf] ;fy} ;'zf;g k|fb'ef{j u/fpgsf] nflu
;xof]uL jftfj/0f jgfpg] gLlt tyf of]hgf cfkm}n] jgfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{
;Sg] :jfoQtfk"0f{ lghfdtL ;]jfsf] lgdf{0f u/] . csf]{lt/
Go"hLNof08n] gLltut sfo{ / pTkfbg–ljt/0f sfo{x?nfO{ cnu–cnu
u/L bf]>f] lsl;dsf sfo{x?df lghfdtL sd{rf/LnfO{ k"0f{tM pQ/bfoL
jgfO{ s/f/gfdfdf sfof{lGjt u/fpg] k|0ffnLsf] z'/mcft u/] . o:tf]
s/f/gfdf jf/]sf] ;"rgf ;+;b tyf ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+:yfx?nfO{ klg lbOg] x'+bf
cj logLx? klg zf;sLo k4ltleq k|j]z kfO{ lgoGq0f ug{{ j9L ;Ifd x'g
uof] .

csf]{lt/, lghfdtL ;]jfsf] hggL j]nfotn] klg gLlt lgdf{0f ug]{ / j:t'
k|fKt ug]{ sfo{nfO{ ;]jf pTkfbg / k|bfg ug]{ sfo{af6 k[ys /fVg]
k|yfsf] cjnDjg u/L k|To]ssf] pQ/bfloTjsf] lgwf{/0f j]Un} lsl;daf6
ug]{ Joj:yf u/] . ;]jfsf] pTkfbg / k|bfg ug]{ OsfOx?nfO{{ j9L
pQ/bfoL u/fpg] k|of]hgsf] nflu nIfsf] :ki6tf, ;+kfbgsf] :jtGqtf /
jhf/ k|lt:k4f{nfO{ cfwf/e"t s8Lx? jgfP . ;fy} ;+;bLo ;ldlt4f/f
;+kfbgsf] d"Nof+sg u/fO{ ;+;bLo lgoGq0fnfO{ j9L ;fy{s jgfP .
ptflt/ :j]8]gn] gLlt lgdf{0fsf] lhDdfnfO{ d+qLsf] 5'6\6}

                                   22
sfof{noaf6 ;+rflnt ug]{ u/L sfof{Gjogsf] sfo{ sfo{sfl/0fL
lgsfox?af6 u/fpg] k4lt ckgfP . oL ;j} zf;sLo k|0ffnLsf ljsf;x?
j9Ldf ut cfwf ztfJbLleq / vf;u/L ut @) jif{leq ;[+vlnt ?kdf b]vf
kg'{ ;/sf/sf] ;'zf;g k|ltsf] tLj| bfloTjjf]waf6} ePsf] xf] . oL ;j} jfXo
kl/jt{gx?n] ubf{ g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ klg pQ/bfoL / hgd'vL
jgfpglt/ cfGtl/s, g}lts tyf cGt/fli6«o bjfj lbgk/lbg jl9/x]sf] b]lvG5
.

t/ xfd|f] b]zleq eg] ljleGg ;'emfj / l;kmfl/zx?4f/f ;/sf/nfO{ hlt;'s}
3r3RofOP tfklg o;k|lt s'g} 7f];\ sbd cl3 j9\g ;s]sf] b]lvPg .
/fhgLlts pQ/bfloTjdf lklN;Psf]]] zf;g Joj:yf, ljZjf; / cljZjf;sf]
lx;fjlstfjd} tNnLg ;+;bLo lgoGq0f tyf cg'r/ jgfOPsf lghfdtL
;]jfnfO{ g} ;+;bLo k|hftGqsf] k'gj{xfnL 7fgL Ps bzssf] ;do
ljtfO;s]sf 5f} . oxL ;Gbe{df cfh xfdLn] pQ/bfoL lghfdtL ;]jfsf]
:j?ksf] rrf{ ug{{ nfu]sf 5f}+ .
;'zf;gsf] hgcfsf+Iff
cfh hgtfn] k|hftflGqs Joj:yfsf] ;+rfngaf6 /fhgLlts :jtGqtf /
k|ltlglwd"ns zf;gsf] nx8\ k"/f ug{df dfq lrQ ga'emfO{ k|To]sn]
cfkm\gf] JolQmut hLjg ;'vL, pGgt / dof{lbt?kdf ofkg ug{ kfpg]
/fHosf] k|ltj4tf vf]lh/x]sf] 5\ . To:t} ;'dw'/ / Gofok"0f{ ;dfhsf]
:yfkgf /fHo;+u csf]{ dfu hgtf ub}{5 . /fli6«o ;+;fwgsf] cfwf/df
b]zsf] cfly{s tyf ef}lts ljsf;nfO{ tLj| ultdf cl3 j9fpg] s'/f t hgtfsf]
;+w}sf]] dfu g} lyof] . cfh hgtf oL sfo{x?df /fHosf] x/]s sbddf
zf;sLo OsfOx?n] hgtfsf]] O{R5f / ;xeflutfsf] vf]hL ug]{ k4lt
c++lusf/ u/]sf] x]g{ rfxG5g\ tyflk k/Dk/fut ;+;bLo Joj:yfleq o:tf]
k|ltj4tf slx+af6 k|:km'l6t x'g;Sg] ;+efjgf gb]v]kl5 cfh hgtf
;Ggf6fsf] dxz"; u/L j;]sf 5g\ . o;/L ljleGg kfZrfTo tyf k"jL{o
b]zx?n] ;d]t k/Dk/fut ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf sdL sdhf]/Lx? dxz"; u/L
zf;gdf pQ/bfloTjsf] ;Djw{g / hgd'vLkg l;h{gf ug{ cf–cfkm\g}
lsl;dsf] ;+oGq th{df ug]{ nflu/x]sf] emNsf]dfly klg lbO;lsPs} 5 .
oxL aLr cGt/f{li6|o bft[;+:yfx?n] ;fdfGo?kdf cjnDjg ug{ ;lsg]
s]xL ;dfg Joj:yfx?sf] k|ltkfbg ul//x]sf] xfdL ;j}nfO{ yfx g} 5 .
pQ/bfloTjsf kIfx?



                                   23
dfly elgP em}+, ;]jfdf pQ/bfloTjsf kIfx? ;do–;dodf dflnsaf6
tf]lslbP cg';f/ x'g] ug{' rflx+ :jfefljs} xf] . clxn] PSsfO;f}+
ztfJbLdf lghfdtL ;]jfsf pQ/bfloTjdf s]–s] kIfx? ;dflxt x'g' kb{5
eGbf hgtfsf] ;'zf;gsf cfsf+IffnfO{ ;Djf]wg ug{] lgDg s'/fx?nfO{
k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 M

        s_ ;'zf;gsf] ;d;fdlos sfo{qmdx?sf] klxrfg / kxn ug'{,
        v_ zf;sLo sfo{sf] nIo k"j{lgwf{l/t / ;fj{hlgs ug{',
        u_ nIodf ;+alGwt clwsf/Ln]] k"j{k|ltj4tf bzf{pg',
        3_ ;j} clwsf/Ln] cfkm\gf] sfo{;+kfbgsf] cf}lrTo jf/]
;+alGwt ;/f]sf/jfnf      tyf hgkIfLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ hfgsf/L lbg',
;+t'i6 /fVg' / ltgLx?sf]              k|ltls|ofaf6 lgb]{lzt x'g'
        8_ sfo{;+kfbgdf /fHokIfLo ;fy} hgkIfLo d"Nox?sf] klg
cjnDj ul/g', Pj+
        r_ gful/s;+u ;ks{ /fVbf jf ltgLx?nfO{ rnfpg] sfo{ ubf{
OHht, cfb/,        ;xof]uL / ;+j]bgzLn efjsf] Jojxf/ ug{'' .

pQ/bfloTjsf] ;+oGq

pQ/bfoL ;]jf s'g} Ps j8fkqaf6 k|bfg jf k|fKt ug]{ j:t' xf]Og . of]
s'/f ;]jf ;+rfns tyf ;]jsx? b'j}n] /fd|/L a'em\g' k/]sf] 5 .
pQ/bfloTjsf] l;h{gf, O{dfg, wd{ / ljj]sn] k|]l/t dl:tisaf6
:jtM:km"t{ x'G5 eGg] k'/fgf] l;4fGt cfw'lgs ;dfhsf] nflu sfdofjL
eO/x]sf] 5}g . j]nfotL lghfdtL ;]jfn] k|ltkfbg u/]sf]] o; wf/0ffnfO{
clxn];Dddf ;f]xL dft[b]zn] g} k|foM kG5fO;s]sf] b]lvG5. t/ xfdL
cg'ofoL b]zx? eg] cem} To; cfbz{nfO{ g} RofkL To;sf] cgGo
k"hf/L jlg/x]sf 5f} .

jf:tjdf pQ/bfloTj :jtM:km"t{ ul/g] ljlw unt kl/0fltdf k'Ug uPsf] s'/f
k+rtGqaf6 p4[t k|f/lDes Znf]saf6 klg oy]i6 b]vfpF5 . t;y{ of]
sd{rf/Lsf] dl:tisaf6 k|:km"6g ul/g] xf]Og ls o;nfO{ sd{rf/Lx?df
cfjZostf cg'?k k|If]lkt ug]{ ;f]r jgfpg' j9L oyfy{jfbL / pkof]uL x'g]
b]lvG5 . sd{rf/Lx?df k|If]k0f ug]{ ;f]r /fVgf;fy xfdLn] cfkm\gf]
cfjZostfsf] 9f+rfnfO{ ;d]t k|If]lkt ug{ ;lsg] s'/f ;j{k|yd :ki6 x'G5,
hf] k|hftflGqs ;'zf;g Joj:yfsf] nflu cTolws rfxgfsf] ljifo ePsf] 5 .


                                 24
bf]>f] o:tf] k|If]k0f efjf]Tk|]l/t geO{ ef}lts ;+oGq4f/f ul/g] ePsf]
x'+bf of] j9L :yL/ / jf:tljs /xG5 eGg]] ljZjf; klg ug{ ;lsG5.

;+oGqfTds ljlw eGgfn] pko'Qm sf/s tTjx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ /
To;nfO{ ;+oGqfTds?kn] ;+/rgf ug]{ ;f]rnfO{ hfx]/ ub{5 . ctM
sf/s tTjx?nfO{ d'Vo ;d"xdf ljefhg u/L ltgLx?sf] ;+oGq0faf6
pQ/bfloTjnfO{ ;lËg jgfpg] o;sf] d'Vo p2]Zo xf] . oL rf/ ;d"xx?
x'g\ – s+_ ;+u7gfTds k'g;{+/rgf, v_ ;]jf ;+rfng k4lt, u_
k|ltj4tfd"ns sfo{ljlw / 3_ pQ/bfloTj lgoGq0f Joj:yf . jf:tjdf, oL
d'Vo sf/s tTjx?leq kg]{ tk;Lnsf If]q cToGt lj:t[t 5g\, t/ Pp6f
cjwf/0ffleq ;+oGqsf] ;f]r jgfpgsf] nflu dfq sf/s tTjx?nfO{ rf/
d'Vo zLif{sx?df cfj4 ug{ vf]lhPsf] xf] . o:tf] ;+oGqsf] ;f]r
jgfpg'sf] cy{ of] xf] ls oL rf/} If]qsf Joj:yfkgdf of]hgfj4?kn]
pQ/bfloTjd'vL ljlw jf k|ls|ofx?sf] th{'df u/L To;sf] k|If]k0f
sd{rf/L ;]jfdf ul/g' . oxflg/ of] km]l/ Ps k6s bf]x–ofpg cfjZos
xf]nf ls o:tf] ;+oGqfTds ;+/rgf tyf To;sf] ljsf; ljgf pQ/bfoL ;]jfsf]
ljsf; cfhsf] ef}lts ;dfhdf Odfg, wd{ / ljj]snfO{ dfq u'xf/L ;+ej
gx'g] s'/f k|fo ;j}nfO{ k|i6 eO;s]sf] 5 .

To;}n] pQ/bfoL lghfdtL ;]jf jf/]sf] o; k|:t'lts/0fdf o;kl5 oL rf/
sfo{If]qsf] e"ldsf k|If]k0f ug]{ jf/]sf]] rrf{ g} o;sf] d'\Vo ljj]rgf x'g]
5g\ .

;]]jfsf] sfo{ ;+rfng

lghfdtL ;]jfsf] sfo{If]q – ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !@$ n] lghfdtL ;]jfsf]
u7g, ;+rfng tyf ;]jfsf zt{x? P]g4f/f tf]lsg' kg]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
u7g tyf ;]jfsf zt{x? h;/L ;+j]bgzLn ljifo eO{ P]g4f/f tf]lsg' kg]{
jgfof], To:t} lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;+rfng klg xf] lsgeg] oL s'/fx?nfO{
;+ljwfgn] sfo{sfl/0fLsf] thjLr cyjf ;Qf?9 /fhgLltsf] rnv]ndf 5f]8\g
plrt g;+emL logLx?sf] Joj:yf ;+;bn] g} P]g4f/f ul/of];\ eGg
rfx]sf] 5 t/ b'ef{Uojz lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;+rfngsf] Joj:yf ug]{
k|of]hgsf] nflu To;sf] sfo{If]q / clwsf/ k4ltsf] JofVof s'g} P]g4f/f
;di6Lut?kdf ul/Psf] kfOPsf] 5}g .



                                    25
ctM g]kfn lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( n] lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ hlt;'s}
dfGotf / ;+/If0f lbP tfklg of] s]jn o;sf] ;+:yfut u7g / sd{rf/L
;+/If0f kIfnfO{ lnP/dfq ul/Psf] 5 . o;sf] ;fj{hlgs sfo{If]qsf]
JofVof / To;sf] :jtGqtfnfO{ lnP/ s]xL Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5}g . csf]{lt/
lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;Dk"0f{ sfo{If]q of] xf] eGg] s'/fnfO{ ;Ldf+sg u/L
s'g} P]g jf sfg"g klg jg]sf]] 5}g. kmn:j?k, lghfdtL ;]jfsf] sfo{If]q
d'Votof /fhgLlts txnfO{ ;Nnfx, ;xof]u / ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ eGg] cy{df
dfq ;j}n] j'em]sf] b]lvG5 . To;}n] lghfdtL sd{rf/LnfO{ cfh s'g}
Pp6f 7f]; lg0f{o ug{sf] nflu klg k|Tofof]lht clwsf/sf] cfjZostf
k/]sf] 5 .

o; cefjnfO{ k"lt{ ug{ lghfdtL ;]jf P]g jf zf;g Joj:yf ;+rfng P]gdf
lghfdtL ;]jfsf] sfo{If]q lgDglnlvt adf]lhd tf]lsg'' kg] h/m/L
b]lvG5 M


   s_ ;+ljwfgn] tf]lslbPsf zf;sLo sfo{x?sf] ;+rfng ug{],
   v_ k|rlnt sfg"gaf6 lgwf{/0f eO;s]sf sfo{ tyf sfo{ljlw kfng
      ug]{,
   u_     >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] :jLs[t gLlt, sfo{qmd, of]hgf,
      lgb{]lzsfnfO{ sfof{Gjg          jf kfng ug]{
   3_ ;+j}wflgs c+u jf lgsfo4f/f cfkm\gf] clwsf/leq /xL lbPsf]
      cfb]z kfng        jf sfof{lGjt ug]{
   ª_ ;d;fdlos ;'zf;g sfo{qmdx?sf] klxrfg, kxn / sfof{Gjog
      ug]{,
   r_ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g / lghfdtL ;]jfsf] s'zntf / k|efjsfl/tfdf ;do
      cg';f/ ;'wf/ ug]{,
   5_ ;/sf/L ;+klQsf] /Iff, ;+ef/ tyf ;+;fwgsf] ;b'kof]u ug]{,
   h_ gful/s :t/sf] zflGt–;'/Iff kfng ug]{ u/fpg],
   em+_ ;dfhsf] /Lltl:ylt, rng Jojxf/ kfng ug]{ u/fpg],
   o+_+ /fhgLlts txnfO{ OdfGbf/L;fy ;Nnfx, ;]jf / ;xof]u k'–
      ofpg], Pj+
   6_ P]g4f/f s'g} vf; clwsf/LnfO{ vf]h lhDd]jf/L tf]lslbPsf]df
      cfkm}n] ;f]
      kfng ug]{ .


                                 26
lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] clwsf/ Joj:yf – g]kfn lghfdtL ;]jfsf]
pQ/bfoL rl/qsf] n]vfhf]vf ug{ vf]Hbf xfdLnfO{ o;sf] sfo{If]q h:t}
clwsf/ Joj:yf / ;fj{hlgs kIfsf] klg ljj]rgf ug{' clt cfjZos x'G5
lsgeg] k|hftflGqs /fHodf oL s'/fx?af6 g} s'g} ;+:yfsf] x}l;ot hfx]/
x'G5 . ;+:yfsf] x}l;otsf] klxrfg ePkl5dfq To;sf] pQ/bfloTjsf]
kl/sNkgf ug{ ;lsG5 .

s'g} klg ;/sf/L sfof{noleq kg]{ lghfdtL If]qsf ljifo ;+aGwL
pQ/bfloTj To; sfof{no ;+aGwL d'Vo zf;sLo lhDd]jf/L
clwsf/LnfO{ tf]lsg' k5{ . o;sf] nflu zf;sLo k|d'v -ljefuLo k|k'v,
c8\8f k|d'v eg] em}+_ sf] cjwf/0ff l;h{gf ug['{ cfjZos x'G5 . s'g}
klg sfof{nosf] sfo{If]qdf kg]{ lghfdtL sfo{If]qsf] pQ/bfloTj o:tf]
zf;sLo k|d'vnfO{{ tf]lsg' k5{ . t;y{ o; lghfdtL sfo{If]qsf] ljleGg
ljifodf zf;sLo k|d'vn] k|of]u ug{ kfpg]] clwsf/ csf]{lt/af6 zf;g
;+aGwL P]glgod4f/f tf]Sg] Joj:yf x'g' kb{5 . vf; u/L zf;sLo
k|d'vnfO{{ lgDg clwsf/ /xg' kb{5 M

 s_ ljefuLo ljifo;+u ;+aGw /fVg] ;'zf;gsf sfo{qmdx? cfkm}n]
    kxn, to / sfof{lGjt ug]{,
 v_ ;+;bsf ;ldltx?df cfkm}n] cfkm\gf sfo{qmd / sfo{;+kfbgsf]
    +clwjfrg u/L cfkm\gf] k|ltj4tfsf] kmf/v ug]{,
 u_ ;+j}wflgs c+u tyf lgsfox?;+u cfkm}n] tYo tyf k|df0fx? k]z
    u/L cfkm\gf] k|ltj4tfsf] kmf/v ug]{, Pj+
 3_ ;/f]sf/jfnfju{ / gful/s ;dfh;+u ;+ks{, ;+jfb / ;'g'jfO ;+kGg u/L
    cfjZos ;xeflutf / ;xof]u k|fKt ug]{] .

zf;lgs kf/fdf eGg] xf] eg] lghfdtL ;]jfsf] pQ/bfloTjsf] If]q -
lghfdtL ;]jf_ P]gdf g} pNn]v x'g' / To;sf] kfngf tyf d"Nof+sg
t/Lsf klg ;'k/Lj]IfsLo / /fhgLlts tl/sfaf6 dfq geO{ gful/s t/Lsfaf6
klg x'g] k4ltsf] yk dfu{x? v'Nnf ul/lbg' kg]{ cfjzos ePsf] 5
lsgeg] xfdLn] k|hftGq /fhgLlts If]qdf dfq vf]h]sf xf]Ogf}, zf;lgs
If]qdf klg xf] . To;}n] zf;lgs If]qdf+ klg hgtfsf] lgb]{zg, lgoGq0f
/ d"Nof+sg k|jflxt gu/L hgtfnfO{ ;Rrf k|hftGqsf] cg'ej lbg
;ls+b}g .



                                 27
cem j9L ls6fgLsf ;fy eGg] xf] eg] lghfdtL ;]jsx?sf] clwsf/,
sfo{If]q / d"Nof+sg        lgtfGt cb[Zo / uf]Ko sfo{;+kfbg /
sfo{ljefhg lgodfjnL cGtu{tsf] k|Tofof]hg Joj:yf4f/f dfq tf]lsg''
clxn]sf] jx'cfoflds zf;g Joj:yfnfO{ ;'xfpg] / kof{Kt x'g] b]lvb}g .
lghfdtL ;]jssf] clwsf/ -cyf{t zf;sLo k|d'vsf] clwsf/_ P]g4f/f
ls6fgL ug{'sf] cy{ Psflt/ /fhgLlts hgk|ltlglwx?nfO{ ;To tYosf]
hfgsf/L / ;xL ;Nnfx lbg] bfloTj lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] ePsf] s'/f
;fj{hlgs hfgsf/Ldf /fVg] xf] eg] csf]{lt/, ;dlj;d kl/l:yltdf klg lgwf{l/t
/fHoJoj:yfsf] sfo{;+rfng :yL/ /fVg] cleef/f lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf]
ePsf] s'/f /fhgLlts If]q, lghfdtL ;]jf / hgtfnfO{ k|i6 u/fpg'' xf] .
clxn]sf] h:tf] /fhgLlts JolQmsf] kf]N6fdf j;]/ dfq ;f+;b / hgtfnfO{
lrgfpg' kg]{] lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] e"ldsf cjsf] /fHo Joj:yfdf hf/L
/fVg' x'+b}g .

lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] kbLo bfloTj – lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?n]
cfkm\gf] sfo{If]qsf] bfloTjsf] cnfjf lghfdtL ;]jfsf Ps ;b:o ePsf]
sf/0f u|x0f ug{' kg]{ bfloTjx?nfO{ ;dfg?kdf pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .
h'g;'s} txsf] kbdf j;L sfo{;+kfbg ubf{ klg sd{rf/Lx?n]] oL
bfloTjnfO{ wf/0f ul//fVg' kb{5 . To;}n] logLx?nfO{ klg lghfdtL
;]jf P]gdf Joj:yf ug{' cfjZos x'G5 . lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] sfo{;+kfbg
k"/f eP gePsf] lg?k0f ubf{ lgtfGt sfg"gL jf cbfntL b[li6sf]0fdfq
g/fvL kbLo bfloTjsf] b[li6af6 x]g]{ k/+k/f j;fNg' kb{5 . oL kbLo
bfloTj b]]xfo adf]lhd x'g] 5g\ M

   s_ tf]lsPsf] sfdsf] p2]Zo xfl;n ug{sf] nflu cfjZos kxn / k|of;
      oyf;+ej :jo+n] ug{' kg]{{,
   v_ sfg"gsf] dd{ ;d]t j'emL To;sf] k|of]u / kfng ug{' kg]{,
   u_ ;fj{ef}d hgtfk|lt dfgjLo ;+j]bgzLntf /fvL plrt, ;]jf, Wofg, /
      ;Ddfg k'–ofpg' kg]{,
   3_ cfkm\gf sfo{If]qdf ePsf sfdx?sf] cf}lrTo jf/] hgkIf ;j}nfO{
      hfgsf/L u/fpg' / ltgLx?sf] lh1f;fnfO{ ;+t'i6 ug{'',
   8_ cfkm\gf] lhDdfsf] sfo{ ubf{ kf/blz{tf, hg;xeflutf tyf
      ;+j]bgzLn ;]jfsf] efj /fvL ug'{{ kg]{,
   r_ ;/sf/L ;fwg / >f]tsf] k|of]u ubf{ lskmfotLkgsf ;fy} clwstd
      ;b'kof]u / pTkfbsTjsf]] b[li6]sf]0f klg /fVg' kg]{, Pj+


                                   28
    5_ cfkm\gf] lhDdfsf] sfdaf6 pTkGg s'g} klg k|lts"n l:yltsf]
       nflu cfjZos cfTd cfnf]rgf / k|folZrltsf] kxn cfkm}af6
       x'g'kg]{ .
k|ltj4tfhGo ljlw

/fHosf] sfo{;+kfbg /fhgLlts ;+t'i6L / ;Gt'ngsf] nflu dfq geO{
zf;lgs pkfb]otfsf]] nflu ;d]t k|ltj4?kn] x'g'kg]{ s'/f w]/} cl3b]lv
hgtfn] lrRRofO/x]sf]] ePklg o;lt/ /fHosf] plrt Wofg uPsf]
b]lv+b}g . t/ hgk|ltlglwx? /fhgLlts 5fndf aUg] / hgtfsf] kx'Fr
zf;goGq;Dd gk'Ug] ePsf] x'Fbf hgtf /mdlnP/ j:g' k/]sf] 5 . jf:tjdf
hgtfsf sfo{qmdx? ;+kfbg ubf{ ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/, sfo{ljlw, ;dofjlw /
gtLhf ;j}df ;+alGwt sd{rf/Lsf] k|ltj4tf x'g' kb{5 . o;sf] nflu ljleGg
lsl;dsf sfo{;+kfbgdf ljleGg t/Lsfn] sd{rf/LnfO{ k|ltj4 t'Nofpg
;lsG5 . k|ltj4tf l;h{gf ug]{ s]xL sfo{ljlw tnj lbOPsf 5g\ M

   s_ ;+u7gsf] k'g;{+/rgf – ;+u7gsf] ;+/rgfnfO{ ljleGg lsl;dn]
      kl/jt{g                         u/L                          –
      -h:t} ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, :jfoQLs/0f, ljljwLs/0f, cflb_ ;+u7gleqsf
      vf;–vf; sd{rf/Lx?sf] pQ/bfloTj j9L :ki6 / s]lGb|t ug]{ .
   v_ ;fj{hlgs lgoGq0fsf sfo{ljlw – o; ljlw cg'';f/ d"n sfo{{x? jf/]]
      ;+alGwt clwsf/Lx?n] k"j{nIox? /fvL] ;fj{hlgs?kn] k|ltj4tf
      hgfpg' kg]{, To;sf] sfo{;+kfbg / ;+kGgtf jf/] ;+alGwt
      ;+;bLo ;ldlt tyf gful/s ;dfhdf k|ltj]bg hfx]/ ug'{kg]{ /
      ltgLx?af6 sfo{k|ls|ofdf lgu/fgL / lgoGq0f ug]{ Joj:yf
      x'g'kg]{ .
   u_ s/f/d"ns ;+kfbg Joj:yf – gtLhfd"ns tyf lgoldt?kdf ;+rfng
      ul/g] sfo{qmdx?nfO{ s/f/k|yf4f/f ;+kfbg u/fOg' kg]{ .
      o:tf] s/f/gfdf sfof{no k|d'v;+u jf s'g} JolQmut clwsf/L;+u
      cnu–cnu ug{ ;lsg] . s/f/4f/f sfo{;+kfbg u/fPsf] sfo{sf]
      :jtGq d"Nof+sg x'g] k|yf x'g'kg]{ .
   3_ :jfoQtf sfo{k|0ffnL – cf}Bf]lus tyf Jofkfl/s Joj:yfkgsf]
      l;4fGt cg'?k ;+rfng ug{' kg]{ sfd, k"jf{wf/x?sf] ;+/rgfx?sf]
      lgdf{0f sfo{, ;fj{hlgs j:t'sf] pTkfbg tyf ljt/0f, ;fdflhs ;]jf
      ;+rfng, j}1flgs cg';Gwfg h:tf sfo{x? :jfoQ k|0ffnL4f/f
      ;+kfbg u/fpg pko'Qm x'g] . o:tf] k|yf4f/f sfd u/fpFbf


                                 29
      sfo{qmdsf] tf]lsPsf] nIf ;Gtf]ifhgs?kdf xfl;n ug{ ;s]sf]
      g;s]sf] jf/] ;fj{hlgs ?kn] d"Nof+sg u/fpg' kg]{ .

lgoGq0f k|0ffnLsf] lgwf{/0f

:jtGq sfo{If]q, s/f/ Joj:yf, :jfoQtf k|0ffnL logLx? ;j}sf] lgu/fgL,
lgoGq0f / d"Nof+sgsf] cfjZostf x'G5 . o:tf] lgoGq0fsf] b[li6
sfg"gL lgoldttf / clgoldttfnfO{ lgofNg]lt/ dfq geO{ sd{rf/Lsf]
jx'cfoflds bfloTj ;+kGg ePsf] gePsf] lt/ x]g]{ x'g' kb{5 . o;sf]
nflu lgoGq0f Joj:yf klg jx'cfoflds} x'g'kg]{ k|i6} x'G5 . jx'cfoflds
lgoGq0f Joj:yfdf x'g] ljljw ;+oGqx? o;k|sf/ x'g] 5g\ M !_
;+;bLo lgoGq0f, @_ ;+j}wflgs lgsfosf] lgoGq0f , #_
cGtsf{of{no lgoGq0f , $_ gful/s ;dfhsf] lgoGq0f .

pQm ljleGg k|sf/sf lgoGq0fx?dWo] s'g'–s'g sfo{qmddf s'g–
s'g rflx+ pko'Qm x'G5 ltgLx?nfO{ ;dfj]z ug]{ x'g' kb{5 . o;
;+aGwdf xfd|f] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf ;+;bLo lgoGq0f ljlw zf;sLo
lgoGq0fsf] nflu cem} oy]i7?kdf k|efjsf/L x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . sf/0f
of] cem} k/+k/fut ;+;bLo lgoGq0fsf] l;4fGtaf6 dfly p7\g ;s]sf]
5}g . ;+;bLo lgoGq0f hj;Dd e"t / eljiosf] nflu dfq ul/G5 / jt{dfg
sfo{;+kfbgnfO{ o; lgoGq0faf6 5'+b}g tj;Dd o:tf] lgoGq0fsf]
;'zf;gdf s]xL c;/ kg{ ;Qm}g . oxf+lg/ sfo{sfl/0fLsf] rfn'
sfo{;+kfbgnfO{ sxf+;Dd :jtGq /flvg' k5{ eGg] s'/f cToGt
u+eL/ k|Zg x'g cfp+5 . t/ ;fy} lgoGq0fsf] cy{ rfn" /x]sf] sfo{df
k|ltls|of / lgb]{zg lbg' klg xf], hf] hgkIfsf] ?rL / dsf{ JoQm
ug{df cToGt sfdofjL x'ghfG5 . To;}n] ;+;bLo lgoGq0f /
sfo{sfl/0fL :jtGqtfsf] jLrsf] /]vf ;'zf;gdf ;+;bLo rf;f]nfO{ b[li6ut
/fvL ljrf/k"j{s k'gM sf]l/g' cfjZos x'G5 tfls ;+;bLo ;ldltx?4f/f
zf;sLo sfo{df ;fy{s?kn] hgk|ltlglwsf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ ;lsof];\ .

o;}u/L xfn gful/s ;dfhnfO{ klg zf;goGqleq lgoGq0fsf] kx"+r
lbOPsf] 5}g . o;sf s]xL sf/0fx? 5g\ . Ps t gful/s ;dfh s'g}
ljefuLo sfo{If]qdf of] / olt g} 5g\ eGg] lglZrt g}{ 5}g . csf]{lt/,
;/sf/n] gful/s ;dfhnfO{ pko'Qm / lgoldt?kn] ;/sf/L sfo{ljlwleq
;dflxt u/]sf] klg b]lv+b}g . t]>f], gt s'g} ;/sf/L sfof{non] cfkm\gf]
sfo{If]qleq cfjZos k|sf/sf]] gful/s ;dfhx?nfO{ ;+jw{g ug]{ gLlt

                                 30
g} clVtof/ u/]sf] b]lvG5 . oL sf/0fx?n] ubf{ clxn] gful/s lgoGq0f
cToGt lzyLn /x]sf] 5 . To;}n} cj oL tLg} s'/fdf ;/sf/sf] ;lqmo
Wofg hfg' k/]sf] 5 .

t/ h'g;'s} lsl;dsf] lgoGq0f Joj:yf klg sd{rf/L / ;+u7gsf] :ki6
sfo{ljefhg, r':t ;+/rgf, ljs]lGb|t Joj:yf tyf :jtGq / :jfoQ
sfo{k|+0ffnLsf] cefjdf ljyf]lnG5 hf] xfdL xfn eO/x]sf] ;+;bLo
lgoGq0f tyf ;+j}wflgs lgoGq0fsf] sf/jfxLdf b]lv/x]sf 5f}+ .

To;}n] pQ/bfoLTj Joj:yfnfO{ Pp6f ;+oGqsf] ?kdf ;f]lrg' kb{5 .
;+oGqdf ;j} pkoGqx?n] ;fy;fy} sfd u/] dfq cfjZos 9f+rf / k|v/tfsf]
pQ/bfloTj lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|If]k0f x'g hfG5 / kmn:j?k pxL lsl;dsf]
pQ/bfoL lghfdtL ;]jfsf] :j?k k|:km'l6t x'G5 .

cGtlg{lxt s]xL /fhgLlts tyf ;+j}wflgs k|Zgx?

pko'{Qm cjwf/0ffn] xfnsf] k/+k/fut ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] d"nd+qsf]
?kdf /x]sf] ;+;bk|ltsf] pQ/bfloTj, ;+;bLo /fhgLlts lgoGq0f /
;xof]uL lghfdtL ;]jfsf] k/+k/fut 9fFrfnfO{ pl5g]sf] h:tf] b]lvG5 ,
t/ jf:tjdf Tof] xf]Og . of] ;+;bLo Joj:yfn] PSsfO;f}+ ztfJbLsf]
r'gf}tL k"/f ug{sf] cfkm\gf] ?9LjfbL / ;+s'lrt :j?knfO{ tGsfpg
vf]h]sf] Ps b[Zo dfq xf] . oxf+ ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] cfwf/e"t :j?k
gf3]/ jflx/ hfg] s'g} dg;fo g} /flvPsf] 5}g . jt{dfg g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfgsf] oyfl:yt ?knfO{ ;d]t s'g} lsl;daf6 jfwf kg]{ s'g} s'/f ;d]t
k|:tfljt ul/Psf] 5}g .
;+;bLo Joj:yf eg]sf] ;+;bsf] ;+k|e'tfnfO{ dfg]/ To;sf] ljZjf;,
lgb]{zg / lgoGq0fdf d+lqkl/ifbn] d'n'ssf] zf;g rnfpg] xf] eg] Tof]
clxn] emg ;Rrf cy{df sfof{lGjt x'g]5 lsgeg] o; Joj:yfaf6
d+lqkl/ifb\ / ;+;bjLrsf] kmf;nf sd x'g hfG5 . ;+;bsf] ljZjf;
dtbfgsf] gtLhfdf dfq ;Lldt geO{ zf;g ;+rfng ljlwaf6 ;d]t k|bz{g
x'G5 lsgeg] pQ/bfloTjsf] gof+ kl/efiff cg';f/ ;+;bn] zf;g ;+rfngdf
b'O{ lsl;dn] ;xefuL jGg] 5 M !_ ;/sf/nfO{ zf;g ;+rfngsf] 9f+rf
tf]Sg] / @_ bf]>f] o;sf ljz]if1 ;ldltx?n] lghfdtL If]qsf] pQ/bfloTj
k"/f ePsf] 5 5}g zf;sLo k|d'v;+u j;L cg'udg ug{] .



                                  31
o; l;l;nfdf s'g xb;Dd lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ :jtGq?k lbg] / o;nfO{
;+;bLo ;ldltx? tyf gful/s ;dfh;+u v'Nnf /fVg] eGg] lg0f{o klg
;+;bn] cfkm\gf] OR5f cg';f/ ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f #%-#_ cGtu{t zf;g
Joj:yf P]g jgfO{ ug]{ ePsf]n] ;+;bsf] ;+k|e'tfdf vnn kf/]sf] dfGg
;ls+b}g .

;+;b Ps /fhgLlts lgsfo x'+bf o;sf] ynf]df /fhgLlts lgoGq0fsf]
sfo{jfxL rnfpg] / c? zf;sLo lgoGq0fsf sfdx? ;+;bsf ljz]if1 ;ldlt
tyf ;+alGwt gful/s ;dfh4f/f k"/f u/fpg] Joj:yf ;+;b cfkm}}n] +
lg0f{o ug{' ;+ljwfg ljkl/t gx'g] dfq xf]Og ls ;+;bn] wf/f #% -#_
sf] dg;fo cg';f/ cu|;/tf lnO{ -proactive role_ zf;g Joj:yfsf] lgwf{/0f
u/]sf] 7x5{ .

xfn klg s]xL sfg"gx?n] ljleGg :t/sf lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ :jtGq
clwsf/If]q tf]s]sf]] 5, hf] xfn k|:tfljt j[xQ/ Joj:yfsf] ;"Id?k xf] t/
o;/L ljefuLo ;d:t sfo{If]q d+qLsf] cwLgdf /fvL lghfdtL
sd{rf/LnfO} 6'qmf–6'qmL sfo{df :jtGqtf tf]Sbf s]\\\\Gb|Lo zf;g
k|0ffnL clxn]h:t}] ;jf{lws k|Tofof]hgd"ns g} /xg] x'+bf 5'6\6}
lghfdtL zf;g If]qsf] kl/sNkgf ug{' k/]sf] xf] . o;/L hgtfsf] cfwf/e"t
zf;gsf] lhDdf lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ tbcg'?k ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx?af6 cg'udg
/ lgoGq0f x'g] Joj:yf ul/Pkl5 dfq pQ/bfoL lghfdtL ;]jfsf] cjt/0f
ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 .

;f/f+z
   1.    pQ/bfloTj ;+jw{g ug]{ ;+oGqfTds ljlw ckgfpg' kg]{, gls
         :jfdLelQmaf6 ;+t'i6L lng] .
   2.    lghfdtL ;]jfsf] d"n sfo{If]q tf]lsg' kg]{ / o;leq ;'zf;g k|j4{g
         ug]{ tyf cGo lgoldt /fHo;+rfngsf] lhDd]jf/L ;dflxt ul/g'
         kg]{, of] s'/fsf] Joj:yf lghfdtL ;]jf P]gdf ul/g' kg]{ .
   3.    zf;sLo k|d'vsf] :jtGq JolQmTj lgdf{0f ug{' kg]{ h;sf]
         cfwf/df zf;sLo k|d'vn] ;+;bLo ;ldltx?df tyf gful/s ;dfh;+u
         hjfkmb]xL ug{' kg]{ .
   4.    >L % sf] ;/sf/ -sfo{;+kfbg_ lgodfjnLnfO{ d+lqkl/ifb\sf]
         sfo{ ;+rfngdf ;Lldt /flvg' kg]{ .



                                    32
5.   zf;sLo sfo{;+kfbgdf k|ltj4tfhGo ljlw k|of]u ug{ jfWo
     t'NofO{ ljleGg      k|sf/sf k|ltj4 sfo{ljlw / To;sf] k|of]u jf/]
     lbUbz{g jGg' kg]{ .
6.   ;/sf/L sfo{ljlwx?sf] pko'Qm :yfgx?df gful/s ;dfhsf]
     ;+nUgtf / lgoGq0f oyf]lrt?kn] ;dfj]z ul/g' kg]{ . x/]s
     sfof{non] cfkm\gf If]qsf gful/s ;dfhx?sf] k|j4{g ug]{ gLlt
     clVtof/ ug{' kg]{ .
                                
                               




                                33
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


    g]kfndf e|i6frf/ lj?4 sfo{/t
lgsfox?sf] cGt;{DaGw / k|efjsfl/tf


                                                                      *
                                                 – /TgsfhL ah|frfo{


k[i7e"ld
æe|i6frf/Æ s'g d'n'sdf slxn]b]lv z'? ePsf] lyof] eGg ufx|f] 5 t/
e|i6frf/n] s'g} klg d'n'ssf] g}lts d"No–dfGotfnfO{ eTsfO/x]sf]
x'G5 eg] cfly{s ljsf;df ult/f]w pTkGg u/L ;fdflhs GofonfO{ ljgfz
ug]{ sfo{ ul//x]sf] x'G5 . cGttM d'n's åGåsf] rk]6fdf kg{ hfG5 /
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f u/L ;'zf;gsf] cg'e"lt lbnfpg' x/]s d'n'ssf ;/sf/sf]
k|fyldstfsf] ljifo xf] . ;j} d'n'sx?df e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f ug{ of e|i6frf/
af/] cg';Gwfg u/L ck/fwLnfO{ b08 lbO{ sf/jfxL ug{ s'g} g s'g}
?kdf s]xL ;+:yfut Aoj:yf eO/x]sf]] kfOG5 . e|i6frf/ /f]syfdsf nflu
sfg'gL k|fjwfg, Goflos cbfntsf] :yfkgf, d'2f bfo/ ug]{ nufot
ombudsman, supreme audit agencies, inspector general cflbsf] Aoj:yf
ul/Psf] kfOG5 .

o;} ;Gbe{df g]kfndf klg lnR5jLsfnLg, dNnsfnLg / zfxsfnLg zf;g
k|0ffnLnfO{ cWoog ubf{ e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf] ;Gbe{df ljleGg
k|oTgx? ePsf lyP . @))& ;fnsf] k|hftGq k|flKtkl5 ljleGg
k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf k|of;x? eP . lj=;+= @))( ;fnsf] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g,
lj=;++= @)!# ;fnsf] /fi6«;]jsx?sf] -e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f_ P]g, lj=;+=
@)!& ;fnsf] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g / ljz]if k|x/L ljefusf] :yfkgf,
lj=;++= @)@) ;fndf gof+ d'n'sL P]g, o;sf s]xL pbfx/0fx? x'g\ .
*
    ;x;lrj, clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u .

                                         34
g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg @)!( sf] bf]>f] ;+;f]wg, @)#@ n] u/]sf] Joj:yf
cg'?k @)#$ ;fnb]lv g} clVtof/ b'?kof]u lgjf/0f cfof]u lqmofzLn
/lxcfPsf] lyof] .

e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf                     nflu        u7g         ePsf
/fHo;+oGqx?
@)$& ;fndf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& d'tfljs e|i6frf/
lgoGq0f ug]{ ;+a}wflgs lgsfosf ?kdf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]usf] u7g ePsf] 5 . ;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] s'g} JolQmn]
æcg'lrt sfo{Æ jf e|i6frf/ u/L clVtof/sf] b'?kof]u u/]sf] ;DaGwdf
cg';Gwfg txlssft ug]{, cg'lrt sfo{ u/]sf] kfOPdf To:tf JolQmnfO{
;r]t u/fpg jf ljefuLo jf cGo cfjZos sfo{afxL ug{ clVtof/jfnfnfO{
n]Vg], e|i6frf/ u/]sf] b]lvPdf To:tf] JolQm tyf ;f] ck/fwdf ;+nUg
cGo JolQmx? pk/;d]t d'2f bfo/ ug]{ jf u/fpg], / >L % ;dIf
;Dkflbt sfdsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg r9fpg] u/L cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo /
clwsf/ tf]lsPsf] 5 .

o;}u/L clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u P]g, @)$* -;+;f]wg
;lxt_, e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( / clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]u lgodfjnL, @)%( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L cfof]un]
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ;DaGwdf ljleGg sfo{x? ul//x]sf] 5 . clVtof/
b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u P]g, @)$* cg';f/ cfof]un] ug]{ u/]sf
sfdx? x'g\ – ljBdfg P]g, lgod jf k|rngdf q'l6 eP ;'wf/ ug{ ;'emfj
lbg] jf Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg], b'ikl/0ffd ;Rofpg cfb]z lbg], xfgL
gf]S;fgL c;"n pk/ u/fpg], e|i6frf/nfO{ /f]syfd ug]{ p2]Zon]
k|j4{gfTds sfo{x? ug]{, e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ug]{ p2]Zon] :yflkt
/fli6«o jf cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfx?;+u ;dGjo, cfk;L ;DaGw / ;xof]u j[l4
ug]{, / cfjZostfg';f/ ;DaGwLt ljifosf] ljz]if1 jf ljlzi6Ls[t ;]jf k|fKt
ug]{ .

e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf] kl/R5]b–$ æe|i6frf/sf] lgu/fgL
;DjGwL Joj:yfÆ lzif{s cGtu{t bkmf #& df /fli6«o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf]
:yfkgf / bkmf #* df s]Gb|sf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ ;DjGwdf pNn]v
ul/Psf] 5 . ;f]xL cg'?k e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fdf lgjf/0ffTds e"ldsf lgjf{x
ug{ /fli6«o ;ts{tf s]Gb| :yfkgf ePsf] cj:yf 5 . o;sf] cltl/Qm /fh:j

                                  35
If]qsf eG;f/, cGtz'Ns tyf s/ k|zf;gx?df x'g] e|i6frf/ / /fh:j r'xfj6
tyf ljb]zL d'b|fsf] ckrngnfO{ k|efjsf/L?kdf lgoGq0f tyf /f]syfd
u/L /fh:j ;+sngdf j[l4 ug]{ p2]Zon] /fh:j r'xfj6 -cg';Gwfg tyf
lgoGq0f_ P]g, @)%@ n] lglb{i6 u/] d'tfljs /fh:j cg';Gwfg
ljefusf] :yfkgf eO{ g]kfn clw/fHoleq s/ /fh:j cGtu{t x'g] r'xfj6sf
;a} If]qx?df Pj+ ljb]zL ljlgdo ckrng ;DjGwdf cg';Gwfg u/L
sf/jfxL ug]{ tyf s;"/ eP u/]sf] b]lvPdf cbfntdf d'2f rnfpg] sfd
ub{5 .

;fj{hlgs kbdf /x]j;]sf kbflwsf/Lx?n] >L % sf] ;/sf/nfO{ a'emfpg
af+sL a]?h' /sd e/fpg] sfd ug]{ /f0ffsfnb]lv g} sfo{/t s'df/L rf]s
tyf s]Gb|Lo txl;n sfof{no klg clxn];Dd cl:tTjdf /x]sf]5 . e|i6frf/
Ps ;+ul7t / :j]tkf]zL ck/fw ePsf] cj:yfdf /fli6«o cg';Gwfg ljefu /
k|x/L k|wfg sfof{nosf] ck/fw cg';Gwfg ljefu klg e|i6frf/L pk/
lgu/fgL /fVg], vj/ ;+sng ug]{ / e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ;DaGwL
sfdsf/jfxLnfO{ 6]jf k'¥ofpg ;Sg] :yfgdf /x]sf] 5 . e|i6frf/
lgoGq0fsf] sfo{nfO{ tLa|tf lbg e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]usf]
klg u7g ul/Psf] 5 .

g]kfnsf] s]Gb|Lo:t/b]lv :yfgLo:t/;Dd xfn lgDg /fHo;+oGqx?
e|i6frf/ / clgoldttfsf] lgoGq0f ug]{ sfddf ;+nUg /x]sf] kfOG5 M


   Gofokl/ifb\                      ljz]if cbfnt
   clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u
   dxfn]vf k/LIfssf] ljefu          dxfn]vf lgoGq0f sfof{no
   /fli6«o ;ts{tf s]Gb|             /fh:j cg';Gwfg ljefu
   g]kfn k|x/L ck/fw cg';Gwfg ljefu s'df/Lrf]s tyf s]Gb|Lo tx;Ln
                                    sfof{no
   /fli6«o cg';Gwfg ljefu           If]qLo k|zf;g sfof{nox?
   c~rn k|zf;g sfof{nox?            lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nox?
   lhNnf cg'udg ;ldltx? cGo        sf]if tyf n]vf lgoGq0f
   sfof{nox?

k|efjsfl/tf

                                 36
e|i6frf/ ;+ul7t ;d"xåf/f ul/g] white colour crime ePsf]n] o;sf]
lgoGq0f Tolt ;xh / ;lhnf] 5}g . g]kfn h:tf] cltsd ljsl;t /fi6«df
;fj{hlgs kb cf]u6\g] dWo]sf tNnf tKsfsf AolQmx?n] b}lgs
u'hf/fsf nflu ug]{ ;fgf–ltgf /sdsf] e|i6frf/b]lv /fHo;+oGqsf] gLltut
txdf cfl;g dflyNnf bhf{sf lg0f{ostf{x?n] ug]{ 7"nf–7"nf
b'?kof]ux?sf] lgoGq0f of /f]syfd jf:tjdf Pp6f sl7g sfo{ xf] . dfly
plNnlvt lgsfox? e|i6frf/ lj?4 lg/f]wfTds tyf lgoGq0ffTds
pkfox?sf] cjnDjg u/L e|i6frf/nfO{ h/}af6 pv]Ng] cleofgdf h'6]sf
ePtf klg logLx?sf] PSnf] k|of;n] s]xL cy{ lb+b}g . e|i6frf/sf]
Go"gLs/0f, lgoGq0f of lgjf/0fsf nflu w]/} pkfox? cjnDjg ug{
jf+sL g} 5g\ . h:t}M e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf nflu /fhg}lts :jR5tf / ;/sf/L
k|lta4tf, ;fj{hlgs If]qjflx/ lghLIf]qdf x'g] e|i6frf/sf] /f]syfdsf nflu
;d]t pko'Qm sfg"gL k|fjwfgx?, ;/sf/L / ;fj{hlgs If]qsf
sfof{nox?sf] g]t[Tjju{df OdfGbfl/tf / cg'zf;g, ;dfhdf d"No–
dfGotfdf cfwfl/t ;+:s[ltsf] lgdf{0fsf nflu g}lts lzIff, ;fj{hlgs
kbwf/0f ug]{ AolQmx?nfO{ hLjg lgjf{x ug{ k'Ug] dfqfdf tnj /
;'ljwfx?, ;j}nfO{ ;dfg cj;/ k|fKt x'g] jftfj/0f, e|i6frf/ lj?4 hgdt /
hgr]tgf, gful/s ;dfhsf] ;xof]u cflb tTjx? ckl/xfo{ 5g\ .
g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf nflu cj gof+ lgsfox?sf] u7g
ul//xg' kg]{ vf+rf] 5}g . vf+rf] 5 eg] e|i6frf/ lj?4 sf/jfxL ug]{
lgsfox?sf] k|ltj4tf, ;lqmotf / c7f]6sf] . clg u7g eO{ ;s]sf
/fHo;+oGqx? aLr ;+ul7t / PsLs[t k|of;sf] . e|i6frf/ / clgoldttf
lgoGq0fsf p2]Zon] :yfkgf ePsf tL ;+oGqx? :jod\n] lgDg
s'/fx?nfO{ dgg ug{ lgtfGt cfjZos b]lvPsf]5 M

 != e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf nflu sfo{/t ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx?af6 ck]Iff
   ul/Psf sfdx?sf] k'gk{l/eflift ug'{ tfls tL ;+:yfx?n] e|i6frf/
   lgoGq0f ug]{ sfo{df kfO{/x]sf] ;kmntf af/] c?nfO{ yfxf xf];\ .
   (Redefine what anti-corruption agencies are expected to do. How will other know if
   such agency is successful?)
 @= ck]lIft p2]Zo k"/f ug{ ;+:yfx? ;Ifd 5g\ of 5|}gg\ :jod
  d"NofÍg ug'{ . (Self-evaluate whether one's expected role is sufficiently
   performed or not.)
 #= tf]lsPsf] sfd ug{ clxn] s'g ;+:yfnfO{ s] s'/fn] afwf
  k'¥ofO/x]sf] 5 ;f] jf/] hfgsf/L xfFl;n ug'{ . (Find out what are the


                                         37
   problems, barriers and shortcomings that an organization is not performing up to
   the mark.)
 $= cfkmgf] sfddf k|efjsfl/tf a[l4 ug{ cfk;L ;xsfo{ Ps ;zQm
  dfWod x'g ;S5 eg] o;df cfÏgf] lgsfon] s] e"ldsf lgjf{x
  ug'{kg]{ xf] / c?sf] ;xof]u s;/L k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . (If a joint effort
   can be meaningful to enhance one's effectiveness what you expect from others and
   how you cooperate with other for better performance.)


cfk;L ;xsfo{sf] cfjZostf
e|i6frf/ ;+ul7t tj/af6 ul/g] Ps :j]tkf]zL ck/fw ePsf] sf/0faf6 o;sf]
lgoGq0f ;j}eGbf sl7g sfo{ xf] . c? w]/} ;xsdL{x? e|i6frf/af6 lnKt
5g\ eg] e|i6frf/ gug]{ Psfw sd{rf/Lsf] dfg k|lti7f / e|i6frf/ u¥of]
eg] bfu nfU5 eGg] pgLx?sf] dgsf] 8/ klg lj:tf/} x/fp+b} hfG5 .
kl/0ffd:j?k e|i6frf/ ug]{ sd{rf/Lx?sf] ;+Vof a9\b} hfG5 / e|i6frf/
ug'{ Ps ck/fw sfo{ xf] eGg] g}lts efj /fVg]x?sf] ;+Vof qmdzM
36\b} hfG5 . o;af6 cGTodf e|i6x?s} ;+Vof a9b} uO{ pgLx?sf]
s's[TonfO{ kbf{kmf; ug{] ;+efjgf klg IfL0f x'+b} hfG5 . clg
e|i6frf/ / clgoldt sfo{ /f]syfdsf nflu v8f ePsf /fHosf ljleGg
;+oGqx?sf] IfdtfnfO{ o;n] r'gf}tL lbG5 . tL ;+:yfx? ;d]t 7"nf]
;s;df k5{g .

sfo{/t lgsfox? jLr k|efjsf/L ;dGjo / ;xof]usf
nflu ;+oGqsf] lgdf{0f
;dfhdf a9\bf] qmddf /x]sf / ;+ul7ttj/af6 eO/x]sf]] e|i6frf/ /
clgoldt sfo{sf] k|efjsf/L9Ëaf6 lgoGq0f ug{sf nflu clxn];Dd u7g
ePsf /fHo;+oGqx? jLr cfk;df ;~hfn lgdf{0f u/L ;+ul7t ?kdf
cufl8 a9\g lgtfGt cfjZos 5 . s]Gb|Lo:t/b]lv lhNnf:t/;Dd
k}mlnPsf ljleGg ;/sf/L ;+oGqx? jLr nexus a'gL lgDg sfo{x? ug{'
h?/L b]lvG5 M
   != e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fsf nflu sfo{/t lgsfodf ;femf ;+oGq lgdf{0fsf
      nflu ljleGg lgsfox? ;lDdlnt Ps ;ldltsf] u7g u/L lgoldt
      j}7ssf] cfof]hgf ug]{,
   @=          ;j} lgsfox?sf]    SWOT Analysis    Ifdtfsf] klxrfg ug]{,



                                        38
   #= cfk;df bf]xf]l/Psf] lhDd]jf/L / km/s b]lvPsf s'/fx?sf] klxrfg
      u/L ;dembf/L a9fpg],
   $= km/s–km/s lhDd]jf/Lleq x'g ;Sg] cfk;L ;xof]usf] l;df/]vf
      lgwf{/0f u/L tbg'?k sfd ug]{,
   %=      Ps cfk;df sfo{ ljefhg / ;do ;Ldfdf cfwfl/t sfo{;Dkfbg
     u/L k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg],
   ^= vj/, ;"rgf tyf hfgsf/Lx? cfbfg k|bfg u/L e|i6frf/
      lgoGq0fnfO{ ;zQm agfpg],
   &= cg';Gwfg tslssftdf cfk;L ;xof]u clea[l4 ug]{ ,
   *+ cg';Gwfg sfo{df ;+nUg lgsfox?åf/f tf]lsP jdf]lhd
      sfo{;Dkfbg Pj+ kf/:kfl/s ;xof]u pknJw eP gePsf] eGg]
      ;DjGwdf kf/bzL{ cg'udg ug{ ;j} lgsfosf] k|ltlglwTj x'g] u/L
      cg'udg ;ldltsf] Joj:yf ug]{,
   (= ;~rfng x'g] cg';Gwfg cleof]hg ;DaGwL tflnd ;]ldgf/df c?
      lgsfosf sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ klg ;+nUg u/fpg]
   !)= ljz]if1 tyf cfjZos hgzlQmsf] ;]jf cfbfg k|bfg ug]{, cflb .

o;} ;Gbe{df s]xL ;do cufl8 clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf]
kxndf lgDg % j6f lgsfox? jLr Ps cfk;df ;xof]u clea[l4 u/L s;/L
k|efjsf/L x'g] eGg] p2]Zon] cfof]hgf ePsf] 5nkmndf cEof;
ul/Psf s]xL a'+bfx?nfO{ pbfx/0fsf ?kdf oxf― k|:t't ug{ vf]lhPsf]
5 . of] Pp6f gd"gf dfq xf] . o;nfO{ kl/dfh{g ub}{ ;'wf/ ul/g'
cfjZos b]lvG5 . o:tf] ;xof]u / ;dembf/L e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fdf sfo{/t
;j} lgsfox? aLr x'g h?/L 5 . To;sf nflu tL lgsfo / cGo
lgsfojLrsf] ;DaGw / ltgdf /x]sf ljleGg kIfsf] ljZn]if0f ul/g] k|of;
ul/Psf] 5 .


clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u
;an kIf                               >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] e|i6frf/
sfg'gL Joj:yf                         lgoGq0f ug]{ k|lta4tf

/fli6«o Pj+ cGt/f{li6«o ;dy{g         b'a{n kIf

                                 39
;|f]t ;fwg ckof{Kttf                          cg';Gwfgdf ck]Iffs[t bIftfsf]
                                              cefj


cj;/                                          r'gf}tL
hg;dy{g                                       ;'/Iff
gful/s ;dfhsf] ;dy{g                          e|i6frf/k|ltsf] ;fdflhs
b[9 tyf ultzLn g]t[Tj                         b[li6sf]0f
                                              e|i6frf/sf] Jofkstf
                                              g}lts ansf] x|f;
                                              b[9 tyf ultzLn g]t[Tjsf]
                                              lg/Gt/tf
                                              k|efjzfnL JolQmx?dfly
                                              ug'{kg]{ sf/afxL

   /fli6«o ;ts{tf                /fli6«o cg';Gwfg
                                 ljefu                     /fh:j cg';Gwfg
   s]Gb|
          k|Tofof]lht                ;"rgf pknAw         ljefu
           clwsf/sf] kfngf             u/fpg]                  /fh:j ckrng
          cfkm";―u ePsf]             cg';Gwfg tflnd           ;DjGwL ;"rgf
           ;"rgf pknJw                cfjZostfg';f/            pknAw
           u/fpg]                      hgzlQm ;]jf              u/fpg]
          cfjZostfg';f/              If]q÷lhNnfdf          ljz]if1tf   ;]jf
           hgzlQm /                    ;xof]u                   pknAw
           ljz]if1tf ;]jf                                       u/fpg]
           pknJw u/fpg]                                      k|fKt ;'emfj /
          ljefux?sf]                                           lgb]{zg
           sfo{ljlw cg'udg                                      jdf]lhd
       ;DklQ ljj/0f                                       s]Gb|Lo txl;n
                                                                sfo{;Dkfbg
        ;+sng / cg'udg
   ck/fw cg';Gwfg                      clVtof/                  ug]{
                                                           sfof{no .
      
   dxfzfvf                            b'?kof]u                  ;/sf/L af―sL
          va/ ;"rgf pknAw            cg';Gwfg                   aSof}tf
           u/fpg]                      cfof]u                    ;DaGwL ;"rgf
          ljz]if1 ;]jf pknAw                                    pknAw u/fpg]
           u/fpg]                                               nut s:g]
          cfjZostfg';f/ k|x/L                                  c;"n pk/sf]
           ;]jf / hgzlQm                                         sf/jfxL ug]{
           pknAw u/fpg]
          k|lzIf0fdf ;xof]u
                                         40
/fli6«o ;ts{tf s]Gb|
                 ;an kIf                                  b'a{n kIf

        e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%(             cg';Gwfg txlssftsf] clwsf/
         adf]lhd sfg'gL clwsf/                   gx'g'

        sfdsf/afxL af/] ;"rgf                  sfo{ ;~rfngsf nflu lgodfjnL /
         ;+sng, cg'udg / ;ts{                    sfo{ljlwsf] cefj÷ckof{Kttf
         u/fpg] .

        ;DklQ / cfoaf/] cg'udg                 sd{rf/Ldf lzlyntf÷ck|efjsfl/tf
         ug]{ .

        e|i6frf/ x'g ;Sg] :yfg, If]q           s]Gb|nfO{ s;}n] g6]g]{ .
         / sfddf lgu/fgL, 58\s]
         hfFr / cGj]if0f ug]{

        ;+u7gfTds Aoj:yf

        kof{Kt hgzlQm




 clVtof/ b'?kof]u                /fli6«o                     /fh:j cg';Gwfg
 cg';Gwfg cfof]u                 cg';Gwfg ljefu              ljefu
     clwsf/                           ;"rgf pknAw               /fh:j ckrng
      k|Tofof]hg                        u/fpg]                     ;DjGwL ;"rgf
   cfof]uaf6                          tflnd                      pknAw u/fpg]
      cg';Gwfg tflnd                   cfjZos k/]df              clwsf/
   ;DklQ ljj/0f, cfo                                              k|Tofof]hg
                                        hgzlQm
      cg'udg
   ljefux?sf]
      sfo{ljlw
      sfof{Gjogsf]
      cg'udg                                   /fli6«o             s]lGb|o tx;Ln
   ;/sf/L lgodg
 ck/fw cg';Gwfg
      k|0ffnL cg'udg                            ;ts{tf             sfof{no
                                                                         ;/sf/L af―sL
 dxfzfvf                                        s]Gb|                     aSof}tf
         va/ ;"rgf pknAw                   41                            ;DaGwL ;"rL
          u/fpg]                                                          pknAw u/fpg]
         ljz]if1 ;]jf pknAw                                             nut s:g]
          u/fpg]
                                                                         c;"n pk/sf]
         cfjZostfg';f/ k|x/L                                             sf/jfxL ug]{
          ;]jf / hgzlQm
          pknAw u/fpg]
/fh:j cg';Gwfg ljefu
         ;an kIf                        b'a{n kIf

    /fh:j r'xfj6 lgoGq0f    ;dGjosf] cefj
     ;DaGwL sfg"gL
     clwsf/

    ;+:yfut Aoj:yf          sdhf]/ k|ltj4tf

    hgzlQmsf] Aoj:yf        Pp6} ;d"xsf sd{rf/Lx?af6
                              cg';Gwfg x'g]




                              42
                              /fh:j cg';Gwfg                s]Gb|Lo tx;Ln
clVtof/ b'?kof]u
                              ljefu                         sfof{no
cg';Gwfg cfof]u                        /fh:j ckrng              ;/sf/L af―sL
    /fh:j r'xfj6;DaGwL                                           aSof}tf
                                        ;DjGwL ;"rgf
     ;"rgf k|fKt ePdf                                             ;DaGwL ;"rgf
     pknAw u/fpg]
                                        pknAw u/fpg]
                                       clwsf/                    pknAw u/fpg]
    /fh:j r'xfj6;DaGwdf                                         nut s:g]
     lj:t[t cg';Gwfgkl5                 k|Tofof]hg
                                                                 c;"n pk/sf]
     P]g cg';f/ sf/afxLsf                                         sf/jfxL ug]{
     nflu n]vL k7fpg]
    bIf hgzlQm pknAw
     u/fpg]

ck/fw cg';Gwfg                               /fh:j
dxfzfvf                                   cg';Gwfg
    cg';Gwfgsf] qmddf                      ljefu
     /fh:j r'xfj6 ePsf] egL                                 /fli6«o ;ts{tf
     kQf nfu]df lnlvt ;"rgf                                 s]Gb|
     lbg]                                                        /fh:j r'xfj6
    5fkf dfg{, kqmfp ug{                                         ;DjGwL hfgsf/L
     ;xof]u ug]{ .                                                pknJw u/fpg]
    kmf]sn KjfOG6 tf]Sg]                                        cg';Gwfg
     .                                                            e}/x]sf] ljifox?df
                                                                  :ynut lg/LIf0f
                                                                  ug{ ;xof]u
                                                                  k'¥ofpg]
                                                                 lgu/fgL sfo{df
                                                                  ;xof]u ug]{

/fli6«o cg';Gwfg ljefu
         ;an kIf                                b'a{n kIf
      ;+u7gsf]                ;dofg's"n tflndsf] cefj
       Jofkstf

      ;+:yfut Aoj:yf          sdhf]/ k|ltj4tf

      hgzlQmsf]                     Overstaffing/Inappropriate Selection



                                          43
Aoj:yf   process




             44
ljefu;―u ;DjlGwt ;"rgf     /fh:j cg';Gwfg             s]Gb|Lo tx;Ln
                           ljefu                      sfof{no
clVtof/ b'?kof]u               /fh:j     ckrng            ;/sf/L af―sL
cg';Gwfg cfof]u                 ;DjGwL ;"rgf                aSof}tf
   ljefu;―u                    pknAw u/fpg]                ;DaGwL ;"rgf
                               ljz]if1tf    ;]jf           pknAw u/fpg]
     ;DjlGwt ;"rgf
                                pknAw u/fpg]               nut s:g]
     eP pknJw
                                                           c;"n pk/sf]
     u/fpg]                    k|fKt ;'emfj /              sf/jfxL ug]{
   k|lzIf0f                    lgb]{zg jdf]lhd
                                sfo{;Dkfbg
                                ug]{



                          /fli6«o
                         cg';Gwfg
                           ljefu
ck/fw cg';Gwfg
dxfzfvf                                       /fli6«o ;ts{tf s]Gb|
  cfjZostf cg';f/                                ;"rgf pknJw
     k|x/L hgzlQm                                   u/fpg]
     pknJw u/fpg] .
  ;"rgf÷;dGjo



s'df/L rf]s tyf s]Gb|Lo tx;Ln sfof{no
        ;an kIf                          b'a{n kIf
  ;+u7gfTds              kof{Kt ;|f]t,       ;fwg     /   hgzlQm
   ;+/rgf                  gePsf]

  P]glgod sfg'g          j]?h' km5\of}{6sf nflu jfWofTds
                           vfnsf] sfg'gsf] cefj h;n] ubf{
                           ;/sf/L afFsL jfnfn] g6]g]{




                                  45
/fli6«o ;ts{tf s]Gb|       clVtof/ b'?kof]u                      /fli6«o
    a]?h' nut s:g            cg';Gwfg cfof]u                    cg';Gwfg ljefu
     ;xof]u ug]{               cfof]uaf6 >L % sf]                cw{Goflos
    ;/sf/L af+sL               ;/sf/nfO{ lgb]{zg                  lgsfoaf/] ePsf]
     b]lvPsf                    x'g'kg]{                           km};nf cg';f/
     kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{           oy]i6 ;fwg ;|f]t                   ePsf] b08
     ;r]t / ;ts{ u/fpg]         pknAw u/fpg]                       hl/jfgf c;"n
    ;DklQ /f]Ssf              n]vf pQ/bfoL                       gePsf] e]l6Pdf
                                clws[tx?sf] a}7s /fvL              nut /fVg k7fpg]
     /fVg lgu|fgL
                                cf=k|= lgodfjnL cg'?k             ;/sf/L af+sL
     /fVg]                      ;do tf]s]/ ;/sf/L af―sL            b]lvPsf
                                c;'n ug]{                          AolQmx?dfly
                               lhDd]jf/ kbdf lgo'Qm               lgu|fgL /fVg]
                                ug]{ jf r'gfj u/fpg]
                                lgsfon] o:tf pDd]bjf/n]
                                ;/sf/L af―sL km/kmf/s
                                ug]{ sfg'gL k|fjwfg
                                /fVg]
                                s'df/Lrf]s tyf
                               s]Gb|Lo tx;Ln
                                   sfof{no

     /fh:j cg';Gwfg                               ck/fw cg';Gwfg
     ljefu                                        dxfzfvf
         ;/sf/L                                         ;/sf/L af―sL /x]sf
          af―sLjfnfn]                                     JolQmx?nfO{
          ;DklQ n'sfP                                     vf]htnf; ug]{÷kqmfp
          l5kfPdf To;sf]                                  u/L a'emfpg]
          hfgsf/L u/fpg]




e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ;DaGwdf dflysf lgsfox?n]
ug]{ sfo{
     sfo{If]q          c=b'=c=cf= /f=;=s]= /f=c=lj=             /fh:j   c=c=d= s]=t=sf=
                                                                c=lj=

 ph"/L btf{            *****          *****       *****        ***** *****           ***

                                       46
ph'/L pk/ sf/jfxL *****     *****   ***     ***** *****   ***

va/ ;+sng /         *****   *****   *****   ***** *****   ***
;+k|]if0f

5fgjLg,          *****      *****   ***     ***** *****
cg';Gwfg txlssft

cf/f]kkq tof/L /    *****                   *****
d'2f bfo/

ljefuLo sf/jfxL,    *****   ***     ***     ***     ***
;r]t, Wofgfsif{0f

lg/f]wfTds         *****    *****   ***     ***     ***
pkfox?sf]
cWoog,cGj]if0f,
ljZn]if0f / ;'emfj

cfrf/;+lxtf,        *****   *****   ***     ***     ***   ***
dfu{bz{g /
gLltut ;'emfj

;DklQ ljj/0f /      *****   *****   *****   ***** *****
cfosf] cg'udg

e|i6frf/ lj?4       *****   *****           ***     ***
hgr]tgf clej[l4,
df]km;ndf
sfo{qmd

ljuf], b08 hl/jfgf, *****                   ***** ****    *****
jf+sL jSof}tf
c;"n pk/

;ts{ u/fpg]         *****   *****   ***     ***     ***

e|i6frf/ lj?4       *****   *****   ***     ***     ***   ***
/fli6«o /0fgLlt


                            47
lgdf{0f
b|i6Jo M dflysf sf]7fx?df a9L tf/f lrGx x'g'sf] cy{ ;zQm 9+un]
Pj+ Jofks ?kdf sfo ug]{ tyf vfln sf]7f x'g'sf] cy{ pQm sfd
pNn]lvt lgsfon] ug{{ g;Sg] jf gkfpg] .
                             




                              48
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


                   k|zf;lgs pQ/bfloTj



                                                  –zfGtaxfb'/ >]i7*

sfo{sf/L ;f/f+z

Ps dfq kl/jt{gsf] jfxs ;/sf/ /x]sf] k/Dk/futz}nLdf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf]
e"ldsf tTsfnLg ;/sf/ (Government of the day) k|lt dfq cg'u|lxt
x'g'kg]{ lyof] . ;g\ c;Lsf] bzsdf gjLg ;fj{hlgs Joj:Yffkgsf
l;4fGtx?sf] cjnDag ub}{ ;/sf/sf] k'g/fljisf/ ul/g yfn]kl5 ;fj{hlgs ;]jf
k|jfx ul/g] w]/} a}slNks If]qx?sf] ljsf; eof] . g]6js{, ;xsfo{,
;xhLs/0f tyf ;jnLs/0fsf] dfWodaf6 lghLIf]q / gful/s ;dfh zf;sLo
Joj:yfsf cGo b'O{ dxTjk"0f{ kIf aGg k'u] . Joj:yfkg :jfoQtf, vr{
s6f}tL, kf/bzL{ dfWod ckgfpFb} glthf / sfo{;Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t
Joj:yfkg z}nLsf] cjnDag ;j{JofkL x'g yfNof] . o;sf nflu ;]jfk|bfos
jf ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Ln] cfkm"nfO{ tf]lsPsf] clVtof/Lk|lt dfq
lhDd]jf/ / hjfkmb]xL xf]Og ls pQm clVtof/Lsf] k|of]u ;]jfu|fxL
hgtfsf] cfsf+Iff cg'?k eP gePsf] ;d]t :ki6 x'g'kg]{ eof] . o;}
cg'?k ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g cfly{s?kdf >f]tsf] afF8kmFf8 / pkof]udf
lhDd]jf/, /fhg}lts?kdf gLlt / sfo{sfl/0fL k|d'vk|lt lhDd]jf/ /
k|zf;lgs?kdf k]zf, sfg"g tyf ;]jfu|fxLk|lt lhDd]jf/ x'Fb} ;dli6?kdf
hgtfk|lt k|ToIf Pa+ ck|ToIf?kdf pQ/bfoL x'g'kg]{ b]lvPsf] 5 .

jf:tjdf, pQ/bfloTj zf;sLo k|lqmofsf] hu xf] . o;n] k|hftflGqs
;dfhsf] k|ltlglwTj ub{5 . ;fj{ef}d gful/ssf gf]s/ sd{rf/L tyf ;fj{hlgs

*
    k|d'v s/ k|zf;s, cfGtl/s /fhZj sfof{no, nflhDkf6 .

                                    49
kbflwsf/L ePsf]n] logLx? hgtfk|lt k|ToIf pQ/bfoL x'g'kg]{ wf/0ff
lxhf]cfh /flvG5 . t/ k|hftflGqs rl/q gePsf] jf wd{sf] gfddf zf;g
x'g] d'n'sx?df pQ/bfloTjsf] k|:t't dfGotf km/s kg{ ;Sb5 . olt
x'Fbfx'Fb}} klg ;j} d'n'sx?df ;/sf/n] uNtLsf lj?4 pQ/bfoL agfpg
;+oGqx? lgdf{0f u/]sf x'G5g\ . o:tf ;+oGqx? cfGtl/s jf
afXo?kdf cf}krfl/s Pa+ cgf}krfl/s9+un] tf]lsPsf x'G5g\ . cg'ejn]
w]/} ljsf;f]Gd'v tyf u}/k|hftflGqs d'n'sx?df cfGtl/s Pa+ cf}krfl/s
;+oGqnfO{ a9L dxTj lbOP klg afXo Pa+ cgf}krfl/s ;++oGqsf]
k|of]u k|efjsf/L gePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . o:tf d''n'sx?df ;fj{hlgs
kbflwsf/L jf g]tfsf] cfnf]rgf dx+uf] klg kg{ ;Sb5 .

;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] uGtJo (Vision) g} "Result for People" xf] . ;fj{hlgs
kbflwsf/Lsf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Ldf :ki6tf, ;]jfu|fxLsf] cfsf+Iffsf]
:ki6tf, kbflwsf/Lsf] Ifdtf / ;]jfu|fxLsf] cfsf+Iff aLrsf] ;Gt'ng,
ljZj;gLo lgoldt k|ltj]bg tyf cf}lrTok"0f{ k'g/fjnf]sg / ;dfof]hg
ePdf             of]         uGtJo                  glhs              x'g
cfpF5 .

cGo ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'sx?df h:t} g]kfndf klg pQ/bfloTj k|j4{g ug]{
cfGtl/s tyf afXo, Pj+ cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s ;+/rgfx? /x]sf5g\ .
kb;f]kfg, P]g–sfg'g, ah]6, sfo{;Dkfbg, cfr/0f h:tf cfGtl/s Pa+
cf}krfl/s ;+/rgf / Goflos sfjf{xL, Gofoflws/0fsf] sfjf{xL tyf
;+j}wflgs lgsfox?sf] kx/]bf/L / sfjf{xLn] cf}krfl/s Pa+ afXo
;+/rgfsf] k|of]udf k|efjsfl/tf klg b]lvPsf] 5 t/ JolQmleqsf] g}ltstf /
k|ltj4tfsf] sdLn] cfGtl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s Pa+ ;fj{hlgs?kdf l6Kk0fL
tyf lxt ;d'xsf] bjfj, g]tf tyf kf6L{sf] k|efj cflb h:tf ljifon]
pQ/bfloTjsf] ;Da4{gdf cgf}krfl/s Pa+ afXo ;+/rgfn] cfzftLt
k|efjsfl/tf kfpg afFsL 5 . sltko cj:yfdf t afXo cf}krfl/s ;+/rgfx?n]
lglZrt JolQm jf kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ k|efjxLg /fv]sf] klg kfOPsf]5 .

xfnsf] kl/l:yltdf t k|zf;lgs If]qsf] lhDd]jf/L cem a9]/ uPsf] 5 .
k|zf;g k|ToIftM ;]jfu|fxL hgtfk|lt pQ/bfoL x'g'kg]{ cfsf+Iff hgtfsf]
5 . ;]jfu|fxLsf] of] cfsf+Iffsf] kl/k"lt{ ug{ ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lx?
Joj:yfksLo, sfg'gL, Jofj;flos, cfly{s, /fhg}lts, glthf, k|lqmof,
;fdflhs, g}lts tyf ;fj{hlgs?kdf g} pQ/bfoL x'g'kb{5 . o;sf nflu
;"rgf k|ljlwsf] k|of]u ;xof]uL x'g k'u]sf]5 .

                                   50
!=cjwf/0ff

;fdfGotM pQ/bfloTj To;a]nf l;h{gf x'G5, ha s'g} sfo{ s'g} Ps
kIf jf kf6L{af6 k|Tofof]hg e} csf]{df ;b{5 . o;n] ljz]iftM zlQm jf
clwsf/sf] k|of]ustf{ (powerholder) / p;sf] sfo{n] k|efj kfg]{ kIf aLrsf]
;DaGw kl/eflift ub{5 . cyf{t clwsf/ k|fKt clwsf/Ln] cfkm\gf]
sfo{sf] AofVof ug'{ kb{5 . lghsf] ;f] sfo{df hgtfn] k|Zg ug{ kfpg]
cj:yf x'g' kb{5 . o:tf k|Zgsf] pQ/ lbg lgh clwsf/L afWo klg x'g'
kb{5 .

o;} cg'?k      Wilson   n]    – ‗Accountability is the obligation to answer for
responsibility conferred.‘   egL ;xh t/ dxTjk"0f{ 9+un] pQ/bfloTjsf]
kl/efiff u/]sf 5g\ .

sfof{Gjogsf] b[li6n] x]bf{ /fHo / gful/saLrsf] cf}krfl/s r'gfj jf
cgf}krfl/s ?kdf k|ltlglw ;+3, ;+u7gsf] dfWodaf6 ;r]tgf tyf lobbing
cflb ?kdf 7f8f] / ;fj{hlgs k|flwsf/L (public authority) / cGo lgsfo
aLrsf] ;DaGw, h:t} oversight agencies sf] ?kdf t];f]{ u/L b'O{ kl/j]zdf
pQ/bfloTjnfO{ x]g]{ klg ul/Psf] 5 .
o;}n] ;a}n] a'em\g] cy{df pQ/bfloTjsf] kl/efiff lgDg cg';f/ lbg
;lsG5 .

".... Public service accountability involves the methods by which a public agency or
a public official fulfills its duties and obligations, and the process by which that
agency or the public official is required to account for such action"
                                                                      (Jabbra&Dwivedi)


oL plNnlvt cWoogaf6 pQ/bfloTj cGtu{t b]xfosf ljifo j:t'x? ;dfj]z
u/L k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 .
 ;+u7gfTds pQ/bfloTj M o; cGtu{t ;+u7gsf] kb;f]kfg,
   P]glgodx?af6 tf]lsPsf sfd, st{Jox? kb{5g\ .
 sfg"gL pQ/bfloTj M o; cGtu{t sfg"gL / Goflos k|lqmofx?
   kb{5g\ .
 /fhg}lts pQ/bfloTj M /fhg}lts g]t[Tj4f/f ;fj{hlgs ;]jfk|lt lng]
   pQ/bfloTj kb{5 .


                                          51
 Jofj;flos pQ/bfloTj M pRr Jofj;flos dfkb08df sfo{;Dkfbg
  ug]{ ljifo o; cGtu{t kb{5 .
 g}lts pQ/bfloTj M lhDd]jf/9+un] ;fj{hlgs lxtsf ljifodf sfo{ ug]{
  ljifo o; cGtu{t kb{5 .

oL plNnlvt ljifo ;fj{hlgs If]qdf k|efj kfg]{ x/]s JolQm, lgsfo jf
kbflwsf/Ln] ug]{ sfo{ ;+u ;DaGwLt /x]sf x'G5g\ . lgh JolQm jf
kbflwsf/L rfx] lgjf{lrt, dgf]lgt, jf 5gf}6 jf cGo s'g} k|lqmofaf6
lhDd]jf/L kfPsf] g} lsg gxf];, ltgLx? cfkm\gf] lhDd]jf/L k|lt
pQ/bfoL / kf/bzL{ x'g} kb{5 .

@= cjwf/0ff kl/jt{g

dfly plNnlvt cjwf/0ffaf6 :ki6 e} ;s]sf] 5 ls pQ/bfloTj ljleGg
stf{x?aLrsf] ;DaGwsf] k|ltkmn xf] . oxfFg]/ s] :ki6 x'g' h?/L 5
eg] k/Dk/futz}nLsf] pQ/bfloTjn] oL stf{x?aLrsf] ;DaGw kl/eflift
ug{ ;Sb}g . o;n] pQ/bfloTjsf] cfw'lgs k|lqmofdf g} ;+s6
NofPsf] 5 .

lxhf]–cfh ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] annonimity qmdzM 36\b}5 lsgeg] M
 ;+;bLo ;ldltaf6 pQ/bfloTj k/LIf0f ug{ nfdf] ;do nfUb5 .
 lxhf]–cfh sfo{qmd th'{df, sfof{Gjogdf ;xsfo{sf] l;4fGtnfO{
   :jLsf/ u/L ;lsPsf] 5 .
 ;/sf/L lqmofsnfknfO{ ;+rf/ dfWodn] ;sf/fTds eGbf gsf/fTds
   z}nLdf k|of]u ug]{ u/]sf] 5 .
 ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] ;"rgfdf hgtfsf] kx'Fr a9\bf] 5 .
 Oversight agencies / logsf sfo{x?sf] lj:tf/ e} /x]sf]5 .

oL tYox?n] ubf{ ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lx?sf] k|ltj4tf hgOR5f (public
will) k|lt a9L x'g] x'G5 . o;n] ;+rf/ dfWod;Fu / ljkIfL bn;Fu a9L
cGt{lqmof / ;+jfb a9\g] lglZrt 5 .

To;}u/L gjLg ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g / ;'zf;gsf l;4fGtx?sf] k|of]u ljZjsf
w]/} d'n'sx?n] cjnDag ug{ yfn]kl5 k/Dk/fut pQ/bfloTjdf csf]{
k|xf/ k/]sf]5 . pbf/0fsf nflu –

                                52
 ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf ljifodf ;/sf/sf] e"ldsfdf g} kl/jt{g
  ePsf]
  5.
 lghLs/0f, s/f/, ;xsfo{ cflbn] ahf/ k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u u/]sf] 5 .
 ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] dfWodaf6 Joj:yfksLo :jfoQtf (managerial
  flexibility) k|bfg ug{ yflnPsf] 5 .
 ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfxnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg pkef]Qmfd'vL tyf
  glthfd'vL cjwf/0ff cjnDag ul/Psf] 5 .

oL plNnlvt kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{n] zf;sLo If]qdf ;/sf/sf] e"ldsfdf ce"tk"j{
kl/jt{g ePsf] 5 . Joj:yfksLo If]qdf ePsf] cjwf/0ffTds kl/jt{gn]
;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfxdf =kl/jt{gsf] afxs xf]Ogls ;/sf/ ;jnLs/0ftkm{
cu|;/ x'Fb}5 . nfut, glthf / ;Gt'li6df a9L Wofg lbg yflnPsf] 5 .
oL kl/jt{gn] ubf{ cGo If]qdf h:t} pQ/bfloTjsf] k|of]u, pkof]u /
JofVofdf klg ;d;fdlos bjfj dxz"; ul/Psf] 5 . h:t} M
     ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfx ug]{ w]/} j}slNks If]qx?df non-hierchical
       relationship sf] ljsf; eof] . g]6js{, ;xsfo{, ;xhLs/0f o;sf
       pbfx/0fx? x'g .
     ;fj{hlgs If]qn] glthf / sfo{;Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t Joj:yfkg (Result
       and Performance-based management)df hf]8 lbof] .
     ;fj{hlgs ;/sf/L ;+:yfx? / ;+nUg kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ clws
       dfqfdf nrstf / :jfoQtf (Greater flexibility and autonomy) k|bfg ul/of]
       .
     ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] pQ/bfloTjsf nflu kf/blz{tf (Transparency) nfO{
       clgjfo{ ljz]iftfsf] ?kdf lnOof] .

oL bjfjk"0f{ cj:yfdf z'?df s]jn lhDd]jf/L / hjfkmb]xLtfdf dfq nlIft
u/]sf] pQ/bfloTjsf] :j?k xfnsf] kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{df x]bf{ pQ/bfloTjsf]
kl/efiffdf g} klg s]xL ;'wf/ ug'{kg]{ b]lvof] . o; ;Gbe{df Office of the
Auditor General and the Treasury Board Secretariat, Canada n] lbPsf] lgDg
kl/efiff kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{ ;+u a9L glhs b]lvPsf] 5 .
"Accountability is a relationship based on the obligation to demonstrate and take
responsibility for performance in light of agreed expectations.‖




                                       53
o; kl/efiffn] s] :ki6 u/]sf] 5 eg] s'g} clVtof/ k|fKt clwsf/Ln] u/]sf]
sfo{n] ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] rfxgf / cfsf+Iff ;d]6]sf] 5 5}g egL x]g{ ;lsg] /
;f]xL ?kdf k|Zg ug{ ;lsg] ;fy} hjfkm lbg ;Sg' kg]{ ;d]t :ki6 ub}{
pQ/bfloTjsf] cfw'lgs cy{n] hgtf jf pkef]Qmfsf] ;Gt'li6df k|fyldstf
lbPsf] s'/f :ki6 5 .

#= pQ/bfloTjsf l;4fGtx?

pQ/bfloTjsf] cjwf/0ffdf cfPsf] cfw'lgs kl/jlt{t kl/j]zn] pQ/bfloTj
k|j4{gdf ;3fp k'/\ofpg s]xL l;4fGtx?sf] kfngf x'g'kg]{ b]lvPsf] 5 .

Office of the Auditor General and the Treasury Board Secretariat, Canada       n]
Principles for effective accountability   sf] ?kdf lgDg kfFr ;"rsx?   (Indicators)
nfO{ lnPsf] kfOG5 –
    kbflwsf/Lsf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lsf] :ki6tf              (Clarity of roles and
        responsibilities)
     ;]jfu|fxLsf] cfsf+Iffsf] :ki6tf (Clarity of performance expectations)
     Ifdtf / cfsf+IffaLrsf] ;Gt'ng (Balance of expectations and
        capacities)
       ljZj;gLo k|ltj]bg? (Credibility of reporting)
       cf}lrTok"0f{ k'g/fjnf]sg / ;dfof]hg (Reasonableness of review and
        adjustment)


oL l;4fGtx?n] pQ/bfloTjsf] kl/jlt{t cj:yfnfO{ JofVof ub}{ j}slNks
;]jf k|jfxsf] If]qsf] ;x;DaGw klg kl/eflift ub{5 .

$= k|zf;lgs pQ/bfloTj

k|zf;lgs pQ/bfloTjnfO{ ;fdfGo cy{df k|zf;gdf cf;Lg kbflwsf/Ln]
cfkm"nfO{ tf]lsPsf] lhDd]jf/L / ;f] ;DaGwL ljifodf hjfkm lbg
afWo x'g'kg]{ Joj:yfnfO{ g} nlIft ub{5 . lj:t[t?kdf x]bf{
pQ/bfloTjn] cGttM hgtfk|lt g} pQ/bfoL x'g'kg]{ :ki6 5 . o;
k[i7e"lddf pQ/bfloTjnfO{ kl/eflift ug'{kbf{ ;fj{hlgs ;]jf wf/0f u/]sf
kbflwsf/Lx?n] u/]sf] sfdsf/jfxL, k|fKt k|ltkmn / tf]lsPsf]
lhDd]jf/L;+u cGt/;DalGwt e} ;/f]sf/jfnfnfO{ lbg' kg]{
hjfkmb]lxtfnfO{ g} lng' kb{5 . o;/L x]bf{ k|zf;lgs pQ/bfloTjleq


                                            54
Joj:yfksLo, sfg'gL, Jofj;flos, cfly{s, /fhg}lts, ;fdflhs, g}lts Pa+
;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTjsf ;j} ?k ;dflxt x'g] b]lvG5 .




                                55
%= k|zf;lgs pQ/bfloTjsf] ljsf;qmd

cd]l/sfdf W. Wilson n] /fhgLlt / k|zf;gnfO{ cnucnu?kdf x]g{' kg]{
cjwf/0ff;+u} k|zf;gn] cfkm\gf] 5'6\6} klxrfg /fv]sf] xf] . cWoog
;'ljwfx]t' ;f]xL ;dob]lv cfh;Ddsf] k|zf;lgs kl/jlt{t :j?k cg'?k g}
pQ/bfloTjsf] z}nLdf klg kl/jt{g ePsf] kfOG5 .

%=! k/Dk/fut ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf pQ/bfloTj

!(cf}+ ztfAbLdf k|ltlglwd"ns ;/sf/sf] ljsf;;+u} lghfdtL ;]jfdf a[lQ
k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; eof] . of] ;dodf pQ/bfloTjnfO{ Ministerial responsibility
/ Civil service annonimity sf] ?kdf lnOYof] . Wilson, Taylor / Weber n]
'Neutral competence' sf] l;4fGt canDag ub}{ k|zf;gnfO{ ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf
ljz]if1tfsf] cfwf/df of]Uotf k|0ffnLsf] z'?cft eof] . tTsfnsf] ;/sf/
(government of the day) k|lt gf]s/sf] ?kdf cg'u|lxt x'g'kg]{ t/
sfo{;Dkfbgsf] b[li6n] t6:y x'g'kg]{ b]lvof] . sfg"gsf] zf;g / lglZrt
k|lqmofdf hf]8 lbb} lghfdtL ;]jfn] 'fair and equal treatment' sf nflu
cleefjsTj u|x0f ug'{kg]{ eof] . lghfdtL ;]jf :yfoL, lg/Gt/ / eljiok|lt
pGd'v ;+u7gsf] ?kdf :yflkt eof] .

o:tf] k|zf;lgs z}nLdf pQ/bfloTjsf] :j?k x]bf{ jt{dfg ;/sf/ (government
of the day) / sfg"gk|lt pQ/bfoL x'g'kg]{ b]lvof] . o; cj:yfdf ;/sf/ dfq
PSnf] hgtfnfO{ hjfkm lbg] (Answers to the people) ;+:yfsf] ?kdf /xg]
b]lvof] .

%=@= ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg / pQ/bfloTj

k/Dk/futz}nLsf] k|zf;gdf e|i6frf/sf] dfqf g36]sf] / sfo{;Dkfbg /
bIftf eGbf xflsd tyf ljBdfg ;/sf/sf] elQmn] k|fyldstf k|fKt u/]sf]n]
tTsfnLg k|zf;lgs z}nLdf kl/jt{gsf] dxz'; ul/of] .

k|zf;lgs If]qsf] tTsflng ;'wf/sf] qmddf o; a]nfsf] k|zf;lgs
z}nLnfO 'Business' as a model sf] ?k lbb} ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg cyf{t
Public Management sf] gfd lbO{ ;'wf/ k|lqmof k|f/De ul/of] . o;
df]8]n cg';f/ Joj:yfkgnfO{ Ps snf (generic art) sf] ?kdf :jLsf/ ul/of]
. Joj:yfkgsf] Jofj;flostfnfO{ lj1fgs} ?kdf lnOof] . lghLIf]qsf]

                                    56
Jofj;flos z}nL ;fj{hlgs If]qdf k|of]u ub}{ bIftf / sfo{;Dkfbgdf ;'wf/
Nofpg] k|of; eof] .

of] Joj:yfkgsf] cj:yfdf k|zf;lgs pQ/bfloTjn] "glthfsf nflu
sfo{;Dkfbg pQ/bfloTj (Performance accountability)" sf] ?kdf
cfkm"nfO{ :yflkt u/\of] .


%=#= gjLg ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg / pQ/bfloTj

;g\ c;Lsf] bzsdf ljZj /fhgLltdf 36]sf 36gfqmdx?n] ;/sf/L If]qsf]
e"ldsf d"Nof+sg ug{ yflnof] . cd]l/sf / a]nfotdf tTsfnLg s]xL
pRrkb:y kbflwsf/Lx?n] New Right Ideology sf] ?kdf o; If]qsf] 7"nf]
cfnf]rgf u/] . a9\bf] vr{nfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ sd{rf/LtGqdf ;'wf/sf]
bjfj klg TolQs} k/\of] .

a[xt cfsf/, ;]jf u'0f:t/Lo / k|efjsf/L gePsf], ;]jfsf] nfut dx+uf]
ePsf], cfkm\gf] bIftf gePsf] If]qdf ;d]t xft xfn]sf] / lghLIf]qsf]
l;h{gzLntf / pBdzLntfsf] cj/f]wssf] ?kdf k|zf;goGqnfO{ cfnf]rgf
ug{ yflnof] . oxfF;Dd ls ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g eGgf ;fy} /fh:j l;Wofpg]
;]tf] xfQL, k|hftGqsf] nflu afws, / kl/jt{g lj/f]wL ;+:yfsf] ?kdf
o;nfO{ lng yflnof] .

ca ;/sf/ s'zn Joj:yfks x'g g;Sg] lgisif{ lgsfNb} /fHosf] e"ldsfdf
k'g{ljrf/ ug'{kg]{ / lglh If]q tyf gful/s ;dfh;+u ;xsfo{ Pa+ ;xof]uL
eO{ sfd ug'{kg]{ cjwf/0ff cufl8 cfPsf] 5 . cjsf] ;/sf/n] lbUbz{s
(Steer) sf] ?kdf sfd ug'{kg]{ ePsf] 5 . casf] ;/sf/ ;fgf] jf 7"nf]
xf]Og ls l7Ss cfsf/sf] c;n / k|efjsf/L x'gkg]{ lgrf]8 cfPsf] 5 .

o;af6 ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgnfO{ cfly{s l;4fGt;+u hf]8]/ x]g'{ kg]{ eof]
. Joj:yfkgdf ahf/z}nLsf] ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug'{kg]{ eof] . o;}
;Gbe{df s/f/, ef}r/ k|0ffnL, sfo{;Dkfbgsf cfwf/df tnj, ;fj{hlgs
;+:yfx?df :jfoQtf / ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfxdf pkef]Qmfs/0f (customerization)
sf] cjwf/0ff nfu" ul/of] .



                                   57
o; z}nLsf] Joj:yfkgn] ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lsf] x}l;ot klxn]eGbf
;fdfGo (normalization) eof] . a[lt ;]jf (career service) sf] nueu cGTo g}
eof] .

o:tf] cj:yfdf pQ/bfloTjsf] :j?k glthf / sfo{;Dkfbg cyf{t
pTkfbg÷pTkfbsTj (results and performance, or output/product accountability)
sf] ?kdf /Xof] . o;sf] d'Vo cfwf/ If]q pkef]Qmfsf] ;Gt'li6 (customer
satisfaction) eof] .


%=$ ;'zf;gsf nflu pQ/bfloTj

gjLg ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] l;4fGtx?sf] k|of]un] NofPsf] ;'wf/sf]
k|of;sf afah"b klg ljZjsf clwsf+z d'n'sx?df ;/sf/n] cfkm\gf] a}wtf
(Ligitimacy) qmdzM u'dfpFb} uPsf] / ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfdf ;/sf/sf] 5lj
(Trust in government) 36\b} uPsf] dxz"; ul/of] . o; k[i7e"lddf ca s'g}
klg d'n'sdf c;n ;/sf/ eGbf klg zf;g c;n x'g'kg]{ dfu (Good
governance requires more than goood government) b]lvof] . cyjf ;'zf;g (good
governance) x'g'kg]{ b]lvof] . o;sf nflu zf;sLo Joj:yf v'Nnf /
lhDd]jf/ x'g'kg]{ b]lvof] .
;'zf;gdf ;/sf/dfq geO{ cGo b'O{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx?– lghLIf]q / gful/s
;dfh klg ;xefuL x'g] s'/fnfO{ dfGotf lbOof] . o;df ;/sf/n] /fhg}lts
/ sfg'gL pko'Qm jftfj/0fsf] lgdf{0f ug]{, lghLIf]qn] /f]huf/L / cfo
cfh{g ug]{ / gful/s ;dfhnfO{ ;fdflhs / /fhg}lts cGt/lqmof ug]{ tyf
kx/]bf/ e} ;xhstf{sf] ?kdf sfo{ ug]{ lhDdf lbOof] .

o;af6 s] b]lvof] eg] ;'zf;gn] ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] k|jfx eGbf cem a]zL
(Beyond the Management)    dfu ub{5 . lsg eg] ;dfh :jo+n] ;j}
gful/sx?df slt ;Dd cj;/sf] ;dfgtf Pa+ ;dtf cyf{t ;fdflhs / cfly{s
Gofo k|bfg ug{ ;Sb5 eGg] k|Zgsf] pQ/tkm{ ;'zf;gn] cfkm"nfO{
nlIft ub{5 . o;} cg'?k ;'zf;gn] ;xeflutf, ax'ntf, kf/blz{tf,
pQ/bfloTj, a}wtf, ;dtf, kx'Fr, ;fem]bf/L, bIftf h:tf w]/} l;4fGtx?sf]
cg'z/0f u/]sf] x'G5 .

csf]{tkm{ ljZjJofkLs/0fn] /fhg}lts ;Ldfgf afx]s cGo ;j} ;Ldfgfx?
cl:y/ agfO{ lbof] . sfo{;Dkfbg / pQ/bfloTjsf] sf/0faf6
k/Dk/futz}nLsf] ;/sf/sf] 5lj qmdzM lubf]{ /Xof] . ;fj{hlgs, lghL /

                                    58
;d'bfo aLr k|efjsf/L ;xof]u / ;fdfGh:otf cfjZos b]lvof] . g]6js{ /
;xsfo{n] kb;f]kfg z}nLnfO{ :yfgfGt/0f u/\of] . ax's]Gb|Lo
;+u7gsf] ljsf; eof] . ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] pRr ljsf;n] cfGbf]ng s} ?kdf
;"rgf ;dfhsf] ljsf; eof] . ;"rgf k|ljlwn] administrative integration,
coordination cross-jurisdiction cooperation sf] cj;/ lbO{ ;/sf/sf] Ifdtf a[l4
ug{ yfNof] . o;n] gful/snfO{ ;+rf/ k|0ffnLdf gofF cj;/ cyf{t e-
democracy               sf]              cj;/          k|bfg             ug]{
eof] .

;f/f+zdf, ;'zff;gsf] dfWodaf6 pQ/bfloTj k|j4{g e} lhDd]jf/k"0f{
zf;sLo Joj:yfsf] :yfkgf x'g] cj:yfsf] l;h{gf x'g] b]lvof] .

oL plNnlvt cjwf/0ff cg';f/ ;sf/fTds ?kdf x]bf{ pQ/bfloTjn]
p2]Zodf :ki6tf / sfo{;Dkfbg dfkb08sf] lgwf{/0f ub{5 . dfkb08
cg';f/ ;+u7gsf] sfo{lbzf lgwf{/0f, cg'udg / d"Nof+sg ub{5 .
;+:yfdf sfo{/t JolQmsf] d"No, Jojxf/, / cfbz{sf] AofVof ub{5 .
csf]{tkm{ gsf/fTds ?kdf x]g'{ kbf{ pQ/bfloTjn] lgoGq0fdf /fVb5
. ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] lrQ ga'em]df cf/f]k nufpF5, ;hfoF lbG5 / hjfkm
lbg afWo kfb{5 .

o;k|sf/ pQ/bfloTjnfO{ sfo{?kdf ptfbf{ kl/jlt{t kl/j]zdf pQ/bfloTjsf
tLg cfofdx? b]lvPsf 5g\ .
        cfly{s pQ/bfloTj,
        /fhg}lts pQ/bfloTj, /
        k|zf;lgs pQ/bfloTj .

cfly{s pQ/bfloTjn] >f]tsf] jf:tljs pkof]udf lhDd]jf/ JolQm jf
;+:yfnfO{ afWo agfpF5 . /fhg}lts pQ/bfloTjn] sfo{kflnsf,
Joj:yflksf / Gofokflnsf aLr zlQm ;Gt'ng / lgoGq0fsf] k4lt
cg'z/0f ub} ;fj{hlgs 5lj (public trust) cufl8 a9fpg /fHonfO{ pTk|]l/t
ub{5 . k|zf;lgs pQ/bfloTjn] cfGtl/s?kdf ;/sf/ o;leq lghfdtL ;]jf
;d]tsf] dfkb08, pTk|]/0ff, g}ltstf, cfr/0f / k|zf;sLo k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{
s'/fnfO{ lgodg ub{5 . afXo?kdf ;]jfu|fxL hgtf / cGo lgsfok|lt
pQ/bfoL x'G5 . ;dli6df o;af6 hgtfk|lt pQ/bfoL ;/sf/sf]
cjwf/0ffnfO{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ s'/fdf an k'Ub5 . clxn] k|zf;g


                                     59
cfly{s?kdf >f]tsf] afF8kmFf8 / pkof]udf lhDd]jf/, /fhg}lts?kdf
gLlt / sfo{sfl/0fL k|d'vk|lt lhDd]jf/ / k|zf;lgs?kdf k]zf, sfg"g tyf
;]jfu|fxLk|lt lhDd]jf/ x'Fb} ;dli6?kdf hgtfk|lt k|ToIf Pa+
ck|ToIf?kdf pQ/bfoL x'g'kg]{ b]lvG5 .

pQ/bfloTjsf ljifodf ul/Psf plNnlvt kl/efiff / cjwf/0ffn]
pQ/bfloTjnfO{ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g leqdfq x]bf{ ;fFu'/f] cy{ nfUg]
x'Fbf o;nfO{ lj:t[t?kdf Cooper n] eg] em}+ "The process within the
public policy framework" sf] ?kdf lng' kg]{ b]lvPsf] 5 h; cGtu{t
cfdgful/s, /fhg}lts JolQm, ;fj{hlgs gLlt / k|zf;s cflb ;j} cjojx?
x'g'kg]{ elgG5 .

o;af6 :ki6 x'G5 ls lj:t[t cy{df pQ/bfloTj ljleGg stf{x?aLrsf]
;DaGw xf] . o; cGtu{t ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/L / dGqLaLrsf] ;DaGw,
/f]huf/bftf / Joj:yfks tyf sd{rf/LaLrsf] ;DaGw, ;/sf/ / ;+;baLrsf]
;DaGw tyf /fhgLlt1 / gful/s aLrsf] ;DaGwx?nfO{ ;Da]fwg
ul/Psf] x'G5 .

o;/L x]bf{ pQ/bfloTjsf ;Gbe{df lgDg k|Zgx? :jtM p7\5g\ –
       pQ/bfloTj s;n] axg ug]{ <
       pQ/bfloTj s;k|lt axg ug]{ <
       pQ/bfloTj axg ug]{ dfWod / cfwf/zLnfx? s] s] x'g\ <
       pQ/bfloTj axg u/]sf] s'/f PsLg ug]{ dfkb08 s] xf] <

/fHon] k|bfg ug]{ ;]jf ;+rfngsf nflu ;fj{hlgs kbdf axfn /xL clVtof/
/ lhDd]jf/L kfPsf hgtfaf6 lgjf{lrt /fhgLlts kbflwsf/L ljz]iftM
dGqLx?, ;/sf/af6 lgo'Qm Pa+ k|lt:kwf{af6 5gf}6 ePsf
k|zf;sx?n] pQ/bfloTj axg ug'{kg]{ :ki6 5 . oL plNnlvt
kbflwsf/Lx? k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf?kdf hgtfk|lt pQ/bfloTj x'g'kg]{
x'G5 . o;sf nflu :yflkt k|zf;sLo ;+u7g, lgjf{lrt ;+:yfx? / u};;x?
pQ/bfloTj axg ug]{ dfWod x'g ;S5g\ . k|rlnt sfg"gL Pa+
cflwsfl/s gLltut ;+/rgfx? pQ/bfloTjsf] ;Da4{gdf cfwf/zLnfsf]
?kdf /x]sf x'G5g\ . s'g} klg If]qdf pQ/bfloTj axg eP gePsf]
olsg ug{ hgtfnfO{ k|fKt eO/x]sf]] ;]jf / ;'ljwfx?sf] u'0ffTds Pa+
kl/df0ffTds :t/ g} dfkb08sf] ?kdf lng' kg]{ x'G5 .


                                 60
;dli6df eGg' kbf{ pQ/bfloTjleq d"ntM rf/j6f tTjx? cGtlg{lxt ePsf
5g\ . tL x'g\ –
        hgtfsf] cfjZostf Pa+ rfxgf .
        hgrfxgf cfjZostf cg'?ksf] gLlt sf/0f Pa+ sfo{ nIf .
        gLlt, sfg"g tyf sfg"g Pa+ sfof{nox?sf] lgwf{/0f Pa+
          sfof{Gjog k|lqmofdf k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf lsl;dsf]
          hg;+nUgtf / :jLs[lt .
        To:tf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] sfof{Gjogaf6 k|fKt kl/0ffd
          -hgtfsf nflu pknAw ;]jf ;'ljwfx?_ . +

o;af6 :ki6 x'G5 ls k|zf;sLo pQ/bfloTj k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf hgtfk|lt
g} x'g'kb{5 . ;fj{hlgs kbdf j:g] cyf{t lhDd]jf/ kbflwsf/Ln] ug]{
x/]s sfd sfjf{xL hgcfsf+Iff / p;sf] ;Ddltdf g} x'g'kb{5 .

^= a}rfl/s cfwf/

pQ/bfloTjnfO{ ;f/f+zdf cfkm"nfO{ k|fKt clwsf/sf] k|of]u (The
exercise of power) s} ?kdf lnOPsf] 5 . h'g clwsf/sf] k|of]u u/] afkt
;DaGwLt clwsf/L hjfkm lbg afWo x'g' kb{5 .

lxhf]–cfh ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfxdf k|zf;gsf] e"ldsf a9L 5 . h:t} M
       k|zf;g;+u p;sf] ljz]if1tf, :yfloTj, cfsf/, / /fhg}lts
         zlQm;+usf] lgs6tfn] p;nfO{ 7"nf] zlQm k|fKt 5 .
       k|zf;gnfO{ gLltsf] sfof{Gjog ubf{ thlahL clwsf/sf]
         k|of]uaf6 yk clwsf/ l;h{gf ePsf] x'G5 .

oL plNnlvt kl/a]zn] clxn] k/Dk/futz}nLsf] k|zf;sLo pQ/bfloTjn]
;fj{hlgs ;]jfnfO{ ;d]6\g ;Sg] b]lvPsf] 5}g .

a}rfl/s?kdf pQ/bfloTjsf] of] AofVof ubf{ o;nfO{ zf;sLo
k|lqmofsf] hu g} dfGg' kb{5 (accountability is the foundation of any
governing process) . o;k|sf/ pQ/bfloTj / lhDd]jf/Ln] k|hftflGqs
;dfhsf] k|ltlglwTj ub{5 . lgoldt, :jtGq / k|lt:kwL{ lgjf{rg
k|lqmof4f/f /fhg}lts g]t[Tjn] gful/sk|lt pQ/bfoL x'g'kg]{ b]lvG5 .


                                 61
cGttM k|hftflGqs /fhgLltdf k|zf;gsf] pQ/bfloTj klg /fHosf]
gful/sk|lt g} x'g'kg]{ x'G5 lsgls gful/s ;fj{ef}d x'G5g\ . o:tf]
cj:yfdf k|zf;gn] d'VotM b'O{ cjwf/0ff :jLsfg'{ kb{5 –
        lgod sfg'gsf] a}wtf .
        hgtfsf] gf]s/ .

oL cjwf/0ffn] k|To]s gful/snfO{ k|zf;gsf] k|To]s u}/sfg'gL
lqmofsnfk / cfkm\gf] lxt la?4 ePsf] sfdsf] ;DaGwdf ph"/ ug]{ /
hjfkm dfUg] clwsf/ 5 . elgPsf] 5 –

"... the absolute necessity and right of the individual to complain against insensitive
or callous treatement by the bureaucracy on the grounds that each individual has
basic human rights regardless of the form of government that may exist. "

o;af6 k|zf;sLo pQ/bfloTj klg /fhg}lts ;+:s[ltdf x's]{sf] /
k|hftflGqs l;4fGt af]s]sf] zf;g Joj:yfdf cfwfl/t /xg] :ki6 b]lvG5 .

O{Znfd wd{ cg';f/ ;/sf/ / k|To]s JolQm s'/fgaf6 lgb]{lzt s'/fx?
dfGg afWo x'G5 / eujfgk|lt lhDd]jf/ x'g'kg]{ elgPsf] 5 . olt
x'Fbf–x'Fb} klg k|zf;g jf ;/sf/n] ug]{ uNtLsf lj?4 pQ/bfoL u/fpg
/fHon] ltgLx?sf] sfddf lgoGq0f u/]sf] x'G5 .

&= ;+oGq (Mechanism)

ljZjsf w]/} d'n'sx?df ePsf] pQ/bfloTjsf] ;Da4{g ug]{ ;+oGq
x]bf{ Ps jf Ps eGbf a9L ;+oGq ePsf] Jojxf/df b]lvPsf] 5 .

cWoog ;'ljwfx]t" Gilbert, Kernaghen & Thynne & Goldring n] k|:t't u/]sf]
lgDg ;+oGqnfO{ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 . o;df pQ/bfloTjsf] ;+oGq
cfGtl/s jf afXo Psftkm{ x'g] s'/f cf}+NofOPsf] 5 eg] csf]{tkm{
cf}krfl/s jf k|ToIf pQ/bfloTj / cgf}krfl/s jf ck|ToIf k|efjsf] ?kdf
x'g] s'/f :ki6 kfl/Psf] 5 .
Bureaucratic Accountability Mechanisms

                         INTERNAL

                         Hierarchy
                         Rules and Regulations


                                          62
           Budgets
FORMAL     Personnel management
           Performance evaluation
           Auditing
           Programme monitoring
           Code of conduct

           Personal ethics
           Professionalism
INFORMAL   Representative bureaucracy
           Commitment
           Anticipated reactions from superiors




                               63
                                                         EXTERNAL

                            Legislative review
                            Advisory committees
                            Judicial action
FORMAL                      Ombudsman
                            Review tribunals
                            Evaluation research
                            Freedom of information


                            Public comment
                            Interest group pressure
INFORMAL                     Peer review
                            Media scrutiny
                            Political parties
                            Politicians and officials at other levels of government

Sources: Adapted from C.E. Gilbert, "The Framework of Administrative Responsibility," Journal of
Politics 21 (August 1959)

plNnlvt ;+/rgfnfO{ cWoog ubf{ cfGtl/s tyf cf}krfl/s ;+oGqx?
k|zf;lgs kb;f]kfg, P]g–lgodx?, sd{rf/L Joj:yfkg / sfo{ljlw, ah]6
cflb h:tf ljifo;+u ;DaGwLt b]lvPsf5g\ . oL ;j} sd{rf/LoGq leq}
x'g] / logLx?sf] sfof{Gjog clgjfo{ dflgG5 . csf]{ tkm{ cfGtl/s
cgf}krfl/s ;+oGqx? sd{rf/Lsf] g}ltstf, Jofj;flostf, k|ltj4tf, /
k|ltlglwd"ns sd{rf/LtGqsf] ljsf;;+u ;DaGwLt b]lvPsf5g\ .

To;}u/L afXo tyf cf}krfl/s ;+oGqx? ;+;b, ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltx?,
Gofoflws/0f, oversight agencis cflb lgsfox?;+u ;DaGwLt b]lvPsf 5g\
. afXo tyf cgf}krfl/s ;+oGqtkm{ x]bf{ ;fj{hlgs l6Kk0fL, lxt
;d"xsf] lqmofsnfk, gful/ssf] rfxgf / ;xeflutf, ;+rf/ dfWod h:tf
;+oGqx? kb{5g\ h;n] ;/sf/sf] sfo{ k|lqmofnfO{ lgofnL /x]sf]
x'G5 . oL ;+oGqn] ;fj{hlgs kbdf /x]sf kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ lhDd]jf/
Jojxf/ ug{ afWo agfpF5 .

w]/} jif{b]lv ljZjsf w]/} d'n'sx? ljz]ifu/L k|hftflGqs d'n'sx?n] oL
;+/rgfx?nfO{ ;+:yfut klg u/]sf 5g\ t/ s]xL ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'sx?df
of] ;+/rgfn] sfof{Gjog k|efjsfl/tf gkfO{ ;+/rgfs} ?kdf /x]sf] klg
cg'ej 5 . ax'cfoflds?kdf Jojl:yt klg ul/Psf] x'Fb}g . a9L eGbf
a9L cfGtl/s tyf cf}krfl/s ;+oGqnfO{ dxTj lbb} lgodsfg"g tyf
cfly{s pQ/bfloTjdf hf]8 lbOPsf] x'G5 . ;f]xL ?kdf cfGtl/s tyf

                                                64
cgf}krfl/s ;+oGqnfO{ hf]8 lbOPsf] kfOb}g . ;+;bLo
;+oGqnfO{ k|efjsf/L x'g lbOPsf] x'Fb}g cyf{t ;fj{hlgs
k|zf;gdf o;sf] k|efj /xb}g . sltko ljifodf Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf]
Joj:yf g} ul/Psf] x'Fb}g . ;f/f+zdf eGg' kbf{ afXo / cgf}krfl/s
kIfLo pQ/bfloTjsf] ;+/rgf k|hftflGqs zf;g Joj:yf gePsf]
d'n'sdf k|efjsf/L kfOb}g . gful/sx?nfO{ /fhgLltaf6 cnu
agfOG5 . ;+rf/ dfWodnfO{ lgoGq0fdf lnOPsf] x'G5 . ;/sf/L
gLlt, g]tf / k|zf;ssf] cfnf]rgf :jLsfo{ x'Fb}g . o:tf] cj:yfdf
cfGtl/s Pa+ cf}krfl/s ;+oGqn] /fd|f];+u sfo{ ubf{ ub}{ klg
hgcfsf+Iffsf] kl/k"lt{ ePsf] x'Fb}g .

*= pQ/bfloTjsf] k|j4{g

elgG5 M      Public bureaucracies generally perform well, but their performance
leaves much to be desired."

Jojxf/df pQ/bfloTjsf] ;Dkfbg 36\bf] dxz"; ul/G5 lsgeg] 7"nf]
cfsf/, cj}olQms ;+u7gfTds Jojxf/n] ubf{ k|zf;gsf] x/]s
lqmofsnfksf] cg'udg c;+ej 5 . ljZjsf w]/} d'n'sx?df ;/sf/n]
;fj{hlgs If]qsf] ;'wf/sf] qmddf cfwf/e"t?kdf g} ;fj{hlgs If]qsf]
Joj:yfkgdf ;'wf/ k|of; ub}{ pQ/bfloTj k|j4{g ug]{ ljifonfO{ d'Vo
d'4f s} ?kdf p7fPsf 5g\ .

o;}n] pQ/bfloTjsf]] k|of]u / k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg ;fj{hlgs
kbflwsf/Lx?n] ljleGg :j?kdf pQ/bfloTj k|j4{g ug{ Wofg lbg' kg]{
b]lvPsf] 5 . h:t} M

   pRr ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lsf nflu Joj:YffksLo                     pQ/bfloTj
    (Managerial accountability)
   Gofokflnsfsf nflu sfg"gL pQ/bfloTj (Legal accountability)
   ;xsdL{ ;fd"lxs ;b:ox? aLr Jofj;flos pQ/bfloTj (Professional
    Accountability)
   Gfful/s      /    pkef]Qmfsf     nflu    ;fj{hlgs    pQ/bfloTj      (Public
    accountability)
   ah]6 k|bfos jf ljlgof]hs jf nufgLstf{ jf bfqL lgsfosf nflu cfly{s
    pQbfloTj (Financial accountability)


                                      65
   sfo{ut Ps?ktf / lgikIftfsf nflu k|lqmofut pQ/bfloTj            (Process
    accountability)
 /fhgLlt1 / ljwflosfsf nflu /fhg}lts pQ/bfloTj (Political accountability)
 glthfsf nflu sfo{qmdd"ns pQ/bfloTj (Programme accountability)
 d"No / dfGotfsf nflu ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj (Social acountabilltiy)
 ;fdflhs ;Ddfgsf nflu g}lts dfkb08 (Ethical standards)

pQ/bfloTjsf oL plNnlvt :j?knfO{ sfo{?kdf Nofpg pQ/bfloTjsf]
;+/rgfdf lgDg cg';f/sf] Joj:yf x'g' h?/L 5 .
    Tf]flsPsf] sfo{sf] :ki6 e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/L ls6fg ug]{ .
    sfo{Ifdtf cg'?k dfq sfo{;Dkfbgsf] cfzf ug]{ .
    Joj:yfksLo ;+/rgfsf] :ki6?kdf kl/eflift x'g'kg]{, cyf{t l7Ss
      cfsf/, sfd st{Jo / clwsf/sf] ls6fgL .
    cg'udgsf] kof{Kt Joj:yf .
    ;xof]uL ;+:yfx?;+u ;dGjo ug]{ ;+oGqsf] Joj:yf .
    ljz]if d"Nof+sg Joj:yf, h:t} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?af6 Public audit .
    Go"g sfo{;Dkfbgsf nflu cWoog / ;'wf/sf nflu k|lqmof .
    :jtGq n]vf k/LIf0fsf] Joj:yf .
    hf]lvd lgwf{/0f / Joj:yfkg .
    ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] k|of]u .
    Kff/bzL{ Joj:yfkg / lg0f{o k|lqmof .

:ki6 5 ls ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lsf] pQ/bfloTj hgtf cyf{t ;/f]sf/jfnfk|lt
(Focus on Citizen) g} x'g' kb{5 . pQ/bfloTjsf] k|j4{gdf ;fj{hlgs lxtsf]
;+/If0f cfjZos 7flgG5 . o;sf nflu lgDg Joj:yf h?/L b]lvPsf] 5 .
     ;"rgfdf ;fj{hlgs kxFr .
     Gfful/s jf ;/f]sf/jfnfaf6 ph"/L ug]{ ;+oGq .
     ;fj{hlgs?kdf k/fdz{, cGt/lqmof tyf ;'emfj ;+sng ug]{
        ;+oGq .
     ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] d"No / dfGotfsf] ;+/If0f / ljsf; ug]{ gLlt .

casf] o'u ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] o"u xf] . IT-based accountability ljz]iftM cfly{s
pQ/bfloTjsf] ;Gbe{df k|efjsf/L b]lvG5 lsgeg] o;n] sfuhL lsl;dsf]
clen]v k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ u/L Jojl:yt clen]v /fVb5 . o;af6 of] j:t'ut /
h;lbg] x'G5 g} t/ ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] k|of]un] :jtM pQ/bfloTj k|j4{g

                                    66
xf]Og ls pQ/bfloTjsf] cGo kIfdf ;'wf/sf nflu ;xof]u dfq k'/\ofpF5
. k4lt (system) df ;'wf/ NofpF5 .

(= g]kfndf pQ/bfloTjsf] k|of]u

g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& n] d'n'ssf] zf;g Joj:yfsf]
lhDd]jf/L dlGqLkl/ifb\ pk/ ;'Dk]sf] 5 . ;/sf/L sfo{ ;+rfng ug{
;+j}wflgs Joj:yf cg';f/ g} >L % ;/sf/sf] sfo{ ljefhg lgodfjnL /
sfo{;Dkfbg lgodfjnLsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . o;sf] cltl/Qm ;+;bn]
sfg"g agfO{ ;/sf/L sfo{ ;+rfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

;/sf/sf] sfo{ ;+rfng ug]{ d'Vo ;+oGq lghfdtL ;]jf /x]sf] 5 .
;'/Ifftkm{ zfxL g]kfnL ;]gf, ;z:q k|x/L, hgkb k|x/L / /fli6o
cg';Gwfg ljefu sfo{/t 5g\ . gLlt lgdf{0fsf] s]Gb|Lo txdf
dlGql/ifb\ /xg] Joj:yf 5 . ;+j}wflgs k/LIf0fsf nflu :jtGq
Gofokflnsfsf] Joj:yf cyf{t ;jf]{Rr cbfnt / cGo dftxtsf cbfntx? 5g\
. s]xL :jtGq ;+j}wflgs lgsfox?sf] Joj:yf e} ;/sf/sf] vj/bf/L ug]{
;+/rgf klg /x]sf]5 . ;+;b / ljleGg ;+;bLo ;ldlt dfkm{t k/LIf0fsf]
Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g adf]lhd :yfgLo lgsfox?df
hg k|ltlglwsf] xftdf g]t[Tj /xg] Joj:yf 5 . ;/sf/L ;+nUgtf cfjZos
ePsf] t/ ;/sf/ cfkm}n] ;+rfng ug{ c;'ljwf ePsf] If]qdf ;fj{hlgs
;+:yfgx? sfo{/t 5g\ . /fHon] gjLg ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] l;4fGtx?sf]
cjnDag ug{ yfn]b]lv g} lghLIf]q, gful/s ;dfh / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?n]
klg ;fj{hlgs If]qdf ;]jf k'/\ofO/x]sf 5g\ .

oL plNnlvt ;+/rgfut Joj:yfnfO{ x]bf{ lglZrt P]g–sfg'gdf cfwfl/t
kb;f]kfgo'Qm k|zf;lgs Joj:yf, sd{rf/L Joj:yfkg, sfo{;Dkfbg
d"Nof+sg, ah]6 lalgof]hg, n]vf k/LIf0f, cg'udg tyf ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf
kbflwsf/Lsf] cfr/0fsf] Joj:Yffn] cfGtl/s ?kdf pQ/bfloTjsf]
cf}krfl/s ;+oGq g]kfnsf] k|zf;sLo Joj:yfdf :ki6 g} pNn]v u/]sf]
kfOG5 . To;}u/L ;+;bLo k/LIf0f, Goflos sfjf{xL, ;+j}wflgs
cfof]ux?sf] sfjf{xL, Gofoflws/0fx?sf] sfjf{xL, cfof]u tyf
sfo{bnx?sf] k|ltj]bg, ;"rgfsf] :jtGqtfn] ubf{ afXo?kdf
pQ/bfloTjsf] cf}krfl/s ;+oGqsf] Joj:yf klg :ki6 /x]sf] 5 .



                                67
To;}u/L sd{rf/Lsf] j}olQms g}ltstf, Jofj;flostf, k|ltlglwTj, k|ltj4tf
h:tf kIfx? cfGtl/s ?kdf pQ/bfloTjsf] cgf}krfl/s ;+oGqsf] ?kdf lng
;lsG5 . ;fy} kbflwsf/Lx?sf] ;fj{hlgs?kdf ul/g] l6Kk0fL lxt ;d"xsf]
bjfj, ;xsdL{ aLrsf] d"Nof+sg, ;+rf/ dfWodsf] 5gf}6, /fhg}lts
bnsf] b[li6, /fhg}lts g]tf tyf ;/sf/sf cGo If]q / txaf6 ul/Psf]
l6Kk0fL cflbn] afXo?kdf pQ/bfloTjsf] cgf}krfl/s ;+/rgfnfO{ nlIft
ub{5 . oL ;j} ljifon] kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ hgtfk|lt pQ/bfoL x'g s/
u/]sf] 5 .

k|efjsf/L pQ/bfloTjsf nflu ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lx?sf] e"ldsf /
lhDd]jf/Lsf] :ki6 ls6fg x'g'kg]{, sfo{;Dkfbg nIfsf] :ki6 Joj:yf
x'g'kg]{, sfo{;Dkfbg nIf / ;DaGwLt kbflwsf/Lsf] Ifdtf aLr ;Gt'ng
x'g'kg]{, jf:tljs k|ltj]bg lgoldt?kdf k|:t't x'g'kg]{, lgoldt?kdf
k'g/fjnf]sg / ;dfof]hg x'g'kg]{ h:tf ;"rsx?nfO{ xfd|f] ;Gbe{df
ljZn]if0f ubf{ pQ/bfloTjsf] k|j4{gdf w]/} sfo{ ug{ afFsL b]lvPsf]
5 . h:t} M
     cem} klg ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lx?sf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/L :ki6
       ul/Psf] 5}g . Rank-in-man sf] cjwf/0ffn] ubf{ lj1tf jf ljz]if1tfsf]
       k|of]udf klg Wofg lbOPsf] 5}g .
     sfo{;Dkfbg ul/of] ul/Pg xf]Og ls ah]6 vr{ ul/of] ul/Pg
       eGg] z}nL cem oyfjt 5 . o;n] ubf{ sfo{;Dkfbg nIf tf]lsPsf]
       If]q Hofb} sd 5 .
     sfo{;Dkfbg Ifdtf / p2]Zo, nIf / cfsf+Iffsf] ;dGjo ul/Psf]
       5}g .
     cg'udg / d"Nof+sg k4lt sdhf]/ / ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] ;xeflutf Go"g
       5.
     ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] k|of]u x'g ;s]sf] 5}g .

o;sf sf/0fx?df xfd|f] k|zf;lgs / zf;sLoz}nL k/Dk/fut g} 5 . efif0fdf
;'zf;gsf] s'/f ul/P klg ljBdfg ;+/rgfnfO{ hgpQ/bfoL x'g] lsl;dn]
sfg'g / k4lt ljsf; ul/Psf] 5}g . s]xL km'6s/ Joj:yfn] pQ/bfloTjsf]
9fFrfdf ;'wf/ cfpg] b]lvPg .

;+;b jf :yfgLo lgsfodf h;n] lhTof] p;sf] cwLgfosTj /xg], kfFr
jif{;Dd hgtfn] 6'n'6'n' x]g]{ jfx]s s]xL ug{ g;Sg] / csf]{ kfFr jif{df


                                    68
csf]{ JolQm rog u/] klg Joj:yfn] ;f]xL lgoldttf bf]x/\ofpg]
kl/kf6Ln] /fhg}lts pQ/bfloTj ;+s6d} /Xof] . cem hg;+Vofsf]
7"nf] lx:;fnfO{ jt{dfg k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLn] /fli6|o d"n k|jfxdf
;dfa]z (inclusion) x'g] cj;/ lbg ;s]sf] 5}g . k|zf;lgs tyf cGo ;fj{hlgs
hjfkmb]xLsf] kbdf j:g] kbflwsf/Lx?sf ;Gbe{df klg nf]s nfh /
clVtof/sf] 8/ afx]s cfkm\gf xflsd / dGqLnfO{ v';L kfg{;Sbf
;/f]sf/jfnf hgtfn] vf;} s]xL ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf 5b}5 . jf:tjdf,
pQ/bfloTjsf] kl/jlt{t :j?knfO{ g]kfndf sfg'gL?kdf g} k|ltljlDat ug{
g;Sbf jt{dfg ;+/rgfut Joj:yfn] pQ/bfloTjsf] k/Dk/futz}nLs}
cjnDag u/]sf] / ;f]xL ;f]rn] 3gLe"t hgzlQmsf] ;+Vof klg ;fj{hlgs
;]jfdf a9L ePsf] cj:Yffdf pQ/bfloTjsf] jf:tljs :jfb hgtf / d'n'sn]
rfVg afFsL g} b]lvG5 .

lxhf]–cfhsf] cl:y/ /fhg}lts cj:yfdf t pQ/bfloTjsf] ;Gbe{ cln s7Lg
df]8df u'lh|Psf] 5 . lgjf{lrt :yfgLo lgsfo, ;+;b tyf lgjf{lrt ;f+;b
ljgfsf] ;/sf/sf] afWotfn] pQ/bfloTjsf] ;}4flGts cjwf/0ffnfO{ xfnsf]
g]kfnsf] Jojxfl/s cj:yfn] cfTd;ft\ ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . o; cj:yfdf ljBdfg
sfg'gL / ;+/rgfut k4ltleq /x]/ hgtfk|ltsf] pQ/bfloTj k|j4{gdf
k|zf;gsf] bfloTj a9]/ uPsf] 5 . :yfgLo lgsfosf] lgjf{rgsf]
k|lqmofn] pQ/bfloTj k|j4{g x'g] lbzftkm{ Ps kfOnf rfNg] ljZjf;
eg] ug{ ;lsG5 .

!)= lgisif{

pQ/bfloTjsf] ;DjGwdf k|:t't ePsf oL ;a} cjwf/0ff, l;4fGt, ljZn]if0f
klZrdL k|hftflGqs cjwf/0ffdf cfwfl/t 5g\ . o;n] k/Dk/fut jf ;}lgs jf
wfld{s zf;g Joj:yfsf] cawf/0ffnfO{ ;+af]wg ug{ ;s]sf] kfOb}g .
lhDd]jf/ zf;sLo Joj:yf cyf{t ;'zf;gsf] k|Tofe"ltsf ;Gbe{df dfq
pQ/bfloTjsf] k|j4{g x'g ;Sg] b]lvG5 . o;sf nflu k|hftflGqs zf;sLo
Joj:yf klxnf] zt{ xf] .

sltko d'n'sx?df ;}lgs, k|x/L, wfld{s ;+:yfx?, /fhg}lts g]tfsf]
lgoGq0f eGbf aflx/ x'G5 . pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf kfls:tfgdf sfg'gL?kdf
pQ/bfloTj /fhg}lts g]tfsf] lgoGq0f leq 5 t/ Jojxf/df ;f]xL cg';f/
e]l6b}g .


                                  69
ca ljs]Gb|Lt k|zf;g, :yfgLo ;/sf/, ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf h:tf ;Gbe{df
pQ/bfloTjsf ljifodf buttom–up style of administration nfO{ ;+af]lwt ug]{
u/L pQ/bfloTjsf] ;+oGq tof/ ug]{tkm{ cWoogsf] vfFrf] e} ;s]sf]
5.

k|zf;sLo pQ/bfloTj cyf{t ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lsf] pQ/bfloTjnfO{ ca
;fu"/f] cy{df gx]/L a[xt?kdf ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTjs} s;Ldf x]g'{kg]{
ePsf] 5 . cfh oL kbflwsf/L cGttM hgtf tyf ;/f]sf/jfnfk|lt g}
pQ/bfoL x'g'kg]{ xG5 . o; kl/j]zdf ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lx?
Joj:yfksLo, sfg'gL, Jofj;flos, cfly{s, /fhg}lts, glthf, k|lqmof,
;fdflhs, g}lts tyf ;fj{hlgs?kdf g} pQ/bfoL x'g'kb{5 . o;sf nflu
;"rgf k|ljlwsf] k|of]u ;xof]uL x'g k'u]sf] 5 .

g]kfnsf] ;+j}wflgs Joj:yfn] hgtfnfO{ ;fj{ef}d agfPsf] 5 . o;
;}4flGts kl/a]zdf hgtfk|lt k|ToIf?kdf g} pQ/bfoL x'g'kg]{ :ki6 5 t/
xfd|f] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL, ;+/rgfut / sfggL Joj:yfn] Jojxf/df of]
l;4fGtnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ug{ eg] ;s]sf] kfOPg . s]xL km'6s/ k|of;n]
kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{df pQ/bfloTjsf] k|j4{g jf:tjd} x'g ;Sg] b]lvPg . ca
pQ/bfloTj glthfsf nflu x'g'kg]{, d"No dfGotfsf] ;Ddfg x'g'kg]{,
;xsfo{ x'g'kg]{, pTk|]/0ff, ;+rf/ k|0ffnL, Ifdtf j[l4, g}lts d"No
dfGotfsf cfwf/df lgoGq0f ug{' kg]{, cg'udg–d"Nof+sg k|efjsf/L
ug]{ / ;fj{hlgs sfdsf/jfxLdf v'Nnfkg (openness) x'g'kg]{ b]lvPsf] 5 .


;Gbe{–;dfu|Lx?

      Accountability Challenges in the Age of Responsive governance, Prof.
       Martin Paintr, City University of Hong Kong.
      Public Sector Accountability: Can It Deliver? Rechard Heeks IDPM,
       University of Manchester, UK 1998.
      Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public sector, Office of the
       Auditor General of Canada.
      TBS Management Accountability Framework, www.tbs-sct.gc.ca
      g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$&




                                            70
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{;Dkfbg dfkg
 ;+/rgf (Public Financial Management Performance
                      Measurement Framework)




                                                     –s]bf/axfb'/ clwsf/L

kl/ro

;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{;Dkfbg dfkg ;+/rgf Ps gjLgQd
cjwf/0ff xf] . ;/sf/n] cjnDag u/]sf] ljQ gLltx?sf] k|efj s'g} vf;
cjlwdf s] s:tf] 5 egL o; cGtu{t d"NofÍg ug{] ul/G5 . of] ;+/rgf
;fj{hlgs vr{ / ljQLo pQ/bfloTj d"NofÍgsf sfo{df ;xof]u k'¥ofO{
cfPsf                  cGt/f{li6«o                   ljQLo                 ;+:yf
-Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development_ sf] ljsf; ;xof]u ;ldlt -
Development Assistance Committee_ sf] ;+o'Qm k|of;df tof/ ul/Psf] xf] .
o;n] ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf] k|0ffnL, k|lqmof / ;+:yfut
Joj:yfsf] sfo{;Dkfbg dfkgsf nflu cfwf/e"t tyf ljZj;gLo ;"rgf
pknJw u/fpF5 . o;sf cltl/Qm ;/sf/åf/f ;+rflnt ;'wf/ sfo{qmdx?sf]
k|ltkmn s:tf] /x]sf] 5 / ;'wf/sf] s'g laGb'df s] uNtL eof] tyf
To;nfO{ ;'wf/ ug{ s:tf] af6f] jf pkfo cjnDag ug{] eGg] s'/fsf]
hfgsf/L lbG5 . ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{;Dkfbg dfkgsf]
cGt/f{li6«o:t/sf] ;+/rgf kl/kfngf x'g ;s]df ;/sf/ / bftfaLr ;xof]u
cfbfg k|bfg ubf{ ckgfOg] d"NofÍg k|0ffnLdf Ps?ktf sfod x'g u}
sfdsf] bf]xf]/f]kgfaf6 x'g] ;do, >d / nfutdf sdL Nofpg] dfq ge}
;/sf/ / bftfjLr ljZjf;sf] jftfj/0f sfod x'g hfg] b]lvG5 .


    ;x–;lrj, ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno .

                                       71
;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{;Dkfbg d"NofÍg ;+/rgf ;fj{hlgs
ljQLo Joj:yfkg ;'wf/nfO{ ;xof]u ug{ ;'wfl/Psf] Ps ;+/rgf xf] .
o;leq tLg j6f s'/fx? ;dfj]z 5g\ –
klxnf], ;DaGwLt b]zn] tof/ u/]sf] ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkg ;'wf/
/0fgLlt / sfo{of]hgf,
bf];|f], ;/sf/sf] /0fgLlt;Fu ;dGjo u/L cGt/f{li6«o ljQLo
;+:yf÷bft[;+:yfåf/f tof/ ul/Psf] ax'jifL{o ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkg
sfo{ of]hgf, /
t];|f], ;fem]bf/L ;"rgf ;+u|x .

of] ;+/rgf s'g} vf; b]zsf] ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf If]qdf s'g} vf;
;doleq e}/x]sf] ljsf;sf] ultljlw dfkg ug{ agfOPsf] xf] . of]
;+/rgfleq pRr:t/sf kl/;"rsx? ;dfj]z 5g\ h;n] ;fj{hlgs ljQLo
Joj:yfkgsf k|0ffnL, k|lqmof / ;+:yfut Joj:yfx?sf] sfo{;Dkfbg af/]
n]vfhf]vf u/L k|ltj]bg tof/ ug{] cfwf/x? tof/ ul/lbG5 .

;+/rgfsf] sfo{If]q / Jofkstf

ljsf;sf p2]Zox? / gLltx?sf] ;kmn sfof{Gjogsf nflu /fd|f] ;fj{hlgs
ljQLo Joj:yfkg clgjfo{ zt{ g} xf] . o;n] ;du| ljQLo cg'zf;g, ;fwgsf]
pQd /0fgLlts afF8kmfF8 / k|efjsf/L ;]jf k|jfxdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg]
ck]Iff ul/G5 . v'nf / Jojl:yt ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgn] ah]6sf] ;du|
sfo{;Dkfbgsf] lgDg tLg r/0fdf ;'wf/ ug{ d2t k'¥ofpF5 M
         ah]6sf] k|efjsf/L lgoGq0f tyf ljQLo hf]lvd 36fO{ ;du|
          ljQ cg'zf;g sfod ug{ d2t ug{],
         ;/sf/sf] p2]Zo / k|fyldstf cg'?k jh]6 th'{df / sfof{Gjog
          e} p2]Zo k|flKtdf of]ubfg k'Ug], /
         ;fwgsf] plrt Joj:yfkgåf/f ;]jf k|jfxdf k|efjsfl/tf / d'b|fsf]
          pkof]lutf ;'lglZrt ug{ d2t k'Ug] .

sfo{;Dkfbg dfkg ;+/rgfdf plNnlvt cfwf/x?nfO{ lgDg ljifox?df
;d]6L sfo{;Dkfbg dfkg ug]{ ul/G5 M




                                  72
!=    ah]6sf] ljZj;gLotfM ah]6 oyfy{k/s gePdf o;n] cfdljZjf;
      xfl;n ug{ ;Sb}g . clt dxTjfsf+IfL ah]6 Jojxf/df sfof{Gjog
      ug{ g;sL kl/nlIft p2]Zo xfl;n gx'g] ;Defjgf /xG5 eg] Ifdtf
      eGbf sd :t/sf] ah]6 NofPdf klg pRr pknlAw xfl;n x'g
      ;Sb}g . t;y{, ah]6 th'{df ubf{ ljutsf cg'ej, k|zf;lgs Ifdtf,
      ;fwgsf] pknJwtf, sfd ug]{ jftfj/0f cflb ;j} kIfnfO{ ;d]6]/
      oyfy{k/s ah]6 th'{df / sfof{Gjog x'g ;s] o;n] ah]6sf]
      ljZj;gLotf a9fpg] lglZrt 5 . of] ;+/rgfn] ah]6 oyfy{df cfwfl/t
      5, 5}g / :jLs[t gLlt tyf sfo{qmd cg'?k sfof{Gjog ePsf] 5,
      5}g                          egL                         dfkg
      ub{5 .

@= ah]6sf] Jofkstf / kf/blz{tf M ah]6df ;/sf/sf ;a} sf/f]jf/x? /
   ljQ hf]lvdsf ljifox? ;d]l6g'kb{5 . o;sf ;fy} ljQLo gLlt / ah]6
   ;DaGwL ;"rgfdf ;fj{hlgs kx'Fr ;'lglZrt x'g ;s]df hgtfn]
   ;/sf/åf/f 3f]lift sfo{qmdsf] sfof{Gjogsf] :jtGq d"Nof+sg /
   cg'udg u/L ;/sf/nfO{ a9L pQ/bfoL x'g] jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ bjfj
   lbg] sfo{ ug{ ;Sb5g\ . To; b[li6sf]0faf6 ah]6 s:tf] 5 egL
   dfkg ug{ of] ;+/rgf a9L pkof]uL x'g] b]lvG5 .

#=    gLltdf cfwfl/t ah]6 M clxn] ah]6 k|:t't ubf{ ;/sf/åf/f 3f]lift
      gLltsf nflu /sd cfjZos kg]{ jf gkg]{, /sd cfjZos kg]{ eP s'g
      gLltsf nflu s;/L /sd ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 tyf ;du| vr{n] ah]6
      jif{df s]–s] pknlAw xfl;n x'g ;S5 egL :ki6 gLltut tfbfTDo
      sfod ug{ g;lsPsf] cj:yf 5 . ljQLo sfo{;Dkfbg dfkg ;+/rgfn]
      ah]6n] ;/sf/sf] gLlt;Fu tfbfTDotf sfod u/]sf] b]lvg] u/L
      ah]6 tof/ u/]sf] 5, 5}g egL x]g{ ;lsg] x'G5 .

$=    ah]6 sfof{Gjogdf k"jf{g'dfg / lgoGq0f sfod ug{ ;lsg]M of]
      ;+/rgfsf] pkof]uaf6 ah]6 sfof{Gjog ubf{ ;fwgsf] pknJwtf,
      gLltut km]/jbn cflbsf] k"jf{g'dfg ug{ ;lsg] cj:yf 5, 5}g
      eGg] dfkg ug{ ;lsg] x'G5 . o;sf ;fy} ;+lrt sf]ifsf] pkof]u
      ubf{ lhDd]jf/L / lgoGq0fsf] plrt Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5, 5}g egL
      x]g{ ;lsG5 .



                                 73
%=    n]vfkfng, clen]vfÍg / k|ltj]bg M ah]6sf] ljlgof]hg /
      sfof{Gjog sfo{bIftf xfl;n ug{ c? s'/fsf cltl/Qm ah]6 tof/L,
      sfof{Gjog;Fu ;DaGwLt sfo{x?sf] kof{Kt ;"rgf pknJw x'g]
      Joj:yf, zL3| / k|efjsf/L lg0f{o, lgoGq0f, Joj:yfkg h:tf
      sfo{sf nflu pko'Qm ;"rgfx?sf] clen]v, pTkfbg, ljt/0f /
      k|ltj]bg ug{] k|0ffnL 5, 5}g eGg] s'/fn] klg dxTjk"0f{ :yfg
      cf]u6]sf] x'G5 . k|:tfljt ;+/rgfn] o; lbzfdf sfo{;Dkfbg:t/sf]
      dfkg ug{ ;3fp+5 .

^=    n]vfk/LIf0f tyf jfXo lgu/fgLM lgoldt tyf Jojl:yt n]vfk/LIf0f
      k4ltn] cfly{s cg'zf;g / sf/f]jf/df :jR5tf sfod ug{ d2t
      k'/\ofp+5 . o:t} ;fj{hlgs ljQ Joj:yfkgsf af/]df ;+;b nufot
      pRr kb:y kbflwsf/Lx?n] lgu/fgL ug]{ Joj:yf ul/Pdf o;n]
      klg ah]6sf] p2]Zofg'?k sfof{Gjog / cfjZos lgoGq0f x'g u}
      sfof{Gjogdf ;kmntf xfl;n ug{ an k'/\ofpF5 . sfo{;Dkfbg
      dfkg ;+/rgfsf] of] clGtd ljifo If]q xf] h;sf] d"Nof+sgn]
      ;/sf/nfO{ ah]6sf] d"Nof+sgdf yk ;"rgf k|fKt ug{ ;xof]u
      ldN5 .

oL ^ j6f d'Vo kl/;"rsx? cGtu{t yk cGo kl/;"rsx? /x]sf 5g\ . yk
kl/;"rsx?sf] d"Nof+sgsf cfwf/df dfly plNnlvt d'Vo kl/;"rsx?sf]
d"Nof+sg ul/G5 / ;du| d"Nof+sgsf] cfwf/df g} s'g} b]zsf]
;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf] k|0ffnL, k|lqmof, ;+:yfut Joj:yfx?sf]
dfkg ug{] ul/G5 . dfly plNnlvt ^ j6f pRr:t/sf kl/;"rsx?nfO{ g} ;a}
b]zsf] ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkg :j:y 5 egL dfkg ug{] cfwf/ dflgPsf]
5.

oL kl/;"rsx?sf] af/Daf/ k|of]uaf6 g} s'g} b]zsf] ;fj{hlgs ljQLo
Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{;Dkfbgdf ;'wf/ cfP gcfPsf] d"NofÍg ug{] ul/G5 .
o; cltl/Qm, sfo{;Dkfbg k|ltj]bgn] ;/sf/n] z'? u/]sf gof+ ;'wf/ sfo{
jf rfn' ;'wf/ sfo{x? af/] klg ;"rgf pknJw u/fpF5 . oBlk, To:tf gofF
jf rfn' ;'wf/ k|of;sf] kl/0ffd b]lvg] cj:yf cfO{ g;s]sf] x'g ;S5 . o:tf]
k|ltj]bgdf ;/sf/n] s] ;'wf/ ug'{k5{ eGg] l;kmfl/; eg] ;dfj]z ul/Psf]
x'Fb}g .



                                   74
oL ^ j6f kl/;"rsx?sf] d'Vo hf]8 s]Gb|Lo ;/sf/ / To:t} k|s[ltsf
;+u7gx?sf] ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgx?sf] sfo{;Dkfbg:t/sf] dfkg
ug'{ xf] . s]Gb|Lo:t/sf ;+u7gdf dGqfno / ljefu tyf clwsf/
k|Tofof]hg ul/Psf ;+:yfx? kb{5g\ .

s]Gb|Lo:t/sf ;+u7g afx]s cGo ;+u7gsf] ljQLo sfo{;Dkfbg
dfkgnfO{ ;dfj]z ug{] gug{] eGg] s'/fsf] lgwf{/0f ;/sf/sf] ljQLo
Joj:yfkg / ljQ gLltdf To:tf] ;+u7gsf] ljQLo Joj:yfkgn] kfg]{ k|efj
jf c;/sf] :t/n] ub{5 . olb To:tf] ;+u7gsf] k|efj gu0o dfqfdf 5 eg]
o;nfO{ dfkg ug]{ ul/b}+g t/ o;sf] c;/ clws 5 jf ;/sf/sf] ljQ
gLltnfO{ klg c;/ kfg]{ vfnsf] 5 eg] To:tf] ;+u7gsf] sfo{;Dkfbg
klg dfkg ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfOG5 .

;/sf/sf] cGo ;+u7g jf tNnf]:t/sf lgsfo eGgfn] 5'§} pQ/bfloTj
ePsf] / cfˆg} ljQLo Joj:yfkg k|0ffnL -ah]6, n]vfk|0ffnL cflb_
ePsf] lgsfo hgfpF5 . xfd|f] ;Gbe{df eGg'kbf{ :yfgLo
lgsfox?nfO{ ;/sf/sf] tNnf]:t/sf lgsfosf ?kdf lng ;lsG5 . o:t},
;fj{hlgs j:t' jf ;]jf k|bfg ug{] p2]Zon] ;/sf/åf/f u7g ePsf ljQLo jf
u}/ljQLo ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfgx? klg o; cGtu{t kb{5g\ . ljQLo
;+u7gleq s]Gb|Lo a}+s ;d]t kb{5 .

sfo{;Dkfbg dfkg kl/;"rsn] s'g–s'g s'/fsf] dfkg u/]/ sfo{;Dkfbg
dfkg k|ltj]bg lbG5 eGg] s'/f dxTjk"0f{ x'g cfp+5 . of] kl/;"rsn]
;/sf/sf] /fh:j / vr{sf] sfo{;Dkfbg dfkgdf a9L hf]8 lbG5 . ;/sf/sf]
sfo{If]q eGbf aflx/af6 ul/Psf ah]6         ;DaGwL ultljlwx?sf] xsdf
eg] To:tf ultljlwn] kfg]{ c;/ ;d]tsf cfwf/df cf+lzs ?kdf d"NofÍg
ug{ ;lsG5 . of] Joj:yf vf; u/L ;/sf/L / :jfoQ lgsfoåf/f ul/g] vr{ / ;f]
vr{sf nflu b]vfOPsf] cfosf] ;|f]tsf] dfkgtkm{ a9L s]Gb|Lt
ePsf]n] ;/sf/sf] sfo{If]q aflx/sf ah]6 ;DaGwL ultljlw dfkgdf
cf+lzs d"NofÍg ug{] Joj:yf u/]sf] b]lvG5 .




;+/rgfn] s'g s'/fsf] dfkg ub}{g <

                                  75
of] ;+/rgfn] /fh:j / vr{sf] sfo{;Dkfbgsf] :t/ d"Nof+sg u/] klg
sfo{;Dkfbgdf c;/ kfg{] tTjx? h:t} sfg"gL ;+/rgf, ;/sf/sf] jt{dfg sfo{
Ifdtf cflb af/] dfkg ub{}g . ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgnfO{ k|efjsf/L
agfpg s] s'/f a9L cfjZos 5 eGg] eGbf klg o;n] sfof{Gjog txsf]
sfo{;Dkfbg :t/ s:tf] 5 egL dfkg ug]{ s'/fdf a9L hf]8 lbG5 .

o;}u/L ljQ jf vr{ gLltsf] ljZn]if0f ug{] sfo{ klg of] ;+/rgfleq kb{}g
. ;/sf/n] lnPsf] ljQ gLlt lbuf] 5, 5}g jf nufgL k|jw{g u/L cfly{s
a[l4 a9fpg ;xof]uL 5, 5}g tyf ;/sf/L vr{ gLltn] u/LjL 36fpg]
p2]Zo k|flKtdf s] s:tf] k|efj kf¥of] egL d"NofÍg ub{}g . t/ ;fj{hlgs
ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf] ;+/rgf cfkm}+ To:tf] p2]Zo k|flKtdf ;3fpg]
vfnsf] 5, 5}g egL d"NofÍg ul/G5 .

pRr:t/sf sfo{;Dkfbg kl/;"rsx?

s'g} klg b]zsf] ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkg k|0ffnL dfkg ug{] @* j6f
kl/;"rsx? tof/ ul/Psf] 5 h;nfO{ d'Vo tLg ju{df ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 .
oL tLg ju{cGtu{t dfly plNnlvt ^ j6f pRr kl/;"rsx?sf] d"Nof+sg
x'G5 M

      s=     ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf] oyfy{ cj:yfM o; cGtu{t z'?
             cg'dfg;+u oyfy{ vr{ / /fh:j c;"nLsf] t'ngf ul/G5 . o:t}
             vr{ tyf /fh:jsf] ;du| ;+/rgf / agf]6sf] cfwf/df klg dfkg
             ul/G5 . o;sf cltl/Qm e'QmfgL afFsL vr{sf] cj:yf
             s:tf] lyof] / clxn] s] kl/jt{g ePsf] 5 egL x]l/G5 .

      v=     ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkg k|0ffnLsf cGt;{DalGwt d'2f
             jf ljz]iftfx?M o; cGtu{t ;du| jh]6 k|0ffnLdf k|:t't ul/g]
             ;"rgfx?sf] ;3gtf jf lj:t[ttf s]–s:tf] /x]sf] 5 / kf/blz{tfsf]
             nflu ;"rgfsf] kx'+r / ;fj{hlgstfdf s] s:tf] Joj:yf ul/Psf]
             5 egL x]l/G5 .




                                   76
     u=    ah]6 k|0ffnL M o; cGtu{t ;/sf/sf] ah]6 k|0ffnLsf]
           ;+:yfut Joj:yf, sfo{k|0ffnL, k|lqmof h:tf ljifox?sf]
           sfo{;Dkfbg dfkg ul/G5 .

           pko'{Qm tLg k|d'v cfwf/ afx]s ;/sf/sf] ah]6
           ;Dkfbgsf ;Gbe{df bft[kIfsf sfdsf/jfxLx?sf] Joj:yf jf
           k|rng klg yk kl/;"rssf ?kdf /x]sf 5g\ .

     3=    bft[ ;d'bfosf] Joj:yf jf k|rng M o; cGtu{t bft[kIfn]
           ug]{ ;xof]usf] kl/df0f, ax'jifL{o k"jf{g'dfgsf] cj:yfsf
           ;DaGwdf bft[kIfsf] k|rng jf Joj:yf s] 5 / tL k|rngn]
           s'g} b]zsf] ljQLo sfo{;Dkfbgdf s] s:tf] ;DaGw
           /fv]sf] 5 egL x]l/G5 .

     tn pNn]v ul/Psf] lrqn] ljQLo ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg k|0ffnL /
     pRr:t/sf sfo{;Dkfbg:t/ kl/;"rsn] ;d]6\g] If]q / ;DaGwaf/]
     :ki6 kfb{5 .

     u=    ah]6 rqm

                                                  3=      bftfsf]
     Jojxf/
                      gLltdf                            s= ;fj{hlgs
                      cfwfl/t                           ljQLo
                      ah]6
                                                        Joj:Yffkg-
                  v=                                    oyfy{
jfx\o lgu/fgL     cGt;{DalGwt            ah]6
                                         sfof{Gjogd           ah]6sf]
/ n]vfk/LIf0f     d'2f jf                                     ljZj;lgotf
                                         f k"jf{g'dfg
                  ljz]iftfx?
                                         / lgoGq0f
                      lj:t[ttf
                      kf/blz{tf
                 n]vfkfng,
                 clen]v / k|ltj]bg

                                77
kl/;"rsx?sf] ljj/0f tn lbOPsf] 5 M

;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkg sfo{ pRr:t/sf sfo{;Dkfbg ;"rsx?sf] ;"rL M

               ;"rs                                   ;"rs
               gDa/
                         s= ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf] oyfy{ cj:yf
             ;"rs – !    z'? cg'dfgsf] cfwf/df oyfy{ s"n vr{
             ;"rs – @    z'? cg'dfgsf] cfwf/df oyfy{ vr{sf] ;+/rgf
             ;"rs – #    z'? cg'dfgsf] cfwf/df oyfy{ /fh:j s'n c;"nL
             ;"rs – $    e'QmfgL af+sL df}Hbftsf] cj:yf
                         v= cGt;{DalGwt d'2f jf ljz]iftfx?M Jofkstf /
                         kf/blz{tf
             ;"rs – %    ah]6sf] juL{s/0f
             ;"rs – ^    ah]6 k|sfzgdf k|sflzt ;"rgfsf] lj:t[ttf(Comprehensiveness)
             ;"rs – &    k|ltj]bg gul/Psf ;/sf/L sf/f]jf/sf] cj:yf
             ;"rs – *    cGt/;/sf/L lgsfosf] ljQ sf/f]jf/sf] kf/blz{tf
             ;"rs – (    cGo ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] ljQLo hf]lvdsf] k"jf{g'dfg
             ;"rs – !)   dxTjk"0f{ ;"rgfdf ;fj{hlgs kx'+r
                         u= ah]6 k|0ffnL
                         u!= gLltdf cfwfl/t ah]6
             ;"rs – !!   Jojl:yt jflif{s ah]6 lgdf{0f / ;xeflutf
             ;"rs – !@   ljQLo of]hgf, vr{ gLlt / ah]6sf] ax'jifL{o b[li6sf]0f
                         u@= ah]6 sfof{Gjogdf k"jf{g'dfg / lgoGq0f
             ;"rs – !#   s/bftfsf] bfloTj / Obligation df kf/blz{tf
             ;"rs – !$   s/bftf /lhi6]«zg / s/ lgwf{/0f tl/sfsf] k|efjsfl/tf
             ;"rs – !%   s/ ;+sngdf k|efjsfl/tf
             ;"rs – !^   ah]6df plNnlvt sfo{qmdsf nflu ;fwg pknJwtfsf] k"jf{g'dfg
             ;"rs – !&   gub df}Hbft, C0f / hdfgtsf] clen]v / Joj:yfkg
             ;"rs – !*   tnj vr{ lgoGq0fsf] k|efjsfl/tf
             ;"rs – !(   ;fj{hlgs v/Lbdf k|lt:kwf{, lgoGq0f / d'b|fsf] pkof]lutf
             ;"rs – @)   u}/ tnj ;'ljwf vr{df cfGtl/s lgoGq0f Joj:yfsf] k|efjsfl/tf
             ;"rs – @!   cfGtl/s lgoGq0fsf] k|efjsfl/tf
                         u#= n]vfkfng, clen]v / k|ltj]bg
             ;"rs – @@   lgoldt / ;dod} lx;fj ldnfg

                                  78
             ;"rs – @#   ;]jf k|jfx ug]{ lgsfodf ;fwg k|jfxsf] ;"rgfsf] pknJwtf
             ;"rs – @$   rfn' jif{sf] ah]6 ;DaGwL k|ltj]bgsf] u'0f:t/ / ;do
             ;"rs – @%   jflif{s k|ltj]bgsf] u'0f:t/ / ;do
                         u$= afx\o lgu/fgL / n]vfk/LIf0f
             ;"rs – @^   afx\o n]vf k/LIf0fsf] If]q, k|s[lt / cg'udg
             ;"rs – @&   jflif{s ah]6sf] ljwflosL ;ldIff
             ;"rs – @*   jflif{s n]vfk/LIf0fsf] ljwflosL ;ldIff
                         3= bft[ kIfsf] Jojxf/
             3!          ah]6 ;xof]usf] k"jf{g'dfg
             3@          cfof]hgf jf ah]6 ;xof]ujf/] bft[kIfaf6 ljQLo ;"rgfsf] pknJwtf
             3#          ;/sf/L gLlt lgod cGtu{t vr{ x'g] j}b]lzs ;xof]u /sdsf] cg'kft



sfo{;Dkfbg k|ltj]bg

o; k|ltj]bgsf] p2]Zo dfly plNnlvt cfwf/x?af6 ul/Psf] ;/sf/sf] ljQLo
Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{;Dkfbg:t/af/] hfgsf/L lbg] xf] . o;} k|ltj]bgsf]
cfwf/df ;/sf/ / bftfx?n] ah]6sf] sfo{;Dkfbgsf cfwf/df cfufdL
/0fgLltx? to ug{ d2t k'Ub5 .

o; k|ltj]bgsf] agf]6 lgDg ljifox? ;d]6L tof/ ul/Psf] x'G5 M
    sfo{;Dkfbg:t/ k/LIf0fsf] ;f/f+z
    kl/ro
    ;DalGwt b]z;+u ;DaGwLt dxTjk"0f{ ;"rgfx?
    ;"rgfsf cfwf/df tof/ ul/Psf] ;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkg k|0ffnL,
        k|lqmof / ;+:yfut Joj:yfsf] lj:t[t sfo{;Dkfbg:t/ dfkg;DaGwL
        s'/fx?
    ;/sf/sf] ;'wf/ k|of;

lgisif{

;fj{hlgs ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{;Dkfbg dfkg ;+/rgf s'g} klg b]zsf]
ljQLo Joj:yfkg d"Nof+sgsf nflu tof/ ul/Psf] d"Nof+sg
kl/;"rsx?sf] cjwf/0ff xf] . o;sf] k|of]uaf6 ;/sf/sf ljQLo Joj:yf
Jojxf/sf] s;Ldf s:tf] 5 egL d"Nof+sg ug{ ;lsg] x'G5 . o:tf]
k|lqmofsf] cjnDjgaf6 ;/sf/sf] ljQLo Joj:yfkgsf af/]df ;/sf/ :jo+,

                                  79
;/f]sf/jfnf, ;j{;fwf/0f / bftfnfO{ klg oyfy{ cj:yfsf] af/]df hfgsf/L
xfl;n x'G5 . o; k|lqmofnfO{ cjnDjg ug{ kl/;"rsx?sf] d"Nof+sg
ug{ cfjZos hgzlQm tof/ ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . of] ;+/rgf nfu" ug]{ jf
gug]{ eGg] ljifo ;/sf/sf] :j]R5fdf e/ kg]{ s'/f xf] . ;fj{hlgs ljQLo
Joj:yfkgnfO{ Jojl:yt, kf/bzL{ / k|efjsf/L agfpg] lbzfdf of]
;+/rgfaf6 ;"rgfx? ;/sf/nfO{ xfl;n x'g ;Sg] x'+bf cfjZos k"jf{wf/ /
hgzlQm tof/ u/L cjnDjg ug{ g} pko'Qm x'g] b]lvG5 .


gf]6M of] n]v Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Secretariat /
World Bank åf/f k|sflzt Public Financial Management Performance
Measurement Framework df cfwfl/t 5 .




                                    80
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


         /fi6« ;]jfdf g]t[Tj / sd{rf/Lsf]
                      e"ldsf




                                                 – eLdaxfb'/ clwsf/L*

>L % a8fdxf/fhflw/fh k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] hgtfsf] ;fy lnP/ PsLs/0f
ul/aS;]sf], cg]s hft–hfltx?n] / ljleGg ;+:s[ltn] ;lhPsf] lazfn g]kfn
/fi6« ;u/dfyf, pRr lxdfn, k'vf{x?af6 cToGt wfld{s / ;fdflhs
efjgfaf6 lgld{t snf–sf}zn, wfld{s–;f+:s[lts ;Dkbfx? 5g\ . To:t}
hft–hfltx? ldn]/ a;]sf 5g\ h;nfO{ >L % a8fdxf/fhflw/fh
k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] rf/ hft 5QL; j0f{sf] k"mnaf/Lsf] ?kdf
lnO{aS;]sf] lyof] . of] zfgLltk|o d'n'sdf hgtfsf] clwsf/ / ljsf;sf]
lgldt >L % lqe'jgn] u2Lsf] afhL nufP/, s]xL g]tfx? / ldq/fi6«
;d]tsf] ;sf/fTds efjgfaf6 @))& ;fndf k|hftGq NofO{alS;of] .
g]kfnLx? u/La eP klg OdfGbf/ 5g\, cg'zfl;t 5g\, pgLx?df jL/tf 5
eGg] OHht lyof] . wgL eP/ a]OdfgLdf ulgg' eGbf u/La eP klg
OdfgLdf ulgg' 7'nf] OHht xf] . g]kfndf k|hftGqsf] pHofnf] 3fd
nfu]kl5 b]zdf r]tgf / ljsf;sf nx/x? k}mlnb} uP . /f0ff zf;gdf ljsf;sf
sfo{x? s]xL gePsfn] hgtfx? lzIff, :jf:Yo oftfoft cflb If]qdf lgs}
k5fl8 k/]sf lyP . t/ /f0ffx?n] clxn]sf] h:tf] s/ klg nufPsf lyPgg\,
a}b]lzs ;xof]u klg lnPsf lyPgg\ . !(() ;fnsf] e"sDk h:tf] 7"nf] b}jL
k|sf]kdf klg >L # h'4n] s'g} ljb]zL ;xfotf lnPgg\ eGg] ;'lgGYof]
. hgtf clzlIft eP klg l;wf–;fwf, OdfGbf/ Pj+ cg'zfl;t lyP, ;/sf/sf] /
u'7Lsf] /sd vfg' x'Fb}g eGy] . g]t[Tjn] ljsf;sf] rfxgf /fv]g . cyf{t\
*
    ;b:o ;lrj, j]?h" km5of}{6 cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sg ;ldlt .

                                      81
ljsf;sf] lgldt c7f]6 ug{ ;s]g . Tof] a]nf b]zdf ljsf; ug{ k|oTg
ul/Psf] eP b]z lgs} cufl8 a9\g] lyof], lsgeg] hgtf cg'zfl;t lyP .
b'ef{Uoaz Tof] x'g ;s]g .

/f0ff zf;gdf lghfdtL k|zf;g lgs} ;/n lyof], clxn]sf] h:tf] ;/sf/L
cfDbfgL klg a9L lyPg, To;}n] sd vr{df rnfpg' jfWotf klg lyof] .
lhNnfdf dfn, cbfnt, kxf8df h+uL ldn]l;of / dw]zdf 7fgfsf] Joj:yf
lyof] . u8L, uf}+8f, uf]Zjf/fdf j8fxflsd /xGy] . j8fxflsdx? k|foM
u/]/ ;]gfsf clkm;/x? g} lgo'lQm x'Gy] . tna ;]gfaf6} vfg] x'gfn]
j8fxflsdn] eQf kfpFy] . lhNnfdf ;a} vr{ dfnn] uYof]{ . c? c•f
cbfntn] cf}ifwfno, kf7zfnfx?n] x:t]jf/L lnP/ vr{ u/L dfnd}
kmfF6jf/L a'emfpy] . s'df/L rf]sdf axL a'emfpg] sfd dfn c•fn]
g} uYof]{ . lhNnfdf a}+sx? klg lyPgg\, a}+ssf] sfd klg dfn c•fn]
g} uYof]{, dfn c•fdf @ ;fFrf] / # ;fFrf] eGg] b'O{ y/L txljn
x'GYof], lhNnfnfO{ rflxg] eGbf j9L ?lkofF tf]8frnfg u/L s]Gb|df
k7fOGYof] . To;sf] axLa'emfpg] lhDdf dfn c•fsf] x'GYof] .
txjLnsf] ;fFrf] eg] cbfnt, h+uL / dfn ;d]t # c•f;Fu x'GYof] . #
;fFrf txljn vf]Ng # c•f hDdf x'g' kYof]{ . Tof] a]nfsf] d'Vo
cfDbfgL dfnkf]t g} lyof] . /}tL -hgtf_ ;Fu dfnkf]t p7fpg] sfd
kxf8df kfvf] tk{msf] lt/f] -dfnkf]t_ p7fP/ dfndf a'emfpg ufpFdf
d'lvof / v]tsf] dfnkf]t p7fpg lhDdfjfn / dw]zdf lhdbf/sf] Joj:yf
lyof] . oL lhDdfjfn d'lvofx?nfO{ tna x'Fb}gYof], pgLx?n]
p7fPsf] dfnkf]t /sdsf] %Ü kfpFy] . t/ ufpFsf] hUuf k|zf;gdf
pgLx?sf] s]xL clwsf/ klg x'GYof], h;af6 hgtfx?n] pgLx?nfO{
dfGg' kg]{, a]7, j]uf/L, ;nfdL ltg'{ kg]{ cflb ug'{ kYof]{ . /f0ff
zf;gdf hfuL/ vf]l;Pkl5 ph'/–afh"/ ug]{ 7fpF klg lyPg . To;}n]
sd{rf/Lx? w]/} 8/fpFy] . /f0ff zf;gdf ljsf;lt/ ga9] klg zflGt–;'/Iff
/fd|f] lyof] . ;fdfGo k|zf;g cg'zfl;t lyof] .

/fhgLlt / /fHo;+rfngdf hgtfsf] xs clwsf/ lyPg . To:tf] xs ePg
egL af]Ng n]Vg kfOGgYof] . To:tf] af]Ng' n]Vg' Hofgsf] afhL
nufpg' kYof]{ . To:tf] af]Ng] slt zlxb eP, slt hGds}b eP, sltn]
cg]s ;f:tL kfP, sltsf] ;j{:j uof] . /f0ff zf;gsf] lj?4 nfUg]x?sf] kl5
cg]s u'Ktr/ x'Gy] . ;w} 8/ qf;n] afFRg'kYof]{ . :jod\ >L %
dxf/fhflw/fhn] klg /fhgLltdf af]Ng ufx|f] kYof]{ . To:tf] kl/l:yltdf
/f0ff zf;g lj?4 nfu]/ b]zdf k|hftGq Nofpg] >L % lqe'jgsf] of]ubfg

                                 82
/ tTsfnLg /f0ff zf;g lj?4 nfu]sf zlxbx?, hgtfx? / g]tfx?nfO{
g]kfnLn] slxNo} la;{g' x'Fb}g .

d'n'sdf k|hftGq h:tf] pQd zf;g Joj:yf cfP klg @)!% ;fn;Dd
/fhgLlts cl:y/tfsf] sf/0f pNn]vgLo k|ult x'g ;s]g . @)!% ;fndf
;+ljwfg cfof], lgjf{rg eof], g]kfnL sfFu|];sf] ax'dtsf] ;/sf/ aGof],
>L ljZj]Zj/ k|;fb sf]O/fnf h:tf 7"nf] g]tf k|wfgdGqL x'g' eof] . t/
bnut efjgf / ;/sf/n] ug{ nfu]sf] ;'wf/ tyf ljsf;sf sfddf afwf lj/f]w
ug]{ h:tf lqmofsnfkx? a9\g yfn] . k|hftGqdf h] u/] klg x'G5
eGg] cg'zf;gxLg, xf]xNnf x'g yfn]sf]n] tTsfnLg ;/sf/n] t'?Gt sfd
b]vfpg ufx|f] k¥of] . u/LaL / c1fgtfn] u|:t d'n'sdf :jtGqtf h:tf dfgj
clwsf/ klg lbg], b|"tultn] ;['wf/ / ljsf; klg ;fy} n}hfg] s'/f lgSs}
sl7gfO x['g] /x]5 . To;}n] >L % dx]Gb|af6 ljsf;sf] d"n k'm6fpg
;+;b ;d]t lj36g u/L lgb{nLo k~rfotL Joj:yfsf] ;"qkft u/LaLS;of] .
kf6L{x? klg k|ltalGwt eP .

kf6L{x?k|ltalGwt x'g] h:tf s]xL df}lns xsx? xgg\ ePtf klg
JolQmut?kdf kf6L{s} dflg;x? lnP/ >L % dx]Gb|sf] g]t[Tjdf
lgb{nLo k~rfotsfnsf] s]xL jif{x?df lgs} sfdx? eP . zf]if0f/lxt
;dfhsf] l;h{gf ug]{ nIo cg'?k ljtf{ k|yf, lsk6 Joj:yf, /fHo–/hf}6f
Joj:yfsf] vf/]hL / e"ld ;'wf/ h:tf sfo{qmd nfu" eP, hUufsf]
xbaGbL tf]lsof] . lhDd]bf/L, d'Vof}nL, j]7, j]u/, ;nfdL h:tf ;a} s'/f
vf/]h eof] . ;dfh ;'wf/sf] lgldQ gofF d'n'sL P]g aGof] . k"j{–
klZrd /fhdfu{ lgdf{0fsf] k|f/De, kxf8 t/fO{ Ps x'g] u/L c~rn
ljefhg eof] . lhNnf ljefhg, uf=lj=;= -tTsfnLg k~rfot_ sf] If]q
lgwf{/0f, b/af/x? /fli6«os/0f, r'/f]6 sf/vfgf, lrgL sf/vfgf, s[lif
cf}hf/ sf/vfgf, 5fnf h'Qf sf/vfgf, sfuh sf/vfgf h:tf sf/vfgfx?sf]
:yfkgf, /fli6«otfsf] ;DaG4{g tyf g]kfnnfO{ ljZjdf lrgfpg] / bf}To
;DaGw a9fpg] h:tf w]/} sfo{x? eP . o;/L /fi6«df >L %
dx]Gb|sf] g]t[Tjdf (÷!) jif{leqdf pNn]vgLo cfwf/e"t s'/fx? eP .
Tof] a]nf;Dd sldzgtGq klg km:6fPsf] lyPg . zf;g Joj:yfdf
g]t[Tjsf] 7"nf] e"ldsf x'g] /x]5 eGg] cg'e"lt eof] .

g]kfnsf] ;Dklt g} zflGt, ;u/dfyf To:tf] pRRf lxdfno, k'vf{x?af6
lgld{t snf–sf}zno'Qm dlGb/ tyf ;+:s[lt xf] . cfh zfgLltk|o d'n'sdf
:jfy{, e|i6frf/ kIfkft a9g', u/LaL a9g' cflb sf/0faf6 b]zdf c;+t'li6

                                 83
a9of], hgo'4 3f]if0f u/]/, wghgsf] Iflt u/]/, zflGt–;'/Iff vnanfpg
yfn]kl5, t'?Gt g} /fHoaf6 plrt sf/jfxL x'g' kg]{ lyof], /f]huf/L
cfGbf]ng rnfpg' kg]{ lyof], Tof] klg ePg . o;sf] sf/0f klxNofP/
To;sf] pkrf/ ug'{ kYof]{ . ;dod} ulDe/?kdf pkrf/ gx'Fbf b]zdf
åGån] k|>o kfof] . of] klg s'zn / lg:jfyL{ g]t[Tjsf] cefjn] ePsf]
xf] .

b]zdf zflGt–;'/Iff 5, Gofok"j{s cfk\mgf] pGglt / k|ult ug{
kfO/x]sf 5f}+ . ;/sf/n] xfd|f] nflu ;Sbf] k|of; ul//x]sf] 5 . b]zdf
cGofo, kIfkft, lyrf]ldrf] ePsf] 5}g . cfk\mgf] xs lxtsf s'/f ug{, dt
lbg, efjgf JoQm ug{ kfO/x]sf 5f}+, /fi6«n] x/ If]qdf oyf;Dej k|ult
ub}{5, b]zdf cGofo, cTofrf/ ePsf] 5}g, s;}n] 7u ug{ kfPsf
5}gg\, b]zsf] OHht a9b}5, OdfGbfl/tf / ljsf; a9b}5 eGg] cg'e"lt
kfpg' g} k|To]s b]zjf;Lsf] rfxgf xf], oxL g} k|hftGqsf] cg'e"lt xf]
/ ;'zf;g eg]sf] klg olx g} xf] . sfutdf clwsf/ lb+b}df h] kfof] Tof]
af]Ng kfpFb}df kf6L{ vf]Nb}df dt xfNb}df k|hftGq x'g] xf]Og
/x]5 eGg] s'/f xfdLn] cg'ej ub}{ cfPsf 5f}+ .

hgtfdf pko'{Qm cg'e"lt lbnfO{ k|hftGqk|lt ;a}sf] k|]d / cf:yf
hufpg' g} zf;g Joj:yfsf] nIo x'g'k5{ . c;n zf;g Joj:yfdf Pp6f
Gofok"0f{ k|0ffnL / bf]>f] To;nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ lg:jfy{ tyf
s'zn k|zf;s -g]tf, dGqL / sd{rf/L_ x'g lgtfGt cfjZos /x]5 . k|0ffnL
/fd|f] x'Fb}df klg /fd|f] zf;g x'G5 eGg ;lsb}g . k|0ffnL /fd|f] 5}g,
s'zn k|zf;s 5 eg] klg Tof] :yfoL x'Fb}g, /fhdbaf6 lju|g ;S5 . t;y{
c;n k|hftGq / k|zf;gsf] lgldt c;n k|0ffnL / c;n zf;s cyf{t g]t[Tjsf]
cfjZos x'Fbf] /x]5 . k|hftGqdf ;/sf/ rnfpg] g]t[Tj kfPsfx?n] s'g}
nf]e nfNrf, bnut efjgf, kIfkftlt/ gnfu]/ laNs'n} lg:jfyL{ / uf]Zjf/f
dflg; eP/ /fi6« / ;j{;fwf/0f hgftfsf] enfO{df nfu]/ hgtfdf pko'{Qm
jdf]lhd k|hftGqsf] cg'e"lt hufpg ;Sg' kg]{ /x]5 . Tof] s'/f xfd|f
g]t[Tjju{n] ug{ ;s]gg\ . sd{rf/Ldf klg /fd|f] 5fk kfg{ ;s]gg\ .

;/sf/ eg]sf] hgtfsf] ;]jfsf] nflu xf] . hgtfsf] zflGt–;'/Iff tyf k|ultsf]
nflu c;n zf;g Joj:yf x'g' k5{ . c;n zf;g Joj:yfsf] nflu k|zf;g /
cg'zf;gsf] 7"nf] e"ldsf x'G5 . ;]jfefjn] cfk\mgf] st{Jokfngdf
l9nfz':tL x'g glbg cg'udgsf] klg 7"nf] e"ldsf x'G5 . ;/sf/ eg]sf]
wd{ ;+:yf xf] cyf{t\ sNof0fsf/L ;+:yf xf] lsgeg], o;n] hgtfsf] enf]

                                   84
l;jfo s'enf] slxNo} ub}{g . o;n] hgtfsf] zflGt–;'/Iff u5{, Gofo u5{,
xssf] ;'/Iff u5{, hgtfsf] nflu lzIffno, :jf:Yo s]Gb|, vfg]kfgL, ;8s,
oftfoft, OToflb ljsf;sf sfdx? u5{ . o:tf] sNof0fsf/L sfd ug]{
;+:yfsf] g]t[Tj ug]{ / sfo{stf{x? -;f+;b, dGqL tyf sd{rf/Lx?_
cToGt ;]jf efjn] cf]t k|f]t ePsf x'g'k5{ . hgtfsf sfdx? cToGt ;]jf
efjn] xfF;L v'zL eO{ hlt ;Sof] rfF8f] u/L lbg' k5{ . ;+:yfsf
sd{rf/Lx?sf] ;]jf efjn] ul/Psf sfdaf6 hgtfdf /fd|f] c;/ kf5{ . xfd|f]
g]t[Tj ug]{ g]tf jf ;/sf/sf sd{rf/Lx?n] ;fx|} /fd|f] sfd u/]sf 5g\ eGg]
efjgf hfu[t x'G5 h;af6 hgtfdf xf};nf / ljsf;sf] nx/ km}lnG5 .

/fi6«sf] pGglt / k|ultdf sfd ug]{ ePsfn] g} /fi6«;]jsx?nfO{ hgtfn]
dfg dof{bf /fVb} cfPsf x'g\ . /fi6«;]js k|ltsf] dof{bf b]ptfsf
kfnfb]lv xfn;Dd g} sfod 5 . ;dfhdf s/f]8f}+ ;Dklt ePsf] dflg;nfO{
eGbf yf]/} k};f vfg] eP tfklg /fi6« ;]jsnfO{ ;Ddfg j9L g} u5{g\ .
/fi6«;]js x'g kfpg[' ;f}efUosf] s'/f xf] . of] ;DdfgnfO{ /fi6«;]jsn]
c;n sfd u/]/ pgLx?sf] ;]jf ug'{k5{ . /fHo jf ;/sf/ eg]sf] Pp6f ufO{
xf] . cfh $ dfgf b"w lbG5 eg] xfdL ;a}n] ;]jf u/]/ -s'F8f], kfgL /
3fF; lbP/_ * dfgf b"w lbg] agfpg' k5{, clg ;a}n] Gofok"j{s
afF8Lr'F8L vfg' k5{ . ufO{sf] ;]jf gug]{ t/ b"wsf] w]/} cfzf ug]{,
of] ldNg] s'/f xf]Og . /fHosf] ;]jf ug]{ /fi6« ;]js Pp6f >dhLjL ju{
xf] . /fi6«;]jsn] lg:jfy{ efjn] sd{of]uL ag]/ cfk\mgf st{Jokfng u/]/
/fi6«sf] ;]jf u5{ eg] To;n] c? wd{ ul//xg kb}{g To;}af6 pm kf/
x'g ;S5 . log} s'/fx? xfd|f] >Ldb\efjut uLtf / wd{zf:qx?n] lgb]{zg
ul//x]sf 5g\ .

c;n zf;gsf] nflu k|zf;g / cg'zf;gsf] cfjZostf x'G5 . k|zf;gdf ljleGg
;+u7g x'G5g\ . tL ;+u7gdf tnb]lv dfly;Dd cg'zf;g x'g' k5{ .
cg'zf;g ePg eg] nIo xfl;n ug{ ufx|f] k5{ . cg'zf;g eg]sf] tNnf]
txsfn] dfq kfng ug]{ xf]Og of] t dflyb]lvg} cyf{t hgtfsf] txb]lvg}
x'g'k5{ . ;fj{ef}d;Qf kfPsf hgtf, ltGn] 5fg]sf k|ltlglw tyf
dGqLb]lvg} cg'zf;g kfng u/]/ pbfx/0fLo aGg' k5{ . h'g–h'g
p2]Zo k"lt{sf nflu ;+u7g ag]sf x'G5g\, tL tL p2]Zo k|flKt ePdf
dfq ;kmntf k|fKt x'G5 . p2]Zo k|flKtsf] nflu sfo{ ;Dkfbgsf] 7"nf]
e"ldsf x'G5 . sd{rf/Ldf sfo{ ;Dkfbg /fd|} xf];\ eGgfsf] nflug}
z}lIfs of]Uotf, Ho]i7tf / cg'ejsf] cfjZostf x'G5 . olb sfo{ ;Dkfbg


                                  85
/fd|f] ug{ / hgtfsf] ;]jf ug{ ;Q}mg eg] hlt;'s} z}lIfs of]Uotf xf];\ jf
jiff}{+–jif{sf] cg'ej xf];\ To;sf] s'g} pknlJw x'Fb}g .

;/sf/ jf ;+u7gn] hgtfsf] ;]jfsf] nflu ;+t'li6 lbg ;Q}mg eg] To;nfO{
hgtfn] /fd|f] dfGb}gg\ . o;sf] lhDd]jf/L zf;s / sd{rf/Ln] lng' k5{ .
zf;s / sd{rf/Ldf l9nf ;':tL, e|i6frf/, :jfy{, kIfkftx? a9\of] / hgtfdf
c;+t'li6 cfof] eg] b]zdf ljleGg ljs[lt / åGåx? a95g\ hf] clxn]
eO/x]sf] 5 .

;a}n] OdfGbf/Lk"j{s tf]lsPsf sfdx? ul/lbPdf cg'udgsf] cfjZostf
x'Fb}g t/ tf]lsPsf sfdx? ;do–;dodf x'Fb}g eg] ToxfF cg'udgsf]
cToGt vfFrf] x'G5 . k|zf;gdf cg'udg ug]{ / sfo{;Dkfbgsf]
d"Nof+sg ug]{ rng /f0ff zf;gdf klg lyof] . c•f cbfntn] tf]lsPsf]
;dodf d'2f l5g] l5g]gg\, /Ltk"j{s sfd u/] u/]gg\ egL hfFRg] Pp6f
c•f hfFr eGg] c•f lyof] . ToxfFsf sd{rf/Lx? c•f cbfntdf uP/
k|To]s ldl;n -kmfOn_ x]/]/ l9nfz':tL / /Ltk"j{ssf] gePsf] b]Vgf;fy
hl/jfgf u/]/ ;f] hl/jfgf c;"n ug{] ;|]:tf txl;ndf k7fpy] . ;fy} dfn c•f
cbfntsf] ;fn tdfd ePkl5 khgL sfuh k]z ug{ rng lyof] . /f0ff zf;gdf
khgL Joj:yf lyof] . khgL eg]sf] sd{rf/Lsf] ydf}tL, ;?jf, a9'jf, vf];'jf
ug]{ k|0ffnL xf] . jif{ lbgsf] sfdsf] d"Nof+sg u/]/ ydf}tL, ;?jf,
a9'jf, vfuL yk jf vf];'jf ug]{nfO{ khgL elgGYof] . o;sf] nflu c•f
cbfntx?n] khgL sfuh k]z ug'{ kYof]{ . khgL sfuh eg]sf] jflif{s
sfo{ ;Dkfbg k|ltj]bg xf] . of] k|ltj]bgdf n]lvPsf s'/fx? 7Ls–a]7Ls
s] x'g\ egL tfn'sjfnf sfof{no / d'n'sL c•fn] hfFr uYof]{ . clxn]sf]
h:tf] 7f8f] kmf/d eg]{ k4lt xf]Og . jf:tljs sfdx? / km5of}{6x?sf]
ljj/0f x'GYof] . pbfx/0fsf] nflu dfn c•fsf] khgL sfuhdf dfnkf]tsf]
nut slt, p7tL slt, aSof}tf slt, c•fdf kg{ cfPsf] bvf{:t slt,
km5of}{6 slt, slt d'2f k/], slt km5of}{6 eP, cflb pNn]v x'Gy] .
;f/f+zdf eGg] xf] eg] /f0ff zf;gdf hfuL/ jif}{lkR5] sfdsf] cfwf/df
gjLs/0f x'GYof] . hflu/sf] ;'/Iff lyPg . jt{dfg k|zf;gsf] s'/f ubf{
k'/fgf s'/f ;Demgfdf cfPsfn] clt ;+If]kdf pNn]v ul/Psf x'g\ . jf:tjdf
xfdLn] jt{dfgnfO{ g} /fd|f] ug'{ k5{ .

/fi6« ;]jfsf] nflu g]t[Tjju{ / sd{rf/Lsf] 7"nf] e"ldsf x'G5 .
k|hftflGqs Joj:yfdf g]t[Tjju{ 5fGg] sfd ;fj{ef}d;Qf kfPsf hgtfn]
kIfkft, nf]e nfNrf/lxt ;fbf hLjg pRr ljrf/ ePsf] lg:jfy{ k|ltlglw 5fGg

                                  86
;Sg'k5{ . bnLo Joj:yfdf bnx?n] klg To:tf] JolQm pd]bf/ agfpg'
k5{ . bnx?n] To:tf] JolQm pDd]bjf/ agfpg ;s]gg\ eg] gful/s
;dfhn] :jtGq / of]Uo JolQmnfO{ p7fpg ;Sg'k5{ . e|i6frf/df
nfUg], /fi6«sf] uf]Zjf/f ;Dkltdf kIfkft ug]{, /fi6«nfO{ g]t[Tj lbg
g;Sg], u/La hgtfnfO{ x]g{ g;Sg] cg]s ljs[lt pAhfpg] k|ltlglw eP
eg] b]zdf czflGt, åGå a9\g ;S5 . hf] cfh eO/x]sf] 5 . /fd|f]
g]t[Tj eP dfq, sd{rf/Lsf] klg Joj:yf ldNg ;S5 / sfd ug{ klg ;S5g\
.

sfd st{Jo kfng ug'{kg]{ sd{rf/Lsf] lgldQ P]g–lgod ;d]t pNn]v
ePsf lgb]{lzsf / kfng ug'{kg]{ sfg"g k|i6 ePsf] dfu{bz{g agfpg'
cToGt cfjZos 5 . sfof{nodf kg{ cfPsf bvf{:t lgj]bg jf sfdx? btf{
x'g'k5{ / Tof] slt ;dodf km5of}{6 eof] eGg] ldlt k|i6 x'g' k5{ .
To:t} of]hgfx?sf] klg d"Nof+sg ug'{k5{ . of] btf{ / km5of}{6sf]
ljj/0fsf] cfwf/df sd{rf/Lsf] d"Nof+sg x'g'k5{ . s]xL s'/fx? >L %
sf] ;/sf/sf] sfo{ km5of}{6 lgodfjnLn] klg Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . ;dodf
sfd eP gePsf] cg'udgsf] klg bl/nf] Joj:yf x'g'k5{ .

hg;Dk{s x'g] sfof{nodf sfd ;lsPkl5 sfd lng] JolQmn],
kmfF6jfnfn] slt rfF8f] sfd ul/lbP, slt ;xof]uL ag]/ ul/lbP jf Hofb}
gsf/fTds eP/ u/] ls eGg] s'/fsf] dt ;+sng ug]{ / ;f]sf] ljj/0f ;+sng
u/L To;sf] cfwf/df sb/ ug]{ Joj:yf a;fNg' /fd|f] x'g]5 . hgtfn]
cfˆgf] dt s;/L sxfF k]z ug]{ / s;/L ;+sng ug]{ eGg] s'/fsf]
cg';Gwfg / cWoog u/]/ Joj:yf a;fNg' k5{ . /fi6« ;]jf / hgd'vL
k|zf;gsf] lgldQ of] s'/f w]/} pkof]uL x'g]5 .

pko'{Qm ljleGg Joj:yfaf6 rfF8f] / /fd|f] sfd ug]{ tyf hgtfdf /fd|f]
b]lvPsf] sd{rf/Lsf] sb/ x'g'k5{ lsgeg] ;/sf/ eg]sf] hgtfsf] nflu xf]
/ of] sNof0fsf/L ;+:yf xf], sd{rf/L sNof0fsf/L ;+:yfsf sfo{stf{ x'g\
. jf:tjdf pTs[i6 k'/:sf/ h:tf ljleGg k|f]T;fxg klg o:t} rfF8f] / /fd|f]
sfd ug]{ ;]jfefj ePsf] sd{rf/Ln] kfpg' k5{ . sfof{nosf] sfdsf] /]s8{
/ hgtfn] klg /fd|f] sfd ug]{ egL pko'{Qm Joj:yfaf6 k|dfl0ft ePsf]
sd{rf/L g} jf:tjdf /fi6«;]js xf] . o:tf sd{rf/Lsf] ;+Vof a9fP/
/fi6«;]jssf] dof{bf a9fpg' k5{ . o:tf] Joj:yf g]t[Tjju{n] ldnfpg' k5{
. /fi6« ;]jfdf g]t[Tjju{ / sd{rf/Lsf] 7"nf] e"ldsf x'G5 . logLx?s}
sfo{bIftf / ;]jf efjgfn] ;dfhdf 7"nf] k|efj kf5{ .

                                  87





88
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


     g]kfn lghfdtL ;]jfdf Jofj;flos dfkb08M
                    s]xL rrf{



                                               – z]ifgf/fo0f dfgGw/*

hgsNof0fsf/L /fHosf] :yfkgfsf] p2]Zo cg'?k /fHosf tTsfnLg
sfo{x?dWo] zflGt / ;'/Iffsf] sfo{;Dkfbg, cfjZos s]xL dfqfdf s/sf]
c;"nL, ;–;fgf ljsf; lgdf{0fsf] sfo{x?sf] ;+rfng / ;Dkfbg nufot
hgtfx?sf] j9\bf] cfsf+Iffx?sf] k"lt{sf] nflu bIf, k]zfut, lhDd]jf/L
Pj+ :jR5 / kf/bzL{ lghfdtL ;]jfsf] cfjZostf dx;"; eO{ tTsfnLg
;donfO{ pko'Qm x'g] lsl;dn] @)!# ;fndf lghfdtL ;]jf nfu" eO{
;f]xL P]g cGtu{t ljleGg ;]jfx? u7g eO{ @)## ;fndf ljz]if1tfsf]
ljsf;sf] nflu cfjZos gofF ljz]if1tfk"0f{ ;d"xx?sf] ;d"x (Occupational
groups) / ;f] ;d"xleq klg yk ljz]if1tf ;lxtsf] pk;d"xx? -pbfx/0fsf]
nflu :jf:y ;]jftkm{ hg/n d]l8;Lg Pp6f ;d"x eof] eg] ;f] ;d"xleq d'6'
/f]u ;DjGwL ljz]if ;Dkfbg ug]{ sfd ug]{ pk;d"x sfl8{of]nhL,
sn]hf] ;DjlGwt /f]udf sfd ug]{ lxkf6f]nhL, zNolqmof k|0ffnL
cGtu{t / lr/kmf/ ug]{ k|0ffnL cGtu{t xf8hf]gL{ ;DalGwt sfd
cyf{]k]l8s ;h{/L, jRrfx?sf] zNolqmof ug]{ lk8Lkfl6«s ;h{/L,
d'6'/f]u;+u ;DjlGwt zNolqmof ug]{ sfl8{s ;h{/L h:tf pk;d"xx?_
klg u7g ul/of] . o:t} OlGhlgol/+u tkm{ OlGhlgol/+usf] ;fwf/0f
sfd ug]{ eGbf ljz]if1fk"0f{ sfdx? ug'{ kg]{ lsl;dsf] xfO{8«f]
lhof]nhL, OlGhlgol/+u lhof]nhL, l;len PleP;g tkm{ l;len ck/];G;
6«flkms ;le{;]h, km\nfO6 ck/];G;, P]ldP;g kmfo/ ;le;]{h cflb
pk;d"xx? ljz]if1tfk"0f{ sfo{;Dkfbgsf] lhDd]jf/L jxg ub{5g\ . ;do–
;dodf oL ;]jfx?df cfjZos ;d"x / pk;d"xx? ;d]t sfod ePsf 5g\ .

*
    ;]jf lgj[Q ;x;lrj, >L % sf] ;/sf/ .

                                          89
ljTbf] ;do;+u;+u} b]zdf ljsf; of]hgfx?df ePsf] j9\bf] nufgLsf]
sf/0fn] @))& ;fndf /x]sf ;Dk"0f{ sd{rf/Lx?sf] ;+Vof @*,)$& af6
xfn @)$^ ;fn r}q d;fGt;Ddsf :yfoL lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?sf] ;+Vof
dfq clwstd !,)!,))) k'uL @)%^.)%& leq s6f}ltdf k/L cGbfhL xfn
s/Lj *) xhf/df ;Lldt /x]sf] 5 . o; afx]s c:yfoL sd{rf/Lx?sf] ;+Vof
klg xhf/f}+df /x]sf] 5 . nufgLsf] b[li6sf]0faf6 klg @))* ;fndf %
s/f]8 ah]6af6 z'? ePsf] jflif{s ah]6 xfn cfP/ s/Lj !)) c/j gf3]sf]5 .
ljsf; sfo{qmdx?sf] clej[l4sf] b[li6sf]0fn] klg klxnf] k+r jifL{o
of]hgfdf ## s/f]8 nufgL ug]{ nIf /x]sf]df xfn bzf} k+r jifL{o
of]hgfsf] nufgL em08} ^$) c/j k'Ug] ;Defjgf /x]sf] 5 .
sd{rf/Lx?sf] clej[l4 / nufgLsf] clej[l4sf] b[li6sf]0fn] ;d]t lghfdtL
;]jfsf] lqmofsnfkdf j[l4 ePsf] ;xh} cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . ctM j[l4
ePsf] ljsf; k|zf;gsf sfo{x?df nufgL tyf lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|of]u ePsf
cTofw'lgs k|ljlwx?n] j9L k]zfut bIftf ePsf] lghfdtL ;]jfsf] cfjZostf
68\sf/f]?kdf b]vf k5{ . o; kl/k|]Ifdf ljrf/ ubf{ lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ j9L
j}1flgs / bIf agfpg clgjfo{ ePsf] 5 .

;+;f/el/sf ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zsf lghfdtL ;]jf k|0ffnLsf bIfx? Tof] ;do
g]kfndf cfPsf ;Nnfxsf/x?sf] ;Nnfx cg';f/ ljsf; of]hgfsf r'gf}tLx?
k"lt{ ug]{ lsl;dsf] sfof{Gd'v lghfdtL ;]jf k|0ffnL cg'?k lghfdtL
;]jfdf kb juL{s/0f of]hgf ug{ yflnPsf] k|of; ;kmn gePkl5 o;nfO{
qmlds?kdf nfu" ug]{ sfo{ hf/L /x]sf]5 .

o;} qmddf >L % sf] ;/sf/n] @)## ;fndf lghfdtL ;]jfleq ljsf;
sfo{sf] cfjZostfg';f/ ljz]if1tfsf] ljsf; ug{sf] ;fy} ljz]if1x?nfO{
;DjlGwt If]qdf dfq pkof]u ug]{ / ljz]if1x?sf] ;DjlGwt If]qdf dfq
j[lQ ljsf;sf] cj;/ k|bfg ug{ lghfdtL ;]jfsf k|fljlws / k|zf;g ;]jfx?df
@)%).)%! ;fnx?df dfly pNn]v eP cg';f/ sfod ePsf ljleGg
;d"x÷pk;d"xx? u7g u/]sf]5 . oL ;d"x÷pk;d"xx? qmdzM cg';"rL
-s_, -v_, -u_, -3_, -ª_, -r_ / -5_ df lbOPsf 5g\ .

;d"x÷pk;d"xx?sf] u7g tyf z}lIfs of]Uotfsf] lgwf{/0fn] ljleGg
sfo{;Dkfbgsf] nflu cfjZos ;d"xut ljz]if1tfsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . ;fy}
o;n] s]xL xb;Dd ;d"xleq /x]sf] sfo{;Dkfbg ug{ pko'Qm
kbflwsf/Lx? 5fGg / sd{rf/Lx?sf] j[lQ ljsf;sf] nflu d2t k'¥ofPsf] 5

                                  90
. t/ Joj;fox?sf] ;d"xut JofVof, :t/x? JofVof tyf :t/ut ?kdf /x]sf]
txsf] sfd, st{Jo / lhDd]jf/Lsf] :t/ tyf ;f] lhDd]jf/L lgjf{x ug{ cfjZos
1fg tyf ;Lksf] JofVofsf] cefjdf lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ jflG5t ?kdf k]zfut
agfpg ;lsPsf] 5}g . o; afx]s ;/sf/L ;]jfdf ljBdfg /x]sf sfdx?sf] x/]s
txsf] lhDd]jf/Lsf] :t/ ;d]tsf] klxrfg gx'g ;s]sf]n] ;dfg >]0fLsf] nflu
Ps} :t/sf] lhDd]jf/L sfod x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . kmntM Ps} txsf] sfdsf]
nflu 5'6[f5'6[} txsf kbx? l;h{gf ug]{ k/Dk/f sfod /xg'sf] ;fy} ;dfg
txsf] nflu ;dfg j]tgsf] l;4fGtnfO{ nfu" ug{ ;d]t sl7gfO{ kg'{
:jfefljs klg b]lvG5 . o;sf] cnfjf j}1flgs dfkb08sf] tof/L x'g
g;s]sf]n] x/]s txsf] lhDd]jf/L jxg ug{ s]–s:tf] lsl;dsf] 1fg, ;Lk jf
cg'ej cfjZoss 5 ;f] ;d]t ls6fg x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . kbx? k"lt{ ug{
cfjZos elg tf]lsPsf] z}lIfs of]Uotf / pDd]bjf/ x'g cfjZo gf]s/L
jif{sf] cfwf/df dfq j9'jfsf] nflu pDd]bjf/ x'g ;Sg] Joj:yfn] ubf{
kbf]Gglt ePsf sd{rf/Lx?df kbsf] lhDd]jf/L lng] cg';f/sf] of]Uotf
eP gePsf] yfxf gx'g] ePsf]n] 7Ls 7fpFdf 7Ls JolQmsf] l;4fGt
cg'?k ;d]t kb:yfkg ePsf] 5 eGg sl7gfO k/]sf]5 . ctM o;
kl/k|]Iodf lghfdtL ;]jfdf ljBdfg ;a} lsl;dsf sfo{x?sf] tx÷>]0fLsf]
j}1flgs k2lt cg';f/ :ki6 lhDd]jf/L ;d]t gls6Psf]n] j}1flgs Jofj;flos
dfkb08sf] cfjZostf klg lglj{jfb /x]sf]5 .

Jofj;flos dfkb08 s] xf] <

Jofj;flos dfkb08 æJoj;foÆ / ædfkb08Æ b'O{ zJbx? ldn]/
ag]sf] 5 . Joj;fo eGgfn] s'g} lglZrt sfdsf] k|s[ltnfO{ hgfpF5,
ædfkb08Æ eGgfn] s'g} lglZrt s'/f gfKg k|of]u ul/g] HofjnnfO{
hgfpF5 .

Jofj;flos dfkb08 j}1flgs juL{s/0f k|0ffnLnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg]
Pp6f Hofjnsf] ?kdf ;j{dfGo eO{ ;s]sf] 5 . tTsfnLg cd]/LsL
lghfdtL ;]jf cfof]un] k|sflzt u/]sf] Classification Principle and Policies
1963 df Jofj;flos dfkb08sf] JofVof lgDg adf]lhd u/]sf]5 .

"A   set of document' ..................... 'which provide information for
distinguishing the duties and responsibilities, and the qualifications
requirements of position in one class from those of position in other classes,
and which thus provide the criteria for placing each position in its proper


                                      91
class. These standards distinguish both as to level of difficulty and
responsibility as to kind of work."

"A written description of classes (occupation), title, definition, examples of
work, performed, required knowledges, skills and abilities, minimum,
experience and training and any necessary special requirements."

oL b'O{ kl/efiffx?nfO{ ljrf/ ubf{ Jofj;flos dfkb08 eGgfn] s'g} Ps
;d"xsf] >]0fLut ?kdf x/]s >]0fLsf] sfd, st{Jo / pQ/bfloTj, gd";"rs
sfdx? tyf ;f] sfd st{Jo / pQ/bfloTj jxg ug{ cfjZos z}lIfs of]Uotf,
;Lk, cg'ej h:tf of]Uotf bzfO{Psf] lnlvt b:tfj]hsf] ?kdf lng ;lsG5 .

Jofj;flos dfkb08sf] pkof]lutf

Jofj;flos dfkb08sf] k|of]u ul/+bf g]kfn lghfdtL ;]jfleq k|of]u x'g]
lgDg adf]lhd k|zf;lgs ;'wf/ sfo{df d2t k'Ug] b]lvG5 M–

-s_    s'g} klg kb s'g} Ps ;]jf÷;d"xdf g} lsg sfod ug]{ eGg]
       s'/fsf] cfwf/ tof/ x'g]5 . o;n] lghfdtL ;]jfdf /x]sf] Ps}
       k|sf/sf] sfo{ ljleGg ;]jfdf sfod x'g] k|j[lQsf] cGt x'g]5 .

-v_    s'g} Ps kbsf] sfdsf] lhDd]jf/L :t/ lgwf{/0f ug]{ cfwf/ tof/
       eO{ xfn lghfdtL ;]jfdf /x]sf] ljleGg ;+u7gx?df Ps :t/sf]
       sfdsf] nflu ljleGg >]0fL sfod ul/g] k|yf ;dfKt x'g]5 . o;n]
       ;dfg sfdsf] nflu ;fdfGotM ;dfg j]tgsf] l;4fGt nfu" ug{ ;d]t
       cfwf/ tof/ x'g]5 .
-u_    pko'Qm kbdf pko'Qm kbflwsf/Lsf] kb:yfkg ug{ cfjZos
       cfwf/x? tof/ x'g]5 / o;n] ubf{ x/]s ;d"xsf] x/]s >]0fL jf :t/sf]
       kbdf cfjZos of]Uotf, ;Lk / cg'ej ;d]t tf]lsO{ ;f] of]Uotf
       k'u]sf kbflwsf/Lx?af6 dfq kbx? k"lt{ x'g hfg] eO{ lghfdtL
       ;]jfleq ljz]if1tfsf] ljsf; x'g]5 . o;} qmddf x/]s ;d"xleq >]0fL
       / :t/ut cfjZos of]Uotfx? -1fg, ;Lk / cg'ej_ :ki6 x'g] ePsf]n]
       sd{rf/Lx? 5gf}6sf] nflu :ki6 cfwf/x? tof/ eO{ sd{rf/L
       5gf}6 ug]{ sfo{df j}1flgstf Nofpg d2t ldNg]5 .
-3_    hgzlQm of]hgfsf] cfwf/sf] ?kdf klg Jofj;flos dfkb08n] d2t
       ug]{ s'/f :jtM l;4 5 . x/]s ;d"xsf] nflu cfjZos of]Uotf, ;Lk,


                                      92
      tyf tflndsf k|sf/x? tf]lsg] x'gfn] ljifout?kdf cfjZos
      hgzlQmaf6 ljBdfg hgzlQmnfO{ 36fpgfn] af+sL cfjZos
      yk hgzlQm lgsfNg d2t x'g]5 .

-ª_   sfo{;Dkfbg d"Nof+sg ug{ klg Jofj;flos dfkb08n] cfwf/sf]
      ?kdf d2t      ub{5 . Jofj;flos dfkb08df x/]s >]0fLsf]
      kbut?kdf lhDd]jf/Lsf] :t/ tf]sL gd"gf ;"rs sfo{ ;d]t pNn]v
      x'g] x'gfn] sfo{;Dkfbgsf] :t/ tf]lsP adf]lhd eP gePsf] jf
      sd{rf/Ln] cfkm} u/] gu/]sf] ljZn]if0f u/L sfo{;Dkfbg
      d"Nof+sgnfO{ j}1flgs / k|efjsf/L agfpg ;lsg]5 .

Jofj;flos dfkb08sf] tof/L

Jofj;flos dfkb08 tof/ ug]{ sfo{ Hofb} uxg tyf h6Ln x'G5 .
Jofj;flos dfkb08 tof/ ug{ sfo{ juL{s/0fsf l;4fGtx? Dffq yfxf eP/
k'Ub}g . sfo{ juL{s/0fdf l;4fGtx? nufot ;+u7gx?leq ljBdfg
;Dk"0f{ sfo{sf] lj:t[t / uxg?kdf hfgsf/L x'g' klg cfjZos 5 lsgeg]
Jofj;flos ljZn]ifsx? (Occupational Analysists) nfO{ sfo{ juL{s/0fsf
l;4fGtx? nufot k|zf;gsf ljleGg l;4fGtx? Yffxf x'G5 t/ ;DjlGwt
ljifox?sf] hfgsf/L ljgf x/]s ;d"xdf kg]{ ;a} lsl;dsf sfo{x?sf] k|s[lt,
k|lqmof / h6Lntfx? Yffxf x'b}g / o; 1fgsf] cefjdf x/]s >]0fL /
kbx?sf] lhDd]jf/L cg';f/sf] JofVof, gd"gf ;"rs sfo{ tyf cfjZos
of]Uotf lgwf{/0f ug{ ;lsb}g . ;fy} kbsf] juL{s/0f ug]{ lqmofdf
k|efj kfg]{ tTjx?sf] h:t} sfo{sf] k|s[lt / k|sf/, kbsf] nflu cfjZos
;'k/Lj]If0f tyf kbn] ug'{ kg]{ sfo{;Dkfbg ug{ kbn] k|of]u ug'{ kg]{
;'k/Lj]If0fsf] :t/, sfo{;Dkfbg ug{ kbn] k|of]u ug'{ kg]{ jf}l4s :t/,
hg;Dks{sf] :t/, kbn] ug'{ kg]{ lg0f{o / lbg' kg]{ ;'emfjx?sf] k|s[lt
tyf :t/ / z}lIfs of]Uotfx?sf] sfo{ ;DjlGwt 1fgsf] cefjdf ljZn]if0f u/L
:t/ 5'6\ofpg ufx|f] kg]{5 .

Jofj;flos dfkb08 tof/ ubf{ :t/sf] JofVof ug{ tyf gd"gf ;"rs
sfo{x?df Ps >]0fL eGbf csf]{ >]0fLsf] kb aLr lhDd]jf/Lsf] :t/
km/s kfg]{ sfo{ ;a}eGbf sl7g, uxg / h6Ln dx;'; ePsf] 5 . t}klg
k|:t't k|yd d:of}bf tof/ ubf{ M



                                  93
-s_   /fhkqf+lst t[tLo >]0fLsf] kbdf v'Nnf k|ltof]lutfsf] cfwf/df
      kbflwsf/Lx?sf] gofF lgo'lQm x'Fbf pgLx?sf] nflu cfjZos
      tflnd cledGq0ff cfjZos x'g] ePsf]n] ;'k/Lj]Ifssf] lgs6d
      ;Dks{df /xL sfo{;Dkfbg ug'{ kg]{ jf lhNnf sfof{nosf]
      k|d'vsf] ?kdf sfd ug{ ;Sg] .

-v_   /fhkqf+lst låtLo >]0fL tNnf] :t/ ;/xsf kbx?nfO{ s'g} Ps
      If]qdf :jtGq ?kn] sfo{;Dkfbg ug{ ;Sg], s]Gb|Lo ;+u7gdf
      pkzfvf k|d'v jf dxfzfvfdf ;xfossf] ?kdf, lhNnf sfof{no,
      c+rn sfof{nosf] k|d'v jf If]qLo sfof{nodf ;xof]uLsf] ?kdf
      sfd ;Dkfbg ug]{, lg0f{osf] k|efj ;Lldt If]qdf kg]{ kbsf]
      ?kdf, /

-u_   /fhkqf+lst låtLo >]0fL dflyNnf] :t/ ;/xsf] kbnfO{ cfjZos
      sfo{ s'g} Ps If]qdf cflwsf/Ls?kdf sfo{;Dkfbg ug{ ;Sg],
      s]Gb|Lo ;+u7gdf zfvf k|d'v, c+rn jf dWod:t/Lo cfof]hgf
      k|d'v, If]qLo sfof{nosf] ;xof]uL, lg0f{osf] k|efj cfkm\gf]
      If]qdf ;Lldt?kdf kg{ ;Sg] .

-3_   /fhkqf+lst k|yd >]0fL tNnf] :t/ ;/xsf] kbnfO{ >L % sf]
      ;/sf/sf] gLlt / sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog u/fpg] jf pRrtd / h6Ln
      k|ljlw ;DjGwdf pRr clws[tnfO{ k/fdz{ lbg, h6Ln k|ljlw
      cfjZos x'g] cfof]hgf If]qLo sfof{nosf jf s]Gb|df ljefuLo jf
      dxfzfvf k|d'vsf] ?kdf tyf o:tf kbflwsf/Lx?df lg0f{osf] k|efj
      x'g] Ps If]qdf /fli6«o:t/df kg{ ;Sg] kbsf] ?kdf, tyf

-ª_   /fhkqf+lst k|yd >]0fL dflyNNf]f :t/ ;/xsf] kbnfO{ pRr:t/Lo
      kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ k|ljlw tyf ;DjlGwt cGo k|fljlws If]qx?df
      gLltd"ns k/fdz{ lbg], /fli6«o:t/df dfGotf k|fKt, /fli6«o:t/sf]
      cg';Gwfgaf6 k|fKt k|ljlwnfO{ b]z ljsf;sf] nflu k|of]u ug]{
      tl/sf tyf sfof{Gjogsf] ;dGjo, lg0f{osf] k|efj Ps jf j9L If]qdf
      /fli6«o:t/df kg{ ;Sg] kbsf] ?kdf kl/sNkgf ul/Psf] lyof] .

Jofj;flos dfkb08x?sf] tof/Ldf ljleGg dGqfno / ljefusf] ;xeflutfdf
tof/ ug{ ;lsPsf Jofj;flos dfkb08x? tyf k"0f{tM ;fdfGo k|zf;g
dGqfnoaf6} tof/ ul/Psf Jofj;flos dfkb08x? ;d]t k|:t't ul/Psf 5g\ .

                                 94
g]kfndf ;j{ k|yd Jofj;flos dfkb08 tTsfnLg kb juL{s/0f of]hgfsf]
sfof{Gjog ug]{ ;Gbe{df lj=;+= @)@&.)@* ;fn lt/ z'? ePsf] lyof]
. @)$$ ;fn lt/ g]kfn s[lif ;]jf cGtu{t sfod /x]sf] !@ ;d"x / g]kfn
OlGhlgol/+u ;]jf cGtu{tsf s]xL ;d"xx?sf] /fhkq+flst ljlzi7 >]0fL,
/fhkqf+lst k|yd >]0fL cltl/Qm ;lrj, ;x;lrj, /fhkqf+lst låtLo >]0fL
pk;lrj / ;xfos ;lrj, /fhkqf+lst t[tLo >]0fL -zfvf clws[t_, /fhkq
cgl+st k|yd >]0fLsf] gfoj ;'Jjf / /fhkq cg+sLt låtLo >]0fL vl/bf/
;/xsf kbx?sf] :t/ JofVofx? gd"gf;"rs sfo{x? / k|To]s >]0fL÷txsf]
nflu cfjZos kg]{ 1fg, ;Lk tyf cg'ejsf] :t/ tof/ ul/Psf] lyP / ;]jf ;d"x
pk;d"xsf] nflu tof/ ul/Psf :t/ JofVof nfu" ul/Psf 5|}gg\ .

;Dk"0f{ lghfdtL ;]jf cGtu{t To; a]nf k6s–k6s 5nkmn eO{ cGtdf
@)@& ;fnlt/ s]GbLo sd{rf/L OsfOsf] ?kdf /x]sf] tTsfnLg k|zf;g
Joj:yf ljefu xfn ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnoaf6 %# j6f Jofj;flos ;d"xx?
sfod eO{ Jofj;flos dfkb08 ;d]t tof/ ePsf] lyof] t/ ljleGg sf/0fjz
To;a]nf kb juL{s/0f of]hgf nfu" gePsf]n] oL Jofj;flos dfkb08
;d]t :jLs[t x'g ;s]gg\ . k'gM @)## ;fndf >L % sf] ;/sf/n] k|fljlws
;]jfdf ;d"x ljefhg nfu" u/L ;"dx pk;d"xx? sfod ePsf
ul/P .

xfn ljut s]xL jif{b]lv ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnon] k|fljlws ;]jfx?sf]
Jofj;flos dfkb08x? tof/ ug]{ sf]lz; u/]sf] 5 . o; dfkb08df ;d"xsf]
JofVof cGtu{t ;d"xleq kg]{ sfo{x?, :t/ JofVof cGtu{t >]0fLsf]
lhDd]jf/Lsf] :t/ tyf gd"gf ;"rs sfo{df d'Vo–d'Vo sfdx? tyf cfjZos
of]Uotf cGtu{t cfjZos z}lIfs of]Uotf, cg'ej tyf Ifdtfx? tf]Sg sf]lz;
ul/Psf 5g\ .

o;} ;Gbe{df k|fljlws lzIff tyf Jofj;flos tflnd kl/ifbaf6 klg l;sdL{,
8sdL{, On]S6«Ll;og, KnDj/ h:tf Trades / s]xL dWod :t/Lo
6]SgLl;ogx?sf] ;Lksf] :t/ k/LIf0f / k|df0fLs/0fsf] nflu s]xL
dfkb08x? tof/ ePsf] Joxf]/f klg pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .

k|:t't dfkb08x?nfO{ ljZn]if0f u/L ;+zf]wg / kl/dfh{g ug'{ kg]{
cfjZostf                                              b]lvPsf]


                                  95
5 . x'gt of] sfo{] Hofb} g} sl7g 5 t}klg lgDg k|Zgx?sf] lgSof}{n
ePdf cufl8 a9\g dfu{bz{g x'g ;Sg] ck]Iff ug{ ;lsG5 .

-s_ :t/, >]0fLsf] JofVofsf] pko'Qmtf sfod ug'{ cfjZos 5 5}g <
-v_ gd"gf ;"rs sfo{x?sf] pko'Qmtf 5 5}g tyf o;df ;+zf]wg
cfjZos 5 5}g <
-u_ cfjZos lgwf{l/t of]Uotfdf yk36 ug'{ kg]{ 5 5}g <




                               96
                         cg';"rL -s_
         OlGhlgol/+u ;]jf cGtu{tsf ;d"x jf pk;d"xx?

l;=g+= ;d"x          pk;d"x             ;]jf ;+rfng ug]{ dGqfno
!=     l;len         s_ hg/n            :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno
       OlGhlgol/+u
                     v_ xfOj]            ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno
                     u_ :oflg6/L
                     3_ ljlN8Ë P08
                     cfls{6]S6
                     ª_ Ol/u]zg          hn;|f]t dGqfno
                     r_ xfO8«f]kfj/      hn;|f]t dGqfno
                     5_ xfO8«f]nf]hL hn;|f]t dGqfno
                     h_ Po/kf]6{         ;+:s[lt, ko{6g tyf gful/s p88\og
                                         dGqfno
@=    On]lS6«sn      s_             hg/n Hfn;|f]t dGqfno
      OlGhlgol/Ë     O{n]lS6«sn
                     OlGhlgol/+u
                     v_         PlePzg ;+:s[lt, ko{6g tyf gful/s p88\og
                     O{n]lS6«sn          dGqfno
                     OlGhlgol/+u
#=    On]S6«f]lgs                        ;+:s[lt, ko{6g tyf gful/s p88\og
      P08                                dGqfno
      6]lnsDo'lgs]zg
      OlGhlgol/+u
$=    d]sflgsn       s_ hg/n d]sflgsn pBf]u, jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno
      OlGhlgol/+u OlGhlgol/+u
                     v_        PlePzg +;+:s[lt, ko{6g tyf gful/s p88\og
                     d]sflgsn          dGqfno
                     OlGhlgol/+u
                     u_ lgdf{0f pks/0f ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno
                     ;+ef/
%=    P]/f]gl6sn                       ;+:s[lt, ko{6g tyf gful/s p88\og
      OlGhlgol/+u                      dGqfno
^=    DffOlg+u                         pBf]u, jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno
      OlGhlgol/+u
&=    s]ldsn                           pBf]u, jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno
      OlGhlgol/+u
*=    d]6fn{lhsn                       pBf]u, jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno
      OlGhlgol/+u


                                  97
(     d]6«f]nhL                        hn;|f]t dGqfno
!)=   d]6]l/of]nhL                     hn;|f]t dGqfno
!!=   lhof]nhL      s_ hg/n lhof]nhL pBf]u, jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno
                    v_        xfO{8«f] hn;|f]t dGqfno
                    lhof]nhL
                    u_ OlGhlgol/+u hn;|f]t dGqfno
                    lhof]nhL
!@=   l;len Pleozg s_ l;len PlePzg ;+:s[lt, ko{6g tyf gful/s p88\og
      ck|]zg    P08 6«flkms ;le{;]h    dGqfno
      OlGhlgol/+u
                    v_       km\nfO6 ;+:s[lt, ko{6g tyf gful/s p88\og
                    ck|]zg             dGqfno
                    u_ Pleo;g kmfo/ ;+:s[lt, ko{6g tyf gful/s p88\og
                    ;le{;]h            dGqfno
!#    ;e]{                             e"ld ;'wf/ tyf Joj:yf dGqfno
!$=   s]d]i6«L                         pBf]u, jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno
!%=   Pu[ O{l/u]zg                     hn;|f]t dGqfno
      O{lGhlgol/+u
                           cg';"rL -v_
             lzIff ;]jf cGtu{tsf ;d"x tyf pk;d"xx?

qm=;+= ;d"x                             pk;d"x
!=     cWofkg                           s_ pRr lzIff
                                        v_ dfWolds lzIff
@=        lzIff k|zf;g                  s_ c+u|]hL
                                        v_ g]kfnL
                                        u_ ;+:s[lt
                                        3_ lj1fg
                                        ª_ ul0ft
                                        r_ ;fdflhs lzIff
                                        5_ Jofj;flos lzIff
                                        h_ zf/Ll/s lzIff
                                        em_ lg/LIf0f
#=        d'b|0f Joj:yfkg               s_ k|]; OlGhlgol/Ë
                                        v_ d'b|0f Joj:yfkg
$=        snf                           s_ lrqsnf
                                        v_ 5ljsnf


                                  98
%=       k'/ftTj                     s_ k'/ftTj
                                     v_ ;+u|xfno
^=       k/LIf0f tyf d"Nof+sg        s_ z}lIfs k/LIf0f    tyf
                                     d"Nof+sg
                                     v_ sd{rf/L k/LIf0f   tyf
                                     d"Nof+sg
&=       k':tsfno lj1fg

                            cg';"rL -u_
                   s[lif ;]jf cGtu{tsf ;d"xx?

!=    Pu|L PS;6]G;g
@=    xl6{sNr/
#=    lkm;l/h
$=    nfOe:6s, kf]N6«L P+08 8]/L 8]en]kd]G6
%=    Pu|f]gf]dL
^=    KnfG6 k|f]6]S;g
&=    Pu|LOsf]gf]ldS; P08 dfs]{l6Ë
*=    :jfon ;fOG;
(=    e]6]/Lg/L
!)=   Pu|L OlGhlgol/+u
!!=   km"8, Go"l6«zg P08 Sjflnl6 s]G6«f]n
                          cg';"rL -3_
                   jg ;]jf cGtu{tsf ;d"xx?

!=    hg/n km/]i6«L
@=    km/]i6« l/;r{
#=    :jfon P08 jf6/ sGh/e]zg
$=    jf]6]gL
%=    kmfd]{;L
^=    xfQL;f/
&=    g]zgn kfS;{ P08 jfON8 nfOkm




                                99
                         cg';"rL -ª_
          cfly{s of]hgf / tYof+s ;]jfdf /xg] ;d"xx?

!= cfly{s of]hgf ;d"x
@= tYof+s ;d"x

                           cg';"rL -r_
             k|zf;g ;]jf cGtu{t sfod /x]sf ;d"xx?

-s_   ;fdfGo k|zf;g ;d"x
-v_   /fhZj ;d"x
-u_   n]vf ;d"x
-3_   s'6g}lts ;d"x

                         cg';"rL -5_
             Gofo ;]jf cGtu{t sfod /x]sf ;d"xx?

-s_   Gofo ;d"x
-v_   sfg"g ;d"x
-u_   ;/sf/L jsLn ;d"x




                              100
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


      hgzlQm of]hgf / g]kfnsf] lghfdtL
               ;]jfsf] ;Gbe{


                                                –dx]Zj/ Gof}kfg]

hgzlQm s] xf] <
s'g} klg sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug{sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ >dzlQm jf dflg; tyf
sfddf /x]sf dflg;x¿ g} hgzlQm xf] . lgDg:t/sf] >dd"ns sfo{
ug]{b]lv pRr:t/sf] Joj:yfksLo sfo{ ug]{ JolQm hgzlQmleq
;dflji6 x'G5 .
hgzlQmnfO{ s]jn dflg;sf] x'nsf] ¿kdf       x]l/g' x'Fb}g .
hgzlQmnfO{ lgDg ;"qsf] cfwf/df cWoog ul/g'k5{ M–
Human Resource = {(Inherent abilities  Acquired knowledge + skill)
Represented as (Talents +Aptitude)} of Employees


hgzlQm M ;fwg / ;fWo b'j}

j[xt jf ;"Id h'g b[li6sf]0fn] cWoog ubf{ klg hgzlQm ;fwg tyf
;fWo xf] eGg] :ki6 x'G5 . ;fwg o; cy{df xf] ls h'g;'s} ljsf; lgdf{0f
/ kl/jt{gsf] ;"qwf/ Pj+ ;Dafxs hgzlQm g} xf] . k|To]s ;f]rsf] ljsf;
dfgjaf6} x'G5 / To;n] sfo{¿k klg dfgjLo lqmofzLntfaf6 g}
kfpF5 . of]hgf agfpg] klg dflg; g} xf] / sfof{Gjog ug]{ Pj+ nfe
ljt/0f ug]{ sfo{ klg hgzlQmaf6} x'G5 .




    pk–;lrj, /Iff dGqfno .

                                  101
csf]{tkm{ k|To]s sfo{ pko'Qmtfsf] ts{sf] l;4fGtdf cfwfl/t x'G5
elgG5 . dfgjLo lg0f{o / To;sf] sfof{Gjog …s]–sf] nfluÚ eGg]
pQ/nfO{ s]Gb|Lt u/]/ ul/G5 . k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf k|To]s lg0f{o tyf
sfo{sf] nlIft ju{ dflg; g} x'g] u5{Ù Tof] nlIft ju{ ;du| hgtf jf To;sf]
Pp6f lx:;f x'g;S5 . km/s olt xf] ls nlIft ju{sf] 3]/f hlt km/flsnf] /
cfjZostfdf cfwfl/t x'G5 lg0f{onfO{ Tolt pko'Qm dfGg ;lsG5, hlt
;+s'lrt eof] Tolt cg'ko'Qm dflgG5 . ctM hgzlQmnfO{ ;fWosf]
¿kdf lnOG5 .

To;}n] hgzlQm dflg; dfkm{t dflg;d} k'Ug] af6f] tyf uGtJo b'j}
xf] . pks/0f tyf nIo b'j} xf] .

cGo ;a} ;fwgsf] rfns M hgzlQm

hgzlQmsf] dxTjnfO{ & Pd (7M) sf] ;DaGwdf bzf{pg] lrqj4 k|:t'lt
(diagramic presentation) 4f/f x]g{ ;lsG5 .

                              Manpower




           Machine    Money    Method    Materials   Market
                               s


;+u7gsf] ;du| sfo{;Dkfbgsf] ;fy} pTkfbsTj / pTkfbg hgzlQmsf]
;+VofTdssf] ;fy} u'0ffTds kIfdf lge{/ /xG5 .

      (Performance + Productivity) = (Quantity + Quality) of HR

;+u7gsf] hgzlQmsf] u'0ffTds kIf / kl/df0ffTds kIfaLr ljk/Lt
lsl;dsf] ;DaGw /xG5 . sfo{/t\ hgzlQmsf] u'0ffTds kIf hlt pRr
/x\of], hgzlQmsf] jfl~5t ;+Vof sd /xG5 .

hgzlQm of]hgfM kl/ro
olt dxTjk"0f{ hgzlQmsf] kl/rfng tby{ lsl;dn] x'g'x'Fb}Fg .
hgzlQmsf] of]hgf kIf hgzlQm Joj:yfkgsf] cfwf/:tDe xf] . jf:tjdf

                                   102
cfhsf] o'u of]hgfa49+uaf6 cufl8 a9\g] o'u xf] . clgZro /
hf]lvdnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ub}{ ef]ln s'g cj:yfdf k'Ug] eGg] ljifon]
;+u7gsf] eljiok|ltsf] ;r]tgfsf] :t/ a9fpF5 / To;}n] ;+u7gsf] efjL
r'gf}tL ;fdgf ug]{ ;jfndf ;xof]u u5{ . ;a}eGbf ;r]t / cGo ;fwgx¿sf]
kl/rfns zlQmsf] u'0f, ;+Vof, sfo{If]q h:tf ljifox¿df of]hgf agfpg'
emg cfjZos b]lvG5 .
hgzlQm of]hgf o:tf] k|lqmof, ;fwg tyf Joj:yfkg cEof; xf] h;sf]
cjnDag4f/f jt{dfg hgzlQm tyf ;f+u7lgs cj:yfaf6 ck]lIft hgzlQm
tyf ;f+u7lgs cj:yfdf k'luG5 . hgzlQm of]hgf efjL hgzlQmsf]
cfjZostf lgwf{/0f ug]{ / ;f] cfjZostf k"lt{sf] nflu pko'Qm sfo{ky
rog ug]{ ljlw xf] . To;}n] of] jt{dfg cj:yfnfO{ d"Nof+sg ub]{
eljiosf] nlIft cj:yfdf k'Ug] jt{dfg / eljiosf] ;DaGw ;"q klg xf] .
hgzlQm of]hgfnfO{ 5'§} lqmofsnfksf] ¿kdf x]l/g' x'Fb}g\ . of]
k|lqmof ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo;+u 3lgi6¿kdf cfj4 x'g'k5{ . ;+u7gsf
p2]Zox¿nfO{ ldtJooL / k|efjsf/L9+uaf6 xfl;n ug{sf nflu
pko'Qm ;+Vofdf, pko'Qm lsl;dsf dflg;x¿nfO{ pko'Qm ;do /
:yfgdf pko'Qm sfd ug{sf nflu cfjZos hgzlQm k|fKt ug]{, ljsf;
ug]{, l6sfO /fVg] / pkof]u ug]{ ljlw, k|lqmof / pks/0f to ul/Psf]
of]hgf hgzlQm of]hgf xf] .
o;n] ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo ck]lIft¿kdf xfl;n ug{ cfjZos kg]{ hgzlQmsf]
;+Vof, u'0f:t/, cfGtl/s k"lt{, jfXo dfu, ljBdfg hgzlQmsf] clen]vg,
k"lt{ l/Qmtf (Short Supply) ljZn]if0f, ;xh k"lt{sf] t/Lsf, cfGtl/s ljsf; /
k"0f{ Ifdtfsf] pkof]u h:tf kIfnfO{ cWoog u/L to ug'{sf] cltl/Qm
tL ;a} kIfsf] nflu cjnDag ul/g'kg]{ gLlt jftfj/0f ;DaGwL of]hgf
agfpF5 .

hgzlQm of]hgf ;DaGwL s]xL kl/efiffx? tn k|:t't ul/Psf 5g\ M

      hgzlQm of]hgfn] eljiodf cfjZos kg]{ hgzlQmsf] k|If]k0f
       ub{5 / efjL sfo{sf] nflu hgzlQmsf] ljsf; klg ub{5 . –
       C. B. Mamoria

      Human Resource development is the process by which an
       organization ensures that it has the right number and kinds of people
       at the right places, at the right time capable of effectively and



                                     103
       efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization
       achieve its overall objectives.

    hgzlQm of]hgfn] jt{dfg / efjL Joj;fo ;+rfng ug{sf nflu
     ;+u7gn] ck]Iff u/]sf] hgzlQm af/] hfgsf/L /fVg] / k|fKt
     ug]{ ;'lglZrttf ub{5 . – Micheal Armstrong

/0fgLlts hgzlQm of]hgf

hgzlQm of]hgf ;+:yfsf] p2]Zo;+u 3lgi6¿kdf cfj4 x'g'kb{5 .
;+:yfut p2]Zoaf6 ljsf; ePsf] / ;f]sf] k"lt{df ;3fp k'¥ofpg]9+un]
efjL hgzlQmsf] ;+Vof, u'0f:t/, cfGtl/s ljsf; / k"lt{, jfX\o >f]taf6
k"lt{, ljBdfg hgzlQmsf] k/LIf0f h:tf kIfx¿ ;f]sf] nflu pko'Qm
/0fgLlt rog tyf sfof{Gjog ;'lglZrttf;DDfsf] laifonfO{ /0fgLlts
hgzlQm of]hgf elgG5 . ;+:yfut p2]Zosf klg ljleGg txx¿ x'G5g\
– bL3{sfnLg, dWosfnLg / tTsfnLg . ;f] ljleGg txsf p2]Zox¿
k"lt{ ug{ /0fgLlts 9fFrfdf /0fgLltsf] ¿kdf th'{df ul/g] ljleGg
cfjlws kIfsf hgzlQm of]hgf /0fgLlts hgzlQm of]hgf x'g . o;
;DaGwdf Micheal Armstrong n] eg]sf 5g\ – It starts from the strategic
objectives of the company and an analysis of the human resources required
to achieve them .


hgzlQm of]hgfsf txx¿

hgzlQm of]hgfn] ;d]6g] ef}uf]lns Pj+ If]qut jf OsfOut bfo/fnfO{
b[li6ut u/L o;sf] juL{s/0f ug]{ ul/G5 h;nfO{ hgzlQm of]hgfsf] tx
elgG5 . hgzlQm of]hgfsf lgDg b'O{ txx¿ pNn]v ul/Psf] kfOG5
M–
!= /fli6«o tx M– /fli6«o:t/sf] hgzlQm of]hgf d'n"ssf] cfjlws ljsf;
of]hgfsf] c+usf] ¿kdf th'{df ePsf] x'G5 . o; cGtu{t klg ;du|
/fli6«o tyf If]qut hgzlQm of]hgf u/L b'O{ lsl;ddf juL{s/0f u/L
x]g{ ;lsG5 . b]zsf] ;Dk"0f{ If]qsf] hgzlQmsf] jt{dfg cj:yfsf]
n]vfhf]vf ub}{ efjL lglZrt cjlwsf] hgzlQm cfjZostf ;DaGwL
of]hgf agfpg] sfo{ /fli6«o tyf cy{tGqsf] Pp6f If]qsf] hgzlQm
;DaGwL of]hgf If]qut hgzlQm of]hgf xf] . /fi6«JofkL¿kdf ;d'Rr


                                   104
dfgj;|f]tsf] ljZn]if0f, k|If]k0f, ljsf; / pkof]u ;DaGwL p2]Zo,
/0fgLlt, sfo{gLlt / sfo{s|dnfO{ /fli6«o hgzlQm of]hgfn] ;d]6\5
eg] If]qut hgzlQm of]hgfn] s[lif, pBf]u, ko{6g, lgdf{0f cflbnfO{
j]Unfj]Un} If]qsf] ljBdfg hgzlQm l:ylt, ck]lIft hgzlQm l:ylt
cWoog ;+VofTds Pj+ u'0ffTds k|If]k0f / nIo k|flKt ;DaGwL
gLlt / sfo{of]hgf ;d]6\5 . lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;dli6 hgZflQm ;DaGwL
of]hgf klg If]qut hgZflQm of]hgf cGt{ut kb{5 .

@= ;+fu7lgs tx M– ;+u7gsf] ljleGg :t/sf] p2]Zo lgwf{/0f,
hgzlQm k/LIf0f, ck]lIft:t/ lgwf{/0f, k"lt{ k"jf{g'dfg, k|fKt
hgzlQmsf] clwstd pkof]u cflb kIfx¿ ;f+u7lgs hgzlQm of]hgfn]
;d]6\5 . o; cGtu{t klg ;]jf, ;d"x, pk;d"x:t/sf] / dGqfno, ljefu:t/sf]
hgzlQm of]hgfsf] ¿kdf juL{s/0f u/L th'{df ug{ ;lsG5 . hlt ;fgf]
OsfOsf] hgzlQm of]hgfsf] rrf{ u/] klg pQm of]hgf ;DaGwLt
If]qsf] bL3{sfnLg hgzlQm of]hgfsf] c+z xf] eGg] s'/fdf låljwf
/xFb}g .
hgzlQm of]hgfsf] p2]Zo
hgzlQm of]hgf ;du| of]hgfsf] c+z eP klg of] pQm of]hgf
;+:yfut p2]Zo;+u 3lgi6¿kdf hf]l8Psf] x'G5 . hgzlQm of]hgf
th'{dfsf p2]Zox¿nfO{ lgDg¿kdf cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 M–
    != bIf hgzlQmsf] k|flKt, ljsf; / pkof]u dfkm{t ck]lIft¿kdf
       ;+:yfut p2]Zox¿ k|flKtdf of]ubfg ug'{,
    @= pko'Qm ;+Vofdf pko'Qm u'0f:t/sf] hgzlQm k|fKt ug]{
       cfwf/x¿ to u/L sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg',
    #=        k|fKt hgzlQmsf] ;Lk, 1fg / Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug]{ /0fgLlt
       tyf sfo{s|dx¿ lgwf{/0f ug'{,
    $=        hgzlQmsf] clwstd Ifdtfsf] pkof]u ug'{,
    %=        ;+u7gdf hgzlQmsf] cfk"lt{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg',
    ^=        hgzlQmsf] dfu / k"lt{aLr ;fd~h:otf sfod ug'{ Pj+
     &= sd pkof]uL tyf c;fGble{s hgzlQmsf] ;'/lIft jlxu{dg åf/f
         ;+u7gnfO{ r':t, ;fGble{s / cBfjlws /fVg] .

hgzlQm of]hgfsf kIfx¿


                                 105
hgzlQm of]hgfn] ;+u7gdf hgzlQmsf] ;+VofTds cfjZostf /
k"lt{nfO{ lgwf{/0f ug'{sf] cltl/Qm To;sf] u'0ffTds ;'lglZrttf Pj+
ljsf;åf/f ;+VofTds kIfnfO{ lgb]{lzt Pj+ ;3fp k'¥ofpg] ub{5 . t;y{
o;sf kIfnfO{ ;+VofTds / u'0ffTds ¿kdf x]g{ ;lsG5 .

!= ;+VofTds kIf
    ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo, sfo{If]q / sfo{jf]em cg';f/ cfjZos
      hgzlQmsf] ;+Vof lgwf{/0f ug]{,
    ljj/0f tof/Lsf] qmddf df}h"bf hgzlQmsf] ;+Vofsf ;a}
      ljj/0fsf] n]vfhf]vf ug]{,
    ljBdfg / efjL hgzlQmsf] ;+VofTds t'ngf ug]{,
    k|If]lkt hgzlQmsf] juL{s/0f ug]{, Pj+
    of]hgf cg'¿ksf] ;+Vof / lsl;dsf] cfk"lt{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] .

@= u'0ffTds kIf
   hgzlQm of]hgf / ;+u7gfTds of]hgf tyf ljsf; sfo{qmdaLr
     ;DaGw ljZn]if0f / ljsf; ug]{,
   ;du| hgzlQm of]hgfsf] c+usf] ¿kdf j[lQ ljsf; of]hgf th'{df
     ug]{,
   gofF k|ljlw / Joj:yfksLo cfofdnfO{ ;d]6g], Pj+
   r'gf}tLx¿nfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ ;f]sf] k"j{tof/L ug]{ .

hgzlQm of]hgfsf] dxTj

hgzlQm of]hgf bf]xf]/f] wf/o'Qm xltof/ xf] . plrt9+uaf6 k|of]u
ul/Pdf hgzlQmsf] s'zn pkof]u eO{ >dzlQmsf] knfog, u}/xflh/L
h:tf ;d:ofx¿ lg/fs/0f eO{ ;+:yfut p2]Zo k|efjsf/L9+uaf6 xfl;n
x'g;S5 . o; cltl/Qm hgzlQm of]hgfsf] dxTjnfO{ lgDg a'Fbfx¿sf]
d2taf6 klg d"Nof+sg ug{ ;lsG5 M–

!=   hgzlQm of]hgfn] ;+u7gsf] nIo k|flKtsf] cltl/Qm sd{rf/Lsf]
     JolQmut nIo k|flKtdf ;d]t d2t k¥ofFp5 . To:t} kl/0ffd4f/f
     Joj:yfkg (MBR) / p2]Zoåf/f Joj:yfkgnfO{ k|of]udf Nofpg
     ;3fp k'¥ofpF5 .


                               106
@= kl/jt{gsf] of]hgfa4 Joj:yfkg x'G5 . jt{dfg l:yltaf6 hgzlQmsf]
    ck]lIft ¿kfGt/0f ug]{ ljifo kl/jt{g Joj:yfkg xf] .
#= k|efjsf/L hgzlQm of]hgfsf] th'{df / ;f]sf] cjNfDagåf/f of]Uo
    / Ifdtfjfg JolQmx¿nfO{ cfslif{t u/fpF5 .
$= ;+u7gsf] Voflt a9fpF5 . of]Uo hgzlQmo'Qm ;+u7g p;sf]
    afX\o jftfj/0f4f/f ;dly{t / sb/ ul/Psf] x'gfn] o;sf] 5lj klg pRr
    x'G5 .
%= hgzlQm of]hgfn] hgzlQmsf] ljsf;sf] ky ;d]t ;d]6g] x'gfn]
    j[lQ ljsf;sf] cj;/ ;'lglZrt u5{ .
^= of]Uotf cg';f/ sfdsf] cj;/ pknAw u/fpF5 .
&= sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]jn / ;Gt'li6sf] :t/ a9fpg d2t u5{ .
*= ;f+u7lgs, ljefuLo, PsfOut / JolQmut p2]Zodf ;fd~h:otf
NofpF5 .
(= hg;]jL, pQ/bfoL / glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf] ljsf; ug{ of]Ufbfg u5{ .
!)= ;f+u7lgs hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f u5{ .
!!= of]hgfa4 k|of;sf] lg/Gt/tf / j}1flgs tyf tYof+sdf cfwfl/t
    n]vfhf]vf / k"jf{g'dfg k4ltsf] cjnDag x'G5 .
!@= ;du|d} /fli6«o tyf laifo If]qut p2]Zodf of]Ufbfg u5{ .
hgzlQm of]hgf lsg cfjZos 5 t <
hgzlQm of]hgf k|To]s >dIf]qsf] cfjZostf k"lt{ ug{ / ck]lIft
>dl:yltdf k'Ug cfjZos k5{ . c;+ul7t If]qnfO{ ;+ul7t / clen]vdf
cfwfl/t agfpg / ;+ul7t If]qsf] of]hgf k4ltnfO{ cem kl/is[t agfpg
cfjZos k5{ . lgDg tYox¿sf] cfwf/df hgzlQm of]hgfsf] ckl/xfo{tf
cjnf]sg ug{ ;lsG5 M–
      bIf, Ifdtfjfg, ;Lko'Qm hgzlQmnfO{ ;+u7gdf leq\ofpg,
      cjsfz kfpg] hgzlQmsf] k|lt:yfkgf ug{,
      ;f+u7lgs kbl/Qmtf k"lt{ ug{,
      ;+u7gsf] sfo{If]q la:tf/ x'Fbf / r'gf}tL ylkFbf yk >dzlQm
       cfk"lt{ ug{,
      kl/jt{gsf] k|fljlws cfjZostfnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ug{,
      hgzlQm a9L x'g] / cefj x'g] If]qx¿ klxrfg u/L ;Gt'ng
       Nofpg,
      ;+u7gdf of]hgfa4 ljsf; k|ls|of cjnDjg ug{,
      eljiok/s b[li6sf]0fsf] ljsf; ug{,

                                 107
    ;+u7gsf] Voflt / k|efjsfl/tf j[l4 ug{ .
c;n hgzlQmsf k"jf{jZostfx¿
hgzlQm of]hgf cjNfDagsf nflu lglZrt k"jf{wf/x¿ cfjZos x'G5g\ .
To:tf k"jf{wf/x¿nfO{ hgzlQm of]hgfsf k"jf{jZostfx¿sf] ¿kdf lng
;lsG5 . o:tf k"jf{jZostfx¿ M–
    hgzlQm of]hgf th'{df / cjnDagsf nflu Joj:yfkg jf g]t[Tjsf]
      ;r]t k|ltj4tf cfjZos k5{ .
    lghfdtL ;]jfsf] hgzlQm of]hgf th'{df / cjnDjgsf nflu
      s]Gb|Lo sd{rf/L lgsfon] of]hgfsf] lhDd]jf/L, :jfldTj /
      ;xhstf{sf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug'{k5{ .
    hgzlQm of]hgfnfO{ Ps k|xf/sf] k|of; (one-shot-effort) sf]
      ¿kdf lnOg' x'Fb}g . lg/Gt/tf / lg/Gt/ kl/zf]wg k4lt cjnDjg
      ul/g'k5{ .
                                                   Plan


                     Feedback                                        Demonstrate

    hgzlQm of]hgfsf] nflu e/kbf]{, j}1flgs, k"0f{ / pkof]uL
                   Mainstream               Examine
     clen]v k|0ffnL– dfgj ;+;fwg k|0ffnL (HRIS) cfjZos k5{ .
    hgzlQm of]hgfn] cf}lrTok"0f{ ;dofjlw cjnDjg ug'{k5{ –
    tTsfnLg– Ps jf b"O{ jif]{
    dWosfnLg – % b]lv !) jif]{
    lb3{sfnLg – !) jif{ eGbf dfly @)÷@% jif{;Dd .
    j}1flgs ul0ftLo ljlwx¿sf] k|of]u ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . o;sf] nflu
     ljZn]if0fsf] ;Lko'Qm JolQm th'{df k|ls|ofdf ;+nUg
     x'g'k5{ .
    sd{rf/L k|zf;gsf ljljw pkIf]qut of]hgf, gLlt / hgzlQm of]hgf
     tyf ;+:yfut p2]ZoaLr ;+ult / ;xof]uL ;DaGw /xg'k5{ M–
                                                                                  Corporate Objective

                                                    Human Resource
                                                       Planning




         Personnel    Career         Recruitment     Promotion       Succession    Utilization          Retention
                      Separtation/
         Policy       Development    Plan             Plan           Plan          & maintenance        plan
         & Plan       Plan                                                         plan

                                                     108
    of]hgf cg'¿k sfof{Gjog Joj:yf / ;+oGq x'g'k5{ . of]hgf
     sfof{Gjog of]Uo x'g'k5{ ,
    /fli6«o, If]qut / ;f+u7lgs hgzlQm of]hgfaLr tfnd]n
     x'g'k5{, Pj+
    hgzlQm k|fks ;+:yf, pTkfbs tyf cfk"lt{ s]Gb| / ahf/aLr
     lg/Gt/ ;Dks{ ;"rgf cfBfjlws x'g'k5{ .

hgzlQm of]hgf th'{dfsf] tof/L jf k|lqmof
hgzlQm of]hgf th'{df s;/L ul/G5 jf s'g–s'g r/0fx¿af6 k"/f ul/G5
eGg] ljifo hgzlQm of]hgf th'{dfsf] t/Lsf jf k|ls|of xf] . hgzlQm
of]hgf th'{df lg/Gt/ ultzLn rqmLo ljlw xf], h;df lgDg r/0fx¿ /x]sf
x'G5g\ M–
!= p2]Zox¿ lgwf{/0f ug]{ M– ;+u7gsf] p2]Zosf klg ljljw tx / :t/
x'G5g\ – kl/b[li6 (vision), Wo]o (mission), nIo (goal) / p2]Zo
(objective) . o:tf] p2]Zosf >[+vnfx¿ x'g . hlt ;"Id x'Fb}uof] p2]Zo
:ki6tf a9b} hfG5 . o:tf] ;du| ;+u7g, ljefu / To:fsf] OsfOsf]
p2]Zo kl/k"lt ug]{u/L hgzlQm of]hgfsf] p2]Zo ;d]t to ul/g'
cfjZos x'G5 . sfof{Gjogsf] qmddf of] ;a} lsl;dsf nIox¿sf] ;fdlos
k'g/fjnf]sg u/]/ p2]Zodf ;dfof]hgnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg'kg]{ x'G5 .
@= gLlt lgwf{/0f ug]{ M– ;+:yfut gLlt;+u tfbfTDo /fVg]u/L
hgzlQm of]hgfsf] bL3{sfnLg, dWodsfnLg tyf tTsfnLg gLlt
lgwf{/0f ul/G5 . o:tf] gLlt ;+:yfsf] p2]Zo;+u ljifofGt/ eg]
x'g'x'Fb}g . /fli6«o:t/sf] gLlt gful/s k"FhLsf] ljsf; / kl/rfng;+u
;DaGwLt x'G5 eg] ;+fu7lgs :t/sf] gLlt ;+u7g ljz]ifsf] pTkfbg /
pTkfbsTj a9fO{ ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo k"lt{sf] ;xof]uL x'g]u/L to
ul/G5 . o:tf] gLlt :ki6, tYodf cfwfl/t / Joj:yfkg tyf sfo{/t
hgzlQmaLr ;fe]mbf/L ul/Psf] x'g' cfjZos x'G5 .
#= ljBdfg hgzlQmsf] k/LIf0f ug]{ M– ljBdfg hgzlQmsf]
t'ngfTds Ifdtf, sdhf]/Lsf If]qx¿ / ;Defjgfsf If]qx¿sf] n]vfh]vf ug]{
sfo{ hgzlQm k/LIf0f (Human Resource Audit) xf] . o;sf] k"j{zt{

                                 109
eg]sf] ;Lk ljj/0f, sd{rf/L ;"rgf k|0fnL / dfgj ;+;fwg ;"rgf k|0fnL xf]
. cBfjlws ;"rgfsf] pknJwtf / ;f]sf] ljZn]if0faf6 uon x'g] k|j[lQ
(Absenteeism), k]zfut :yfgfGt/0f (turn over), k|ltef knfog (Brain Drain)
/ cjsfz lng] (Retrenchment) cflb k|j[lQx¿sf] b/ Pj+ ptf/r9fj lgsflnG5
. To:t} k]zf cg';f/sf] hgzlQmsf] tYof+s, :jf:y l:ylt, cf}ift cfo', ;]jfdf
/xFb} x'g] d[To'b/, hgzlQmsf] X|f; (depreciation of HR) ljZn]if0f
;fy} ljljw k]zf / txsf] ;'ljwf, sfo{jftfj/0f, Joj;flos ;'/Iff, b'3{6gf, ;Lk /
dgf]jn j[l4 Pj+ x|f;sf] cWoog4f/f hgzlQmsf] jt{dfg t:jL/
lgsflnG5 .
$= eljiosf] ;+u7gsf] :j¿k / hgzlQm cfjZostf k"jf{g'dfg M–
of] r/0f ;j{k|yd ;+u7gsf] efjL kl/j{tg / efjL sfo{If]q, pTkfbg /
;]jfsf] b[li6sf]0fn] eljiosf] cfjZostf Pj+ r'gf}tL, efjL ;+u7g :j¿k tyf
;f] ;+u7g / sfo{If]qnfO{ k"lt{ ug{;Sg] ;+Vof / u'0f:t/df cfjZos s"n
hgzlQm lgsflnG5 .

$=! dfu k|If]k0f M– ;+u7gsf] kl/jt{gsf] u'Ghfo;nfO{ cWoog
u/]kZrft ;+u7gsf] hgzlQmsf] s"n         ;+VofTds       dfu,     ;f]sf]
lsl;dnfO{ dfusf] cf}lrTok"0f{ ;dofjlwsf] cfwf/df k|If]k0f (projection)
ul/G5 . dfu k|If]k0f hgzlQmsf] k/LIf0f sfo{;+u 3lgi6¿kdf
;DaGwLt /xG5 . dfu k|If]k0f xtktsf] lgod, cg'kft ljlw, ul0ftLo tyf
sfo{qmlds ljlwx¿sf] k|of]u4f/f x'G5 . dfusf] k|If]k0fnfO{
;+u7gsf] jfXo jftfj/0f, pQ/flwsf/ of]hgf, sfo{rfk, k]zfut :yfgfGt/0f,
cjsfz h:tf kIfx¿n] k|efj kf5{g\ .

$=@ k"lt{sf] k"jf{g'dfg M– ;+u7gdf hgzlQmsf] k"lt{ cfGtl/s tyf
jfXo ;|f]taf6 x'G5 . h'g;'s} ;|f]taf6 k|fKt x'g] eP klg hgzlQm
dfusf] k"lt{ k|fylds s'/f] xf] . lzIff, tflnd tyf lgodg Pj+ lgu/fgL4f/f
hgzlQmsf] pTkfbg Pj+ k"lt{ kIfdf k|efj kfg{ ;lsG5 . k"lt{sf]
cg'dfgn] k|fKt x'g] hgzlQmsf] u'0f:t/nfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg'kg]{
x'G5 . o:tf] k"lt{nfO{ ju{, If]q, k]zf cflbsf] cfwf/df jfF8\g klg
;lsG5 . hgzlQmsf] dfunfO{ x]/]/ k"lt{ kIfnfO{ k|efj kfg{ lzIff /
tfnLdsf cj;/x¿ / cGo cj/f]wsf/L tTjx¿ dfly Wofg k'¥ofpg' h¿/L
x'G5 .



                                     110
hgzlQm k"lt{ kIfsf ;|f]tx¿nfO{ cWoog ubf{ o;sf @ j6f ;|f]tx¿
b]lvG5g\ M cfGtl/s / jfX\o ;|f]t . cfGtl/s k"lt{ hgzlQmsf] ljsf; /
tT;DaGwdf ;+:yfsf] gLlt / jfXo ;|f]taf6 k"lt{ pTkfbg
s]Gb|x¿;+usf] ;DaGw / cfsif{0fdf lge{/ /xG5 .

dfu / k"lt{ k|If]k0fsf nflu pTkfbg 9fFrf (Leontiffs model),
k'gk|{zf]lwt pTkfbg 9fFrf, sfo{ cWoog 9fFrf, Delphi k|ljlw, Go"g
;Df"x ljlw / g]6js{ ljZn]if0f ljlwx¿sf] k|of]u ul/G5 .

%= sfo{ ljZn]if0f M– sfo{ljj/0f sfo{sf] ;du| kIfsf] cWoog
(anatomy of job) xf] . sfo{ljZn]if0f sfo{ ljj/0f, sfo{ ljlzi6Lsf/0f /
sfo{d"NofÍgsf] ;dli6 xf] .

sfo{ljj/0f sfd, sfof{+z, sfo{x¿ aLrsf] ;DaGw, sfo{syg, st{Jo,
pQ/bfloTj, clwsf/, ;|f]t ;fwgsf] pNn]v ul/G5 eg] sfo{ljlzi6Ls/0fdf
sfo{ ;d"xLs/0f, sfo{sf] nflu cfjZos ;Lk, of]Uotf n]vfhf]vf ul/G5 .
To:t} sfo{sf] k|To]s c+zsf] d"No lgwf{/0f u/]/ sfo{sf] s"n d"No
to u/L cGo sfo{;+usf] ;fk]lIft dxTj hflrG5 .

^= hgzlQm of]hgf th'{df M– of] r/0fdf hgzlQm of]hgf b:tfj]h
;fj{hlgs ug]{ sfo{ kb{5 . hgzlQm of]hgf b:tfj]h sfof{Gjog ug]{
tof/Lsf] qmddf gLltut lg0f{ox¿ ul/G5 / k|flKtb]lv cjsfz;Ddsf
sfof{Gjogsf /0fgLltx¿ Pj+ sfo{of]hgf ;d]t to ul/G5 .
sfof{Gjogsf] ;+:yfut jGbf]j:t, ef}lts ;fwgsf] Joj:yf, sfg"gL
k"jf{wf/, ;|f]t ;fwg h'6fpg'sf] cltl/Qm of]hgfsf] ;+rf/ kIfdf ;d]t hf]8
lbOG5 . To;kl5 r/0fj4 sfof{Gjog k|f/De x'G5 .

&= cg'udg, d"NofÍg / k[i7kf]if0f M– th'{dfs} r/0fb]lv ljifofGt/
x'g] ;+efjgfnfO{ x]b}{ cg'udg ul/G5 . cg'udgsf] lhDd]jf/L
hgzlQm of]hgf tof/L tyf sfof{Gjog u/fpg] lhDd]jf/L kfPsf] gLltut
txdf /xG5 . ;f]sf] k[i7kf]if0fsf] cfwf/df lg/Gt/ kl/zf]wg cfjZos
x'G5 .

g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;Gb{edf hgzlQm
of]hgfsf] Joj:yf

                                   111
j[xt:t/df ljutsf k|of;x¿
/fli6«o tyf ljifo If]qut :t/df hgzlQm of]hgf elgg] 5'§} b:tfj]h
kfOF+b}g . t;y{ of] ljifonfO{ cfjlws of]hgfsf b:tfj]hx¿df pNn]v
ul/Psf / hf]8 lbOPsf kIfx¿nfO{ ljj]rgf ub}{ cWoog ug'{kg]{ x'G5
. o; cltl/Qm k|zf;g ;'wf/ ;DaGwL k|ltj]bgx¿, cGo If]qut
k|ltj]bgx¿ / ;/sf/L Jojxfl/s k|of;x¿ tyf ;+:yfut jGbf]j:t x]g'{ plrt
b]lvG5 .




cfjlws of]hgfdf
     k|yd k+rjifL{o of]hgfdf k|fljlws hgzlQm pTkfbg ug{sf]
      nflu tflnd lbg] gLlt lnOPsf],
     bf];|f] lqjifL{o of]hgfdf hgzlQmsf] cfk"lt{ Joj:yfnfO{ ;'rf¿
      ug{ tflnd lbg] gLltnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf],
     t];|f] k+rjifL{o of]hgfdf k|fljlws tfnLd s]Gb|x¿ :yfkgfsf]
nIo lnOPsf],
     rf}yf] of]hgfdf !! xhf/ k|fjlws hgzlQm pTkfbg ug]{ nIo
/flvPsf],
     kfrf}+ of]hgfdf @$ xhf/ / 5}7f}+ of]hgfdf #( xhf/ k|fljlws
      hgzlQm pTkfbg ug]{ nIo lnOPsf],
     ;ftf}+ of]hgfn] k|fjlws hgzlQmsf] pTkfbg / pkof]u tyf dfu /
      cfk"lt{ aLrsf] tfnd]n Nofpg]      gLlt lnPsf],
     gjf}+ of]hgfn] jfx|f}+ of]hgf;DDf lg/If/tf pGd"ng ug]{,
      :t/Lo Joj;flos tflndsf cj;/ a9fpg] nIo lnPsf],
     rfn' bzf}+ of]hgfdf /f]huf/L j[l4 u/L s'n !) nfv %@ xhf/ yk
      /f]huf/L l;h{gf ug]{ / k|fljlws tyf ;Lkd"ns lzIffdf hf]8 lbg]
      gLlt lnPsf] .

lghfdtL ;]jfdf hgzlQm of]hgf
k|zf;g ;'wf/ ;DjGwL k|ltj]bg


                                 112
     k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u @)#@ sf] k|ltj]bgn] hgzlQm cfjZostf /
      k"lt{aLr ;Gt'ng Nofpg hgzlQm ;DaGwL lhDd]jf/L Ps}
      sfo{sf/L PsLs[t hgzlQm tyf ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno u7g
      ug]{ ;'emfj lbPsf],
     pRr:t/Lo ;'wf/ cfof]u, @)$* sf] k|ltj]bgn] b/jGbL ;+Vof
      &&,))) sfod ug]{ ;'emfj lbPsf], hgzlQmsf] of]hgf kIf eGbf
      ljsf;sf] kIfdf hf]8 lbFb} /fli6«o dfgj ;|f]t ljsf; kl/ifb\ / tflnd
      tyf ljsf; gLlt nfu" ug]{ ;'emfj lbPsf],
     >L % sf] ;/sf/ -sfo{ljefhg_ lgofdjnL, @)%& n] lghfdtL
      sd{rf/L k|zf;g ;DjGwL sfo{If]q ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno
      cGtu{t lglb{i6 u/] klg hgzlQm of]hgf ;DjGwdf pQm
      lgodfjnL df}g /x]sf],
     lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( -;+;f]wg ;lxt_ sf] bkmf & s= df kb
      l/Qm ePsf] Ps dlxgfleq dfu ug]{ tyf rfn" cfly{s jif{leq
      cjsfz tyf j9'jfaf6 l/Qm x'g] kbx¿ ;d]t olsg u/L dfu ug]{
      pNn]v 5 t/ hgzlQm of]hgf Pj+ dfu–k"lt{ k|If]k0faf/]
      pNn]v 5}g,
     ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnonfO{ dfgj ;+;fwg dGqfnosf] ?kdf
      ?kfGt/0f ug{ >L % ;/sf/åf/f sfo{bn u7g ul/Psf] lyof] .
      pQm sfo{bnsf] k|ltj]bgdf hgzlQm of]hgfsf] cjwf/0ff /
      gLltut tyf ;+:yfut e"ldsf ;DaGwdf ;'emfj k|fKt ePsf]
      a'lemPsf] 5 .

lj= ;= @))(, @)!# / @)@% sf k|zf;g ;'wf/sf k|ltj]bgx¿n]
      hgzlQm k|flKt÷ egf{, / ljsf;sf kIfx¿df l;kmfl/; u/] klg
hgzlQm of]hgf th'{df ;DaGwL l;kmfl/; gePsf],

hgzlQm of]hgfsf ;DaGwdf ;d:ofx¿

of]hgfa4 ljsf; k|of;sf] yfngL ePsf] krf; jif{ k'Ug nfu] klg / lghfdtL
;]jfsf] Oltxf; klg krf;f}+ jif{sf] eO;Sbf klg hgzlQm of]hgf elgg]
b:tfj]h /fli6«o, If]qut / ;]jf tyf ;+u7g:t/ st} klg th'{df ePsf]
b]lvFb}g . 6'qmf–6fqmL k|If]k0fnfO{ vf]h]/ g]kfnsf] hgzlQm
of]hgf cEof; egL JofVof ug'{kg]{ cj:yf /x]sf] 5 . o; ;DaGwL
ljBdfg ;Df:ofx¿ .


                                  113
!= hgzlQm of]hgf k|ls|of cjnDag gx'g' M– lghfdtL ;]jf tyf
    To; cGtu{tsf ;+u7gx¿sf] p2]Zod} :ki6tf b]lv+b}g . k|To]s
    lgsfon] tby{¿kdf sfd ul//x]sf] l:ylt 5 . of]hgf th'{dfk|ltsf] tTk/tf
    g} gb]lvPsf]n] hgzlQm of]hgf rqm cjnDag x'g] s'/}} ePg .
@= k|zf;g ;'wf/sf k|of; ;d]t hgzlQm of]hgfnfO{ g;d]l6g'
    M– k|zf;g ;'wf/sf nflu ljutdf kfFrj6f cfof]ux¿ ag] klg hgzlQm
    of]hgf th'{dfsf] ;Da]bgzLntfnfO{ s'g} klg cfof]usf] k|ltj]bgn]
    ;Djf]wg ug{ ;s]sf] kfOFb}g .
#= sd{rf/L k|zf;gsf If]qut gLltx? Gfx'g' M– sd{rf/L gLlt
    nufot j[lQ ljsf; of]hgf, lgo'lQm gLlt, kbf]Gglt gLlt, cfsif{0f
    gLlt, dfgj ;fwg ljsf; gLltsf] ;j{yf cefj b]lvG5 .
$= /fhgLlts / k|zf;lgs b'j} txdf hgzlQm of]hgf k|ltsf] rf;f],
    ;r]tgf / k|ltj4tfsf] sdL kfOG5 .
%= lghfdtL ;]jfsf ;+u7gx¿sf] vision, mission, mandate, goal,
    objective lgwf{/0f ePsf] kfOFb}g . To;n] ubf{ s'g} ;+u7gsf]
    clei6 s] xf] eGg] l4ljwf /x]sf] kfOG5 .
^=      sfo{ljj/0f, sfo{ljlzi6Ls/0f, sfo{d"Nof+sg / sfo{ ;txL?kdf
    dfq x'g] u/]sf] 5 .
&= tYof+sLo cfwf/sf] sdL /x]sf] 5 . lghfdtL lstfavfgfdf /x]sf]
    PIS n] g} k"0f{tf kfpg g;s]sf] / cBfjlws x'g g;s]sf]n] HRIS ;Dd
    hfg] cj:yf tTsfn b]vf kb}{g .
*= lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;]jf, ;d"x, pk;d"x juL{s/0f j}1flgs 5}g\ .
(= hgzlQm of]hgfsf] kIf dfu–k"lt{ ljZn]if0f / k|If]k0fdf piecemeal
    k4lt tyf Joj:yfkgsf] cg'dfgzf:q k|of]u ePsf] kfOG5 . lghfdtL
    ;]jfsf] cfsf/ &&,))) df emfg]{ ;DjGwdf ts{ lrQa'embf]
    b]lvFb}g .
!)= ;a} ;+u7gx¿ tTsfnjfbL / tb{y Pj+ 6fn6'n] k|j[lQaf6 u|:t 5g .
    bL3{sfnsf] of]hgf s] xf] eGg] ;DjGwdf s'g} klg lgsfo klg :ki6
    gePsf] l:ylt 5 .
!!= hgzlQm of]hgfsf] ;DjGwdf ;+:yfut sdhf]/Lx¿ b]lvG5g . h:tf]
    M
      s]Gb|Lo sd{rf/L lgsfon] hgzlQm of]hgfsf] :jfldTj
     glnPsf],
      6'lqmPsf] (Fragmented) ;+oGq / 6'lqmPs} ;f]r kfOg],


                                   114
        k|To]s ;+u7gnfO{ kfls{G;G; l;4fGtn] k|efj kf/]sf] 5 .
         To:t} k|To]s lgsfon] cfkm} ;fd|fHo v8f ug]{ k|j[lQ
         kfOG5 .
     hgzlQm of]hgf th'{df ug]{ ;Lko'Qm hgzlQmsf] g} cefj
    b]lvG5 .
!@= lhDd]jf/ ;+:yf / pTkfbs ;+u7gaLr ;Djfbsf] sdL b]lvG5 .
!#= ;fdfGo lsl;dsf] lzIff k|0ffnLsf] jr{:j /x]sf] 5 . o;n]
   tby{jfbnfO{ jn k'¥ofpF5 .
!$= lghfdtL ;]jf P]g / lgodfjnLdf hgzlQm of]hgfsf] s'g} Joj:yf
   5}g .

;'wf/sf pkfox¿

hgzlQm of]hgfnfO{ ;du| tyf lghfdtL ;]jfsf] of]hgf k|lqmofdf
cfGtl/sLs/0f ug{ jx'kIfLo ;'wf/sf sfo{x¿ cfjZos kb{5g . gLltut
cfGtl/sLs/0f, ;+:yfut Ifdtf ljsf; / sfo{ut cu|;/tf cfjZos x'G5 .

gLltut / sfg"gL ;'wf/

   dfgj ;+;fwg gLlt th'{df u/L nfu" ug]{,
   j[lQ ljsf; gLlt / of]hgf, hgzlQm ljsf; gLlt, kbf]Gglt gLlt, tflnd
    gLlt cflb gLltx¿ dfgj ;+;fwg of]hgfsf] cfwf/sf] ¿kdf to ug]{,
    Pj+
   ;DalGwt P]g / lgoddf dfgj ;+;fwg of]hgf th'{df / sfof{Gjog
    ;DjGwL Joj:yf ug]{ .

;+:yfut ;'wf/

 s]Gb|Lo sd{rf/L lgsfonfO{ lghfdtL ;]jfsf] dfgj ;+;fwg
  of]hgfsf] s]Gb|Lo sfo{sf/L lhDd]jf/L tyf j[xt txsf] ;xof]uLsf]
  lhDd]jf/L lbg],
 k|To]s If]qut dGqfnox¿n] If]qut dfgj ;+;fwg of]hgf jgfpg],
 clen]v JoJf:yf ;'b[9Ls/0f ug]{+ –
      PIS af6 HRIS df :yfgfGt/0f
      Network / Web-link :yfkgf


                                 115
       ;"rgf cBfjlws .
 z}lIfs / tflnd ;+:yfx¿;+u c;n sfo{qmlds ;DjGw (rapport) ljsf;
  u/L jfl~5t hgzlQm jfl~5Tf :Tf/ / kl/df0fdf pTkfbgsf] ;'lglZrttf
  u/fpg], Pj+
 k|To]s ;+u7gsf] vision, mission, mandate, role, objective / efjL
  :j¿k tyf r'gf}tL cfFsng u/L of]hgf cEof;nfO{ cjnDjg ug]{ .

sfo{ut ;'wf/

 hgzlQm of]hgf k|lqmofnfO{ clgjfo{ ug]{,
 k|zf;g ;'wf/df dfgj ;+;fwg of]hgfnfO{ ;dfj]z ug]{,
 k|To]s ;+u7g / kbsf] sfo{ljj/0f, sfo{d"Nof+sg / sfo{ljZn]if0f
ug]{,
 lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ljBdfg juL{s/0f k|0ffnL k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{,
 hgzlQm k/LIf0f (HR Audit) ug]{,
 hgzlQmsf] ;+VofTds / u'0ffTds k"jf{g'dfgsf nflu ul0ftLo tyf
    k|If]k0fsf cfw'lgs ljlwx¿ k|of]udf Nofpg],
 ;dGjo k|0ffnL :yflkt ug]{ – z}lIfs ;+:yf, tflnd ;+:yf / lhDd]jf/
    lghfdtL ;]]jfsf] lgsfo aLrdf, Pj+
 ;"rgfsf] ;fem]bf/L ug]{ – hgzlQm of]hgfsf] lg/Gt/ kl/zf]wg
ug]{ .



cGo

     hgzlQm of]hgfaf/] lhDd]jf/ txnfO{ ;';"lrt ug]{,
     k|ltj4tfsf] ljsf; ug]{,
     ;du| k4ltsf] cjnDag ug]{ .

lgisif{

/fli6«o tyf ;+fu7lgs hgzlQm of]hgfsf] ?kdf hgzlQm of]hgfsf] tx
5'6\ofOP klg h'g;'s} txsf] hgzlQm of]hgfsf] nflu klg lhDd]jf/
;+:yfut bfloTj lglZrt ul/Psf] x'gk5{ . lghfdtL ;]jfsf] hgzlQm
of]hgfsf] ;Gbe{df ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnosf] g]t[TjbfoL e"ldsf x'g]

                                116
s'/fdf b'O{ dt x'Fb}g . cGo If]qut dGqfnox?n] ;xof]uL lgsfosf]
?kdf e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ ;S5g . lhDd]jf/L h;/L lgwf{/0f ul/P klg
lghfdtL ;]jfdf hgzlQm of]hgfsf] cfjZostf b]lvG5 . o;n] lghfdtL
;]jfleqsf] dfgj ;+;fwg Joj:yfnfO{ oyfy{k/s agfpgsf] cltl/Qm
lghfdlt ;]jfsf] eljiok/s b[li6sf]0f ljsf; ug{ ;d]t ;Dej t'NofpF5 .


                               




                                117
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@

lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;jn g]t[TjM
                 cjwf/)ff                                  /
             ckl/xfo{tf



                                                                
                                             - df]xg rfkfufO{

jf:tjdf s'g} klg ;+u&g cfkm\gf] uGtJotkm{ ;b}j pGd'v /
pTk]|l/t /xG% . ljleGg ?lr , Jojxf/, k|s[lt / p@]Zosf sdL{x?
;+u&gdf sfo{/t /xG%g . tL ;j} sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ ;f+u&lgs nIo -
uGtJo_ k|lt Psfsf/ ub}{, >f]t ;fwgsf] ;d'lrt kl/rfng ub}{ /
k"j{lgwf{l/t ;dodf g} nIo k|flKtsf nflu hf] tGdotf / tTk/tfsf
;fy lqmofzLn /xG% p g} ;+u&gsf] g]t[Tj xf] . p ;+u&gsf] w*\sg
xf], k|f)f xf], o; ljgf ;+u&gn] ultzLntf / k|ult dfu{ cjnDjg
ug}{ ;Qm}g.

;+u&gsf] ;kmntf÷c;kmntf
          ;+u&gsf] lqmofzLntf÷lgl:qmotf
          ;+u&gsf] ldtJolotf÷cldtJolotf
          ;+u&gsf] k|lti&f . ck|lti&f
          ;+u&gsf] ;'vb eljio÷b'Mvb eljio

o;y{ Joj:yfkgsf ljljw kIfx?dWo] g]t[Tj klg Ps dxTjk")f{ sfo{
xf] . /fhg}lts, k|zf;lgs jf lghLIf]qsf] sfo{ ;+rfngdf ;d]t
g]t[Tjn] lgjf{x ug]{ e"ldsf lgs} k|efjsf/L x'g'kb{% . ;Ifd,
;jn / k|efjsf/L g]t[Tj ;+u&gsf] ;f}Gbo{ xf] .

g]t[Tj o:tf] ckl/xfo{ JolQmTj xf], h;n] cfkm" dftxtsf ;a}nfO{
cfkmgf] ;f]rfO / dfGotf cg';f/ cfb]zsf] kfngf u/fpg],
sfo{k|lt   pT;'s,  pGd'v   /   pT;lh{t  t'Nofpg]   /  ;fd"lxs
;xeflutfsf] ;'lgof]hgåf/f lglZrt p@]Zo xfl;n u/fpg :j:y
d'^'sf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ub{% . o; n]vdf lghfdtL ;]jfsf] g]t[Tj,
k|s[lt / cj:yfnfO{ phfu/ ug]{ ;fgf] k|of; ul/Psf] % .



1_ s]xL egfOx?



    pk;lrj, l;+rfO ljefu .

                                  118
      -   Winning leaders with a proven record take direct responsibility for developing
          other leaders .
      -   Winning leaders can articulate and teach to others about how to make the
          organization successful. They tell stories about their past and explain their
          learning experiences and beliefs.
      -   Leadership is the capacity to change the mindset or frame-work of other
          persons.
      -   kf/:kl/s p@]Zo k|flKtsf nflu ;+u&gdf cfa$ ;Dk")f{
          JolQmx?nfO{ tTk/ /fVg] jf k|efj kfg]{ x}l;ot hf];+u
          /xG%, pxL g]t[Tj xf] .


2_ g]t[Tjsf s]xL :j?kx? o; k\sf/ %g\M

      -   Flexibility                    - Potentiability
      -   Adaptability                   - Driven by organisational goal
      -   Wisdom                         - Challenger
      -   Spontaneity                    - Energetic
      -   Unpredictability               - Professional discipline
      -   Frailty                        - High quest for learning
      -   Vulnerability                  - Open to people and their ideas

3_ ;Ifd g]t[Tjsf s]xL ljz]iftfx?
      - lg/Gt/ ;lqmotf
      - dfgjLo ;Dks{df bIftf
      - /)fgLlts sf}zntf
      - ;`rf/ k|jfxsf] Ifdtf
      - c;n pTk|]/s
      - pTs[i^tf / k]zfut ;+j]bgzLntf
      - ;fx; . ;+s^ Pj+ tgfj Joj:yfks
      - cfTdljZjf;
      - g}lts !fg
      - kl/kSj lg)f{o Ifdtf
      - ;Gt'lnt hLjgz}nL


4_ csf]{ zAbdf g]t[Tj eg]sf] lgDg tYox?sf] ;dli^ut k|ltljDj
xf]


               Self-                 Motivation                  Self -
               Awareness                                       Regulation

                           Social                All Round
                        competencies           competencies

5_ g]t[Tjsf sfo{x?M


                                         119
g]t[Tjsf sfo{x?nfO{ ;Lldt zAbdf cfa$ ug{ ;ls+b}g . g]t[Tj g}
To:tf] ax'cfoflds JolQmTj Pj+ To:tf] cfr/)f xf], h;n] of]hgf
/ gLlt lgdf{)f sfo{ lj!sf ?kdf k|:t't x'g], afx\o ;d"x;+usf]
;DjGwdf ;'dw'/tf Nofpg], ;xof]uLx?sf] ;d:of ;dfwfg ug]{,
lgoGq)f Pj+ pTk|]/s dWo:ystf{sf] e"ldsf jxg ug]{ / ;femf
p@]Zok|lt ;a}nfO{ Psfsf/ u/fpg] p;sf k|fylds sfo{x? x'g .
o:t} :jo+ ;bfrf/, gd"gf Pj+ pbfx/)fsf ?kdf k|:t't x'g', ;d"x
/ ;+u&gsf] k|lti&f a[l$sf nflu dl/xQ] ug'{, gjLg l;$fGt,
ljrf/ / cjwf/)ffsf] k|:km'^g ug'{ / cfkm"nfO{ efjL lbgsf]
cfzfnfUbf] ;+s]tsf ?kdf cu|;/ /xg' p;sf låtLo sfo{x? x'g .

6_ g]t[Tjsf :jefjx?÷k|sf/x?
     1_ Autocratic Leadership

     lg)f{o nufotsf ;Dk")f{ clwsf/x? cfk}+mdf dfq s]lGb|t
     u/L clqmofzLn / cldtJooL x'g' o;k|sf/sf] g]t[Tjsf]
     ljz]iftf xf] .

     2_ Directive   Leadership M

     of] g]t[Tj lg/+s'z g]t[Tj eGbf s]xL pbf/, ;xof]uL,
     ;Lldt clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg ug]{ vfnsf] x'G% . lsGt' of]
     g]t[TjnfO{ k|hftflGqs sf]^Ldf eg] /fVg ;ls+b}g .

     3_ Democratic Leadership

     of] pTs[i^ g]t[Tjsf] :jefj xf], h;df x/]s sd{rf/Lsf]
     sfo{ljj/)f, cfGtl/s / jfx\o lhDd]jf/L, lg)f{osf txx?,
     pQ/bfloTjk")f{tf, k]zfut k|lzIf)f, cfly{s Pj+ cGo
     ;'ljwfx?, sfdk|lt ;sf/fTdstf, u')ffTds sfo{z}nL / pQd
     k|ltkmnsf] ;+efjgf /xG% .

     4_ Supportive Leadership

     o:tf] k|s[ltsf] g]t[Tjdf clwsf/ k|Tofof]hgsf] ;'Joj:yf,
     nIo k|flKtsf] ;fd"lxs hf]z, efjgf, r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug{
     ;Sg] k|jGw / r':ttftkm{ ;+u&gnfO{ *f]Øfpg] k|oTg
     ul/Psf] x'G% .




                                   120
7_ g]t[Tjdf b]lvg'kg]{ ckl/xfo{ Jojxf/x?

      ;Ifd, ;jn / ;lqmo g]t[Tj ;+u&gsf] d'^' xf],                     h;sf]
;+rfng ;'Jojl:yt ePdf dfq cGo cjojx? cgj/t lqmofzLn x'g               ;Qm%g
. ;+u&gnfO{ hLjGt ?k lbgsf] nflu g]t[Tj bx«|f], v/f] /                jnjfg
x'g} kb{% . cyf{t g]t[Tjdf x'g'kg]{ Jojxf/x?nfO{ o;/L                 pNn]v
ug{ ;lsG% 

     s_     r'gf}tL;+u lgle{stf;fy ;fdgf ug]{ zlQm x'g'kb{% .
     v_     ;f}o{jfg / cj/f]wsf cUnf kxf*x?df r(\g klg */fpg'
            x'+b}g .
     u_     k]zfut cg'zf;g, dof{bf / cg'i&fgtk{m pDd]bk")f{
            tj/n] nfUg] x'g'kb{% .
     #_     l;sfOsf] tLj| O{R%f / u/fOdf k|efjzflntf x'g'kb{% .
     ~_     hgtf / hgdtk|lt pbf/, v'nf / kf/bzL{ x'g'kb{% .
     r_     ;f+u&lgs cfbz{ / p@]Zoåf/f kl/rflnt x'g'kb{% .
     %_    ck]lIft ;kmntfsf] k|flKt kZrft klg cu|ufdL e}/xg]
            cfsf+Iff ;+u|lxt ug]{ x'g'kb{% .
     h_     Passion / Purpose x'g'kb{% .
     em_    ;++u&gnfO{ k|lta$, ;+of]lht / ;'lgof]lht t'Nofpg
            cfk;L ljZjf; / cf:yfsf] efj ;+rf/ ug'{ kb{% .
     `f_    cfnf]rgfk|lt cg'bf/ xf]Og , pbf/ x'g'kb{% .
     ^_     Interpersonally Competent xf]Og Intercultural competent x'g'kb{%.
     &_     Administrative, Charismatic / Intellectual authority k|lt k")f{tM
            kl/lrt x'g'kb{%.


8_ g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf g]]t[Tjsf] ljBdfg l:ylt

g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf g]t[TjnfO{ ;an kIfsf] ?kdf ev{/}
:jLsfl/Psf] % tfklg g]t[Tjsf] rog g} lgikIf x'g ;s]sf] %}g .
sfo{ ;Dkfbgsf] (f+rf, z}nL tyf ;Dkflbt sfdsf] :t/ /
sfo{;Dkfbgsf nflu cfjZos k|lqmofx? pk/ j[xb b[li^sf])f
/flv+b}g .

/fhgLlts g]t[Tjdf gLltut ulDe/tf / k|ltj$tf b]lvPsf] %}g .
k|zf;lgs g]t[Tjdf klg sfo{ e"ldsf, sfo{z}nL, sfo{ ljefhg, /
clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg tyf ck]lIft Jojxf/x? ;Gtf]ifhgs kfO+b}g . g
t o;sf] k|efj d"Nof~\sg ug]{ k$lt % g t uxg?kdf c+lusf/ g}
ul/Psf] % .

cfkm\gf] Ifdtf, !fg, cg'ej, z}lIfs of]Uotf, / tfnLdnfO{
sfo{If]qdf ptfg]{ k|oTg ePsf] b]lvb}+g . /fli^Èo gLlt
lgwf{/)f / sfof{Gjogdf tTk/tf / k|ltj$tf /xg ;Sg' k|zf;lgs
g]t[Tjsf] sfo{ xf] t/ xfd|f] ;Gbe{df g]t[Tj ljsf; JolQmsf]
u')f, Jojxf/, of]Uotf / Ifdtfsf] cfwf/df eGbf ;lGgs^tf,
;fdLKotf / cGo s'/fx?sf] cfwf/df ul/G%. IfdtfjfgnfO{ ;b}j
%fof+df /fVg], /fd|f] g]t[TjnfO{ ;b}j lg?T;flxt ug]{ /
of]Uotf, tflnd, Ifdtfsf cfwf/df kb:yfkgf g} gug]{ lj*Djgfo'Qm
cj:yf % .


                                     121
;]jfsf] c;'/Iff, ;dfg kbdf c;dfg Jojxf/, c;dfg j[lQ ljsf;,
e|i^frf/ k|j[lQ, u}/lhDd]jf/Lkg, /fhg}lts cl:y/tfn] k|ToIf jf
ck|ToIf?kdf g]t[Tj / g]t[Tjsf] sfo{ ;DkfbgnfO{ r'gf}tL lbPsf]
% .

g]t[Tjsf] ;+:sf/ /           OdfGbfl/tfdfly csf]{ k|ZglrGx t %+b}% .
;fy} Autocratic Leadership   n] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf sfofkn^ ;'wf/ Nofpg
;s]sf] %}g . bfloTj          / sfo{ ;Dkfbgsf cfwf/df eGbf cGo s'/fsf]
cfwf/df g]t[Tjsf]            rog, ;Dkfbg, d"Nof~\sg sf kIfx? lgs}
ljjfbf:kb %g\ .

clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg ug'{ k¥of] eg] cfkm\gf] xft sf^]/ lbP h:tf]
dfGg', dGqL / ;lrjs} clwsf/ / bfloTjsf] :ki^ /]vf+sg x'g
g;Sg', lghfdtL ;]jfdf d'Vo ;lrjsf] e"ldsf ljifodf :ki^ Joj:yf
gx'g' / lghfdtL ;]jfdf k]zfut lgikIftf, t^:ytf / k|ltj$tf x'g
g;Sg' klg csf]{ b'Mvb kIf xf] .


9_ ck]lIft ;'wf/sf af^fx?

       -   lghfdtL ;]jfdf g]t[TjnfO{ kbsf cfwf/df dfq kl/eflift
           ul/g] xf]Og ls of]ubfgsf cfwf/df kl/eflift ul/g'k%{
           .
       -   ;f+u&lgs k|lqmof / p@]Zosf nflu g]t[Tj g} Psdfq
           To:tf] snfsf/ xf], h;n] ;d:t ;+u&gnfO{ cfkm"tkm{
           cfslif{t ul//x]sf] x'G% .
       -   Organisation Goal sf] First Realiser g} g]t[Tj x'g'kb{% .
       -   g]t[Tj sbflk l:y/ / hGdl;$ x'g ;Qm}g . sfd, Ifdtf,
           u')f / r'gf}tL g]t[Tjsf s;L x'g. pgLx? ljsl;t /
           l;lh{t x'g\ .
       -   cfhsf g]t[Tj ju{x? Fire Fighting dg k/fp+¤b}gg . ;fgf]
           lg)f{o ug'{ k¥of] eg] klg nfdf] cjlw nufP/, ljleGg
           JolQmx?;+u /fo lnP/ klg ck|efjsf/L lg)f{o u%{g .
           oyf;+ej ;d:ofNffO{ ^fg]{, kG%fpg] / efUg] u%{g . h'g
           aL/tf / wL/tf xf]Og .
       -   cfhsf] jftfj/)fdf             lg/k]If eP/ af+Rg} ;lsGg .
           k|lt:kwf{df /dfpg], ;xof]uL jftfj/)f jgfpg] / ;do
           Pj+ k|oTgnfO{ ;'vb ;+of]hg ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf hf];+u %,
           pxL ;kmntd g]t[Tj jGg ;S% .
       -   ahf/sf]    cj:yf         a'em\g],        ;xsdL{x?sf] dfu /
           cfjZostfnfO{ u|x)f ug]{, / pknAw >f]t / ;fwgnfO{
           &LSs kf/]/ /fVg] g]t[Tjsf] cfjZostf lghfdtL ;]jfdf
           ckl/xfo{ % .
       -   c;n g]t[Tj eljiob|i^f, e/f];fsf] s]Gb|, IfdfzLn /
           st{Jok/fo)f x'g} kb{% .
       -   g]t[Tj;+u Holistic View Of Situations x'g'kb{% .




                                      122
      -   lghfdtL ;]jfdf /x]sf g]t[Tjk+lQm;+u Risk Taking Behaviours,
          Experiment, Team-Work , Communication / Positive Attitude h:tf :jefjx?
          clt g} cfjZos kIfx? x'g\ .
      -   g]t[Tj ju{ Proactive, Balanced personality , Rational x'g klg cfjZos
          % .
      -   xfd|f]      ;Gbe{df      lghfdtL     ;]jfdf         g]t[Tjsf]     rog,
          sfo{z}nL, d"Nof~\sg ;d]t pko'Qm ePdf dfq g]t[Tj ;jn
          ;Ifd / ;zQm x'g ;Qm% .

10_ ;dli^df
lghfdtL ;]jfsf] Pp^f c;n g]t[Tjn] ;+u&gdf sfofkn^ g} Nofpg
;Qm% t/ p;n] lgDg tYof~\sx?tkm{ rgfvf] / rnfodfg x'g} kb{% M

      -   /fd|f] jgfpg vf]Hg]n] klxn] cfkm}+ /fd|f] aGg'k%{ .
      -   g]t[Tj gLltsf] /Ifs xf], eIfs xf]Og .
      -   gLlt, g]t[Tj / g}ltstf Pp^} lqsf])fsf efux? x'g .
      -   klxn] cfkm}+nfO{ x]/, vf]h / cfkm+}nfO{ ;f]w .
      -   g]t[Tjn]      h'g    sfd     ub{%,     Tof]     c?sf     nflu    klg
          cg'zLngof]Uo x'g'        kb{% .


                                     




                                      123
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


     pTk|]/0ffsf] ;}4flGts / Aojxfl/s kIf
                Ps ljZn]if0f



                                                     – tf]ogf/fo0f 1jfnL
cjwf/0ff
Motivation Nofl6g zAb Movere jf6 ag]sf] xf], h;sf] cy{ to move
cyf{t ult lbg' x'G5 . csf]{ zAbdf Motivation = Willingness to work x
ability x opportunity to work x support x'G5 . pTk]|/0ff O{R5f, d"No /
ljZjf;sf] ;+o'Qm ?k xf] . h;n] AolQmnfO{ sfo{ ug{ k]|l/t u5{ .
sd{rf/Lsf] pTk|]/0ff a9fpgsf nflu p;sf] OR5f, d"No / ljZjf;sf]
klxrfg ug{ ;Sg'k5{ . sd{rf/Lsf ;jn / sdhf]/ kIf klxrfg u/L oyfy{ nIo
lgwf{/0f ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . dflg;sf nIo / rfxgf p;sf] d"No /
ljZjf;jf6 to x'G5g\ . ;kmntf eg]sf] csf]{ zAbdf Motivation + Goal +
Circumstance = Success xf] .

pTk|]/0ff Ps ljZn]if0f
s'g} klg ;+u7gdf dfgj ;fwgsf] cToGt dxTjk"0f{ :yfg /x]sf] x'G5
. of] ;fwgn] g} cGo ;fwgsf] kl/rfng, k|of]u / pkof]u ug]{ ePsf]n]
dfgj ;fwg pTk]|l/t gxF'bf;Dd cGo ;fwgsf] ;kmn k|of]u x'g
;Sb}g . s'g} JolQm jf sd{rf/LnfO{ cfˆgf] sfd k|lt dg nufpg],
bIftf Ifdtf / ;+efjgfnfO{ ;lqmo Pj+ d"t{ agfpg] pkfosf] ?kdf
pTk|]/0ffnfO{ lnOG5 . ;+u7gdf sfd ug]{ JolQm pTk|]l/t
gx'bf;Dd cGo ;fwg / >f]tnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;~rfng ug{ ;lsb}g .

    pk;lrj, k|wfgdGqL tyf dlGqkl/ifb\sf] sfof{no .


                                        124
sd{rf/Lsf] Psychological variable nfO{ hlt ;~rfng ug{ ;Sof]
Joj:yfks Tolt g} ;kmn x'g] ;+efjgf x'G5 .

"It is the stimulation of any emotion or desire operating upon one's
will or prompting or driving to an action." J.C. Lillis.

s'g} AolQm jf sd{rf/Lsf] cfsf+Iff k"/f ug{ k|of]u ul/g] Drive / Effort
g} pTk|]/0ff xf] . ;+u7gdf Joj:yfksn] cfkm\gf sd{rf/Lx?sf] OR5f,
cfjZostf, sfdgf jf cfsf+Iff k"/f ug{ jf ;Gt'i6 kfg{df ul/g] ljleGg
k|oTgaf6 sd{rf/L pTk|]l/t x'G5g\ . Elton Mayo n] ;g\ !(@$ b]lv
!(#@ ;Dd u/]sf] cWoogjf6 sd{rf/L k};fn] dfq pk|]l/t x'Fb}g eGg]
gofF tYo kQf nfUof] . oyf{ydf k"lt{ gePsf cfjZostfn] g} JolQm
ljz]ifnfO{ pTk|]l/t x'g ;xof]u ub{5 .
pTk]|/0ffnfO{ ;sf/fTds / /fd|f] ljifosf] ?kdf lnO{G5 . pTk]|/0ff
;lsb} hfg] x'gfn] eb}{ hfg' k5{ . sd{rf/Lsf] rfxgf k"/f ePkl5 sfd
k|ltsf] ;lqmotfdf sdL cfp5 . AolQm pTk]|l/t x'Fbf ;Dk"0f{tf d}
pTk|]l/t x'G5 . cfwf/e"t cfjZostf ;d]t k"/f gePdf sd{rf/L sdhf]/ /
lg/fz x'G5g\ . jftfj/0fLo sf/0fjf6 ;d]t pTk]|/0ff 36g] / a9g] x'G5 .
pTk|]/0ffnfO{ Self-starter Tool ;d]t elgG5 .
"We'll define motivation is a process that account for an individual's
intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal."
Stephen p. Robbins.

Keith Davis n] pTk|]/0ffnfO{ s'g} sfo{ k|ltsf] nufj jf k|lta4tfsf]
zlQm jf Ifdtf egL kl/eflift u/]sf 5g\ . k|efjsf/L pTk|]/0ffsf] nflu
JolQm ljz]ifsf] JolQmTj klxrfg ug]{, cg's/0fLo pbfx/0f k]z ug]{
g]t[Tj cfjZos x'G5 . o;}ul/ dftxtsf sd{rf/Ldf ljZjf; ug]{, ;d:ofx?
Wofg k"j{s ;'Gg], ;~rf/ ;Lk ePsf]], ;xeflutf a[l4df hf]8 lbg] h:tf
kIf pTk|]/0ffsf nflu clt cfjZos 5g\ .

pTk|]|]/0ff ;DaGwL l;4fGtx? / Aojxfl/s k|of]u
;+u7gfTds Jojxf/sf] cWoogsf] qmddf kQf nufOPsf pTk|]/0ff
;DaGwL d'Vo l;4fGtsf] ;+lIfKt kl/ro kl5 tL l;4fGtnfO{{ >L % sf]
;/sf/sf ;+u7gdf ckgfOPsf] Joj:yfsf] af/]df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . >L


                                   125
% sf] ;/sf/sf ;+u7g dWo] of] n]vdf lghfdtL ;]jf cGtu{tsf
;+u7gnfO{ d'Vo ?kn] ;d]6\g] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 .
!= df:nf]sf] cfjZostf ;f]kfg
ca|fxd df:nf]n]] pTk]|/0ffsf nflu ljleGg kfr cfjZostfsf] k"lt{
x'g'kg]{ atfPsf 5g\ . cd]l/sg dgf]a}1flgs df:nf]n] cfjZostf ;f]kfg
l;4fGtsf] k|ltkfbg ;g\ !($# df u/]sf x'g . oL cfjZostfdf zfl/l/s
cfjZostf -xfjf, kfgL, vfgf, cfjfz, lgGb|f, n'ufkmf6f] _ ;'/Iff cfjZostf
- zfl/l/s ;'/Iff / ;]jf ;'/Iff_ ;fdflhs cfjZostf -k|]d, nufj, ckgTj, d}qL
efjgf_ pRr efjgf -;Gt'li6, cfTd ;Ddfg_ / :j–rl/tfy{ - cfkm\gf]
Ifdtfsf] clwstd pkof]u, t[i0ff nf]e gx'g] cj:yf_ /x]sf 5g\ . df:nf]n]
pQm cfjZostfsf] k"lt{sf] qmddf lgDg txsf] cfjZostf k"/f ePkl5
pRr txsf] cfjZostf k"/f x'g] jtfPsf 5g\ . pgn] oL kfr cfjZostf
>[vnfn] sd{rf/L sfddf pTk|]l/t x'g] pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ .

>L % sf] ;/sf/sf ;+u7gdf zfl/l/s cfjZostf k"/f ug]{ qmddf tna
eQfsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . ;'/Iff cfjZostfsf] ?kdf pkrf/ vr{sf] Aoj:yf,
;]jf zt{sf] Uof/]G6L h:tf ljifo ;dfj]z 5g\ . pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf lghfdtL
;]jf P]g @)$( df lghfdtL sd{rf/LnfO{ ;kmfOsf] ;a'b lbg] dgfl;a
dflkmssf] df}sf glbO ;]jfaf6 x6fpg] jf avf{:t ul/g] 5}g eGg]
Joj:yf pNn]v ul/Psf]5 . ;fdflhs cfjZostfsf] k"lt{sf] nflu ljleGg
k|sf/sf labfsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .

@= Dofs u|]u/ (MC Gregar) sf] x / y l;4fGt

sd{rf/Lsf] :jefj, rfxgf, k|s[lt / Jojxf/ ljZn]if0f u/]/ Dofs u|]u/n] x /
y l;4fGtdf juL{s/0f u/]sf 5g\ . sd{rf/Lx?sf] :jefjnfO{ pgn] ;du|df
b'O{ efudf ljefhg u/L ;a} sd{rf/LnfO{ :jefj cg';f/sf] Jojxf/
ug'{kg]{] ;'emfj lbPsf 5g\ . x l;4fGtsf sd{rf/Lx? sfo{ ug{
g?rfpg], sfd kG5fpg], lgoGq0f / lgb]{zgsf] cfwf/df dfq sfd ug]{
/ pTt/bfloTj jxg ug{ dg gk/fpg] vfnsf x'G5g . y l;4fGtsf
sd{rf/Lx? ;[hglzn, pTt/bfloTj jxg ug]{, :jlgolGqt / sfo{ ug{ ;w}
tTk/ /xg] vfnsf x'G5g\ .




                                   126
g]kfnsf ;+u7gdf x l;4fGtsf] ?kdf uon s§L ug]{, r]tfjgL lbg ;Sg],
ljefuLo ;hfo cGtu{t ;fdfGo / ljz]if ;hfo x'g] Joj:yf 5 eg] y
l;4fGtsf] :kdf k|z+;f kq, k|f]T;fxLt k'/:sf/, u|]8 yk, cltl/Qmdfgsf]
Joj:yf, cWoog, e|d0f, tfnLd h:tf Joj:yf ckgfOPsf 5g\ .

#= xhju{sf] pTk|]/0ff–xfOlhg l;4fGt

sd{rf/LnfO{ sfdk|lt pTk]|l/t agfpg] dfq xf]Og lg/fzf cyjf
c;Gt'li6sf] cj:yfdf k'Ugaf6 /f]Sg' klg r'gf}tL xf] eGg] wf/0ffaf6
xhju{sf] l;4fGt k|]l/t 5 . ;g\ !(%) df of] l;4fGt k|ltkfbg ubf{
k|ZgfjnLnfO{ cfwf/ dflg To;jf6 k|fKt lgrf]8nfO{ l;4fGtsf] ?kdf
:jLsf/ ul/of] . o;df pgn] Hygiene tTj / Motivating tTjsf af/]df
pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ .

Hygiene tTjn] sd{rf/LnfO{ c;Gt'i6 x'gaf6 /f]Sb5 . o;df sd{rf/Lsf]
:t/, tnj tyf ;'ljwf, ;'/Iff, sfo{ cj:yf, ;'k/Lj]Ifs–;xsdL{–;xfos ;+usf]
;DaGw, ;'kl/j]If0f, JolQmut hLjg / ;+u7gsf] gLlt Pj+ k|zf;gsf]
Joj:yf h:tf ljifo kb{5g\ . xfd|f] ;/sf/L ;+u7gdf sd{rf/Lsf]
c;Gt'li6nfO{ /f]Sg ;]jf, ;'/Iff, tna eQf, :t/ lgwf{/0f, ;'kl/j]If0fsf]
Joj:yf ;+u7g sf] gLlt Pj+ k|zf;gsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf]5 .

Gf]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf xhju{sf] pTk|]/s tTjsf j[lTt ljsf;,
lhDj]jf/L, sfdsf] j[l4, dfGotf, pknlAw h:tf ljifodWo] j[lQ ljsf; -
tfnLd, cWoog, a9'jf_ sf] kIfdf Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . jt{dfg kl/j]zsf
r'gf}tL ;fdgf ug{ sd{rf/LnfO{ tof/ kfg]{ clxn]sf] single loop
learning sf] ;§f tfnLd Joj:yfnfO{ efjL r'gf}tL klg ;fdgf ug{ ;Sg]
agfpg Double loop learning ;~rfng ug{' kg]{ b]lvPsf]5 .

$= leS6/ e|'dsf] ck]Iffsf] l;4fGt

of] l;4fGt dfl6{g n'y/sf] " Every thing that is done in the world is
done in hope " ;+u glhs b]lvG5 . e|'dsf] ;g\ !(^$ df k|ltkflbt of]
l;4fGtn] sd{rf/Ln] k|of;jf6 sfo{;Dkfbg u5{ / sfo{;Dkfbgjf6
Reward k|fKt u5{ / hlt a9L Reward k|fKt u5{ Tolt g} a9L pTk]|l/t
x'G5 eGg] dfGotf /fVb5 .


                                  127
e|'dsf cg';f/ sd{rf/L slt pTk|]l/t x'G5 eGg] lgwf{/s g} p;n] k|fKt
ug]{ glthf jf k|ltkmndf e/ kb{5 . e|'dsf cg';f/ sd{rf/L pTk|]l/t x'g
kfFr cj:yf aLr tfnd]n x'g'k5{ . :ki6 nIo, k|ltkmn, lglZrt k|ltkmnsf]
dfqfk|lt sfdbf/ lglZrt, sfdbf/ ;f] nfe k|lt cfslif{t x'g'' / Tof] sfo{
ug]{ Ifdtf x'g' of] l;4fGt cGtu{t kb{5g\ . sd{rf/Ln] j[lQ ljsf;sf]
nflu sfd ub{5g\ egL of] l;4fGtn] dfGb5 . lghfdtL ;]jf P]g,
lgodfjnLdf j[lQ ljsf;sf ljleGg kIfnfO{ ;d]6\g'sf ;fy} >L % sf]
;/sf/n] a9'jf lgb]{lzsf @)%*, /fli6«o tfnLd gLlt @)%* agfO{
nfu" u/]sf] ljifo of] l;4fGtsf] ;Gbe{df :d/0fLo5 .

%= Alderfer sf] ERG Theory
Alderfer n] Herzberg tyf df:nf] b'j}sf] l;4fGtaf6 k|efljt eO{ ERG
Theory k|ltkfbg u/]  . E eGgfn] Existence cyf{t cl:yTj sfod /fVg
sfdk|lt pTk|]l/t x'g] cj:yf xf] . R eGgfn] Relatedness cyf{t cGt/
JolQm ;DaGw, ;fdflhs ;DaGwsf] cfjZostf xf] . o;}ul/ G eGgfn]
Growth cyf{t JolQmsf] cfTdf]GgltnfO{ hgfp5 . xfd|f] ;Gbe{df
cl:yTj, AolQmut ;DjGw / sd{rf/Lsf] a[lQ ljsf;sf ;GaGwdf ePsf
Joj:yfx? o; cGtu{t kb{5g\ .

^= Dofs Sn]Nof08sf] cfjZostf l;4fGt
David C. Mc Clelland / pgsf ;xof]uLx?åf/f k|ltkflbt cfjZostfsf]
l;4fGtn] sd{rf/Ldf pknAwL, zlQm / dfGotf h:tf # k|sf/sf
cfjZostf /x]sf] x'gfn] sd{rf/L tL cfjZostf k"/f ug{ sfd k|lt pTk]|l/t
x'g] cf}NofPsf 5g\ .

   o Need for Achievement :

sltko sd{rf/Ldf k|flKtsf] rfxgf x'G5 . o:tf sd{rf/Lx?n] sl7g sfdx?
ug]{, bIftf a9fpg], cfkm\gf] sfdsf] pQ/bfloTj lng] / r'gf}tLk"0f{
sfo{ ug{ tTk/ /xg]] :jefjsf x'G5g\ . o:tf vfnsf sd{rf/Lx? k|flKt
cfjZostfn] ubf{ sfd k|lt pTk|]l/t x'G5g\ egL of] l;4fGtn] dfGb5 .


   o Need for Power



                                  128
s]xL sd{rf/L zlQm cfsf+IfL x'G5g\ . o:tf] cfjZostf ePsf sd{rf/L
c?nfO{ k|efjdf kfg{, lgoGq0f ug{ / lgb]{zg lbg rfxg] vfnsf
x'G5g\ . o:tf sd{rf/Ln] cfb]zdf ljZjf; ug]{, clwsf/sf] a9f]Q/L
rfxg] / c?sf] ;'kl/j]If0fnfO{ bvn 7fGg ljz]iftf lnPsf x'G5g\ .
zlQm cfjZostfn] ubf{ sd{rf/L sfd k|lt pTk|]l/t x'G5g\ .

   o Need for affiliation :

sltko sd{rf/Lx? ;fyLx?jf6 a9L dfof ddtfsf] ck]Iff /fVb5g\ . o:tf
vfnsf sd{rf/Ln] ;fd"lxs sfd dg k/fpg], cfkm"nfO{ c?sf] ;xof]uL
7fGg], c?;+u 3'nldn x'g rfxg] / c?;+u ldn]/ sfd ug]{ :jefjsf
x'G5g\ . o:tf sd{rf/Lx? oxL cfjZostfn] ubf{ sfd k|lt pTk|l/t
x'G5g\ egL of] l;4fGtn] :jLsf/ ub{5 .

&= Theory – Z

of] l;4fGtsf k|ltkfbs William Ouchi x'g . ;g\ !(*! df k|ltkflbt of]
l;4fGtn] 3lgi7 ;DaGw, Ifdtf ljsf;sf] ;'lglZrttf, ;fd"lxs sfo{k4lt,
;fd"lxs cGt/lqmof, v'nf ;~rf/, sd{rf/Lsf ;a} kIfsf] rf;f], ck|ToIf
lgoGq0f h:tf ljifodf hf]8 lbG5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df of] l;4fGt gof
k|of]u / cWoogsf] ljifo ePsf] 5 .

*= Equity theory

of] l;4fGtsf k|ltkfbs h]= P;= P8D; x'g . of] l;4fGtn] sd{rf/Ln]
cfkm\gf] k]zfut nufgL -cg'ej, ;do, d]xgt, tfnLd, bIftf / of]Uotf_ /
k|ltkmn -tnj, eTtf, a[lQ ljsf; / ;'/Iff h:tf ljifo_ nfO{ t'ngf u/L
pTk|]l/t x'g] jf gx'g] cj:yfsf af/]df pNn]v ub{5 . o; cg';f/ ;dfg
nufgLsf] cfwf/df cGo ;+u7g jf ;f]xL ;+u7gdf sfo{ ug]{
sd{rf/Lsf] k|ltkmn;+u sd{rf/Ln] cfkm\gf] k|ltkmnsf] t'ngf
ul//x]sf] x'G5 . obL nufgL a/fj/ ePsf] cj:yfdf k|ltkmn j9L ePdf
sd{rf/L sfd k|lt pTk|]l/t x'G5, nufgL a/fj/ ePsf] cj:yfdf k|ltkmn
sd x'G5 eg] sd{rf/L sfd k|lt pTk|]l/t x'Fb}g . xfd|f] ;Gbe{df
sd{rf/L sfd k|lt sd pTk|]l/t x'g'sf] sf/0fdf oxL l;4fGtnfO{ cfwf/
dflgG5 . ;dtf l;4fGtnfO{ dWo gh/ /fvL lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;do ;dodf
gofF tna ;+/rgf nfu" ug]{ ul/Psf]5 .

                                129
(= Re-inforcement theory

of] l;4fGtsf k|ltkfbs B.F. Skinner x'g . o;nfO{ k'/:sf/ / b08sf] l;4fGt
jf Jojxf/ / cEof;sf] l;4fGt klg elgG5 . of] l;4fGt cg';f/ ;+u7gn]
sd{rf/Lx?sf] sfo{z}nL / Aojxf/df kl/jt{g Nofpg k'/:sf/ / b08sf]
Joj:yf ug'{kg]{ atfp5 . of] l;4fGtsf] sfof{Gjogsf] ?kdf ;/sf/L
;+u7gdf k'/:sf/ / b08sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] x'G5 . lghfdtL ;]jfsf]
;Gbe{df lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( sf] kl/R5]b ( df ;hfo /
k'g/fj]bgsf] Joj:yf 5 eg] lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnLsf] lgod !!^ / !!^ s
df k'/:sf/sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . o;}ul/ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] @% jif]{
u'?of]hgfn] dfkb08 / kl/;"rssf] cfwf/df k'/:sf/ / b08sf] Joj:yf
a:t'ut agfpg l;kmfl/z u/]sf]5 .

!)= Goal setting theory

of] l;4fGtsf] cjwf/0ff Nofpg] P8ljg P= ns x'g . k|To]s ;/sf/L
;+u7gn] sd{rf/LnfO{ pTk|]l/t u/fO{ /fVg nIo lgwf{/0f u/]sf]
kfOG5 . lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnL @)%) sf] lgod !@% n] k|To]s
sfof{no k|d'vn] jf ljefuLo k|d'vn] glthfd"ns sfo{tfnLsf agfpg'
kg]{ Joj:yf u/]sf]5 .

l;4fGt / Jojxf/sf] ljZn]if0f
;j} l;4fGtx? ;fGble{s 5g\ . Pp6f ljifon] dfq k"0f{ ljz]iftf glnPsf]
;Gbe{df ;j} l;4fGtsf ljz]iftfx?sf] pkof]ujf6 k"0f{ pTk|]/0ff ;Dej5
. g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df ;xfos :t/sf sd{rf/Ldf ca|fxd df:nf]sf] klxnf]
cfjZostf g} k"lt{ x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . pTk|]/0ffsf] ;Gbe{df tna d'Vo
pTk|]/s xf]Og egL xfn}sf cg';Gwfgn] b]vfPsf] ePtfklg g]kfnsf]
;Gbe{df Go"g tna eQf pTk|]/0ffsf] d'Vo jfwssf] ?kdf /x]sf]
egfO{ af/Djf/ p7g] u/]sf]5 . gsf/fTds / ;sf/fTds b'j} pTk|]/0ffsf]
k|of]u g]kfnsf] ;/sf/L ;+u7gdf x'g] u/]sf]5 .

g]kfnsf] k|zf;gdf JolQmsf cfjZostfsf] d"Nof+sg / ;Ddfg ul/g]
kl/kf6Lsf] ljsf;sf] nflu hf]8 lbO{Psf]5    . o;}ul/  ;+:yfut
pTk|]/0ffsf] nflu k|of; ul/Psf] 5 eg] cfly{s / cGo tTjnfO{

                                  130
pTk|]/ssf] ?kdf lnOPsf]5 . ;sf/fTds pTk|]/0ffsf] nflu k|bfg ul/g]
k'/:sf/sf cfwf/ a:t'ut x'Fb} u/]sf] cj:yf5 . o;} u/L ;]jf–;d"xut cj;/ /
;'ljwfx?df km/s /x]sf]n] o;tkm{ Wofg lbg ;lsPdf sd{rf/Lsf]
pTk|]/0ffsf] :t/ a9g] cfzf ug{ ;lsG5 . sd{rf/Lsf] pTk|]/0ff
a9fpgsf] nflu ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo / sd{rf/Lsf] p2]ZonfO{ PsLs[t u/L
sd{rf/LnfO{ k|fKt x'g] x/]s cj;/df k|lt:kwf{sf] cfwf/df rog ug]{ ;fy}
;+u7gdf Knowledge Management nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' h?/L 5 .
;+If]kdf
sd{rf/Lsf] pTk|]/0ff a9fpg g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& sf]
wf/f !@$ n] lghfdtL ;]jfsf] u7g, ;~rfng / ;]jfsf zt{x? P]g åf/f
Jojl:yt ug]{ Joj:yf u/L sfo{kflnsfaf6 x'g] ;+zf]wgnfO{ lgoGq0f
u/]sf]5 . ;+a}wflgs lgsfoaf6 a:t'ut cfwf/df k|lt:kwf{ u/fO{
sd{rf/Lsf] 5gf}6 / lgo'lQm x'g] Joj:yf ePaf6 ;]jf k|j]z ubf{
sd{rf/Ldf pRr pTk|]/0ff b]lvG5 . gjf}+ of]hgf -@)$(–@)%$_ jf6
k|zf;g ;'wf/sf] ;+/rgfTds 9fFrf tof/, u'?of]hgf th'{df, pTk|]/0ffsf]
nflu sfg"gL Pj+ k|lqmofut ;'wf/, Joj:yfkg k/LIf0f h:tf sfo{ ePsf
5g\ .
pTk|]/0ff a9fpg /fli6«o tfnLd gLlt @)%*, a9'jf lgb]{lzsf @)%*,
e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g @)%( hf/L e} sfof{Gjogdf NofOPsf] 5 .
bzf}+ of]hgf -@)%(–@)^$_ sf] cjlwdf k|zf;gnfO{ k|lt:klw{,
pQ/bfoL, n}lËs ;dtf cled'v agfpg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] 5 . ;/sf/L
k|of;x? sd{rf/Lsf] pTk|]/0ff a9fpg lg/Gt/ s]lGb|t 5g\ . s]xL ;d:of
/x]tfklg ;d:of x/]s ljifosf] cleGg c+u xf] . ;d:ofjf6 g} ;dfwfg
hlGdG5 . lg/fzf / s'07f lnPsf sd{rf/Laf6 ;/sf/sf] 5lj / /fi6«sf]
a[xt p2]Zo k"/f x'Fb}g, t;y{ ;/sf/n] sd{rf/Lsf] pTk|]/0ff ;w}j pRr
/fVg'kb{5 .

                         ;Gbe{–;fdu|L
   o g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$&, sfg"g lstfj Joj:yf ;ldlt,
     sf7df08f} .
   o lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$( / lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnL @)%), sfg"g
     lstfj Joj:yf ;ldlt, sf7df08f} .


                                  131
o William B. Werther Jr & Keith Davis, Human Resource           &
  Personnel Management, McGraw-Hill, New York 1993.
o Flippo, EB Personnel Management, New work, Mc Graw–hill Book
  Company
o Stephen P. Robbins, Essentials of Organization Behavior, New
  Delhi,
o Acharya Madhuraman - Business of Bureaucracy, second edition,
  2002
o Higgins, J.M (1994). The management challenges (2nd Ed.) New
  York: Macmillan.
o Kreitner, R. (1995). Management (6th Ed.). Boston: Houghton
  Mifflin Company.
o Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Free
  Press.

                             




                              132
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@

            hgzlQm of]hgf / o;sf] Joj:yfkg
                   "Maximum utilization of human potentiality"




                                                              –Psgf/fo0f cof{n


!= hgzlQm of]hgf
;+u7gsf] pb]Zo k|flKtsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ >f]t ;fwgx? dWo]
hgzlQm clt dxTjk"0f{ ;fwg xf] . hgzlQm;+u7gsf] sfo{zlQmsf]
s'n 1fg, ;Lk, l;h{gfTds Ifdtfsf] ;fy;fy} o;df cfj4 JolQmx?sf]
d"No, dfGotf, cjl:ylt / ltgLx?df cGt/lglxt 1fg, ;Lk, j'l4, k|ltef /
Ifdtf;+u ;Dj4 x'G5 . ;+u7gsf] j[xQ/ Pj+ bL3{sfnLg lxt Pj+
JolQmsf] j}olQms pGgltsf nflu cTofjZos ljioj:t'sf ?kdf
hgzlQmnfO{ lnOg] ul/G5 . o;y{, hgzlQm of]hgf eGgfn]
sd{rf/Lsf] dfu / cfk"lt{ sf] ;Gt'ngsf ;fy;fy} pgLx? jLrsf] j}olQms
j[lQ ljsf;, Ifdtfsf] ;dof]lrt pkof]u ug'{nfO{ j'lemG5 .

hgzlQm of]hgf / dfgj ;+;fwfgnfO{ kof{ojfrL zJbsf] ?kdf k|of]u
ug]{                                                                          u/]sf]
kfOG5 . xfnsf lbgx?df Human Resource Planning/Management n] Jofks
?kdf rrf{ kfPsf]            5 . dfgjLo zlQmsf] oyf]lrt Joj:yfkg ljgf
;+u7gdfq xf]OgM ;du| /fi6«n] g} cfˆgf] nlIft pb]Zo k|fKt ug{
;Sb}g . d'n'ssf] ;d:t cfly{s lxt, pGglt Pj+ ;d[l4sf nflu dfgj >f]t
Joj:yfkg ug'{ cTofjZos dfq geP/ ;do;fk]If dfu klg xf] . Human
Resource Planning n] Policy Development, Demand & supply projection, Action strategies
h:tf ljifoj:t'nfO{ ;d]6\g] x'gfn] lghL Joj;flos k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g

    pk–;lrj, jg tyf e"–;+/If0f dGqfno .

                                          133
Pj+ ljsf; k|zf;gsf nlIft pb]ZonfO{ ;do;fk]If ?kdf k|fKt ug{ 7"nf]
;xof]u k'¥ofpFb5 .

hgzlQm of]hgfsf] ;Gbe{df ljåfgx?sf] wf/0ff

hgzlQm of]hgfnfO{ ljleGg lj4fgx?n] ljleGg 9+un] kl/eflift u/]sf
5g\ . s]xL k|d'v kl/efiffx? oxfF k|:t't ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5–
    C.B. Memoria - "Manpower planning consisting in projecting future manpower
    requirements and developing manpower palns for the implementation of the
    projection"

    Moore - "Human resource planning forecast the type of skill and people needed by
    the organization and it predicts the availability and sources of such skill and people".

    C. James Walker - "Human resource planning is the process of analysing an
    organization's human resource needs under changning conditions and developing the
    activities necessary to satisfy these needs".

    D. David & Stephen P.Robbins - "Human resource planning is the process by
    which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kind of people, at the
    right place, at the right time capable of effectively and efficiently completing those
    tasks that will help the organization to achieve its overall objectives".

hgzlQm of]hgf Ps o:tf] cf}hf/ xf] h;sf] dfWodaf6 dfgjzlQmsf
sfo{s'zntf, sfo{k|efjsfl/tf / pTkfbsTjnfO{ ;+u7gsf] nIo k|flKtdf
phfu/ ug{ ;lsG5 .
dfgjLo zlQmsf] k|efjsf/L kl/rfng ljgf /fHon] cfˆgf] p2]Zo k|fKt
ug{ ;Sb}g . ;do;fk]If ?kdf dfgjzlQmsf] ljsf; Pj+ kl/rfng tyf
pkof]u ug'{ hgzlQm of]hgf d"n dd{ xf] . o;nfO{ /fli6«o :t/ -
Macro_ / ;+u7g:t/ -Micro_ df ljefhg u/L cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 .


s=/fli6«o:t/
 /fli6«o:t/df hgzlQm of]hgf ;du| d'n'ssf] j[xQ/lxt tyf cfly{s
 pGglt;+u ;+alGwt /x]sf] x'G5 . d'n'sdf pTkflbt hgzlQm /
 To;sf] ;xL pkof]u Pj+ /fli6«o:t/df To;sf] cfjZostf cg';f/ kl/rfng
 h:tf ljifoj:t'df o;n] cf+sng ub{5 . xfd|f] ;Gbe{df hgzlQm
 of]hgfsf] jf/]df eGg'kbf{ /fHodf pTkflbt hgzlQm / cfk"lt{sf]
 l:yltsf] tfnd]n gx'gfn] lzlIft j]/f]huf/Lsf] dfqf a9L b]lvPsf] 5 .
 oxL sf/0fn] ubf{ pQd hgzlQmnfO{ d'n'ssf] ljsf;sf] d"nk|jfxdf

                                           134
 nufpg g;lsPaf6 /fHon] Brain Drain sf] ;d:of v]Kg' kl//x]sf] 5 .
 If]qut jf ljifout?kdf ljleGg lzIf0f ;+:yfx?af6 slt dfqfdf s:tf
 hgzlQmsf] pTkfbg ug]{ / To;sf] ljsf; Pj+ pkof]u s:tf] k|sf/n]
 ug]{ eGg] jf/]df cf+sng ug'{ g} jf:tljs cy{df /fli6«o:t/sf] dfgj
 ljsf; of]hgfleq kb{5 .

v= ;+u7g:t/
;+u7gn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] p2]Zo k|flKtsf lglDt dfgjzlQmsf] dfu /
cfk"lt{sf] Joj:yfkg ldnfpg' ;+fu7lgs:t/sf] hgzlQm of]hgf xf] . o;n]
;+u7gsf] cj:yf / eljiosf] ;f]r cg';f/ dfgjk"+hLsf] Joj:yfkg u/L
To;sf] dfWodaf6 clt pQd glthf k|fKt ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] x'G5 .
of] sd{rf/L k|zf;g;+u ;DjlGwt ljifoj:t' ePsfn] sd{rf/Ldf lglxt 1fg,
;Lk, bIftfnfO{ clwstd ?kdf k|of]u ug]{ lx;fjaf6 kl/rflnt ePsf] x'g'
kb{5 . ;+u7gn] sfdsf] ljZn]if0f u/L s'g sfd ug{ s:tf] sd{rf/Lsf]
cfjZostf ;+u7gnfO{ kb{5, e}/x]sf] sd{rf/Lsf] cj:yf, bIftf s:tf]
k|sf/sf] /x]sf] 5 cflb ljifodf ljj]rgf u/L 7f]; of]hgf jgfpg' g}
;+fu7lgs:t/sf] hgzlQm of]hgf xf] .

hgzlQm of]hgf hlxn] ;'s} dfgj s]Gb|Lt x'g] ePsfn] o;nfO{
Joj:yfkg sfo{ (Mnagement functions) ;kmn jgfpg] sfddf k|of]u ul/G5 .
@= hgzlQm of]hgfsf] dxTj
hgzlQmsf] pRrtd Joj:yfkg ljgf nlIft p2]Zo xfl;n ug{ ;lsb}g . o;}
;Gbe{df hgzlQm of]hgfsf] dxTjnfO{ d'Vo ?kdf b]xfo jdf]lhd
j'+bfug?kdf pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5M
         -    Goal achievement
         -    Productivity & efficiency
         -    Optimum utilization of human resource
         -    Systematic plan of human resource
         -    Analysis of organization needs and capacities of employees / personnel
         -    Competence related to other new challenges
         -    Right person in right place in right time
         -    Fulfill of national organizational goal and objectives
         -    Increase productivity of personnel
         -    Balance demand & supply of human resource
         -    Forecast of future planning and development strategies / action paln
         -    Development of personnel
         -    Simply use of modern technology


                                        135
              -   Leading and controlling of human resource
              -   Use of change management in organization functions

#= hgzlQm of]hgfsf cjojx?
hgzlQmnfO{ ;do;fk]If?kdf k|efjsf/L pkof]u ug{ cfjZostf eP
cg'?k o;sf] pRr Pj+ ;do;fk]If Joj:yfkg ldnfpg' kg]{ x'G5 . o;
;Gbe{df hgzlQm of]hgfdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf cjojx? cGtlg{lxt /x]sf
x'G5g\–

1. Acquisition     2.Development         3. Utilization        4. Maintenance

- HR planning      - Employee training   - Employee Motivation         - Discipline
- Job Analysis     - Career planning     - Job design                  - Grievance
- Recruitment,    - Development          - Performance                   Handling and
  selection and     competencies           appraisal & reward             and welfare of
  socialization    of employees            management,                  –Programmes
  entry of                                 improving productivity
  right people




                                             136
                                    Acquisition




        Maintenance                   HRP                      Development




                                   Utilization


$= hgzlQm of]hgf k|lqmof ÷ tl/sf
hgzlQm of]hgf k|lqmofsf] ;Gbe{df David and Stephan n] lgDg % r/0f
pNn]v u/]sf 5g\M
                     Assessing current status
                     Review of organization's objectives and revenue projection
                     Revenue projection for human resources
                     Assessment of internal and external supply sources
                     Matching the forecasts of future demand and supply

hgzlQm of]hgf k|lqmofnfO{ ;fsf/ kfg{ b]xfo adf]lhdsf s'/fx?df Wofg
k'¥ofpg}
kb{5 M
      (I) Manpower Inventory -;+VofTds / u'0ffTds nut tof/ ug]{ _
      (II) Quality of Manpower -s'g ;dodf s:tf u'0f, ;Lk ePsf sd{rf/L
            cfjZos kb{5g\_
      (III) Demand Supply of Manpower -cfjZostf cg';f/ sd{rf/Lsf] dfu
            cfk"lt{ ug]{_
hgzlQm of]hgf k|0ffnLnfO{ lj:t[t?kdf lgDgjdf]lhd k|i6fpg
;lsG5 M

Long term      Overall                Inventry       Net new                   Action           Produces
objectives     Requirement           of present      HR Requirement            Program          for evaluating
and plans      for HR                 HR                                        for recruiting effectveness
                                                                               & selecting needed         of HRP
                                                                                personnel


Shor term      Workforce             Inventry           Needed                 Plans for Developing


                                            137
goal, plans,       requirement          by                 replacement               upgrading,
programmes         by                  occupational        or additions               transferring, and
                   occupational        categories,                                   selecting
                   categories,         Job skill                                     Needed people
                   Job skill

hgzlQm cfk"lt{sf >f]t / tl/sfx?M

-s_ jfXo >f]t
         – lzIf0f / k|lzIf0f ;+:yf
         – cGo ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L lgsfox?
-v_ cfGtl/s >f]t
         – lghfdtL ;]jf
         – ;?jf, a9'jf
         – ;]jf kl/j{tg cflb
%= hgzlQm of]hgfsf] ;Gbe{df k|0ffnLut pkfud
Joj:yfkg Ps v'Nnf ;fdflhs k|0ffnL xf] / hgzlQm of]hgf o;
k|0ffnLsf] Pp6f pkk|0ffnL xf] . dfgj ;+;fwg of]hgf ljgf s'g} klg
Joj:yfkgn] ;fy{stf k|fKt ug{ ;Sb}g, o; Joj:yfkg k|0ffnLut
pkfudnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ b]vfpg ;lsG5 –


                                     External Environment
                            Technology, Politics, Laws, Labour Unions
                                Economic, Social-cultural Forces

          Inputs                          Processin                         Output
                                          g                                 s

       . Human                         . Acquisition                    . Goal
         Capabilities and                                                 Achievement
         Competencies                  . Development
                                                                        . Quality of Work
       . Organizational                . Utilization                      Life
         Goal, Plan
                                       . Maintenance                    . Productivity
       . Human Resource
         Condition                                                      . Profits

       .Management                                                      . Readyness for
         Inventory                                                        Change
       . Job Analysis
         Labour Market

                                               138
                                    Feed back
                          Internal Environment
                   Goal, Policies, Structure Reward System
                      Organizational Culture, other activities


^=g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df hgzlQm of]hgf
g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df hgzlQm of]hgfsf] pNn]v ug'{kbf{ @)@*
;fnb]lv /fli6«o lzIff of]hgf sfof{Gjogdf NofOP kZrft dWod /
lgDg:t/sf k|fljlws hgzlQm b]zleq} tof/ ug]{ gLlt cjnDjg ul/Psf]
lyof] . b]zsf] d"Nof+sg ljleGg ;dosfndf th'{df ul/Psf ljsf; of]hgf,
gLlt, lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnL, k|zf;gsf If]qdf eP–
u/]sf cWoog k|ltj]bgx?df ;d]t klg hgzlQm of]hgfsf] jf/]df k|ToIf,
ck|ToIf?kdf pNn]v u/]sf] kfOG5 . ljBdfg bzf}+ of]hgf -@)%(–
)^$_ tyf xfn}sf jif{x?df eP u/]sf ah]6 jQmJox?df hgzlQm
of]hgfsf] jf/]df pNn]v ePsf d'Vo, d'Vo s'/fx?nfO{ ;+If]kdf
lgDgadf]lhd k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 M

      – g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfgdf Jojl:yt /fHosf lgb]{zs l;4fGt
        Pj+ gLlt, nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] Joj:yf, nf]s ;]jf cfof]u sfo{ljlw
        lgb]{lzsf / sd{rf/Lsf] cfk"lt{ Joj:yf,
      – lghfdtL ;]jf P]g– @)$( -;+zf]wg ;lxt_ / lghfdtL ;]jf
        lgodfjnL – @)%) -;+zf]wg ;lxt_ df eP u/]sf Joj:yfx?,
      – ljleGg ;dodf th'{df ul/Psf gLlt, k|ltj]bg, cWoog,
        cg';Gwfg, of]hgfx?df hgzlQm Joj:yfkg ug]{ ljifodf
        k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf?kdf pNn]v ul/Psf ljifox?,
      – lj=;+= @)&@ ;Dd ;j}sf nflu lzIff eGg] cGt/fli6«o
        cjwf/0ff k"/f ug{ æ;j}sf nflu lzIff sfo{s|dÆ -@)^!–
        @)^(_ sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg] k|ltj4tf,
      – Millenium Development Goal k"/f ug]{ ;Gbe{df jflnsf lzIffnfO{
        lj:tf/ ug{ æjflnsf lzIff sf]ifÆ sf] :yfkgf ug]{,
      – clw/fHosf @! lhNnfsf $ nfv %) xhf/ ljBfyL{sf nflu
        lzIffsf nflu vfBfGg (Food for education) sfo{s|d ;+rfng ug]{,



                                      139
      – cfwf/e"t lzIff / :jf:y ;]jfdf ;/sf/L nufgLnfO{ pRr k|fyldstf
        lbg],
      – k|fljlws tyf Joj;flos lzIffdf hf]8 lbb} o;nfO{ /f]huf/Lsf
        cj;/;+u cfj4 ug],{
      – jx';+Vos hgtfdf k|fljlws lzIff tyf Joj;flos tflndsf] kx'+r
        k'¥ofpg æj]/f]huf/sf nflu ;LkÆ cleofg ;+rfng ug]{,
      – >L % sf] ;/sf/n] ljleGg If]qut ?kdf tof/ u/]sf gLlt Pj+
        sfo{gLltdf ul/Psf] hgzlQm of]hgfsf] Joj:yf,
      – lghfdtL ;]jfsf If]qdf /fli6«o tflnd gLlt, @)%* sf] th'{df
      – jftfj/0f, lj1fg, k|ljlw dGqfnon] lnPsf] gLlt / o;sf]
        Joj:yfkg,
      – >L % sf] ;/sf/n] ljleGg dGqfno dftxt tflnd s]Gb|sf]
        :yfkgf u/L ljleGg ljifodf k|bfg ul/g] tflnd ;DjGwL
        Joj:yf,
      – NASC af6 k|bfg ul/g] ljleGg k|sf/sf tflndx?

&= lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;Gbe{df hgzlQm of]hgf
-s_ Acquisition Aspect
      – g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& n] nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf]
          Joj:yf
          -5gf}6, lgo'lQmsf] l;kmfl/z_ o:t} k|sf/n] Gofo ;]jfsf]
          nflu Gofo ;]jf cfof]usf] Joj:yf .
      – nf]s ;]jf cfof]u sfo{ljlw lgb]{lzsf nf]s ;]jf cfof]un]
          Calender jgfO{ lj1fkg k|sflzt ug]{ .
      – lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( / lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnL, @)%) n]
          lgwf{/0f u/]sf] k|lqmof jdf]lhd lgo'lQm , ;?jf, j9'jf /
          cjsfz x'g] Joj:yf,
      – ;j} dGqfno÷sfof{non] l/Qm kbsf] hfgsf/L ;fdfGo k|zf;g
          dGqfnodf k7fO{ kbk"lt{sf] Joj:yf ug{ nf]s ;]jf cfof]udf
          k7fpg] k|fjwfg,

-v_ Development Aspect
      – :jb]z tyf ljb]z cWoog, tflndsf] dgf]gog ;+jGwL Joj:yf
          lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, lgodn] u/]sf] 5 .
      – cWoog÷c;fwf/0f ljbf lnO{ cWoog ug{ kfpg] k|fjwfg

                                 140
      –   NASC n] k"j{ ;]jfsfnLg, ;]jfsfnLg tyf k'gtf{huL tflndsf]
          Joj:yf ug]{ ub{5 .

-u_ Utilization Aspect
      – pTk|]/0ff / dgf]jn pRr kfg]{ vfnsf k|fjwfgx? lghfdtL ;]jf
           P]g–lgoddf /flvPsf 5g\ . -tnj ;'ljwf, ljbf j9'jf, pkbfg,
           k]G;g, cf}iflw pkrf/ nufotsf ;'ljwfx?_
      – sfo{;Dkfbg d"Nof+sgsf] Joj:yf
      – b08 / k'/:sf/sf] k|fjwfg
-3_ Maintenance Aspect
     – cg'zf;g, cf1fkfngsf] ;Gbe{df lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] cfr/0fsf]
          Joj:yf
     – ;fdflhs ;'/Iff, kL/dsf{ ;dfwfg, k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf

*= lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;Gbe{df hgzlQm of]hgfnfO{ Jojl:yt ug{
Wofg lbg' kg]{ s'/fx?M
cfhsf] PsfOzf}+ ztfJbLdf hgzlQm of]hgf ljgf g]kfn lghfdtL ;]jfn]
;fy{stf k|fKt ug{ ;Sb}g . ljZjJofkLs/0fn] NofPsf] kl/jt{g,
lghLIf]qdf clej[l4 ePsf] 1fgsf] :t/ Pj+ gful/s ;dfhsf] ;r]ttf ;d]tnfO{
dWogh/ /fvL lghfdtL sd{rf/Ln] ;]jf k|jfx ug'{kg]{ ePsf]n] bIf /
;Ifd sd{rf/L ljgf of] ;kmn x'g] k|foM b]lvb}g . cfw'lgs k|ljlw Pj+
1fgsf] pkof]u u/L hgtfsf] cfo:t/df j[l4 ub}{ d'n'sdf ljBdfg u/LjL /
k5f}6]kg;+u le8\g hgtfnfO{ ;Ifd jgfpg] sfo{ oxfFsf k|To]s
lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] bfloTjleq g} kb{5 . ljutsf] cj:yfaf6 l;sf] u/L
eljio b[i6L /fvL sfof{/De ug'{kg]{ o; kl/l:yltdf bL3{sfnLg
hgzlQm of]hgf ljgf of] ;+ej x'g] b]lvb}g . /fli6«o:t/ Pj+ ;+u7g:t/
b'j} kIfdf Wofg k'¥ofO{ d'n'sdf ljBdfg j]/f]huf/Lsf] ;d:ofnfO{ xn
u/L xfnsf] Brain Drain x'g] ;d:ofnfO{ b[li6ut u/L ljBdfg hgzlQmsf]
pRr Joj:yfkg x'g' ckl/xfo{ 5 .
jt{dfg lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;Gbe{df hgzlQm of]hgfnfO{ Jojl:yt
ug{ b]xfo jdf]lhdsf s'/fx?df Wofg lbg' h?/L b]lvPsf] 5 M
      – lghfdtL sd{rf/L gLlt (Personnel policy) / dfgj ljsf; gLlt (Human
        Development Policy) th'{df u/L sfdsf] k|s[lt, If]q, ljz]if1tfsf]



                                  141
        cfwf/df sd{rf/Lsf] dfu / cfk"lt{ (Demand & Supply) ug]{
        Joj:yf ldnfpg] .
      – hgzlQmsf] Demand / Supply nfO{ Jojl:yt ug{ >L % sf]
        ;/sf/n] s]Gb|Lo ;+u7gsf] ?kdf Ps dfgj ;+zfwg
        dGqfnosf] (Ministry of Human Resource Management) Joj:yf u/L
          Manpower Inventory, Production of quality manpower, Demand and supply of
                                      h:tf sfo{ ug{ lhDd]jf/L tf]Sg] .
          manpower, Action strategies cflb
      – k|To]s lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] Job Define u/L clgjfo{ ?kdf
          lhDd]jf/L tf]sL sfo{ ug'{ ;'zf;gsf] d"n dd{ ePsfn]
          sd{rf/Lsf] bIftf j9fpg :jb]zL jf ljb]zL tflndsf] cj;/
          ;dfg?kn] k|bfg ug]{ .
      – /fHon] dfgjLo zlQmsf] cToflws pkof]u gu/L cfzftLt
          ;kmntf k|fKt ug{ g;Sg] x'gfn] o; If]qdf k|d'v dxTj k|bfg
          u/L nufgL ug'{ cfjZos b]lvP cg'?k sfo{ k|s[ltsf cfwf/df
          If]qut ljz]if1tf tof/ ug'{ kb{5 . To;sf nflu :jb]zd} ljb]zL
          lj1x? lemsfO{ tflnd, cg'ej cfbfg k|bfg ug]{ kl/kfl6sf]
          ljsf; ug'{kg]{ .
      – cjsf] ;+;f/ eg]sf] o'jfk':tfs} ePsfn] gofF hf]z hfu/ ePsf
          bIf, Ifdtfjfg k|ltefjfg o'jfzlQmnfO{ a9L eGbf j9L
          lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|j]z u/fpg / lghfdtL ;]jfleq plrt sfo{jftfj/0f
          l;h{gf u/L glthf pGd'v sfo{df ;+nUg u/fpg' kg]{ .
      – lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;]jf/t sd{rf/Lx?sf] l;h{gfTds 1fgnfO{
          /fHon] sb/ u/L ;Ddfg ug]{ kl/kf6Lsf] ljsf; ub}}{ n}hfg] .
      – lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;]jf/t /x]sf jf gjk|j]zL sd{rf/LnfO{
          pgLx?sf]cfjZostf klxrfg u/L cfw'lgs k|ljlw, 1fg, ;Lk tyf
          efiffut 1fg k|bfg ug]{ kl/kf6Lsf] ljsf; ug]{ .
      – ljb]z jf :jb]zdf k|bfg ul/g] tflnd s]jn cf}krfl/stfdf dfq
          ;Lldt /xg] x'gfn] To;n] lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] ;]jfk|jfx Ifdtfdf
          s'g} tflTjs c;/ kg]{ b]lvPsf] 5}g . To;sf/0fn] Jojxfl/s
          1fg, ;Lk, clej[l4 x'g], jfgL Joxf]/f / cfr/0fdf ;d]t kl/jt{g
          x'g] vfnsf] tflnd k|bfg ug'{ cfhsf] cfjZostf Pj+ ;dosf]
          dfu /x]sf] 5 .
      – plrt JolQmnfO{ plrt :yfkgf kb:yfkgf ug]{ ;}4flGts
          cjwf/0ffnfO{ Jojxf/df ;d]t k"0f{?kdf cjnDjg ug]{ .
lghfdtL ;]jf /fHosf] :yfoL c+u ePsfn] o;nfO{ ;Ifd / Ifdtfjfg agfPdf
dfq /fHon] oyf]lrt glthf k|fKt ug{ ;Sb5 eGg] s'/fdf s'g} låljwf 5}g

                                       142
. lghfdtL ;]jfleq ljBdfg /fhg}lts x:tIf]k, rfs8L, r'SnL, rfKn';L k|j[lt,
;fdGtjfbL ;+:s[lt, kb / 1fgnfO{ hf]8\g] k'/ftg k|j[lt Pj+ xflsd /
sfl/Gbf eGg] !& cf}+ ztfJbLsf] k/Dk/fut k|zf;lgs k4ltdf kl/jt{g
NofP/ sfd ug]{ jftfj/0f l;h{gf ug'{ klg jf:tljs cy{df hgzlQm
Joj:yfkg ldnfpg' g} xf] eGg ;lsG5 . plNnlvt s'/fx?df ;'wf/ gu/L
ul/g] kl/jt{gdfqn] jf:tljs?kdf /fHon] rfx]sf] / hgtfn] cfzf u/]sf] h:tf]
lghfdtL ;]jfsf] lgdf{0f x'g ;Sb}g . xfn xfd|f] lghfdtL ;]jfleq ljBdfg
/x]sf] 1fg, zlQm / IfdtfnfO{ clt pQd k|of]u ug{ ;do;fk]If ?kdf
Joj:yfkgsf] If]qdf ePsf gof+ cfljisf/x?nfO{ Jojxf/df k|of]u u/L
pRrtd k|ltkmn xfl;n ug]{ hgzlQmsf] lgdf{0f ug'{ kb{5 . oxL g}
;dosf] dfu xf] .


                                 ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

!= Dr. C.B. Mamoria - Personnel Management, Himalaya Publishing.
@= B.N. Ahuja (1995), Academic's Dictionary of Management, India.
#= Oxford University Press, Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English.
$= Dr. Govind Ram Agrawal - Organizational Management in Nepal -2003.
%= Modhu Raman Acharya - Business of Bureacracy- 2002.
^= k|f= 8f= eLd b]j e§– - sd{rf/L k|zf;g – @)%(_ .
&= dw'lglw ltjf/L – g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf hgzlQm Joj:yfkg–
@)^) .
*= bzf}+ of]hgf -@)%(–)^$_ /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u .
                                          
                                         




                                          143
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


   zf;sLo Joj:yfsf] cfoflds kl/jt{gsf]
;Gb{edf lhDd]jf/ zf;g (Responsive Governance)




                                                                                        
                                                              — lzlz/s'df/ 9'Ëfgf
k[i7e"ld
zf;g ;+rfng k|lqmofsf] ;jnLs/0f, z'l4s/0f Pj+ ;kmntfsf lgldQ
ljleGg ;dodf zf;g ;+rfng ;DjGwL ljleGg k|sf/sf cjwf/0ffx?sf] ljsf;
ePsf] b]lvG5 . /fhgLlts clwsf/sf] ;kmn k|of]u ub}{ zf;g ;+rfng
k|lqmofnfO{ kf/bzL{, lhDd]jf/ / p2]Zok/s 9+ujf6 ;+rfng ug]{
rfxgf k|To]s k|hftflGqs ;/sf/n] lnPsf] x'G5 . hgd}qL zf;g Joj:yf
lgdf{0f ub}{ /fhgLlts, cfly{s Pj+ ;fdflhs?kdf ;LdfGts[tju{sf] lxt
;Dj4{g, Ifdtf ljsf; Pj+ cfjfh j'nGb jgfpg] bfloTj /fHo ;+rfnsx?n]
jxg u/]sf x'G5g .
zf;g ;+rfngsf] j}wflgs xsbf/ /fhgLlt1x?nfO{ cfk\mgf] bfloTj
lgjf{xdf lqmofzLn t'Nofpg cfjZos jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ub}{ ljleGg
/fhgLlts jfb;+usf] ;+of]hg ( Theory of congruence sf] efjgf jdf]lhd) /
sfo{;+rfng k4ltdf ljz]if1tfsf] ljsf; ug]{ Joj:yfksLo ;d"xsf] ?kdf
k|l;4 ljåfg Max Weber n] kl/lrt u/fPsf ;+/rgf, sfo{k4lt / hgzlQmsf]
;+o'Qm :j?k sd{rf/LtGq (Bureaucracy) sf] lqmofzLntf, Jojxf/ /
sfo{z}nLn] g} /fHo / gful/ssf jLrdf ;xh, k|efjsf/L Pj+ ljZj;gLo


  pk–/lhi6«f/, ;xsf/L ljefu .

  ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn] ljleGg /fhgLlts bz{g jf]s]sf JolQmx?nfO{ zf;sLo clwsf/ k|of]usf]
;Gb{edf Pp6f ljGb'df NofO{ ;xdlt sfod u/fpg ;Sg] Ifdtf /fv]sf] x'G5 . /fHo ;+rfngsf]
qmddf bnut jf j}rfl/s cf:yfsf] k[ystfsf] ;+of]hgsf] dfWodsf] ?kdf lghfdtL ;]jf k|efjsf/L /
pkof]uL x'G5 eGg] l;4fGt g} Theory of Congruence xf] .

                                            144
;DjGwsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ ub{5 . sd{rf/LtGqn] g} cfk\mgf]
klxrfgnfO{ cIf'0f /fVb} /fhgLltåf/f k|Tofof]lht zf;sLo clwsf/nfO{
sfg"gL ljj]szLntfsf] l;4fGt (Legal Rational Authority) sf] cfwf/df k|of]u
u/L /fHo;+rfng k|lqmofnfO{ cufl8 j9fpg] ub{5 . ;/sf/sf] cjojsf]
?kdf j}wflgstf kfPsf] sd{rf/LtGqsf] lqmofzLntf, ;hutf, lhDd]jf/L /
hjfkmb]lxtfn] gful/sx?sf dfemdf ;/sf/sf] pkl:ylt jf]w u/fpb}+
;/sf/sf] ;kmntf jf c;kmntfsf] dfkg ug]{ cfwf/ ;d]t ljsl;t ub{5 .

/fHo;+rfng k|lqmofdf sd{rf/LtGqsf] cx+ e"ldsfnfO{ dWogh/
/fVbf sd{rf/LtGqsf] sfo{z}nL / ;f]rnfO{ gful/sd}qL jgfpg' kg]{
cfjZostf /xG5 . gful/s / ;/sf/sf jLrdf ;+of]hgsf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{
of] ;+oGqn] g} ;/sf/sf] 5lj gful/s dfem k|jflxt ug]{ sf/0f
sd{rf/LtGqsf] :j?k, sfo{z}nL / k|s[ltdf lg/Gt/ ;'wf/ x'Fb}+ cfPsf]
5 . sd{rf/LtGqsf] cfwf/e"t k|s[lt Pj+ dfGotf dfly g} ;d;fdlos?kdf
kl/jt{g ul/g] u/L yflnPsf] cfoflds kl/jt{g, To;n] ;dfh ?kfGt/0fsf]
k|lqmofdf kf/]sf] k|efj Pj+ /fHo;+rfngsf d"No / dfGotfdf b]lvPsf]
kl/jt{gsf] ;d;fdlos jx;nfO{ ;d]6\g] k|of; k|:t't cfn]vdf ul/Psf] 5 .

zf;sLo Joj:yf M kl/jlt{t rl/q

;/sf/ d"ntM gful/ssf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s Pj+ /fhgLlts cfjZostfnfO{
;Djf]wg ug{ lqmofzLn /x]sf] x'G5 . ;/sf/n] cfk\mgf] ;Ldfx?sf]
kl/lwdf /xL ;+ljwfgn] JoQm u/]sf efjgf / Joj:yfsf] b[9 sfof{Gjog
ub}{ gful/ssf] cfjZostf kl/k"lt{ ug]{ x/;+ej k|of; ub{5 . gful/s
;Gt'i6L Pj+ gful/sd}qL Jojxf/jf6 g} /fHosf] ;kmntf tyf c;kmntf
dfkg ul/g] tyf ljZjJofkL?kdf zf;g Joj:yfsf] cfb{z jg]sf] ;'zf;gsf]
d"nWo]o klg ;f]xL lbzfdf g} s]Gb|Lt /x]sf] sf/0f k|To]s nf]s
sNof0fsf/L ;/sf/n] pk/f]Qm p2]Zo k|flKtdf ;lqmotfsf ;fy cufl8
j9\g] k|0f u/]/ cfk\mgf sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug]{ ub{5 .

gful/sd}qL zf;g Joj:yfsf] sfof{Gjogsf lgldQ gful/s cfjfhnfO{
;/sf/n] k|To]s kndf ljrf/ k'¥ofpg' kb{5 . :jefljs?kdf cGt/f{li6«o
;Dks{, ;"rgf / ;+rf/sf] If]qdf ePsf] ljsf;, gful/ssf] ;r]ttfsf] :t/df
cfPsf] j9f]Q/Ln] gful/s cfjZostfnfO{ lg/Gt/?kdf kl/jlt{t ub}{
nu]sf] 5 . gful/s cfjZostf cg'?k zf;g ;+rfng ug]{ qmddf g}


                                   145
zf;sLoz}nL, rl/q / e"ldsfdf ;d]t ;fy{s Pj+ cg'e"ltof]Uo ;'wf/x?
x'Fb}+ cfPsf 5g\ . /fhgLlt1sf] sfo{z}nLdf Psfsf/9+udf
lqmofzLn /xg] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ 5'6\6} ljwfsf] ?kdf pNn]v ug]{
Widrow Wilson sf] cjwf/0ff xf];\ jf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ Joj;flos ?k /
z}nL lbg] gofF ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g (New Public Management) jf gful/sd}qL
/ lhDd]jf/L jf]w u/fpg] lhDd]jf/ zf;g (Responsive Governance), oL ;j}
cjwf/0ffx?n] zf;sLo k|lqmofdf ePsf ;'wf/x?nfO{ k|ltljlDjt u/fpF5
. zf;g ;+rfngsf cfb{zsf ?kdf ljleGg ;dodf ljsl;t ePsf pk/f]Qm ;j}
cjwf/0ffx?n] cfwf/e"t?kdf gful/sx?sf] ;jnLs/0f / ljsf;sf lgldQ
/fHo;+oGqsf] ljj]szLn / p2]Zok/s ;+rfngnfO{ hf]8 lbG5g\ tyflk
logsf] dfu{, cjwf/0ff / z}nLdf dfq k[ystf /x]sf] 5 .

kl/jt{gsf] k|jfx;+u} /fHo;+rfng k4lt / o;sf cjojx? kl/jlt{t x'Fb}+
hfg' k|fs[lts g} xf] . /fHo;+rfng k|lqmofdf h;/L pbf/Ls/0f,
ljZjJofkLs/0f / lghLs/0fsf] bjfjn] gofF lrGtg, d"No / dfGotfsf]
ljsf; ePsf] 5, gful/s xs / pgLx?sf] ;jnLs/0fsf] ;Gb{en] /fHosf]
lhDd]jf/L jf]wsf] dfqf klg j9\b} uPsf] 5 . log} k[i7e"lddf cGo kIf
h:t} /fHo k|lqmof / /fHo;+rfngsf Joj:yfdf efjL lbgdf lg/Gt/
kl/jt{gsf] k"jf{g'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . kl/jt{gsf] pQm 38Ldf ;/sf/,
sd{rf/LtGq, lghLIf]q, gful/s ;dfh Pj+ :jtGq gful/sx?sf] e"ldsf,
bfloTj Pj+ sfo{z}nLdf klg kl/jt{g x'g' h?/L x'g cfFp5 . of] g}
zf;sLo rl/q / jf:tljstf klg xf] .

zf;sLo Joj:yfdf ljsl;t ljleGg cfofdx?

zf;sLo Joj:yfsf] cWoogsf] l;nl;nfdf k|:t't cfn]vdf zf;sLo
k|0ffnLsf] dxTjk"0f{ kIf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;goGqsf] e"ldsf / ltgsf]
k4ltnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL ltgnfO{ ljleGg cfofddf ljeflht u/L ljZn]if0f
ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . d"ntM of] cfoflds cfn]vdf k|To]s cfofdsf]
cjwf/0ff, ltgsf] ljz]iftf, k|of]u, ;kmntf / c;kmntf Pj+ cfnf]rgfsf
d'2fx?nfO{ e/;s p7fpg] sf]lz; ul/Psf] 5 .

k/Dk/fut ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g M lgb]{zfTds Pj+ lgoGq0ffTds k4lt




                                 146
;/sf/sf tk{mjf6 k|bfg ul/g] ;]jf, ;'ljwfx?nfO{ Jojl:yt ub}{ hgtfx?sf]
cfjZostf k"/f ug]{] qmddf zflGt, ;'/Iff, /fhZj ;+sng nufot ef}lts
Pj+ ;fdflhs k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fdf ;l/s x'g] /fHo;+rfngsf] cfwf/:tDesf]
?kdf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn] cfk\mgf] :yfg ;'/lIft /fv]sf] lyof] . ;fj{hlgs
k|zf;g /fhgLlt;+u k[ys e"ldsfdf /xg] dfGotfsf ;fy Widrow Wilson n]
ljsl;t u/]sf] cjwf/0ff, h'g cjwf/0ffdf Max Weber n] pNn]v u/]sf
sd{rf/LtGqsf clwsfFz ljz]iftfx? cGt{lglxt /x]sf 5g . P]g, sfg"gsf]
jGwgsf/L kfngf u/fpg] ;zQm ;+oGqsf] ?kdf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf
sfo{x? lgb]{lzt /x]sf x'G5g . sfo{If]q / jx'cfoflds e"ldsfs} sf/0f
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn] /fhgLlt1x?sf] j}wflgs xs, clwsf/x?
k|Tofof]lht?kdf pkof]u ug'{kb{5 eGg] cfwf/e"t bz{gjf6 of]
cjwf/0ff k|]l/t /x]sf] lyof] . /fhgLlt1nfO{ /fHo;+rfngsf lgldQ
;xof]u ug]{ k]zfut ljlzi6tfo'Qm JolQmx?jf6 ;+rfng x'g] ;fj{hlgs
k|zf;gsf] lqmofzLntf / ;kmntfn] g} ;/sf/k|ltsf] hgljZjf;nfO{ gful/s
dfem k/LIf0f ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] dfGotfnfO{ o; cjwf/0ffn] :jLsf/
ug]{ ub{5 .

sfo{sf] hl6ntf, Jofkstf, /fhgLlt1k|ltsf] pQ/bfloTj, ljj]szLntf P+j
P]g, lgodsf] k"0f{ cg'z/0f, Ifdtfdf cfwfl/t sd{rf/LtGq cflb ;fj{hlgs
k|zf;g ;+rfngsf d'Vo l;4fGtx? x'g . Weberian Model / dfGotfdf
cfwfl/t o;k|sf/sf] zf;g ;+rfngsf] dfWodn]] sfo{z}nLdf
lgoGq0ffTds / lgb]{zgfTds kIfnfO{ j9L s]Gb|Lt u/]sf] x'G5 .
pk/f]Qm tYox?sf] ljZn]if0fsf] cfwf/df k/Dk/fut ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn]
lgDg ljz]iftfx? jf]s]sf] x'G5 M

       ;j{JofkL sfo{If]q,
       lgoGq0ffTds / lgb]{zgfTds sfo{z}nL,
       sfo{ ljlzi6Ls/0f,
       Ifdtfdf cfwfl/t sd{rf/LtGq,
       ;fj{hlgs gLlt sfof{Gjog ug]{ ;+oGq,
       sfo{;Dkfbg k|lqmofdf t6:ytf,
       j}wflgs clwsf/sf] k|of]u ug]{ ;+/rgf, cflb .
;fj{hlgs k|zf;g /fHo;+rfngsf] cfwf/ ePsf] tYonfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{
;lsb}g . ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn] /fHodf zflGt–;'/Iff / ljsf;sf] rf}tkmL{
e"ldsfdf cfk"mnfO{ lqmofzLn /fvL ;/sf/sf] pkl:yltnfO{ ;fy{s /

                                  147
k|efjsf/L t'Nofpg dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] k|tLt x'G5 . ljlwsf]
kfngfnfO{ ;'lglZrt / Jojl:yt ub}{ :yfoL ;]jf ;+rfngsf] dfWodsf]
?kdf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn] cfk\mgf] lqmofzLntfnfO{ hLjGt t'Nofpg]
k|of; ub{5 . /fHo;+rfngsf] cfwf/sf] ?kdf ljsl;t ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn]
zf;sLo k|lqmofdf k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfgsf cfwf/df o;sf ;sf/fTds
kIfx?nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 M
      ;/sf/sf] e"ldsfnfO{ ;jn t'Nofpg lqmofzLn /xg] ;+oGq,
      /fHosf k|To]s ju{dfem k'Ug ;Sg] j}wflgs cfwf/,
      :yfoL, k|ltj4 Pj+ Ifdtfdf cfwfl/t sd{rf/LtGqsf] kl/rfng,
      /fhgLlt1sf] clwsf/nfO{ k|of]u u/L sfof{Gjog ug]{ ;+oGq,
      sd{rf/LtGqsf] Ifdtf ljsf;df dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg, Pj+
      ;fdflhs ;dfgtfsf lgldQ lqmofzLn x'g' kg]{ dfGotf, cflb .
cfnf]rgf
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn] /fHo;+rfng k|lqmofnfO{ ;xh / ;'ud jgfpg] ub{5 .
/fHosf] pkl:yltnfO{ jf]w u/fpg] dfWod klg ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g g} xf] .
tyflk, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] cfwf/e"t rl/q, dfGotf tyf o:sf] sfo{z}nL /
sfo{If]qsf] ;DjGwdf Jofks /f]if pTkGg x'Fb}+ o;sf] lgoGq0ffTds
sfo{z}nL tyf pTkfbsTj ;d]tnfO{ ljrf/ u/L d[To'z}o\ofdf k'u]sf]
;+oGq egL cfnf]rgf ;d]t ePsf] kl/j]zdf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ lgDg
wf/df /x]/ cfnf]rgf ul/G5 –
     e2f tyf cg'Tkfbs ;+/rgf / hgzlQmsf] pkl:ylt,
     ljj]sz"Go / vrf{n' k|j[lQ,
     lgoGq0ffTds sfo{z}nL,
     /fhgLlt1sf] clei6 k"/f ug]{ dfWod,
     of]Uotfsf] cf8df ;fj{ef}d gful/snfO{ bf; 7fGg] k|j[lQ,
     pTkfbsTj / k|efjsf/Ltfdf eGbf pTkfbgdf hf]8,
     sfuhL 3f]8fsf] kl/rfng ug]{ ;+oGq,
     cf}krfl/s sfo{z}nL,
     Jofj;flostf, l;h{gzLntf / gjk|j{tg k|j{4g ug{ g;Sg] ;+oGq
       cflb .
pk/f]Qm cfnf]rgfx?sf] jfjh'b klg ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn] ;fj{hlgs
hLjgnfO{ Jojl:yt, lqmofzLn Pj+ k|efjsf/L t'Nofpg /fHo k|0ffnLdf
sfod u/]sf] cfwf/e"t ;+oGq / sfo{ljwLnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug]{ cj:yf lyPg

                                 148
. ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] cfwf/e"t dfGotfn] /fhgLlt1nfO{ ;xof]u / ;dy{g
k'¥ofpg] ju{sf] ?kdf /fhgLlt eGbf k[ys t/ ;xsdL{, ;xwdL{ lgsfosf]
?kdf /fHo k|0ffnLdf :yflkt x'g] cj:yf l;h{gf u/]sf] b]lvG5 . d"ntM
of] cjwf/0ffn] /fHo;+rfngsf] cfwf/e"t ;+/rgf, z}nL / :j?knfO{ Pp6f
cfsf/ lbPsf] 5 . tyflk o;sf sfo{k|0ffnL / If]qsf] k'gM kl/efiff
ug'{kg]{ cfjfhs} ;Gb{edf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf]
gofF cfofdsf] ?kdf ?kfGt/0f ug]{ k|of; ePsf] b]lvG5 .

;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg M Joj:yfkgjfbdf hf]8

;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] cfwf/e"t rl/q / sfo{z}nLdfly ePsf] cfnf]rgf,
cfly{s ljsf;sf lgldQ ;/sf/n] ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfgx? :yfkgf ug]{ k|rng, ljsf;
lqmofsnfkdf ;/sf/ s]Gb|Lt x'g' kg]{ dfGotfsf] ljsf; kl5Nnf
lbgx?df Jofks jGb} uof] . ;g\ !**& kl5 Widrow Wilson åf/f JoQm
ul/Psf] / ;g\ !()) df Andrew Good New n] ljZn]if0f u/]sf] /fhgLlt /
k|zf;g jLrsf] b'O{ leGg e"ldsfjf6 pTkGg ePsf] Jofj;flostftk{m
pGd'v sfo{k|0ffnL Pj+ lgoGq0ffTds tyf lgb]{zgfTds eGbf
Joj:yfksLo kIfdf s]Gb|Lt x'g' kg]{ /fHosf e"ldsfs} ;Gb{edf
k/Dk/fut ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] jbnf ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ff ljsl;t
eof] . ;/sf/n] cfk\mgf] sfo{ k|lqmofdf Joj:yfksLo d"No, dfGotf /
sfo{z}nLnfO{ j9fjf lbg' kg]{ efjgf / cfjZostftk{m ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg
lgb]{lzt /x]sf] lyof] . Joj:yfksLo kIf lj1fg / snf b'j} ePsf]n] zf;sLo
k|0ffnLsf] k|j4{gdf o:tf] lj1fg / snf b'j} pkof]u ug{ ;lsg] dfGotf
of] cfjwf/0ffn] :jLsf/ u¥of] .

/fHon] gful/s clwsf/sf] jf6f]nfO{ lj:tfl/t / k|efljt t'Nofpg zf;g
;+rfng Joj:yfdf kl/jlt{t d"No, dfGotf, ljZjf; / rfxgfnfO{ cfTd;ft\
ug'{kb{5 . o;}jf6 g} /fHo;+rfng k|lqmofdf gful/s ;xeflutf / ljZjf;
cfh{g ug{ ;lsg] wf/0ff of] cjwf/0ffn] lnPsf] 5 . /fhgLlt;+u sfo{ut
cfwf/df k|zf;gsf] k[ystf, k]zfljb\x?sf] lgo'lQm nufot sfo{ If]qdf
Joj:yfksLo cjwf/0ff / k|of]usf] ;kmntf Pj+ ;jntfsf] kl/j]zdf g}
;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] dfGotfn] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ lj:yflkt u¥of] .

;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] e"ldsf / sfo{z}nLsf] k'gM kl/efiff Pj+ ltgdf
;'wf/sf lgldQ tt\;DjGwL If]qdf lqmofzLn /x]sf JolQmx?sf]
tk{mjf6 yflnPsf] cfGbf]ngn] Joj:yfkgjfbsf] ckl/xfo{tfnfO{ :jLsf/

                                  149
u/]sf] b]lvG5 . ldGgfj|'s ;Dd]ng -;g\ !(^)_ sf] gfdjf6 kl/lrt pQm
cleofgn] d"ntM zf;g ;+rfngsf lgldQ ljutdf cg'z/0f x'b} cfPsf Rigid
k|s[ltsf sfg"gx?k|lt c;xdlt k|s6 ub}{ sfo{ ;+rfng k|lqmofdf bIftf /
kl/0ffdnfO{ j9L hf]8 lbPsf] lyof] . pQm ;Dd]ngsf cfof]hsx?
dWo]sf Frank Marianne, Dwight Waldo, George H. Frederickson, Robert T.
Golombiewski nufotsf Joj:yfkgljbx?n] Widrow Wilson åf/f ljsl;t Political
Administration Dichotomy nfO{ :jLsf/ u/]gg\ . d"No/lxt sf]/f cfb{z tyf
;Gb{exLg pQm dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ug]{ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn]
;fj{hlgs ;|f]t / ;fwgsf] kl/rfng u/L zf;sLo kIfsf] bIftf j[l4df of]ubfg
ug{ g;Sg] 7x/ ;lxt dfgjLo kIfnfO{ r'gf}tLk"0f{9Ëjf6 kl/rfngsf]
dfu{ lgwf{/0f ul/g' kb{5 eGg] cjwf/0ffnfO{ tL Joj:yfkgljbx?n]
;fj{hlgs u/] .

ldGgfj|'s ;Dd]ngsf cfof]hs dWo]sf Ps Dwight Waldo n] pQm
;Dd]ngsf] cf}lrTo Pj+ kfl/t u/]sf] ljifodf tof/ kf/]sf]] cfn]vdf
;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] ljsNksf] ?kdf k|:t't ug]{
qmddf zf;sLo k|0ffnLn] kl/jlt{t ;Gb{edf lgDg If]qx?nfO{ ljrf/
ug'{kg]{ sf/0f tL kIfx?nfO{ ;+jf]wg ug]{ Joj:yfksLo kIfsf] klxrfg
u/]sf lyP .

     jx'n jf jx'cfoflds If]q / sfo{,
     k|lt{:kwL{ -lgsfout jf /fHout_,
     sfof{Tds k4lt,
     cfb{zd'vL eGbf sfo{ut lhDd]jf/L,
     lg/k]If sfo{z}nL / lhDd]jf/Lsf] jbnf JolQm k|wfg
      lhDd]jf/L,
     k4ltsf] lg/Gt/tfsf] jbnf l;h{gzLntfdf hf]8, cflb .

;g\ !(&) sf] bzsdf ;/sf/sf sfo{x? j9L cfly{s kIftk{m pGd'v x'Fb}+
uPsf] kl/k|]Iodf Joj:yfksLo d"No / dfGotfsf] cjwf/0ffn] zf;g
;+rfng k|lqmofdf :yfg kfpg' klg :jefljs dflgGYof] . bIftf,
pTkfbsTj tyf glthf k|flKtsf lgldQ ;|f]t / ;fwgsf] lgolGqt eGbf
Joj:yfsLo pkof]u u/L l;h{gzLntf / pTk|]/0ff hfu[t u/fpg klg
;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ff /fHo;+rfngsf] dfWodsf] ?kdf ljsl;t
ePsf] b]lvG5 . ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ffn] ;d]6]sf] ljifo tyf


                                   150
sfo{If]q ;d]tsf cfwf/df o;sf ljz]iftfx?nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{
;lsG5 –

     ;/sf/, ;fj{hlgs ;|f]tsf] c;n Joj:yfkssf] e"ldsfdf s]Gb|Lt,
     hgtfsf] kl/jlt{t dfGotf;+u ;fIffTsf/ ub}{ zf;g ;+rfng ug]{
      k|0ffnL,
     k|zf;sLo k|0ffnL / k4ltdf gljg Joj:yfkg ;Dj4 dfGotf,
     ;fj{hlgs cfjZostfnfO{ dxTj lbO{ sfo{ ug]{ k|0ffnL,
     ;fj{hlgs ;|f]tsf] pkof]udf bIftf clej[l4,
     ;|f]t / ;fwgsf] p2]Zod"ns kl/rfng,
     Joj:yfksLo k4ltdf Jojxf/jfbL lj1fgsf] pkof]u,
     ljsf; Joj:yfkg -ljsf; k|zf;g_ tk{m pGd'v sfo{k|0ffnL, cflb .



sdL sdhf]/L

;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ffn] ldGgfj|'s ;Dd]ngåf/f cg'df]bg u/]sf
ljifox?nfO{ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf pkof]u ub}{ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g dfly
cfOk/]sf r'gf}tLx?nfO{ s]xL xb;Dd GogLs/0f ug]{ k|of; u/]sf]
lyof] . ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] rl/q / sfo{z}nLdf o; cjwf/0ffn] gofF :j?k
k|bfg ug{ ;s]sf] ePtf klg ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] ;du| sfo{z}nL Pj+
pTkfbsTjdf ck]Iffs[t?kdf ;sf/fTds ult lbg ;s]g . ;fj{hlgs
Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ffn] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ k|lt:yflkt ug{ g;s] tfklg
/fHo;+rfng k|lqmofsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf lgldQ gofF ;f]r lbg eg] ;kmn
ePsf] lyof] . Warren Bannis n] eg]e}m d[To'z}o\ofdf /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs
k|zf;gnfO ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ffn] s]xL xb;Dd ;+lhjgL lbg
;kmn ePsf] lyof] tyflk ;du| sfo{z}nL, k|lqmof tyf sfo{sf]
k|efjsf/Ltfdf eg] ck]lIft ;fy{stf o;n] lbg ;s]g . Joj:yfkgjfbnfO{
oyfl:yltdf zf;sLo k|0ffnLdf pkof]u ug{ sl7gfO kg]{ ;Gb{edf o;
cjwf/0ffn] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf Joj:yfksLo ;+efjgfx?sf] k||of]usf
lgldQ gofF cfofdx? ljsl;t ub}{ gofF ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] cfwf/zLnf
lgdf{0f ug]{ hdsf]{ u¥of] .




                                 151
gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg M cfly{s kIf pGd'v Joj:yfksLo
dfGotf

;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ff Jofks jGb} uPsf] kl/j]zdf zf;sLo
k|0ffnLdf k|efjsf/Ltf Nofpg ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf kIfdf yk ;'wf/sf
k|of;x? cufl8 j9fOP . zf;g ;+rfng k|lqmofdf Joj:yfksLo
dfGotfx?sf] cnfjf ;dsfnLg cj:yfdf zf;g ;+rfngsf] l;nl;nfdf lelqPsf
gofF cjwf/0ff / dfGotfx?, ;/sf/sf] cfsf/, If]q / sfo{z}nL nufotsf
kIfx?n] zf;g Joj:yfdf yk bjfj l;h{gf x'g yfNof] .

;/sf/L ;+oGqk|ltsf] cljZjf;s} k/fsfi7fsf] l;nl;nfdf sd{rf/LtGqn] klg
cfk\mgf] ljsNk vf]Hg' kg]{ cj:yf /x\of] . ljz]ifu/L j]nfotdf z'?
ePsf] New Right Ideology sf] ;Gbe{n] ;g\ !(&) sf] pQ/f{4df ;fj{hlgs
Joj:yfkgsf lxdfotLx?sf] k|of;nfO{ yk jn k'¥ofpg Christopher Hood
nufotsf Joj:yfkgljbx?n] zf;sLo k|0ffnLsf] If]qdf gofF dfGotfsf]
pb3f]if u/] . ;kmn Joj:yfksLo k4ltsf] cg'z/0fåf/f ;fj{hlgs
;+oGqsf] pTkfbsTj, k|efjsf/Ltf / lqmofzLntf j[l4 ub}{ hgljZjf;
:yflkt u/fpg] p2]Zon] gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg (New Public
Management ) sf] cjwf/0ff ;fj{hlgs eof] . ;/sf/sf] e"ldsfnfO{ ;Lldt
t'NofFpb} ;/sf/ ;+rfng ug]{ ;d"xx?sf] Jofj;flostf ;Dj4{g ug]{
p2]Zo /fVg] NPM sf] cjwf/0ffn] lgDg kl/b[iodf k|l;l4 kfFpb} uof]
–




      s= ;fj{hlgs vr{ / hgzlQmsf] j9f]Q/Ldfly lgoGq0fsf nflu
         j9\b} uPsf] gful/s bjfj,
      v= ;/sf/sf sfo{x?nfO{ Core / Non Core ju{df ljeflht ub}{ ;/sf/
         k|ToIftM ;+nUg x'g'            gkg]{ k|s[ltsf sfo{x?nfO{
         lghLs/0f jf c4{ lghLs/0f ug]{ ljZjJofkL dfGotf,
      u= ;"rgf tyf k|ljlwsf] ljsf;sf sf/0f ;/sf/ k|bQ ;]jfsf] pTkfbg
         Pj+ ljt/0f sfo{df b]lvPsf] ;/ntf Pj+ ;'udtf,
      3= ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] k|lqmof÷z}nL, gLlt lgdf{0f,
         sfof{Gjogsf lgldQ j9\b} uPsf] cGt/ ;/sf/L ;dGjo /
         cGt/lge{/tf .

                                 152
NPM d"ntM ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf cfly{s l;4fGt Pj+ dfGotfnfO{ pkof]u
ug]{ cjwf/0ff xf] . of] cjwf/0ffn] nufgLsf] d"No (Value for Money)
nfO{ ;'/lIft / k|efjsf/L t'Nofpg k|]l/t u/]sf] x'G5 . csf]{ zJbdf
lghLIf]qdf ;kmn?kdf pkof]u ePsf Joj:yfksLo d"No, dfGotf /
l;4fGtx?nfO{ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf pkof]u u/L ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] bIftf,
k|efjsfl/tf, pQ/bfloTj Pj+ lqmofzLntf clej[l4 ug]{ cjwf/0ff xf] .
k|:t't ;Gb{edf NPM n] /fHo;+rfng k|lqmofdf zf;sLo Joj:yfsf]
k|efjsfl/tfsf ;Gb{edf lgDg kIfsf] jsfnt ug]{ ub{5 .

      gful/s xs k"/f ug]{ bfloTj ;Dj4{g,
      u|fxs s]Gb|Lt pQ/bfloTj,
      bIftf tyf glthf pGd'v sfo{z}nL,
      k|efjsfl/tf s]Gb|Lt ;kmntf dfkg ;+oGq,
      Jofj;flostftkm{ pGd'v sfo{k|0ffnL, cflb .

NPM sf] dfGotfn] zf;sLo k|0ffnLsf] kIfdf lhDd]jf/Ljf]wsf] l;h{gf
ub{5 . ;/sf/sf sfo{x?nfO{ ;Lldt t'NofFpb} /fHo;+rfngsf
;xofqLx?sf] ;xof]udf ltgsf] Joj:yfksLo k4lt / dfGotfnfO{ ;fj{hlgs
k|zf;gdf pkof]u ub}{ 5l/tf], ldtJooL / k|efjsf/L zf;g k|lqmofsf]
kl/sNkgf of] cjwf/0ffn] lnPsf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] sfo{If]q (Scope ) / ;/sf/sf]
;Ifdtf (Strength) sf jLrdf ;fd~h:otf /fVb} ;/sf/sf sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L
t'Nofpg Jofj;flos sfo{If]q;+u cfj4 sfo{ ;+rfng k|lqmof, jhf/
k|0ffnL lgb]{lzt ;+oGq / sfo{ljlw, k]zfut Ifdtfsf] ljsf;, glthfpGd'v
sfo{;"rL, ;|f]t kl/rfngdf ldtJolotf h:tf kIfx?nfO{ ;Dj4g ug]{ dfGotf
jf]Sb5 .

NPM sf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ cufl8 Nofpg] qmddf Christopher Hood n]
o;sf cfwf/e"t tTjsf] ?kdf ;ft ljleGg ljifox?nfO{ k|fyldstf lbPsf lyP
. Hood sf] NPM leq ;dflxt cfwf/e"t tTjx? ltg} ePtf klg ;do ;Gb{e /
ltgsf] pkof]lutf Pj+ ;fdflhs, cfly{s kl/j]z Pj+ Joj:yfksLo dfGotfdf
cfPsf] gjLg ;f]rsf] sf/0f ltgdf ;d]t s]xL yk ePsf] b]lvG5 . tyflk,
Hood's Doctrine of NPM nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .
qm         dt (Doctorine)             cy{              cf}lrTo
=;+


                                   153
!=   ;fj{hlgs If]qsf]       ;lqmo, b[io           ;|f]t / ;fwgsf]
     Joj:yfkgdf bIf         Joj:yfks ;lxt         Joj:yf ;lxt
     JolQmx?sf] kl/rfng Joj:yfksLo                sd{rf/Lsf]
     (Hands on professional :jfoQtf .             lhDd]jf/L :ki6 u/L
     management in the                            pQ/bfloTj jxg
     public sector )
                                                  u/fpg' .

@    ;]jfsf] :t/ lgwf{/0f      p2]Zo, nIo,
=    u/L bIftf dfkg            ;kmntfsf]          :ki6 sfo{ ;DjGwn]
     k|0ffnLsf] cjnDjg         ;"rsnfO{ ;+ej      pQ/bfloTj
     (Explicit standards and
     measures of               eP;Dd              k|j4{gdf ;xof]u
     performance               ;fFlVos?kdf        k'¥ofpg' .
                               lgSof}{n .
     k|lqmofdf eGbf
#=   pTkfbgdf hf]8 (           ;|f]t ljlgof]hg,
     Greater emphasis on       k'/:sf/ k4ltsf]    k|lqmof eGbf
     output rather than        lgwf{/0fsf]        pTkfbgdf j9L
     process)                  cfwf/              s]Gb|Lt u/fpg' .
                               pTkfbgsf]
                               dfqf, u'0f:t/
                               cflbdf cfwfl/t .
$= ;fj{hlgs If]qsf
   ;+/rgfx?nfO{ 5l/tf] / ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf]
   ;fgf] O{sfOdf           If]qdf                 Joj:yfkgof]Uo
   ljefhg (Shift to        ljs]Gb|Ls/0f,          OsfO dfk{mt bIftf
   disaggregation of units
                           ;]jf s/f/,             ljsf;, ;|f]t kl/rfng
   in the public sector)
                           lghLs/0f               Ifdtf ljsf; ug{' .
                           cflbsf]
                           dfWodjf6
%=                         5f]6f] / 5l/tf]
   ;fj{hlgs If]qnfO{
   k|ltikwL{ jgfpg]        ;+/rgf lgdf{0f .
     (Shift to greater                            yf]/} vr{df
     competition in public     ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf    u'0f:t/Lo j:t' tyf
     sector)                   k|ltikwf{          ;]jfsf] ljt/0f
                               leq\ofpg], ;]jf    k|0ffnL :yflkt ug{'
                                                  .

                                 154
^=                                  s/f/, CCTB,
       lghLIf]q pGd'v               cflb .
       Joj:yfkg k|0ffnLsf]
       cjnDjg (Stress on
       private sector styles of
                                                          lghLIf]qn]
       management practices)   ;}lgs k|s[ltsf]            ;kmn?kdf k|of]u
                               ;]jf jf nf]s               u/]sf] k|0ffnLnfO{
                               sNof0fsf/L ;]jf            ;fj{hlgs If]qdf
                               eGbf                       k|of]u u/L ;fj{hlgs
&=                             pTkfbgzLn tyf              If]qsf] k|efjsfl/tf
       ljlQo cg'zf;g / ;|f]t   nrsbf/ k|s[ltsf]           clej[l4 ug{' .
       Joj:yfkgdf hf]8         Joj:yfkg
       (Stress on greater      k|0ffnL -egf{,
       discipline and          k'/:sf/,
       parisimony in resources sfo{z}nL _                 ;fj{hlgs If]qdf
       use)                                               cfjZos ;|f]tsf]
                                    vr{ s6f}tL,           klxrfg ub}{ yf]/}
                                    >lds cg'zf;g,         vr{df w]/} pknlJw
                                    o'lgogsf              xfFl;n
                                    bjfjx?sf]             ug{' .
                                    k|lt/f]w,
                                    jfWosf/L vr{df
                                    ;]jf k|jfx, nfut
                                    jxgo'Qm ;]jf jf
                                    pTkfbg
                                    k|lqmof .

s= gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf dfGotfx?

;fj{hlgs If]qsf] Joj:yfksLo kIfdf gf}nf] cfofd / k|of]usf] ?kdf :jLsf/
ul/Psf] NPM sf] cjwf/0ffn] pQm cjwf/0ffsf] ;kmn k|of]usf lgldQ
ljleGg dfGotfx?nfO{ :jLsf/ u/]sf] 5 . NPM sf] sfof{Gjogsf]


  Compulsory Competetive Tendering and Bidding (CCTB) M ;/sf/sf
lgsfox?n] lglhIf]q;+u} j:t' jf ;]jfsf] cfk"lt{ ug]{ sfo{df clgjfo{?kdf cGo
lgsfox?;+u k|ltikwf{ ug]{ Joj:yf .

                                       155
;+oGqsf] ?kdf :jLsf/ ug{ ;lsg] oL dfGotfx?n] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf]
ljutsf] sfo{If]q, k|lqmof, hgzlQm nufotsf kIfdf ljutsf] eGbf k[ys
/ cfly{s kIfnfO{ ;Dj4{g ug]{ wf/0ffx? jf]s]sf] x'G5 . lghLIf]qsf]
Joj:yfksLo k|of]usf] gd"gfsf] ?kdf :jLsf/ ul/Psf] NPM n]
ldtJooLtf / k|efjsfl/tf k|j4{g ug]{ x'bfF o;sf dfGotfx? klg tt\
lbzfdf g} /x]sf 5g .

     u|fxs pGd'v sfo{z}nL Pj+ Jojxf/,
     gful/s, /fhgLlt1 tyf sd{rf/Lsf jLrdf Principal - Agent sf]
      e"ldsf,
     gful/ssf] 5gf}6 (People's Choice Theory )sf cfwf/df zf;g
      ;+rfng k|lqmof Pj+ ljlwsf] lgwf{/0f,
     ;/sf/L ;]jfsf] lghLs/0f, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, lgIf]k0f,
     sd{rf/L lgo'lQm / cjsfz k|0ffnLdf :jfoQtf / :jtGqtf -
      Joj:yfksLo :jfoQtf_,
     ;/sf/sf] e"ldsf / sfo{z}nLdf kl/jt{gsf] cfjZostf (David Osborne
      / Ted Gaebler n] Reinventing Government df pNn]v u/]sf
      ;/sf/sf] ;+nUgtfsf bz tl/sfx? tyf David Osborne/Patrick Plast
      sf] Banishing Bureaucracy df pNn]lvt 5Cs ( Core, Customer,
      Culture, Consequences and Control) sf] k|;Ë tyflk ;/sf/sf]
      pk/f]Qm e"ldsfnfO{ gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] sfof{Gjogsf]
      tl/sfsf] ?kdf klg pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 . )
cfnf]rgf


  !=;/sf/sf ;j} e"ldsfdf geO{ /fHo ;+rfng k4tLsf] l;nl;nfdf gLlhIf]qnfO{ pTk|]l/t u/fpg]
e"ldsf,
  @= gLlh If]qsf] ;jnLs/0f dfk{mt lghL If]qsf] ;zQmLs/0f ;DjGwL sfo{df ;/sf/sf]
lqmofzLntf,
  #= /fHo ;+rfngsf] Psflwsf/Lsf] e"ldsf eGbf cGo kIf jf lgsfo;+usf] k|ltikwL{ e"ldsfdf ;/sf/,
  $= lgoldt / cfb{zjfbL sfo{z}nL / sfo{k4ltsf] jbnf nIof]Gd'v sfo{k4lt cjnDjg ug]{ ;/sf/,
  %= k|lqmofd'vL sfo{df eGbf glthfd'vL sfo{df ;+nUg x'g] ;/sf/,
  ^= gful/sx?sf] cfjZostf / rfxgf jdf]lhd ;]jf, ;'ljwf pknJw u/fpg] k|s[ltsf] u|fxs pGd'v ;/sf/,
  &= ;w}e/L vr{dfq ug]{ eGbf Value for money sf] l;4fGtnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ug]{ k|s[ltsf] sdfpg
     ;Sg] pBdzLn ;/sf/,
  *= eljiosf] dfu{ / If]q ;':ki6 ub}{ efjL sfo{lbzf lglZrt ug]{ k|s[ltsf] eljiob|i6f ;/sf/,
  (= ;xeflutf / lg0f{o Ifdtf ljsf; ug]{ Pj+ /fHosf] sfo{jf]emnfO{ sd ug{ ljs]Gb|Lt sfo{
k|lqmof cjnDjg ug]{ ;/sf/,
  !)= dfu / cfk"lt{sf cfwf/df j:t' jf ;]jfsf] pknJwtf u/fpg] jhf/f]Gd'v ;/sf/ .

                                               156
;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] k|efjsf/Ltf / bIftf j9fpb}+ zf;sLo k|lqmofsf]
;jnLs/0fsf lgldQ NPM k|efjsf/L dfWodsf] ?kdf :jLsf/ ul/Psf] 5 .
nf]s sNof0fsf/L /fHosf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ dfq /fHo;+rfngsf cfb{zsf]
?kdf :jLsf/ ug{ g;lsg] dfGotfs} cfwf/df zf;g ;+rfng ;+oGqsf] If]q,
sfo{ljlw tyf sfo{k|lqmofnfO{ cfly{s kIfåf/f ;d]t kf]if0f ul/g' kg]{
dfGotf NPM n] lnPsf] 5 . NPM s'g} j:t'lgi7 l;4fGt jf ;}4flGts cfwf/
ePsf] wf/ gePtf klg o;n] cjnDjg u/]sf dfGotfx?n] /fHo;+rfng
k|lqmofdf r'gf}tL klg yk]sf] 5 . NPM sf] cfwf/:tDesf] ?kdf :jLsf/
ul/Psf kIfx?n] /fHodf ;fj{ef}d;Qfsf] dxTj, k|hftflGqs xs clwsf/
h:tf kIfx?nfO{ uf}0f dfGg] ub{5 . Joj:yfksLo kIfdf ;'wf/ ePtf klg
:jfoQtf / /fHo k|0ffnLsf] cf}lrTodfly g} nfu]sf] k|Zg lrGxsf]
;Gb{edf NPM nfO{ lgDg cfwf/df cfnf]rgf ug]{ ul/G5 –
    ;fj{ef}d;Qf;DkGg gful/sx?nfO{ u|fxssf] dfGotf lbg] sfo{ jf
     cjwf/0ffn] gful/sxs, clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f tyf ;fj{ef}d;Qfsf]
     dxTjnfO{ :jLsf/ ub}{g . gful/sx?nfO{ u|fxs dfGg]
     cjwf/0ffn] gful/stfsf] k|;Ë klg cy{xLg jGg] vt/f /xG5 .
     /fhgLlt dfly Managerialism xfjL x'g] ;+efjgf j9L /xG5 .
    ;/sf/sf] e"ldsfnfO{ nf]ssNof0fsf/Ljf6 jhf/s]Gb|Lt t'Nofpg]
     sfo{n] ;LdfGts[tju{, ;d'bfo / ;Dk|bfosf] ;+/Ifs tyf cleefjssf]
     e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{jf6 ;/sf/ k5f8L x6\g] x'G5 . o;k|sf/sf]
     e"ldsfn] /fHodf åGåsf] ;+efjgf j9\g] vt/f /xG5 .
    NPM n] :jLsf/ u/]sf] Joj:yfkg s/f/sf] cjwf/0ffn] sd{rf/L /
     /f]huf/bftf b'j}nfO{ 3f6f k'¥ofFp5 . sd{rf/Lx?sf] sfo{
     ;Dkfbg k|lqmofdf Elton Mayo sf] Jojxf/jfbL l;4fGtn] :yfg
     gkfO{{ New Tailorism sf] efjgf xfjL x'G5 . ;fy}, /f]huf/bftfn]
     klg sd{rf/Lsf] cfjZostf k"/f ug{ g;Sbf ;w}+ e/L gofF jf
     cg'ejxLg sd{rf/Ljf6 cfk\mgf] sfdx? u/fpg' kg]{ x'G5 . o;
     cj:yfdf sd{rf/L / /f]huf/bftf b'j}sf] lxt ;Da4{g ug{ NPM ;Ifd
     x'b}g . cfnf]rsx?sf cg';f/ k|:t't ;Gb{edf gofF ;fj{hlgs
     Joj:yfkg A sword with double edges x'G5 .
    NPM n] :jLsf/ u/]sf] k|ToIf pQ/bfloTjsf] k|;Ën] gLlt th'{df
     ug]{ / sfof{Gjog ug]{ lgsfo jLrdf /xg' kg]{ pQ/bfloTjnfO{
     :jLsf/ u/]sf] b]lvb}g . k|ToIf pQ/bfloTjsf] k|;Ën] lgjf{rg
     nufotsf k|hftflGqs k|lqmofsf] cf}lrTo g} klg ;dfKt x'g ;Sg]
     ts{ cfnf]rsx?n] p7fPsf 5g . lsgls gful/s dfem ;]jf k|bfg

                                157
     ug]{ JolQm g} pkl:yt x'g] / lghn] g} gful/sx?sf] cfjZostf
     k"/f ug]{ k|of;nfO{ cufl8 j9fpg] x'Fbf lgjf{rg nufotsf
     gLltlgdftf{ -/fhgLlt1_ k|ltsf] pQ/bfloTjsf] k|;Ë cy{xLg x'g]
     sf/0f pQm ljrf/nfO{ cfnf]rsx?n] hf]8bf/?kdf p7fPsf x'g .
    NPM n] pTkfbg j[l4sf l;nl;nfdf k|hftflGqs xs–clwsf/sf
     gfddf x'g] h'n';, x8tfn nufotsf >dhGo clwsf/sf
     k|;Ëx?nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug]{ ub{5 . ;fd"lxs ;f}bfjfhL, k|hftflGqs
     xs, clwsf/ nufotsf kIfx?sf] j]jf:tfn] cfwf/e"t dfgjflwsf/sf]
     xsnfO{ ;d]t of] cjwf/0ffn] c:jLsf/ ug]{ ub{5 .
    NPM sf] cjwf/0ffn] ;fgf] / 5l/tf] Pj+ Joj:yfkg of]Uo ;/sf/sf]
     k|;ËnfO{ j9L hf]8 lbG5 . zf;g ;+rfngsf] kl5Nnf] dfGotfn]
     ;fgf] jf 5l/tf] zf;geGbf c;n jf gful/sd}qL zf;g Joj:yfsf] kIfdf
     j9L s]Gb|Lt x'g' h?/L ePsf] 5 .
    NPM sf] dfGotf g} ;/sf/sf ;]jfx?nfO{ k;ndf ljlqm u/] e}m
     ug]{ dfGotf /fVb5 t/ /fHo ljtl/t ;]jf jf ;'ljwfx? Department Store
     df ljqmL u/] e}+m ljqmL x'g ;Sb}g .

gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ff / sfof{Gjogsf] qmddf b]lvPsf
ljleGg sdL sdhf]/L tyf lghLIf]q k|lt clt e/kg]{ dfGotfn]
/fHo;+rfng k|lqmofdf nf]s sNof0fsf/L /fHosf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ :jLsf/
ub}{ glthf pGd'v zf;sLo Joj:yfsf] vf]lh x'g] qmd j9]/ uPsf] 5 .
sl/j jL; jif{sf] k|of]ujf6 g} NPM nfO{ k|f/Desf lbgdf k|of]u ug]{
Go"lhNof08, ci6«]lnof nufotsf b]zx?n] of] cjwf/0ffnfO{ lj:tf/}
Tofu ub}{ uPsf] b]lvG5 . cd]l/sfdf :jfoQtfdfyLsf] gfFuf] x:tIf]k
x'g] dx;"; u/L of] cjwf/0ffnfO{ sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg] k|of; u/]sf]
b]lvb}g . kmntM o;sf] ljsNksf] vf]hLs} l;nl;nfdf cfw'lgs ;dodf
nf]s sNof0fsf/L /fHosf] e"ldsfnfO{ ;Dj{4g ug]{ k|of;sf] ?kdf
lhDd]jf/ zf;g (Responsive Governance) sf] cjwf/0ffn] :yfg kfPsf] xf] .

lhDd]jf/ zf;g (Responsive Governance) M pQ/bfloTj ;Dj4{gsf]
dfGotf

zf;g ;+rfngsf ljutsf dfGotf / z}nLx? ljz]ifu/L gLlhIf]q pGd'v
x'Fb}+ bIftf j[l4tk{m s]Gb|Lt /x]sf] sf/0f j:t' jf ;]jfsf] pTkfbg jf
k|efjhGo pTkfbgnfO{ g} zf;sLo Joj:yfsf] ;kmntfsf] cfwf/sf] ?kdf


                                  158
:jLsf/ ug]{ ul/GYof] . zf;sLo Joj:yfsf] ;kmntf, k|efjsfl/tf Pj+
ljZj;gLotfsf nflu gful/sx?s} ;jnLs/0f x'g' cfjZos x'G5 eGg]
cjwf/0ffn] kl5Nnf lbgdf :yfg kfFpb} uof] . ;fj{hlgs d"No /
ljZj;gLotf ;Dj4{g ug]{ k|s[ltsf] zf;g Joj:yfn] g} ;/sf/ / gful/ssf
jLrdf ;DjGw j9fpg ;Sg] ljZjf; lhDd]jf/ zf;g Joj:yfn] lnPsf] 5 .

zf;sLo k|0ffnLsf tLg tGt'x? — ;/sf/, gLlhIf]q / gful/s ;dfhsf jLrdf
ljZjf;sf] l;h{gf ub}{ ;/sf/sf k|To]s sfo{x?n] oL tLg kIfsf jLrdf
;+of]hg / ;xsfo{ lgdf{0f ug'{ kb{5 . ljutsf] zf;g ;+rfngsf ljlw /
dfGotfx?n] ;/sf/sf sfo{x?nfO{ Joj:yfksLo Pj+ cfly{s b[li6sf]0fjf6
PsfsL?kdf dfq ljZn]if0f ug]{ k|of;n] gful/sx?sf] /fHok|ltsf] ljZjf;
g} vl08t eO{ /fhgLlts jf ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/ / ;fj{hlgs ljZjf;sf kIfx?
uf}0f jGg] kl/l:yltdf /fHo;+/rgf ;Dj4 kIfsf] k|efjsf/L kl/rfng ub}{
;/sf/k|ltsf] ljZjf; k'gM:yflkt ug]{ / zf;sLo Joj:yfdf ;'zf;gsf]
efjgfnfO{ d"t{?k lbg zf;sLo k|0ffnLsf] ;+oGqdf gofF ?k lbg]
k|of; ePsf] 5 .

lhDd]jf/ zf;g (Responsive Governance) sf] cjwf/0ffn] d"ntM gful/s
;dfhsf] ;jnLs/0f ub}{ zf;g ;+rfng k|lqmofdf ltgsf] cy{k"0f{
;xeflutf j[l4 ug]{, ;/sf/ v'Nnf tyf gful/s ;dfh k|lt pQ/bfoL x'g],
sfg"gx?sf] lgdf{0f dfk{mt jfXo k|s[ltsf] lgodgsf/L e"ldsfdf
lqmofzLn x'g' kg]{ dt /fV5 . gful/sx?nfO{ ;jnLs[t ub}{ pgLx?sf]
cfjfhnfO{ /fHo;+rfng k|lqmofdf d"vl/t u/fpg] / ;/sf/sf sfdx?df
gful/s ;dfh ;fe]mbf/sf ?kdf lqmofzLn x'g] Pj+ gful/sx?nfO{
u|fxs eGbf ;/f]sf/jfnfju{sf] ?kdf Jojxf/ ug''{ kg]{ wf/0ff lhDd]jf/
zf;g (Responsive Governance) n] lnPsf] x'G5 . ;'zf;gsf] cg'e"ltof]Uo
gful/s ;Gt'i6 zf;g Joj:yfsf] l;h{gf ub}{ ;fj{hlgs d"No / dfGotf
:yflkt          ug]{           sfo{df           of]          lgb]{lzt
/xG5 .

zf;sLo k|0ffnL ;Dj4 ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;+rfngsf] gofF cjwf/0ffn]
j]jl/og 9fFrfsf] eLdsfo ;+/rgf / kb;f]kfgo'Qm k|zf;sLo
k|0ffnLnfO{ ;xh / Jojl:yt t'Nofpg zf;sLo k4ltsf ljleGg kIfx? -
;/sf/, gLlhIf]q / gful/s ;dfh_ sf] ;+hfn dfk{mt /fHo;+rfng
k4ltnfO{ Jojl:yt ug]{ dfGotf jf]Sb5 . ;fy}, u}/;/sf/L lgsfo;+usf]
;fe]mbf/L / tL lgsfox?df :jlgoGq0f k4ltsf] k|j{4g ub}{ zf;sLo

                                 159
k|0ffnLnfO{ gful/sd}qL jgfpg k|]l/t u/]sf] x'G5 . gful/sd}qL zf;g
Joj:yfsf] k|j4{g ug]{ l;nl;nfdf Responsive Governance sf] cjwf/0ffn]
/fHo;+rfngsf clwsf/ k|fKt JolQmx?n] jx'klIfo ljz]ifu/L gful/s /
;/f]sf/jfnf ju{ k|lt cfk\mgf] pQ/bfloTj lgjf{x ug'{ kb{5 eGg]
dfGotf jf]s]sf] x'G5 . pk/f]Qm k|sf/sf] dfGotf ;Fufn]sf]
Responsive Governance n] zf;sLo k|0ffnLsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf ;Gb{edf
lgDgfg';f/sf ljz]iftfx? jf]s]sf] x'G5 –

    ;Ifd / g]t[TjbfoL lghfdtL ;]jf,
    /fhgLlts?kdf lgikIf / ;fdflhs?kdf hjfkmb]xL sd{rf/LtGq,
    Joj;flos / JolQmut g}ltstfsf] k|j4{g,
    zf;g ;+rfng k|lqmofdf ICT (Information, Communication and
     Technonlogy) sf] pkof]u dfk{mt bIftf j[l4,
    jx'kIfLo pQ/bfloTj k|j4{g,
    ;xsfo{d"ns / gful/s ;zQmLs/0f pGd'v sfo{z}nL, cflb .

Responsive Governance sf] cjwf/0ff d"ntM zf;g ;+rfng k|lqmofdf
xfjL ePsf] jhf/ k|0ffnLsf] ljs[lt / lj;+ultnfO{ ;Rrofpg cufl8 ;fl/Psf]
cjwf/0ff xf] . PSsfO{;f}+ ztfJbLdf nf]s sNof0fsf/L /fHosf]
e"ldsfnfO{ k|zf;sLo ;jntf;+u} cfj4 ub}{ n}hfg] clei6 jf]s]sf] of]
cjwf/0ffn] zf;sLo Joj:yfdf lgDg p2]Zo xfFl;n u/fpg] nIo /fv]sf]
5–

    ;/sf/sf] bfloTj gful/s ;zQmL1s/0ftk{m pGd'v u/fpg],
    zf;sLo k|0ffnLleq /x]sf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] pQ/bfloTj gful/s /
     ;/f]sf/jfnfju{ pGd'v jx'kIfLo t'Nofpg],
    zf;sLo k|lqmofsf] lgb]{zs l;4fGt kf/blz{tf, hjfkmb]xLtf tyf
     ;xeflutf sfod u/fpg],
    gful/s xs clwsf/sf] k|of]u / /fHo;+rfng k|lqmofsf] ;kmntfsf
     lgldQ k|lqmofut kIfdf hf]8 lbg],
    zf;sLo k4ltsf] d"n clei6 gful/sk|ltsf] ;Ddfgefj j[l4tk{m
     lgb]{lzt t'Nofpg] .
Responsive Governance sf] cf}lrTo



                                  160
lghLIf]qsf] ljz]iftfo'Qm Joj:yfkgjfbn] ;fj{hlgs ;|f]tsf] bIftfk"0f{
pkof]usf] ;+efjgfnfO{ hLjGt jgfpg d2t k'¥ofFp5 . ljZjJofkLs/0f /
pbfl/s/0fsf] k|efjsf sf/0f ;/sf/sf] cfly{s bfo/f ;Lldt ePsf] kl/b[iodf
;/sf/sf] ;|f]tsf] ldtJolotfk"0f{ kl/rfng ug'{ ;fGb{les klg x'G5 tyflk
/fHo;+rfngsf] k|efjsfl/tf Pj+ /fHo / hgtfjLrsf] ljZj;gLotfsf lgldQ
ldtJolotfsf] k|;Ë dfq k"0f{ x'g ;Sb}g . Joj:yfksLo cjwf/0ff /
dfGotf eGbf k/ hfFb} zf;sLo Joj:yfdf gful/ssf] ;xeflutf /
lqmofzLntf j9fpg ;/sf/ / gful/sk|lt lhDd]jf/ / pQ/bfoL x'g' h?/L
x'G5 . gful/s ;xeflutf / ;lqmotfsf] :t/n] zf;g dflysf] gful/sx?sf]
ljZjf;sf] :t/nfO{ dfkg ul/g] ;Gb{edf j}1flgs k4ltsf] cg'z/0fo'Qm
lhDd]jf/ zf;gsf] cf}lrTo lgDg sf/0fn] l;4 u/]sf] 5 –
      gful/s ;Gt'i6 zf;g Joj:yfsf] lgldQ j9\b} uPsf] bjfj,
      ;fdflhs ;b\efj / ;dfj]zLs/0f o'Qm zf;g k|0ffnLsf] dfGotf,
      nf]s sNof0fsf/L /fHosf] :yfkgf Pj+ ;Dj4{gsf] dfGotf,
      ljs]Gb|Lt /fHo;+rfng k|0ffnLsf] cjwf/0ff / ;f]sf] ;kmn
       pkof]u,
      zf;sLo k|0ffnLsf] cleGg c+usf] ?kdf gful/s ;dfhsf] ;jntf /
       lqmofzLntf,
      ;fj{hlgs ;]jf jf j:t'sf] pkof]udf gful/sx?sf] ;dfg xs k|Tofe"t
       ug]{ dfGotf,
      ;fdflhs d"No, dfGotf / wf/0ff pGd'v zf;sLo k|0ffnLsf]
       dfGotf, Pj+
      ljs]Gb|Lt ?kdf ;xsfo{d"ns g]t[Tj ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff / k|of]u,
       cflb .
pk;+xf/
k|zf;sLo k4ltsf] ;jnLs/0f / lqmofzLntf g} /fHosf] ;kmntfsf] cfwf/
xf] . o; cy{df k|zf;sLo k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; tyf To;df ;fdlostf k|j4{g
ug]{ sfo{n] gful/s cfjZostf / gful/s ljZjf;o'Qm zf;g Joj:yfsf]
k|j4{gdf of]ubfg k'Ug] tYo lglj{jfb /x]sf] 5 . /fHo k|0ffnLsf]
kl/jlt{t rl/qn] zf;sLo cfofdnfO{ klg kl/jlt{t ul//xg] ;Gb{edf /fHon]
cjnDjg u/]sf gLlt, cfly{s ;|f]t / ;fwgsf] pknJwtfsf] :t/, cGt{/fli6«o
kl/j]z Pj+ jftfj/0fn] zf;g ;+rfngsf] clei6, dfWod / :j?kx?df klg
kl/jt{gsf] dfu ul//x]sf] x'G5 .

                                  161
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf JofKt /x]sf] cfb{zd"vL kl/sNkgf / Go"g
gljgtfo'Qm sfo{z}nLsf sf/0f ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g Pj+ ;f] ;+rfng ug]{
;+oGqdfly k/]sf] rsf]{ bjfjsf] kl/l:yltdf gful/sx?sf] ;]jf tyf ;'ljwfsf]
ljt/0f k|0ffnL pGd'v lgoGq0ffTds sfo{z}nLo'Qm ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g
Joj:yfksLo dfGotf cg';f/sf] :j?kdf kl/jt{g x'g jfWo eof] . zf;g
k|0ffnLdf Joj:yfksLo kIfnfO{ k|j4{g ub}{ k|zf;g ;+rfngsf ljljw
kIfdf Joj:yfksLo d"No, dfGotf / cjwf/0ffnfO{ ;fy{stf lbg] ;fj{hlgs
k|zf;gsf] cjwf/0f jf nufgLsf] d"NonfO{ Wofg lbO{ /fHo;+rfng
x'g' kb{5 eGg] dfGotf jf]s]sf] gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg tL ;j}
cjwf/0ffx?n] tTsfnLg cj:yfsf] /fHo k|0ffnLsf] kl/jt{g pGd'v
rl/qnfO{ k|ltljlDjt u/]sf lyP . ljZjJofkLs/0f / pbfl/s/0fsf] cjwf/0ffn]
d"ntM /fHo;+/rgfdfly d"No k|0ffnL pGd'v sfo{z}nL tyf gLlhIf]q
pGd'v sfo{k|0ffnLtk{m bjfjsf] l;h{gf eof] . log} k[i7e"lddf
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] v/fjL tyf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] cf}lrTo ;fljt ug{ k/]sf]
bjfjsf] k|lt/Iffsf lgldQ j}slNks k|zf;lgs ;+oGqsf] ?kdf pk/f]Qm
cjwf/0ffx?n] s]xL xb;Dd ;kmntf k|fKt ug{ ;Sof] tyflk tL dfGotf /
cjwf/0ffx? klg ;j} cj:yfdf Ps} 9Ëdf sfof{GjogzLn x'g ;s]gg\ .
zf;g Joj:yfdf pbfPsf gjLg dfGotf tyf r'gf}tLx? cfTd;ft\ ug]{
l;nl;nfdf g} ljleGg k|sf/sf zf;g ;+rfng ;Dj4 dfGotfx?sf] ljsf; eof] .
;f]xL qmddf g} gful/s xs, clwsf/ tyf ;jnLs/0fsf lgldQ lhDd]jf/
zf;g Joj:yfsf] cjwf/0ffn] xfnsf] lbgdf :yfg kfPsf] 5 . ;'zf;gsf] efjgf
cGt{lglxt ePsf] zf;g Joj:yfsf] of] dfGotfn] gful/s ;jntf /
lqmofzLntfsf] dfu{nfO{ ;'lglZrttf lbg] k|of; ub{5 / gful/s jf
;/f]sf/fjfnfju{dfem s]Gb|Lt x'g] zf;g k|0ffnL Pj+ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf]
jsfnt ug]{ ub{5 .
zf;sLo Joj:yfsf] ;';+rfngsf lgldQ xfn;Dd pkof]u ul/Psf pk/f]Qm
jdf]lhdsf cjwf/0ffx?nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 –

                    ;fj{hlgs         ;fj{hlgs         lhDd]jf/ zf;g
                     k|zf;g          Joj:yfkg
s= ;/sf/ /        cf1fsfl/tfdf    clwsf/           ;zQmLs/0f ug]{
   gful/ssf]      cfwfl/t         k|flKtdf         lbzfdf cu|;/
   ;DjGw                          s]Gb|Lt
v=pRr             /fhgLlt1k|lt    u|fxsk|lt        gful/s tyf


                                   162
    kbflwsf/Lx                                  ;/f]sf/jfnfk|lt
    ?sf]
    pQ/bfloTj
u= lgb]{zs        lgod tyf      sfo{bIftf tyf   hjfkmb]xLtf,
l;4fGt            sfg"gsf]      glthf           kf/blz{tf tyf
                  jfWosf/L                      ;xeflutfTds
                  kfngf                         k|zf;lgs Joj:yf
3= ;kmntfsf]      pTkfbgdf      k|efjdf cfwfl/t k|lqmofut kIfdf
;"rs              cfwfl/t                       cfwfl/t
ª= d"n ljz]iftf   t6:ytf        Jofj;flostf     lhDd]jf/Lkg

zf;sLo k|0ffnLdf b]lvPsf kl/jlt{t rl/q tyf dfGotfx? ;do–rqm;+u}
kl/jlt{t x'Fb}+ hfG5 lsgls ;dfh ?kfGt/0fsf] k|lqmofn] zf;sLo
k|0ffnLnfO{ klg kl/jlt{t t'NofFpb} nu]sf] 5 . o; cy{df xfn ljsl;t
lhDd]jf/ zf;g ;DjGwL cjwf/0ff klg rL/sfn ko{Gt :yfoL :j?kdf /xg
;Sg] cj:yf 5}g . ;dosf] dfu tyf gful/s ;Gt'i6L Pj+ Ifdtf ljsf;sf
;Gb{edf oL kIfx?df ;fdlos?kdf ;'wf/ x'b} hfg' h?/L / zf:jt g}
dfGg' kb{5 .

;Gb{e ;fd|fuLx?

   1. Unlocking the Human Potential for Public Sector Performance,
      World Public Sector Report 2005, Department of Economic and
      Social Affairs, UN,
   2. Dhameja, Alka (Editor), 2003, Contemporary Debates on Public
      Administration, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.
   3. Hood Christopher , A Public Management for All Season ?, UK.
   4. Tom Christensen & Per Laegreid , NPM – Puzzles of Democracy
      and the Influence of Citizens.
   5.   kf08], o'j/fh, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g / ;fj{hlgs sfo{sf] Joj:yfkg,
   6.   lghfdtL ;]jf bk{0f, klxnf] c+s, ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno .
   7.   >]i7, zfGtjxfb'/, sd{rf/LtGq M ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gb]lv
        ;'zf;g;Dd, k|zf;g, k"0ff{Í !)!, @)^@ sflt{s ;fdfGo k|zf;g
        dGqfno
   8.   k|zf;g, sfdfb tyf ;f]kfgsf ljleGg c+sx?df k|sflzt ljifo;+u
        ;DjlGwt ljleGg n]vx? .


                                 163
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


    lghfdtL sd{rf/Ldf pRr dgf]jn – Joj:yfkssf] k|d'v
                        r'gf}tL




                                                       –s[i0fk|;fb cfrfo{

k[i7e"ld

sd{rf/L ljgfsf] ;+u7g kl/sNkgf;Dd ug{ ;lsb}g . ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo k"/f ug]{
sfddf sd{rf/Lx?sf] :yfg cu|0fL x'G5 . k|To]s ;+u7gdf Joj:yfkssf]
zfemf ;d:of eg]sf] sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]annfO{ s;/L clej[l4 Pj+ ;'wf/ ug]{ <
dgf]an o:tf] dgf]a}1flgs Pj+ dfgl;s tTj xf] h'g JofVof ug{ ufx|f] 5 . of]
JolQm cyjf u'|ksf] ljz]if lsl;dsf] Jojxf/;+u ;DjlGwt 5 . ;+u7gsf]
p2]ZonfO{ ;kmn kfg]{ sfddf pTk|]/0ffsf] hlt dxTj 5 Tof] eGbf a9L
dgf]ansf] x'G5 . sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ hlt;'s} ;'ljwf k|bfg u/]klg, pTk|]l/t
hufPklg, clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg Pj+ lhDd]jf/L lbPklg, sfd ug]{ c;n jftfj/0f
agfO{ lbPklg Tof] Joy{ ;fljt x'G5 olb pgLx?df Go"g dgf]an k}bf eof]
eg] . ctM ;+u7gsf] dxTjk"0f{ dflgg] sd{rf/Ldf pRr dgf]an geO{ gx'g]
tTjsf] ?kdf lng ;lsG5 . sltko JolQmx?n] pTk|]/0ff / dgf]annfO{ Ps;fy
k|of]u u/]tfklg oL b'O{ aLr cGt/;DjlGwt x'g'sf] ;fy} s]xL tflTjs leGgtf
eg] gePsf] xf]Og . lghfdtL sd{rf/Ldf dfq} dgf]an cfjZos kg]{ xf]Og .
o;sf] dxTj ;'/Iff lgsfo, v]nf8Ldf klg Tolts} 5 . k|:t't n]vdf lghfdtL
sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]andf Wofg s]lGb|t ul/Psf] 5 .

dgf]jn s] xf] <




    pk;lrj – pBf]u, afl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno .

                                      164
s'g} lglZrt ;dodf Pp6f JolQm cyjf u'|kdf x'g] ljZjf; Pj+ s8f cg'e"ltnfO{
dgf]jn eGg] ul/G5 . csf]{ cy{df eGg' kbf{ of] Pp6f Ps csf{ aLr ;xof]u,
3d08Lsf] cg'e"lt, x]/rfx xf] h'g u'|ksf ;b:ox?åf/f cfbfg k|bfg ul/G5 .
k|m]~r efiffdf o;nfO{ sprit de corps elgG5 . olb sd{rf/Lx?df sfd u/f}+
eGg] efjgf Pj+ cg'e"lt k}bf ePdf, u'|ksf] lqmofsnfk cfzfjfbL b]lvPdf,
sfdsf] p2]Zo k|lt efjgf hfu[t ePdf, cf:yfjfg / Ps csf{ aLr cflTdotf
b]vfOof] eg] o;nfO{ c;n Pj+ pRr dgf]jn elgG5 . o;sf] ljkl/t olb
sd{rf/Lx? c;Gt'li6, emu8fn' :jefj, lg/f;fjfbL, 8fxf ug]{, l/;fxf, h] s'/fnfO{
klg c:jLsf/ ug]{ / j]v'zL ePdf To;nfO{ v/fj cyjf Go"g dgf]an eGg]
ul/G5 . pRr dgf]ann] :jM:k"mt{ sfd ug]{, Ps cfk;df ;xof]u ug]{ efjgf
k}bf ub{5 . dgf]an Pp6f dgf]a}1flgs u'0f xf] h;df ;fx;, lxDdt, efjgf, ljrf/
;dfj]z ePsf] x'G5 . ;+u7gsf] nIo k|fKt ug]{ sfddf pTk|]l/t ug]{ tTj g}
dgf]an xf] . o;n} s] eGg ;lsG5 eg] cfk"mnfO{ tf]lsPsf] sfd ug]{ OR5f
hfu[t x'g' eg]sf] dgf]an a9\g' xf] . o;n] cfˆgf] ;+u7g, sfd / ;'k/Lj]Ifs k|lt
;sf/fTds ;f]rfO, ljrf/, efjgf /fVb5 . oBlk, ;+u7gdf ;a} sd{rf/Lx?df pRr
dgf]an x'G5 eGg] rfFxL cjZo xf]O{g .

sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]jn x|f; x'g'sf sf/0fx?

       Go"g cfly{s Pj+ u}/–cfly{s ;'ljwfx?,
       sd{rf/Lsf] sfo{ pTk|]/0ff a9\g g;s]sf],
       sfo{ ljj/0fsf] cefj,
       ;fwg >f]tsf] sld,
       a[lQ ljsf;sf cj;/x? kof{Kt gx'g',
       k|zf;gdf a9\bf] /fhgLlts/0f,
       ;'k/Lj]Ifs;+u /fd|f] ;DjGw sfod x'g g;Sg',
       sfo{ ;Dkfbg d"NofÍg oyfy{k/s gx'g',
       sd{rf/L of]hgf gx'g',
       clwsf/ Pj+ pQ/bfloTjsf] sld,
       k|efjsf/L ;fj{hlgs ;]jf ljt/0f gx'+bf hgtfsf] ;fd' sd{rf/Lsf] 5lj
        lubf]{ cj:yfdf,
       sd{rf/Lsf] b'Mv];f] ;'g'jfO{ ug]{ ;+:yfsf] cefj .

lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]an a9fpg ul/Psf k|of;x?



                                  165
sd{rf/Lx?sf] egf{ Pj+ Nofut hfRg] sfd nf]s;]jf cfof]uaf6 dfq x'g] u/L
;+j}wflgs Joj:yf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& df ul/Psf] x'+bf
of]Uotfsf] cfwf/df egf{ u/L sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]an pRr sfod ug]{ sf]lzz
ul/Psf] 5 .

jt{dfg bzf}+ of]hgfdf ;'zf;g, ljsf; k|zf;g tyf dfgj clwsf/ zLif{s cGtu{t
sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]ansf] jf/]df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . cf=j= @)%&.)%* b]lv
sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]an / pTk|]/0ff clej[l4 ug{ %) b]lv *) k|ltzt;Dd tnj j[l4
ul/Psf], lghfdtL ;]jfsf] sfo{ Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ ljleGg sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng
ul/Psf], k|zf;gdf pRr dgf]an x'g] ck]lIft pknJwL /flvPsf] egL of]hgfn]
:ki6 u/]sf] 5 .

k|zf;lgs dgf]an 36\g uPsf]n] /fi6«;]jssf] dgf]an a9fpg kfl/>lds j[l4
ul/Psf] egL cf=j= @)%&.)%* sf] jh]6 jStJoaf6 pNn]Vo ?kdf
sd{rf/Lx?sf] tnj j[l4 ul/Psf] lyof] eg] cf=j= @)^@.)^# sf] jh]6df
lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]an pRr agfpg df}lb|s tyf u}/–df}lb|s
;'ljwfx?df ;'wf/ ul/g] / ;/sf/sf ;Dk"0f{ ;+oGqsf] dgf]andf clej[l4 ul/g]
u/L dgf]an j[l4 ug{ ljleGg jh]6 jStJodf pRr k|fyldstf lbO{Psf] b]lvG5 .
o;/L dgf]an pRr kfg{ egf{, ;?jf, a9'jf h:tf j[lQ ljsf;sf cfwf/x?nfO{
of]Uotfsf] cfwf/df ug]{ / yk tnj ;'ljwf lbg] gLlt lnPsf] b]lvG5 .

lghfdtL ;]jf P]g -;+zf]wg ;lxt_ df sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]an pRr sfod /fVg
ljleGg ;'ljwf nufotsf Joj:yfx? ul/Psf] 5, h:t} —

         ;?jf,
         a9'jf
         /fhkqflÍt låtLo >]0fL;Dd a9'jf ;DjGwL ljz]if Joj:yf,
         a9'jf / ;f]sf] ;t{df kl/jt{g ubf{ Ps jif{;Dd nfu" gx'g],
         sfod d'sfod,
         k|fljlws ;]jfsf sd{rf/L klg ljlzi7 >]0fL;Dd k'Ug ;Sg],
         :jb]zL Pj+ j}b]lzs tfnLd,
         kb:yfkg,
         sfo{ ;Dkfbg d"NofÍg kf/bzL{,
         lhDd]jf/L glbO{ /fVg gkfOg],
         tnj, eQf k'g/fjnf]sg ;ldlt,
         sfo{ ;Dkfbg k|f]T;fxg sf]if,

                                  166
        lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] cftÍsf/Lsf] cfqmd0fdf k/L d[To' ePdf Ps
         >]0fL dflysf] ;'ljwf kfpg],
        pkbfg, k]G;gsf] ;'ljwf
        aLdf, bz}+ vr{ ;'ljwf,
        lghfdtL ;]jf k'/:sf/,
        ljleGg lsl;dsf labfx? Pj+ cfly{s÷ u}/–cfly{s ;'ljwfx?,
        lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] kL/dsf{, u'gf;f] ;'g'jfOsf] Joj:yf .

pRr dgf]jnsf] ;"rsx?
          pTkfbsTj j[l4 x'g] -;w}+ x'G5 eGg] 5}g_,
          sfo{ ;Dkfbg pRr x'g],
          ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo k"/f x'g],
          cfˆgf] ;'k/Lj]Ifs k|lt cf:yfjfg eO{ ;DjGw ;'dw'/ x'g],
          u|'kdf ;xof]usf] efjgf ljsl;t x'g],
          sfof{nodf u}x|–xflh/ sd x'g] -lgoldt xflh/ x'g]_,
          sd{rf/Ldf tgfj sd x'g],
          sd{rf/L ;w}+ g} pTk|]l/t eO{ /xg],
          ;Nnfxsf] cfjZostf gkg]{,
          sd{rf/Lsf] sfd k|lt rfv a9\b} hfg] / sfd ubf{ uf}/jflGjt x'+b}
           hfg] .


;fj{hlgs ;+:yfg Pj+ lghLIf]qdf dgf]jnsf] l:ylt
;/sf/n] k|bfg ug]{ ;]jfsf] lglDt k|lt?ksf] ?kdf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfgx? :yflkt ePsf
x'+bf tL ;+:yfdf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]ansf] l:ylt s]nfpFbf ;/sf/L
sd{rf/Lsf] eGbf a9L ;'w|]sf] b]lvb}g . Ps bzs cufl8;Dd s]lx ;+:yfgx?df
sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?n] a9L ;'ljwf pkef]u u/]sf] sf/0fjf6 pgLx?sf] dgf]an
pRr ePsf] cg'e"lt x'GYof] . t/ clxn] cflw eGbf a9L ;+:yfgx? 3f6fdf
;+rflnt 5g\ . o;sf] d'Vo sf/0fx?; ;/sf/L x:tIf]k, Joj;flos (Business like)
lx;fjaf6 ;+rfng gx'g', k]zfut Joj:yfkgsf] sld, o"lgogsf] /fhgLlts/0f,
;+rfns ;ldlt hjfkmb]xL gx'g', a9L hgzlQm -overhead cost a9\b} hfg'_,
;+:yfg k'g;+{/rgfdf l9nfO{, sd{rf/Lsf] j[lQ ljsf;df ;fF3'/f]kgf, lghLs/0fsf]
Modality :ki6 gx'g' / ;f]sf] hlxn] klg ljjflbt /xg' . cfly{s b[li6sf]0faf6 x]g]{
xf] eg] s]xL ;+:yfgx?df ;/sf/L sd{rf/Ln] eGbf a9L ;'ljwf pkef]u
ul//x]sf5g\ tfklg dgf]an eg] Go"g g} b]lvPsf] 5 .

                                   167
xfnsf] cj:yfdf g]kfn /fi6« a}+s, g]kfn 6]lnsd tyf ljB't k|flws/0f h:tf
;+:yfgx?df sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]an x|f; ePsf] b]lvb}g . g]kfn /fi6«
a}+sdf ;'wf/ ul/P kZrft\ sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ s]Gb|Lo a}+ssf] gftfn] Jofks
;'ljwf k|bfg ul/Psf] x'+bf Toxf+ sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]an pRr b]lvG5 .
o;}u/L ;/sf/L If]qdf eGbf s]xL k|ltli7t lghLIf]qdf sfo{/t JolQmx? pRr
dgf]ann] sfd ul//x]sf x'G5g\ . o;sf] d'Vo sf/0fx?df >f]t ;fwg ;lxtsf]
clwsf/, Joj:yfkgnfO{ Hiring & Firing sf] clwsf/, hjfkmb]xLtf, a9L ljQLo
Pj+ cGo ;'ljwf x'g\ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu lghLIf]qsf a}+sx? -:6f088{ rf6{8{,
lxdfnog, glan cflb_ tyf ljlQo If]qx?df sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ clwstd ;'ljwf
lbO{Psf] 5 h;af6 pgLx? cfˆgf] sfd k|lt k|ltj4 5g\ kmn:j?k tL a}+s tyf
ljQLo If]qsf] pTkfbsTj klg a9]sf] x'G5 . sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]an a9]s}
sf/0f tL ljQLo ;+:yfx? gfkmfdf ;+rflnt 5g\ h;sf] ;"rs :ki6 5 .
lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]jn pRr kfg]{ pkfox?

lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]annfO{ clej[l4 ug]{ ljleGg tf}/tl/sf 5g\, h:t} —
       cfly{s Pj+ u}/–cfly{s ;'ljwfx? lbO{ sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ pTk|]l/t
        ub}{ hfg],
       j[lQ ljsf;sf] of]hgf nfu" ug]{ -;?jf, a9'jfnfO{ kf/bzL{ agfpg]_,
       sfo{ ljj/0f nfu" ug]{,
       clwsf/ ;lxtsf] clVtof/L lbg],
       sfo{ jftfj/0fdf ;'wf/ u/L sd{rf/LnfO{ r'gf}tLsf] sfd ug{ k|f]T;fxg
        ug]{,
       Job enrichment / Job sharing / Job rotation / Job enlargement nfO{ sfo{df
        Nofpg],
       jf:tljs sfdsf] cfwf/df d"NofÍg ug]{ kl/kf6L ljsl;t ug'{ k5{,
       hgtf ;fd' pRr dgf]an lnO{ sfd ug{ k|ToIf hg;Dks{ x'g]
        sfof{nodf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ cGo sd{rf/Lsf] eGbf a9L
        ;'ljwf lbg' k5{,
       ;xeflutfTds lg0f{o k|s[of nfu" ug'{ k5{,
       bL3{sfnLg tnj gLlt th'{df ug'{ kg]{ .
pk;+xf/
dgf]an eg]sf] sd{rf/Lsf] u|'kdf lglxt Ifdtf xf] h;af6 zfemf p2]Zo k|fKt
ug{

                                   168
;lsG5 . s'g} klg ;+u7gsf] k|efjsfl/tf sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]andf e/ kb{5 .
dgf]an / sfd s]Gb|Lt pTk|]/0ffsf tTjx? cfw'lgs k|zf;gsf] nflu dxTjk"0f{
dflgG5g\ . Joj:yfkgsf u'? Peter Drucker sf cg';f/ —
     "Dedicated employees are key to the success of any organization."

sd{rf/Lx? sfd k|lt nugzLn tj x'G5g\ hj pgLx?df pRr dgf]ansf] efjgf
hfu[t x'G5 . >f]t ;fwgsf] sdL tyf j[lQ ljsf;sf] sd cj;/n] ubf{ g]kfnsf]
lghfdtL ;]jfdf dgf]ansf] l:ylt gfh"s b]lvG5 . dgf]an x|f;n] ubf{ ;fj{hlgs
;]jf ljt/0f k|efjsf/L x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . ctM h;/L s'g} sd{rf/LnfO{ pTk|]l/t
ug]{ sfd hl6n Pj+ JolQmlkR5] km/s x'G5 To;/L g} dgf]an pRr agfO{
/fVg] sfo{ Joj:yfkssf] nflu r'gf}tL ePsf] 5 . To;}n] ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo
k|fKt ug{ lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]an clej[l4 ub}{ hfg' kb{5 . lghfdtL
cWofb]z, @)^@ n] sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]annfO{ a9fpg] s]xL cfly{s Pj+ u}/–
cfly{s ;'ljwf, j[lQ ljsf;sf cj;/x?sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 h'g ;x|fxgLo 5 . o;af6
cjZo klg pTkfbsTjdf j[l4 eO{ hgtfnfO{ lbO{g] ;]jfdf zL3|tf cfpg ;S5 .
cGtdf, sd{rf/Lx?sf] pTk|]/0ff Pj+ dgf]andf clej[l4 u/L ;'zf;gsf]
k|Tofe"lt hgtfdf lbg ;Sg' k5{ / pgLx?sf] dgf]andf eg] slxNo} klg x|f;
cfpg lbg' x'+b}g .

;Gbe{–;fdfu|L

!_     bzf}+ of]hgf @)%(–@)^$, /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u
@_ lghfdtL ;]jf P]g -;+zf]wg ;lxt_ Pj+ lgodfjnL, sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf
   ;ldlt
#_     kf08]o, xl/bQ -@)^!_, æ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf pTk|]/0ff Pj+
       dgf]ansf] dxTjÆ
       /fhZj, cÍ # jif{ @% — /fhZj k|zf;g tfnLd s]Gb|
$_     ah]6 jStJox? -cf=j= @)%&.)%*, @)^@.)^#_, cy{ dGqfno
%_     Personnel Management – C.B. Mamoria

^_     Public Personnel Administration – O.G. Stahl




                                      169
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@

            lghfdtL ;]jfdf 58\s] k|j]zsf] ptf/ r9fj




                                                - zflnu|fd zdf{ kf}8]n
k[i7e"ld
hgtfk|lt ;/sf/n] JoQm u/]sf k|ltj4tfx? k"/f ug{] dfWodx?dWo]
lghfdtL ;]jf k|d'v xf] . :yfoL ;/sf/sf] ?kdf lrlgg] lghfdtL ;]jfsf]
;Ifdtf÷bIftf / k|efjsfl/tfdf g} ;/sf/sf] ;kmntf w/} xb;DDf lge{/ ub{5
. o;}sf/0f k|l;4 k|zf;g ljb\ O Glehn Stahl n] æNo Government can be much
better than its civil service permits Æ eg]sf 5g\ .

:yfoL ;/sf/sf] ;b:o ePsf] sf/0f lghfdtL sd{rf/L hgtfk|lt ldtJooL /
k|efjsf/L9+un] ;]jf k|jfx ug{] sfo{df lhDd]jf/ /xG5 . lghfdtL
sd{rf/Ln] lgjf{lrt ;/sf/sf] 3f]if0ffnfO{ gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf
dfWodaf6 sfof{Gjog ub{5 / hgtfsf OR5f, cfsf+Iff / dfux?nfO{
/fhgLlt1;Dd k'/\\Øfpg] sfo{ ub{5 . o;k|sf/sf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf
lgjf{x ug{] lghfdtL sd{rf/L ;Ifd, l;h{gzLn, ;Lko'Qm, k|ltj4,
cg'zfl;t, hgd'vL, glthfd'vL / pTk|]l/t x'g' h?/L 5 . lghfdtL
sd{rf/Lsf] u'0f:t/ ;/sf/n] c+ufNg] kbk"lt{ k|0ffnLdf klg lge{/ ub{5
.

lghfdtL ;]jfsf] nflu cfjZos sd{rf/Lx?sf] kbk"lt{ ug{] d'Votof b'O{
>f]t ÷ tl/sfx? /x]sf 5g\ jfx\Ø >f]t / cfGtl/s >f]t . cfGtl/s >f]t
eGgfn] ;]jf leqs} sd{rf/Lx?dWo]jf6 kbk"lt{ ug{] tl/sfnfO{
hgfp+5 eg] jfx\Ø >f]t eGgfn] ;]jfb]lv aflx/sf JolQmx?jf6 kbk"lt{
ug{] tl/sfnfO{ a'lemG5 . jfx\Ø / cfGtl/s >f]tsf cf–cfkm\g} ;jn /
b'j{n kIfx? 5g\ . s'g >f]tjf6 leq\ØfOPsf] hgZflQm lghfdtL] ;]jfsf]



    n]vf clws[t, vfgL tyf e"ue{ ljefu .

                                          170
nflu t'ngfTds?kdf j9L pTkfbgd"ns -Productive_ x'G5 eGg] ljifodf
klg Joj:yfkgljbx? aLr Ps dt /x]sf] kfFOb}g .
dfly pNn]v ul/Psf b'O{ >f]tx?dWo] cfGtl/s >f]t cGtu{t a9'jf,
;?jf, sfh, cfGtl/s k|lt:kwf{Tds k/LIff / ;]jf–;d"x kl/jt{g cflb kb{5g\
eg] afx\Ø >f]t cGtu{t v'nf k|ltof]lutf / v'Nnf k|ltof]lutf cGtu{t
58\s] k|j]z kb{5 . oLdWo] s'gnfO{ k|fyldstf lbPdf of]Uo
JolQmsf] 5gf}6 x'g ;Snf eGg] ljifodf lgs} ljjfb /xb} cfPsf] 5 . o;
n]vdf 58\s] k|j]zsf ;jn tyf b'j{n kIfx? / g]kfndf o;sf] k|of]u af/]
;+lIfKt ljZn]if0f ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5 .
58\s] k|j]zsf] kl/ro

;fdfGo cy{df s'g} ;+u7gdf kb l/Qm ePsf] cj:yfdf ;DaGwLt
;+u7gleqsf] hgzlQmdWo]af6 dfq kbf]Gglt gu/L ;+u7g aflx/sf
gofF hgzlQmnfO{ ;d]t k|j]z u/fpg' g} 58\s] k|j]z xf] . lj:t[t?kdf
kl/eflift ubf{ o;nfO{ v'nf j[lt k|0ffnL -k|foM ;j} txdf ;]jf aflx/sf
JolQmnfO{ k|j]z v'nf /flvg] k|0ffnL_ sf] k|d'v tTjsf] ?kdf lng
;lsG5 . t/ ;dosf] cGt/fndf k|zf;gljbx?n] 58\s] k|j]z - Lateral entry _
nfO{ s]xL k[ys?kdf x]g{ yfn] . afx\Ø If]qjf6 x'g] ;j} vfn] v'nf
k|j]znfO{{{{{{{ Lateral entry leq ;d]l6Pg .

tn plNnlvt kl/efiffx?jf6 58\s] k|j]zsf] cy{ :ki6 x'g hfG5 .

æ.....    Under this system, a certain percentage of recruitment to the senior
echelons of the civil service is made from among outsiders of a mature age through
a competitive selection The lateral entry of experienced person is so planned as
not to cause any detriment to the promotional chanses of the officers recruited in
their early age. It ensures the bringing in a new blood into the upper echelons of the
                      1
civil services. Æ


æ   Entrance to the civil service by external recruitment or otherwise than through promotion or transfer
from within the service. Arrangements for lateral entry are generally most widespread in position-based
systems where the emphasis is placed on selecting the best-suited candidate for each position to be
filled, whether by external recruitment or via internal promotion or mobility.   Æ2


1
    A.R. Tyagi , Public Administration Principles and practices ,Page no 430
2
    Google search

                                                      171
oL b'O{ kl/efiffx?df klxnf] kl/efiffn] ;]jf aflx/sfx?sf] k|j]znfO{ dfq
58\s] k|j]z dfg]sf] 5 eg] bf]>f]n] 58\s] k|j]zsf] bfo/fnfO{
km/flsnf] kf/L ;]jfleq / aflx/ b'j} If]qsf] k|j]znfO{ 58\s] k|j]zsf]
kl/efiffdf ;d]6]sf] 5 .

dflysf kl/efiffx?sf] cfwf/df 58\s] k|j]zsf lgDgfg';f/sf ljz]iftfx?
O+lut ug{ ;lsG5 M

       —k|lt:kwf{Tds k/LIff k|0ffnLsf] dfWodjf6 5gf}6 x'g] .
       —dflyNnf kbx?df dfq nfu" x'g] .
       —gofF ljrf/ Pj+ hf]zsf] k|j]z x'g] .
       —lglZrt cg'ej xfFl;n ul/;s]sf] hgzlQmsf] k|j]z x'g] .
       —;+u7gleqsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] j[lt ljsf;df jfwf gk'¥ofpg] cyf{t
       l/Qm kbsf]
         s]xL k|ltztdfq 58\s] k|j]zjf6 k"lt{ x'g] .

58\s] k|j]zsf] p2]Zo

         u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, ljZjljBfno , tyf cGt/f{li6|o ;+3–;+u7gsf
          of]Uo /                   ;Ifd JolQmx? lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|j]z
          u/fpg' .
         dflyNnf] txdf gj/Qm ;+rf/ u/fpg' .
         lghfdtL ;]jfdf o'jf tyf cg'ejLx?AfLr plrt ;Gt'ng sfod ug'{
          .
         k|lt:kwL{ efjgfsf] ljsf; u/L pTkfbsTj a9fpg' .
         gofF k|ljlw / 1fgnfO{ lghfdtL ;]jfdf leq\ofpg' .
         of]Uo t/ rfs8L–rfKn';L ug{ g;Sg] ;]jfleqs} sd{rf/LnfO{
          a9'jfsf] cj;/ lbnfpg' .
                                  -hfFrj'em s]Gb|sf] k|ltj]bg @)@*_

58\s] k|j]zsf ;sf/fTds kIfx?

         of] k"0f{tof k|hftflGqs l;4fGtdf cfwfl/t 5 . ;]jfdf ePsf tyf
          gePsf ;a}nfO{ o;n] ;dfg cj;/ pknJw u/fpF5 . of] lgikIf
          k|0ffnL xf], h;df s'g} e]befjsf] cEof; ul/b}g .

                                  172
       ;/sf/nfO{ sd{rf/L 5gf}6sf] nflu Jofks If]q pknJw x'G5 .
       ljZjljBfno tyf cGo lgsfosf of]Uo tyf ;Ifd JolQmx?sf]
        lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|j]z ;Dej x'G5 .
       ljz]iftM k|fljlws tyf Jofj:fflos If]qdf gofF–gofF k|ljlw
        Pj+ ljrf/x?sf] cfjZostf kl//xG5 . 58\s] k|j]zn] gofF
        k|ljlw / ljrf/ o'Qm tfhf hgzlQmnfO{ lgoldt?kdf cfk"lt{
        ul//xG5 . o;jf6 ;/sf/nfO{ cfkm\gf] sfo{ If]qdf gofF
        dfGotf, ljrf/, k|ljlw / l;4fGtx?nfO{ k|j]z u/fpg ;3fp k'U5
        .
       ljZjsf] ;fdflhs–cfly{s kl/l:yltx? kl/j{tg eO/xG5 . 58\s]
        k|j]zjf6 lgoldt?kdf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf cWoogzLn gjo'jfx?
        lelqg] x'Fbf ;/sf/nfO{ cfKf\mgf] ;]jfdf ;'wf/ / kl/j{tg ug{
        ;'emfj / ;Nnfx pknJw x'G5 .
       k|lt:kwf{Tds ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf; u/fpF5 . o; k|0ffnLn]
        ;]jfleqsf sd{rf/Lx?df klg cfk\mgf] j[lt ljsf;sf nflu
        k|lt:kwf{df of]Uo ;fljt ug{'kg{] r]tgf hfu[t u/fpF5 .
        k|lt:kwf{Tds ;+:s[ltn] ;]jf k|jfxdf u'0ffTdstfdf j[l4 ub{5 .
       gjLg ljrf/ Pj+ k'/fg]f cg'ejsf] plrt ;+of]hg x'g uO{ b'j}sf]
        ;fd"lxs k|of;jf6 ;+u7g ;+efljt b'3{6gfjf6 aRg ;S5 .

    plNnlvt 58\s] k|j]zsf p2]Zox?nfO{ klg o;sf ;sf/fTds kIfsf
  ?kdf lng ;lsG5 .

58\s] k|j]zsf gsf/fTds kIfx?

       nfdf] ;dob]lv ;]jfdf sfo{/t cg'ejL sd{rf/Lx? 5gf}6 x'g]
        cj;/x?    sd x'g hfg] x'Fbf gjk|j]zLx?åf/f tfl]sPsf]
        lhDd]jf/L            k"/f           x'g          sl7gfO
        kg{] .
       o; k|0ffnLdf sfo{;Dkfbg / j[lQ ljsf; aLr s'g} ;DjGw 5}g
        . ctM o; k|0ffnLn] sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ sfdk|lt pT;flxt u/fpg
        ;Sb}g .
       58\s] k|j]zsf] dfWodaf6 5gf}6 ePsf sd{rf/Lx?sf]
        sfo{;+u ;DjlGwt cg'ej sd x'g ;Sg] x'Fbf o:tf


                                173
    sd{rf/Lx?sf] tflndsf] nfuL ;/sf/n] cltl/Qm nufgL
    ug'{kg]{ x'G5 .
   58\s] k|j]z ;DjGwL k/LIffx? ;+rfng ug{ cTolws >f]t
    ;fwgx? vr{ x'g] / nf]s ;]jf cfof]u h:tf] k/LIff ;+rfng ug]{
    lgsfonfO{ sfo{af]em yk x'g hfG5 .
   k/LIff k|0ffnL j:t'lgi7 (Objective), ljZj;gLo (Reliable) /
    j}wflgs (Valid) gePs]f cj:yfdf ;lx pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 x'g
    ;Sb}g .

    j:t'lgi7 (Objective), :– h;n] x]/] klg Pp6} b]lvg], ;dfg Jojxf/
                                x'g], s[lqd e]befj gx'g] .

    ljZj;gLo (Reliable)      M– b'O{ jf b'O{ eGbf a9L
                             JolQm jf Pp6} JolQmn] km/s–
                             km/s ;dodf hfFr ubf{ klg ;dfg
                             glthf lgSng] .

    j}wflgs (Valid) :- hg';'s} k/LIf0f k|0ffnLaf6 hfFr u/] klg
                   ;dfg glthf k|fKtx'g] / h'g s'/f hfFRg
                   vf]h]sf]              xf]               ;xL
                   hfFlrg] .

   58\s] k|j]zaf6 5gf}6 ePsf sd{rf/Lx?df cfˆg} v"jL, d]xgt
    / Nofstaf6 cfPsf] x'F eGg] cxd\ x'g] ;Defjgf a9L /xG5
    . o:tf] cxd\n] ;+u7gdf cfjZos kg]{ cfb/, cg'zf;g /
    ;+odnfO{ ;+s6df kfg{ ;S5 .
   lnlvt k/LIff tyf cGt/jftf{ h:tf k/LIf0f k|0ffnLaf6
    OdfGbfl/tf / g}ltstf k/LIf0f ug{ sl7g x'G5 . To;}n] 58\s]
    k|j]zaf6 5gf}6 ePsf sd{rf/Lsf] g}ltstf / OdfGbfl/tfsf
    ;DjGwdf cfZj:t x'g ;lsb}g .
   o; k|0ffnLsf] dfWodaf6 dftxtdf sfd ug]{ sd{rf/L xflsd
    eP/ cfpg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . o;/L s]xL ;do cufl8 h;sf]
    ;'k/Lj]Ifs ePsf] xf] p;}sf] ;xfos x'g' kbf{ ;DjlGwt
    sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]jndf gsf/fTds c;/ kg{ ;S5 .



                             174
        of] k|0ffnL dflyNnf kbx?df k'Ug] Fast-track ePsf]n]
         ;+u7gdf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?n] cfˆgf] sfo{;Dkfbg eGbf
         k/LIffsf] tof/L tkm{ a9L Wofg lbG5 -h'g xfn eO/x]sf]
         5_ . o;n] ubf{ ;+u7gsf] nIo xfl;n ug{ jfwf k'Ug ;S5 .
        lghfdtL ;]jf eGbf jflx/af6 dflyNnf kbx?df k|j]z x'g]
         ;Defjgf /x]af6 ;]jfleqsf sd{rf/Lx? cfˆgf] j[lQ ljsf;df ljZj:t
         x'g ;Sb}gg\ . o;af6 sfo{;Dkfbgdf gsf/fTds c;/ kg{ ;S5
         .
        s]xL 306fs]f lnlvt k/LIff pDd]bjf/sf] jf:tljs 1fg / of]Uotf
         k/LIf0f ug]{ pko'Qm dfWod gx'g ;S5 .

g]kfndf 58\s] k|j]zsf] ljsf;qmd
lj=;+= @))& ;fn cufl8;Dd ;fj{hlgs kbx?df zf;sju{{ -/f0ff kl/jf/_ sf
ljZjf; kfqx? Dffq lgo'Qm x'Gy] . of]Uotf / Ifdtfsf] k/LIf0fljgf g}
lgo'lQm / vf];'jf x'g] ub{Yof] . k|hftGqsf] jxfnLKfl5 klg tTsfn
;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf s;/L of]Uo / ;Ifd JolQmnfO{ k|j]z u/fpg] eGg]
Plsg ug{ ;lsPsf] kfOb}g .
lj=;+= @)!# ;fndf lghfdtL ;]jf P]g / lgodfjnLsf] th'{df ul/of] .
o;jf6 lghfdtL ;]jfsf] u7gsf] sfg'gL cfwf/ :ki6 eof] . oL sfg'gL
b:tfj]hx?df /f=k|=t[tLo >]0fLsf] kbdf k|yd egf{sf] ?kdf l/Qm
kbsf] %)Ü dfq kbk"lt{ v'nf k|ltof]lutfaf6 ug]{ / ;f]eGbf dflysf]
kbk"lt{ a9'jfåf/f ug]{ Joj:yf ul/of] .
ef/tsf] tTsfnLg lghfdtL ;]jf ;DaGwL sfg"gaf6 lj=;+= @)!# ;fnsf]
g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jf ;DjGwL sfg"g k"0f{?kdf k|efljt ePsf] kfOG5
. kmn:j?k ef/tn] c+ufn]sf] Rank-in-man system nfO{ g]kfnn] klg
ckgfof] / v'Nnf k|ltof]lutf /f=k=t[tLo >]0fL;Dddfq ;Lldt /flvof] .
58\s] k|j]znfO{ c+uflnPg . lj=;+= @)@* ;fndf ul7t hfFra'em
s]Gb|åf/f kbf]Ggltsf ;DjGwdf cWoog u/L lbPs]f l;kmfl/;df lgDg
s'/f pNn]v ePsf] kfOG5 .

      æ ===== o:tf sd{rf/Lx? h;n] rfs8L jf v';fdb u/L cfˆgf
k|d'vnfO{ l/emfpg rfxFb}gg\ / h;nfO{ cfˆgf] Ifdtfdf ljZjf; 5 tL


                                 175
sd{rf/Lx?n] ;dodf a9'jf gkfpg] cj:yf k5{, To:tf sd{rf/Lsf] a9'jfsf]
lgldQ @%% cfGtl/s k|ltof]lutfnfO{ ljsNksf ?kdf nfu" ul/g'k5{ .
===== lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ x/bd ;Ifd, :j:y, lgle{s / lglxt :jfy{/lxt
t'Nofpgsf] nflu ;]jfleq o; lsl;dsf] k|ltof]lutfTds efjgf h+fu/0f ug'{
nfek|b x'g]5 .Æ3

pko{'Qm l;kmfl/;nfO{ cWoog ubf{ cfheGbf sl/j #% jif{cufl8 g}
t6:y, lgikIf, :jfledfgL / lg:jfy{ sd{rf/Lsf] cfjZostf dx;"; ul/Psf] /
To:tf sd{rf/L k|ltof]lutfTds k/LIffaf6 cfpg]] ;+efjgf pRr /xg]
ljifodf sNkgf ul/Psf] kfOG5 . o;}sf/0f hfFra'em s]Gb|sf] l;kmfl/;
cg';f/ /fhkqf+lst k|yd / låtLo >]0fLs]f l/Qm kbx?df k|yd b'O{ jif{
@%% kbx? cfGtl/s k|ltof]lutfTds k/LIffaf6 k"lt{ ug]{ / tTkZrft
pQm k|ltzt a9fpFb} nlug] u/L lg=;]=lg= @)@! df ;+z]fwg ul/of]
. o; ;+zf]wgn] ;]jfleqsf of]Uo JolQmx?nfO{ rfF8f] kbf]Gglt x'g
Fast track sf] Joj:yf t u¥of] t/ 58\s] k|j]znfO{ eg] ;d]6\g ;s]g .

lj=;+= @)!#–@)@* sf] cjlwdf dflyNnf kbx? ;lrj, ;x–;lrj / pk–
;lrjdf y'k|} hgfnfO{ /fhgLlts lgo'lQmsf] dfWodaf6 58\s] k|j]z
u/fOPs]f kfOG5 . lj=;+= @)@! ;fndf 7"n} k}dfgfdf /fhkqf+lst
l4tLo >]0fLdf e"ld;'wf/ clwsf/L / k+rfot lgb]{zg clwsf/Lx?nfO{
l;w} lgo'Qm ul/of] / kl5 lghfdtL ;]jfsf] kbdf :yfoL ul/Ps]f lyof] . t/
To;j]nfs]f 58\s] k|j]z ;j} of]Uo JolQmx? aLr k|ltof]lutfTds k/LIff
k|0ffnLdfkm{t gu/fOPsf]n] dfly plNnlvt 58\s] k|j]zsf] kl/efiffsf]
dd{nfO{ ;d]6\g ;s]sf] kfOb}g .

8f= e]if jxfb'/ yfkfs]f cWoIftfdf ul7t k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u
@)#@÷)## sf] k|ltj]bgn] 58\s] k|j]z ;DjGwdf lgDgfg';f/ Joj:yf
u/]sf] kfOG5 –

æxfd|f] lghfdtL ;]jf k|0ffnL j[lQ ;]jfdf cfwfl/t 5 . o;af6 ;]jfdf ;'/Iff /
l:y/tf cfpg] k|i6 5 . lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?sf] sfo{df k|lt:kwf{sf] ;6[f
lzlyntf cfpg] o; k|0ffnLsf] sdhf]/ kIf dflgG5 . t;y{ j[lQ ;]jfs]f
d"ne"t l;4fGt k|lts"n gx'g] u/L ;]jfleq k|lt:kwf{sf] jftfj/0fsf] nflu
58\s] k|j]zsf] Joj:yf x'g' jf~5gLo 5 t/ o;k|sf/sf] 58\s] k|j]zdf
3
   ltjf/L, dw'lglw -@)$%_, g]kfn k|zf;g ;]jfdf a9'jf k|ltof]lutf Ps cWoog,
nf]s ;]jf cfof]uåf/f k|fof]lht cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bg,k[i7 ;+Vof ##–#$ .

                                     176
;DjlGwt kbsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ of]Uotf / cg'ej ePsf] JolQm x'g'
clgjfo{ 5 . cGoyf ;]jfleqsf] of]Uo JolQmx? xtf]T;fxL x'g] jf
pgLx?df g}]/fZotfsf] efjgf a9\g] x'G5 . t;y{ 58\s] k|j]zsf] nflu
nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] k/fdz{ cfjZos 5 .Æ

o;k|sf/ ;]jf ;'/Iff / l:y/tfdf k|lts"n c;/ gkg]{ u/L 58\s] k|j]z ckgfpg
o; k|ltjb]gn] l;kmfl/; u/]sf] b]lvG5 . ;fy} ;]jfleqsf of]Uo JolQmx?
lg?T;flxt gx'g] u/L of]Uotf / cg'ej tf]lsg' kg]{ ;d]t ;'emfj lbPsf]
kfOG5 t/ ;+lIfKt?kdf pNn]v ul/Psf pko'{Qm ;'emfjdf kbsf] slt
k|ltzt / s'g >]0fL;Dd 58\s] k|j]zsf] dfWodaf6 5gf}6 ug]{ / s] slt
of]Uotf / cg'ej tf]lsg' kg]{ cflb ljifodf s]xL ;'emfj lbPsf] kfOb}g .

yfkf cfof]usf] ;'emfj ;lx dfg]df 58\s] k|j]zsf] z'?jftsf] ljGb' x'g
;SYof] t/ oL ;'emfjx?nfO{ nfu" ul/Pg .

k|hftGqsf] k'gj{xfnL kl5 u7g ePs]f pRr:t/Lo k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u,
@)$* n] lghfdtL ;]jfdf b]vfPsf ljleGg ;d:of dWo] Ps lgDgfg';f/
pNn]v u/]sf] 5 .
æ/fhkqf+lst t[tLo >]0fL;Ddsf kbx?df dfq gofF egf{ ul/g] k4ltn]
ubf{ lghfdtL ;]jfsf] pRr:t/ txx?df u}/–;/sf/L If]qaf6 k|ltefzfnL
JolQmx?sf] k|j]z x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . o;af6 Psflt/ pRrkb:y
sd{rf/Lx?df k|lt:kwf{sf] efjgf g/xg] / csf]{ ;dli6?kdf, ljleGg If]qdf
ePs]f gjLgtd k|ljlw–ljsf;;+u lghfdtL ;]jf kl/lrt jf cEo:t x'g ;s]sf]
5}g .Æ

pko'{Qm ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu pQm k|ltj]bgn] /fhkqf+lst k|yd /
l+åtLo >]0fLsf] klxnf] txdf l/Qm :yfgx? dWo] @)% :yfgx? v'nf
k|ltof]lutfsf] cfwf/df nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] l;kmfl/; cg';f/ lgo'lQm ul/g'
kg]{ ;'emfj lbPs]f kfOG5 . æ58\s] k|j]zÆ eGg] zJbsf] k|of]u
gul/P tfklg k|j]z u/fpg] tx, of]Uotf, cg'ej, k|j]z u/fpg] k|lqmof -
v'nf k|ltof]lutf_ cflb l;kmfl/;af6 pQm k|fjwfg 58\s] k|j]z;+u
;DjlGwt xf] eg]/ 7f]s'jf ug{ ;lsG5 .

lj=;+= @)$( ;fndf th'{df ul/Psf] lghfdtL ;]jf P]gdf @)$* ;fnsf]
k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]un] 58\s] k|j]zsf ;DjGwdf lbPsf] ;'emfjnfO{
;fdfGo kl/jt{g ;lxt ;dfj]z u/]sf] kfOG5 . d"ntM cfof]un] /fhkqf+lst

                                   177
k|yd / l++åtLo >]0fLsf] l/Qm :yfgs]f @)% :yfg 58\s] k|j]zåf/f
k"lt{ ug{ lbPsf] l;kmfl/;nfO{ !)% dfq sfod u/]sf] kfOG5 .

g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfsf] Oltxf;df k|yd k6s k|rngdf NofOPsf] 58\s]
k|j]zsf] Joj:yfnfO{ sl/j !@ jif{sf] cjlw kl5 ldlt @)^@.#.#)df ePsf]
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g,)$(sf] bf];|f] :f+;f]wgaf6 x6fOPsf] 5 . o;/L
lj=;++= @)#@ ;fnb]lv nfu" ug{] k|of; ul/Psf] of] Joj:yf lj=;+=
@)$(df dfq nfu" ul/of] / k'gM @)^@ ;fndf vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 .

g]kfndf 58\s] k|j]zsf] l;+xfjnf]sg -lj=;+= @)$(–
@)%(_
lj=;+= @)$( df lghfdtL ;]jf P]gdf 58\s] k|j]zsf] Joj:yf ePkl5
lghfdtL ;]jfsf] u'0ffTdstfdf s]–s:tf] k|efj k¥of] eGg] ;DjGwdf
j:t'lgi7 cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f t x'g ;s]sf] b]lvb}g t/ lj=;+= @)$( b]lv
@)%( ;Dd nf]s ;]jf cfof]un] lnPs]f 58\s] k|j]z ;DjGwL k/LIffdf
s]–s:tf] ;+VofTds pknlJw xfl;n eof] eGg] ;DjGwdf Ps
cWoogn] lgDglnlvt tYofÍx? Kf|:t't u/]sf] 5 .4




4
 Paudel Narendra Raj, Policy Spirit and its Realities on Open Competition in Gazetted First
and Second Class Civil Service in Nepal- Paj, Vol. XVII and XVIII, December 2002 July
2003.

                                            178
        58\s] k|j]z ;DjGwL tYofÍsf] tflnsf -@)$(–@)%(_

                      /f=k=   k|yd /f=k=l4=                   s"n
                      >]0fLdf           >]0fLdf
dfu ;+Vof                  !@                  #^                $*
lghfdtL ;]jf leqaf6        !@                 #%                $&
l;kmfl/;
lghfdtL ;]jf jflx/af6       –                    !                !
l;kmfl/;
                            - >f]t M- Paudel Narendra Raj, December 2002 July 2003._
58\s] k|j]zsf] d'Vo p2]Zo lghfdtL ;]jfeGbf jflx/sf of]Uo tyf ;Ifd
JolQmnfO{ ;]jfleq k|j]z u/fpg' xf] t/ dflysf tYofÍjf6 of] p2]Zo
k"lt{ x'g ;s]sf] b]lvb}g . /f=k=k|yd / låtLo >]0fLdf u/L 58\s]
k|j]zsf] dfWodaf6 l;kmfl/; ePsf s"n $* hgf dWo] s]jn
/f=k=låtLo >]0fLdf !-Ps_ hgf dfq lghfdtL ;]jf jflx/af6 l;kmfl/;
ePsf] kfOG5 . o:tf] l:ylt lsg b]lvof] t < eGg] ;DjGwdf 58\s]
k|j]zsf ;+efljt pd]b\jf/ / l;kmfl/; pd]b\jf/x?n] lgDg sf/0fx?
bzf{Psf] pQm cWoogn] pNn]v u/]sf] 5 M
         lghfdtL ;]jfleqsf sd{rf/Lx?df cfˆg} ;]jfleq a9'jf x'g] tLj|
          rfxfgf /x]sf] x'G5 . o;k|sf/sf] rfxgfn] ubf{ k/LIffsf]
          tof/Ldf pgLx?n] j9L d]xgt ug{] u/]sf] .
         k/LIff;+u ;DjlGwt ;fdfu|Lx?df lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] kxF'r
          t'ngfTds?kdf a9L ;xh x'g] / k'/fgf l;kmfl/; eO;s]sf
          sd{rf/Lx?af6 k/LIff kf; ug]{ Tricks and techniques x? jf/]
          hfgsf/L k|fKt x'g] .
         lgj[lQe/0f nufot cGo k|of]hgsf nfuL jfXo If]qdf u/]sf]
          ;]jf cjlw u0fgf gx'g] .
         lghfdtL sd{rf/LnfO{ k/LIffsf] nfuL tof/L ug]{ ;do a9L
          pknJw x'g] .
         cGo If]qsf] t'ngfdf lghfdtL ;]jfdf tnj eQf nufotsf cGo
          ;'ljwfx? sd ePsf] sf/0f cGo If]qdf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?
          cfslif{t gx'g] .
         lghfdtL ;]jfdf :ki6 j[lQ ljsf; ;DjGwL of]hgf gePsf] .
         lghfdtL ;]jfdf /fhgLlts/0f / Go"g Joj;flostfsf] l:ylt .

                                         179
        oy]i6 k|rf/–k|;f/sf] cefjn] ubf{ jfXoIf]qsf sd{rf/Lx?n]
         hfgsf/L gkfpg' .

log} sf/0fx?n] ubf{ lghfdtL ;]jf jflx/sf ;+efljt pDd]bjf/x?n] bvf{:t
g} glbg] / bvf{:t lbP tfklg /fd|f] tof/L g} gug]{ x'Fbf jfXo If]qsf
JolQmx? lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|j]z gePsf] b]lvG5 .

xfn;Dd k|rlnt 58\s] k|j]zaf6 lghfdtL ;]jfleq s} sd{rf/Ldfq nfeflGjt
eP tfklg, o; k|fjwfg cg'?k ljleGg pRr cf]xbf xfl;n ug]{sf]
sfo{;Dkfbg eg] cf}zteGbf dfly g} /x]sf] ;j{q cg'e"lt ul/Psf] 5 t/
sfo{;Dkfbg                        /                    pTkfbsTjdf
s]–s:tf] k|efj / c;/ k/]sf] 5 eGg] ;DjGwdf tYo tyf tYofÍ (Facts and
figures) df cfwfl/t cWoog eg] x'g ;s]sf] b]lvb}g .

cj s] ug'{ 7Ls xf]nf <
lghfdtL ;]jf jflx/sf pDd]bjf/x? pQL0f{ x'g g;s]sf] t cWoogn]
k|dfl0ft ul/;s]s} ljifo xf] t/ of] ;d:ofnfO{ ;Djf]wg ug{ Joj:yf g}
vf/]h ug]{ jf jfXoIf]qsf pDd]bjf/x? k|j]z x'g ;Sg] u/L ;'wf/ ug]{
eGg] ljifo dxTjk"0f{ xf] .

58\s] k|j]zn] lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ hLjGt, ultzLn, ;lqmo / l;h{gzLn
jgfpg] s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g t/ dfly pNn]v ul/P cg';f/ o;sf ;sf/fTds
kIfsf ;fy} gsf/fTds kIf klg 5g\ . ctM o;sf] d"n dS;b cg';f/
jfXoIf]qsf pDd]bjf/x?nfO{ lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|j]z u/fpg / o;sf
gsf/fTds c;/x?nfO{ sd ug{ lgDgfg';f/sf ;'wf/ ul/g' kg]{ b]lvG5 M

        58\s] k|j]zsf] k|efj d"Nof+sg u/L d"Nof+sgaf6
         cg'kof]uL jf cgfjZos k|dfl0ft geP;Dd of] Joj:yfnfO{
         k'gM sfod ug]{ .
        l/Qm kbsf] !)% 58\s] k|j]zaf6 k"lt{ ug]{ ;fljssf]
         k|fjwfgdf j[l4 u/L k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]usf] k|ltjb]g @)$* n]
         l;kmfl/; u/] cg';f/ @)% k'¥ofpg] .
        xfnsf] kf7\oqmd lghfdtL ;]jfdf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?nfO{
         pko'Qm / ;lhnf] x'g] u/L th'{df ul/Psf] eGg] u'gf;f]


                                 180
          jfXoIf]qsf] /x]sf] 5 . To;}n] kf7\oqmddf ;'wf/ u/L
          ;j{u|fXo jgfOg' k5{ .
         lnlvt k/LIffsf] efiff g]kfnL jf c+u|]hL h'g;'s} klg x'g] u/L
          P]lR5s jgfpg] .
         kf7\oqmd, k/LIff k|0ffnL, kf7\o;fdfu|L / lj1fkgsf] k|rf/
          k|;f/nfO{ Jofks u/fpg] .
         o; k|0ffnLaf6 5gf}6 x'g]x?sf] nflu jfXoIf]qdf ePsf] tnj
          eQf nufotsf ;'ljwf eGbf a9L tf]lsg' kg]{ .
         lgj[lQe/0f nufot cGo k|of]hgsf nflu jfXoIf]qsf] ;]jf
          cjlwnfO{ u0fgf ul/g] Joj:yf ug'{kg]{ .
         xfnsf] ^ 306] lnlvt k/LIff k|0ffnLsf cnfjf cGo k/LIf0f
          k2ltx? h:tf] Proposal k]z ug{ nufpg],ljljw If]qsf lj1 /
          pDd]bjf/aLr ljljw ;d:ofsf ;DjGwdf Jofks:t/sf] 5nkmn
          cfof]hgf ug]{ / 5nkmndf pDd]bjf/åf/f k|:t't ljrf/sf
          cfwf/df d"NofÍg ug]{ cflb .
         lghfdtL ;]jfdf /fhgLlts x:tIf]k / ;+/If0f jGb ul/g' kg]{ .
         lghfdtL ;]jfdf sfo{/t jl/i7 sd{rf/L / 58\s] k|j]zaf6 5gf}6
          ePsf sd{rf/LaLr cf–cfˆg} ljz]iftf / of]UotfnfO{ lnP/ ljjfb
          pTkGg x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . o:tf] ljjfb x6fpg æcg'ej Æ
          tyf ægofF hf]z hfFu/Æ ;+u7gsf nflu Pssf] ;6[f csf]{
          (Mutually exclusive) ljifo xf]Og . oL b'j}sf] plQs} dxTj 5
          eGg] s'/fsf] ;+rf/ ul/g' k5{ .

lgisif{
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( n] 58\s] k|j]zsf] Joj:yf u¥of], t/ P]gsf]
efjgf / p2]Zo cg'?k jfX\oIf]qsf] k|j]z x'g ;s]g . jfX\oIf]qsf] k|j]z
lsg x'g ;s]g, To; If]qsf Talent hunt ug{ s]–s:tf] ;'wf/ ug{ cfjZos
xf]nf eGg] cWoog gu/L lghfdtL ;]jf P]gsf] bf]>f] ;+zf]wgn]
pQm Joj:yf vf/]h u¥of] .

lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ jblnFbf] ljZjkl/j]z cg';f/sf] lbzf k|bfg ug{ jfX\o
If]qsf ;Ifd, of]Uo / kl/jt{gnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ug]{ o'jfx?sf] h?/L 5 . ctM
;'wf/ ;lxtsf] 58\s] k|j]zsf] Joj:yf cfhsf] cfjZostf /x]s]f s'/fdf b'O{dt
g/xnf .



                                   181
;Gbe{–;fdfu|L
  1=   Amreshwor Avasthi and Shriram Maheshwari,(1994), Public
       Administation, Lakshmi Narain Agarawal, Agra-3.
  2=   Tyagi, A. R.(1992), Public Administration Principle and
       Practice, Atma Ram and sons, Delhi -11 .
  3=   Paudel Narendra Raj, Policy Spirit and Its Realities on Open
       Competition in Gazetted First and Second Class Civil Service
       in Nepal- Paj, Vol. XVII and XVIII, December 2002 July 2003.
  4=   ltjf/L dw'lglw -@)^)_, g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf
       hgzlQm Joj:yfkg, >LdtL sflGt ltjf/L ,l8NnLahf/,
       sf7df08f} .
  5=   d}gfnL ,pd]zk|;fb, lghfdtL ;]jfdf 58\s] k|j]zdf
       b]lvPsf dtdtfGt/x?, ;f]kfg dfl;s, @)^@ h]i7 .
  6=   k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg– @)#@.## .
  7=   ltjf/L, dw'lglw -@)$%_, g]kfn k|zf;g ;]jfdf a9'jf
       k|ltof]lutf Ps cWoog, nf]s ;]jf cfof]uåf/f k|fof]lht
       cg';Gwfg k|ltjb]g– @)$% .
  8=   k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg– @)$* .

                             




                               182
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@

  sf]l/og :ofdn pGb'Ë ufpF ljsf;
kl/of]hgf / g]kfndf o;sf] ;fGble{stf



                                                        — lzj/fh rf}nfufO{*
!= k[i7e"ld
;g\ !(@%–!($% ;Dd sf]l/ofnL k|folåkdf hfkfgsf] pklgj]z sfod
/x\of] . b'ef{Uojz hfkfgsf] cf}klgj]lzs kGhfaf6 d'lQm;+u} ;g\ !($*
df sf]l/ofnL k|folåk pQ/ / blIf0f u/L b'O{ efudf ljeflht x'gk'Uof] .
oL b'O{ ljeflht e"–efu aLr æ#* ;dfgfGt/Æ /]vf lvlrof] .
pQ/tkm{sf] efu pQ/ sf]l/of / blIf0ftkm{sf] efu blIf0f sf]l/ofsf]
?kdf ljeflht eof] . pQ/tkm{ ;fDojfbL zf;g Joj:yf / tTsfnLg ;f]leot
;+3sf] k|efj /x\of] eg] blIf0ftkm{ k"FhLjfbL zf;g Joj:yf / cd]l/sL
k|efj sfod x'g k'Uof] . To;kl5 ;g\ !(%)–!(%# ;Dd oL b'O{ leGg
;f]r Pj+ Joj:yf / dxfzlQmåf/f lgb]{lzt b]zx? aLr o'4 k|f/De eof] .
pklgj]zsfnsf] zf]if0f, b'O{ b]zaLrsf] eLif0f o'4sf] vlt / zLt o'4sf]
rk]6fsf sf/0f blIf0f sf]l/ofsf] hghLjg v:sFb} uof] . ;g\ !($* df
k|ltJolQm cfo %) cd]l/sL 8n/ lyof] eg] ;g\ !(%# df ^* cd]l/sL
8n/ / ;g\ !(^) df *) cd]l/sL 8n/ k'Uof] . k|lt JolQm cfodf cfPsf]
o:tf] ;':t kl/jt{gn] em08} # k|ltztdf /x]sf] hg;+Vof j[l4sf ;fd'
hgtfsf] hghLjgdf s'g} ;'wf/ Nofpg ;s]sf] lyPg . To;a]nf clwsf+z
u|fdL0f hLjg k'/ftgz}nLsf] lyof] . af6f]3f6f]sf] cefj, k/Dkfl/s v]tL
k|0ffnL / vfBfGg ;+s6, pRr hg;+Vof j[l4, /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x?sf]
cefj, ;+s'lrt u}/–s[lif If]q, r/d ;fdflhs zf]if0f / e]befj cflb To;
;dosf] sf]l/ofsf ;fdflhs / cfly{s ljz]iftfx? lyP .

*
    of]hgf clws[t, /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]usf] ;lrjfno .

                                           183
!=! tTsfnLg kl/j]z / :ofdn pGb'Ësf] z'?jft

/fi6«sf] ljefhg kZrft b'O{ b]zaLrsf] o'4af6 ePsf] hgwgsf] Ifltsf]
sf/0f sf]l/og cy{tGq v:sFbf] :t/df lyof] eg] u|fdL0f ls;fgx?df
pklgj]zsfnsf] u'nfdLn] pAhfPsf] æxfdL ug{ ;Sb}gf}+Æ eGg]
3fts lg/fzf lyof] . pQ/ sf]l/oftkm{ k|fs[lts vlgh kbfy{x? kmnfd,
sf]Onf cflbsf] pkl:ylt k|r"/ lyof] eg] blIf0ftkm{ ljzfn v]tLof]Uo
e"ld /x]sf] lyof] . pklgj]zsfndf pQ/tkm{ pBf]uwGbfx? :yfkgf eP
eg] blIf0ftkm{ wfgv]tL ul/GYof] . k|folåksf] blIf0fL efudf
pTkflbt s'n wfgsf] #) k|ltzt hfkfgdf kl/jlxt x'GYof] . sf]l/og
k|folåk ljefhg kZrftsf] blIf0fL efusf] k'/ftg u|fdL0f hghLjgsf]
cfw'lgsLs/0f ug'{ sd r'gf}tLk"0f{ lyPg, hxfF pBf]uwGbf jf
cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] lj:tf/ k|foM z"Go lyof] . /fi6«nfO{ ljsf;sf] af6f]df
lx8fpg] p2]Zon] ;Dk"0f{ u|fdL0f sf]l/og hghLjgnfO{ ljsf;
cleofgdf rnfodfg agfpg] sfo{nfO{ Ps /fli6«o cleofgsf] ?kdf
yflng' ckl/xfo{ ePsf] lyof] . u|fdL0f hghLjgdf TfTsfn} c;/ 5f8\g]
k|efjsf/L sfo{qmdsf] z'?jft ug'{kg]{ cj:yf lyof] . o:tf] cfjZostfnfO{
/fHosf] g]t[Tj ug]{x?n] /fd|/L a'em]sf lyP . ;g\ !(%) sf] bzsdf
sf]l/ogx?sf] cfly{s–;fdflhs l:ylt w]/} g} gfh"s lyof] . cfly{s tyf
;fdflhs ;"rsx?sf] dfk a9g' kg]{df Hofb} 36]sf] / 36g' kg]{df
Hofb} a9]sf] lyof] . To;a]nfsf] sf]l/og /fli6«o cy{tGqdf Three
"Highs" / Three "Lows" eg]/ ;"rsx?nfO{ lrlqt ug]{ ul/GYof] . h'g
lau|bf] /fli6«o kl/j]zsf Bf]ts lyP .

      Three 'highs' in the 1950s              Three 'lows' in the 1950s
   1. High inflation (20%)                  1. Low Economic growth rate
   2. High unemployment (50%)               2. Low Food self -sufficiency
   3. High population growth (2.9%)         3. Low Political stability

/fli6«o cy{tGq gfh"s cj:yfaf6 u'lh|/x]sf] cj:yfdf ;g\ !(%) sf] bzsdf
sf]l/ofsf] /fli6«o ah]6 klg cTolws c;Gt'lnt /x\of] . pbfx/0fsf] nflu
;g\ !(%# df ;/sf/L /fh:jn] s"n ;/sf/L vr{sf] $!=& k|ltzt efudfq
;d]6\g ;s]sf] lyof] . ;/sf/L vr{sf] cfwfeGbf a9L lx:;f 3/]n'
/fh:jeGbf aflx/af6 Joxf]g'{ kg]{ cj:yf lyof] . 3f6f ah]6sf] j[xQ/
lx:;f k"lt{ eg] cd]l/sL ;xof]udf lge{/ lyof] . cd]l/sfn] PL–480 Aid

                                      184
Programme  cGtu{t /sd k|bfg ub{Yof] h;sf] ;xof]un] cTofjZos j:t'x?
h:t} ux'F, dn, ;"tL, OGwg tyf pkef]Uo j:t' pTkfbgsf nflu cfjZos
kg]{ Intermediate Input Materials cfoft ug{ ;Dej ePsf] lyof] . /fhg}lts
cl:y/tf, v:sFbf] /fli6«o cy{tGq, PL–480 ;xof]u sfo{qmdaf6
cd]l/sfn] xft lemSg' cflb h:tf sf/0fx?n] ubf{ l;Ëf] /fi6« g} cj?4
x'g k'u]sf] a]nf ;}lgs ljb|f]x dfkm{t tTsfnLg hg/n kfs{ r'Ë–lxn]
;g\ !(^) df ;Qf xTofpg k'u] . pgn] hgtfnfO{ ef]saf6 d'lQm
lbnfpg] ljifonfO{ k|d'vtf 7fg] / To:tf] cj:yfaf6 kf/ kfpg] nufot w]/}
dxTjk"0f{ sfo{qmd ;lxtsf] Ps dxTjfsf+IfL k~raifL{o of]hgf ;g\
!(^! df nfu" u/] . h;sf] k|d'v p2]Zo u/LaLsf] b'irqmdf km;]sf] /
a]/f]huf/Lsf] eLif0f rk]6fdf k/]sf] /fli6«o cy{tGqsf] p4f/ ug'{
lyof] . d"ntM u|fdL0f / zx/L hLjgaLrsf] vf8nsf] cfotg 36fpg'
lyof] . To;a]nf *) k|ltzt ls;fgsf 3/x? k/fn] 5fgfsf lyP eg] @) k|ltzt
dfqnfO{ lah'nL aQLsf] ;Lldt ;'ljwf lyof] . k9]n]v]sfx?n] u/LaLn]
u|:t u|fdL0f hLjgz}nLnfO{ "The life with a kerosene lamp under a thatched
roof" egL lrlqt ug]{ ub{y] .




@= cy{
:ofdn pGb'Ësf] k|fylds ;f]r ;fd'bflos ljsf; / cfw'lgsLs/0fnfO{
;xlhs[t                                                                ug'{
xf] . o;n] JolQmsf] ;fy} ;du| ;d'bfosf] ljsf;sf] ck]Iff ub{5 . Saemaul
zAb 'Sae' / 'maul' ldn]/ lgdf{0f ePsf] 5 . h;df 'Sae' n] Progressive
renewal based on past experiences / 'maul' n] Regional and Social Communities
eGg]nfO{ hgfpFb5 / 'Undong' n] Movement eGG]f cy{ lbG5 . :ofdn
pGb'Ën] æpHjn eljiosf] nflu ;d'bfosf] gjLs/0f / cfw'lgsLs/0fÆ
eGGf] efj /fVb5 . 5f]6s/Ldf :ofdn pGb'ËnfO{ "New Village
Movement" sf] ?kdf u|x0f ul/Psf] 5 . cyf{t, k'/ftg sf]l/og u|fdL0f
hghLjgnfO{ cfw'lgsLs/0ftkm{ cu|;/ u/fpg] sfo{qmlds Pj+ ;f]rut
cfGbf]ng g} :ofdn pGb'Ë xf] .

#= p2]Zo

                                     185
:ofdn pGb'Ë kl/of]hgfsf] k|fylds p2]Zo sf]l/og hgtfsf b}lgs
cfwf/e"t cfjZostfx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug'{ /x]sf] lyof] . j[xQ/ ?kdf
x]bf{v]/L k'/ftg sf]l/og ufpFx?sf] cfw'lgsLs/0fsf] cleofg g} :ofdn
pGb'Ë kl/of]hgf xf] . o;sf ljleGg ljlzi6 p2]Zox? /x]sf 5g\ .
Jofks?kdf u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/x?sf] lgdf{0f ug]{, ls;fgx?nfO{ ;+ul7t
t'NofO{ cfo–cfh{gtkm{ cfslif{t ug]{, k'/ftg v]tL k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/
Nofpg], ls;fgx? aLr g]t[Tj ljsf; ug]{ / u|fdL0f txaf6} k|hftflGqs
k|0ffnLsf] cEof; ug]{ h:tf p2]Zo lnP/ :ofdn pGb'Ë kl/of]hgfsf]
th'{df ul/Psf] lyof] .

$= lgb]{zs efj
:ofdn pGb'Ë sf]l/og ;dfhsf s]xL cd"No k/Dk/fut
dfGotfx?÷ljlzi6tfx?nfO{ dfu{bz{s efjsf] ?kdf u|x0fu/L nfu"
ul/Psf] lyof] . h:tf];'s} kl/l:yltdf klg ;xof]u ug{ tof/ x'g], s7f]/ >d
ug]{, :jo+ ;xof]udf ;lqmo x'g] h:tf ;fdflhs Jojxf/ / ;+:sf/n] ;';lHht
sf]l/og hgtfsf] rl/qnfO{ ;"qj4 u/L Dilligence, Self-help / Cooperation
nfO{ :ofdn pGb'Ësf] sfo{ l;4fGt -Working Principle) sf] ?kdf cufl8
NofOof] . cyf{t, plNnlvt tLg kIfnfO{ :ofdn pGb'Ë kl/of]hgfsf]
lgb]{zs efjsf] ?kdf u|x0f u/]/ kl/of]hgfnfO{ ;kmn kfg{ k|To]s
;d'bfo, lhDd]jf/ lgsfo / /fli6«o JolQmTj ;d]tn] of]ubfg ug{'kb{5
eGg] dfGotf :yfkgf ul/of] .

%= sfof{Gjog 9fFrf
:ofdn kl/of]hgfsf] z'?df o;sf ;a} ultljlwx? s]Gb|Lo:t/sf] u[x
dGqfnon] lgoGq0f ub{Yof] . cGo ;/sf/L lgsfox?n] klg cf–cfˆgf]
sfo{If]qleq k/]sf ultljlwx?sf] pQ/bfloTj axg ug'{kb{Yof] .
s]Gb|Lo ;/sf/ dftxt /x]sf] u[x dGqfno cGtu{t /fli6«o s[lif ;/sf/L
;+3, :yfgLo k|zf;g ljefu / ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt cflb /x]sf lyP . :ofdn
kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug'{ k"j{ :yfgLo k|zf;sn] k|To]s ufpFnfO{
%–!) ;b:oLo ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt u7g ug{ nufpFby] . o;n] /fHoåf/f
k|bfg ul/Psf] lgdf{0f ;fdu|L sxfF / s]sf nflu k|of]u ug]{ eGGf]
;DaGwdf lg0f{o lng'kb{Yof] . tTkZrft\ :yfgLo k|zf;gsf] lgb]{zg


                                  186
cg';f/ k|To]s ufpFaf6 Ps dlxnf / Ps k'?if ;d"x g]tfx? :jtGq?kdf
5gf}6 x'Gy] . o;/L 5flgPsf k'?if tyf dlxnf g]tfx? g} :ofdn
kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;DaGwLt ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf cflwsfl/s
k|ltlglw /xGy] . oL r'lgPsf g]tfx?sf] g]t[Tjdf ufpFsf hgtfx? a;]/
ljsf; cfjZostf klxrfg ul/GYof] . ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu s] slt j:t' Pj+
;xof]u cfjZos x'G5 ;f] af/] :yfgLo k|zf;g Pj+ :ofdn clwsf/L ;dIf
l;kmfl/; ul/GYof] / kl5 uP/ To;sf] sfof{Gjog x'GYof] . lgdf{0f
If]qdf hUufbfg ug'{kg]{, >dbfg ug'{kg]{ h:tf ljifox? k|To]s ufpF
ljsf; ;ldltn] clgjfo{?kn] k"/f ug'{kb{Yof] . hUufbfg gug]{, >dbfg
gug]{ / sfo{qmdsf] cfnf]rgf ug]{ JolQmnfO{ s8f ;hfosf] Joj:yf
lyof] .

^= ;d]l6Psf If]qx?
jf:tjdf :ofdn kl/of]hgf PsLs[t u|fdL0f cfw'lgsLs/0f cfGbf]ng lyof]
. t;y{, o;n] u|fdL0f hLjgsf x/]s kIfnfO{ ;+af]wg ug{ vf]h]sf] lyof]
. o;n] 3/sf k/fn] 5fgf k|lt:yfkg ug]{b]lv pGgt v]tL k|;f/ sfo{qmd
;DdnfO{ ;d]6]sf] b]lvG5 . tTsfnLg cj:yfdf :ofdn kl/of]hgfn] lgDg
If]qx?nfO{ ;d]6]/ u|fdL0f cfw'lgsLs/0f cleofgnfO{ cl3 a9fPsf]
lyof] .

      u|fdL0f ;8s ;'wf/
      ;fgf k"n lgdf{0f
      gbLlsgf/ ;'wf/
      k'/ftg 3/x?sf] gjLs/0f
      vfg]kfgL k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ Pj+ cfk"lt{
      k'/ftg OGwg k|lt:yfkg
      ;fd'bflos ejgsf] lgdf{0f
      pGgt:t/sf] aLpsf] k|of]u
      u|fdL0f ljB'lts/0f
      u|fdL0f b"/;~rf/
      u|fdL0f :jf:Yo ;]jf
      k|fylds s[lif ;xsf/Lsf] :yfkgf




                                 187
plNnlvt If]qx?df ljljw sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg
/fHon] l;d]G6 tyf kmnfd] 58x?sf] lgMz'Ns ljt/0f u/]sf] lyof] .
csf]{tkm{ lgdf{0f Pj+ ;'wf/ sfo{ s;/L ug]{ eGg] ;DaGwdf u|fdL0f
hgtfnfO{ ;3g tflnd pknAw u/fPsf] lyof] . k|To]s ufpF
OsfOx?nfO{ #)) af]/f l;d]G6 pknAw u/fOPsf] lyof] . s"n ##,)))
u|fdL0f OsfOdf /fHon] $)) xhf/ 6g l;d]G6 afF8]sf] lyof] eg]
TolQs} dfqfdf kmnfd] 58 ;d]t afFl8Psf] lyof] . ;3g tflndtkm{
k|To]s ufpF OsfOsf dlxnf tyf k'?if u/L b'O{ hgfnfO{ ;ftlbg] tflnd
k|bfg ul/of] . o;/L pQm sfo{qmdsf nflu ^^,))) dlxnf tyf k'?ifnfO{
tflnd k|fKt agfOPsf] lyof] .

&= vf; pknlAwx?
;g\ !(&) df cfGbf]ngsf] ?kdf sfof{Gjogdf NofOPsf] :ofdn
kl/of]hgfn] s/La Ps bzsdf pknlAwsf] lx;fan] 7"nf] 5nfË dfg{
;kmn eof] . tL pknlAwx? u'0ffTds / ;+VofTds b'a}?kdf Jofks
lyP . /fi6«sf] ;fdu|L ;xof]u, gf]s/zfxx?sf]] k|ToIf lgu/fgL /
;+nUgtf, cg]sf}+ cefjdf lklN;Psf u|fdL0f sf]l/og hgtfsf] To:tf
cefjx?af6 d'Qm x'g] clenfiff Pj+ s7f]/ d]xgt / >dsf sf/0fn] :ofdn
kl/of]hgfn] k'/ftg u|fdL0f hghLjgsf x/]s kIfdf sfofkn6 ul/lbof] .
jf:tjdf o;sf] pknlAwnfO{ a'bfFut ?kdf pNn]v u/]/ dfq k'Ub}g
lsgls cf}klgj]lzs zf]if0f, /fi6« ljefhgsf] kL8f / lg/Gt/ o'4af6 u|:t
/fi6«sf hgtfdf ljBdfg 3fts g}/fZotfsf] kmnfd] kbf{nfO{ Roft]/
pgLx?nfO{ gjLg hLjg / eljiok|lt kbfk{0f u/fpg h'g cfGtl/s phf{ /
vnan Nofof] :ofdn pGb'Ën] Tof] cdfkgLo /xg k'Uof] . tyflk,
:ofdn kl/of]hgfsf s]xL pknlAwx?nfO{ o;k|sf/ k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 .

&=! :ofdn pGb'Ë / cfly{s ljsf;
    u|fdL0f cfodf Jofks j[l4 M
     ;g\ !(&) df u|fdL0f k|lt3/ cfDbfgL $,%@,))) jf]g /x]sf]df
     ;g\ !(&$ df ;f] ^,&$,))) df k'Uof] hals ;f]xL ;fn zx/L k|lt3/
     cfDbfgL ^,$$,))) jf]g lyof] . /fli6«o:t/df ;g\ !(&) df
     k|ltJolQm cfo @$@ cd]l/sL 8n/ /x]sf]df ;g\ !(&( df
     !,%$^ cd]l/sL 8n/ k'Uof] .
    Jofks wfg pTkfbg M


                                 188
       v]tLdf pGgt hftsf] aLpsf] k|of]u / s[lif k|;f/ ;]jfsf] Jofks
       pknAwtfsf] sf/0f vfgsf nflu dfq klg ck'u x'g] aflif{s wfg
       pTkfbg kl/df0fdf Jofks j[l4 eof] .
kf/Dkl/s v]tLafnL k|0ffnL Jofj;flostftkm{ pGd'v eof] . cGg
pTkfbg la:tf/} s[lif pTkfbgsf] ljljlws/0f dfkm{t ;fu;AhL,
kmnkm"n, kz'kfngtkm{ df]l8of] . ;g\ !(&@ df cf}ift s[lif cfDbfgL
US $ !)@% /x]sf]df ;g\ !(&& df US $ @(^! k'Uof] . h'g ^ aif{
leqsf] em08} tLg u'gf j[l4 xf] .

   aif{        3/w"/L         s[lif cfDbfgL         u}/s[lif cfDbfgL
              cfDbfgL        dfqf     cg'kft -      dfqf      cg'kft -
                                        Ü_                      Ü_
    1970        225800       194000          75=9    61800      24=1
    1973        480700       390300          81=2   90400       18=8
    1976        1156300      921200          79=7   235100      20=3
    1979        2227500      1531300         68=7   696200      31=3
       cfo ;'wf/sf ;"rsx? -sf]l/og jf]gdf_
&=@          :ofdn pGb'Ë / ;fdflhs ljsf;
:ofdn pGb'Ën] ;du|tfdf sf]l/og ;dfhsf] ljsf;sf ljljw kIf h:t}– lzIff,
:jf:Yo cflbdf 7"nf] of]ubfg lbof] . o;n] d"ntM u|fdL0f If]qsf
hgtfsf] hLjg:t/nfO{ dfly p7fpg] / gjLgtf yKg] sfo{df j:t't x:tIf]k
u¥of] h;sf] c;/ klg tTsfn} dx;"; ul/of] .
     lzIffsf] k|;f/ M ;g\ !(&) df !@ k|ltzt /x]sf] u|fdL0f
       3/d"nLx?sf] ;fIf/tf k|ltzt ;g\ !(&( df #) k|ltzt eof] .
     3/x?sf] gjLs/0f M ;g\ !(&) df *) k|ltzt 3/x? k/fnn] 5fPsf
       lyP . ;g\ !(*) df ;a} l6g÷6fonaf6 k|lt:yflkt eP . ;g\ !(*) sf]
       bzsdf k"/fgf 3/ x]g{sf nflu u|fdL0f Do"lhod g} agfpg'
       k/]sf] 5 h'g /fhwfgL ;f]ndf ko{6sx?sf nflu bz{gLo :ynsf
       ?kdf cjl:yt 5 .
     :jR5 vfg]kfgL k|0ffnLsf] ljsf;
     Wf'Fjf/lxt r"Nxf]sf] k|of]u
     ;fd'bflos ejg M ufpFn] hgtf ;d"xdf ;+ul7t eO{ sfo{ u/]af6
       k|hftflGqs lg0fo{ k|lqmof ljsf; ePsf] / ;fd'bflos Pstf j[l4
       ePsf] . hgtfn] To:tf] cEof; ;fd'bflos ejg dfkm{t ug]{ cj;/
       kfP .



                                       189
    u|fdL0f ljB'lts/0f M ;g\ !(&) df @) k|ltzt /x]sf]df ;g\ !(&&
     df () k|ltzt k'u]sf] .
    u|fdL0f :jf:Yo s]Gb| M k|To]s u|fdL0f OsfOdf Ps–Psj6f
     u|fdL0f :jf:Yo lSnlgssf] Joj:yf, 8fS6/ / g;{sf] Joj:yf . kl/jf/
     lgof]hgsf] Jofks k|of]u, h;sf] k|efjn] xfn hg;+Vof a[l4 ;':t
     x'guof] / o;nfO{ lg?T;flxt ug{ xfn ;/sf/ jfWo ePsf] cj:yf 5 .
    s[lif ;xsf/Lsf] ljsf; .

          sfo{qmdsf]     OsfO       nIo pknlAw           j[l4
              gfd                                      k|ltzt
                                    26,266     43558
       u|fdL0f ;8s        ls=ld                         166Ü

       la:tf/
                                    49167      61797
       s[lif ;8s          ls=ld                         126Ü

       lgdf{0f
                                    76749      79516
       ;fgfk'n lgdf{0f ;+Vof                           104Ü
                                    35608      37012
       ufpFs]Gb|         ;+Vof                         104Ü
       lgdf{0f
       3/ ;'wf/          ;+Vof 544000         225000
                                                         42Ü
                                     8654      15559
       9n k|0ffnL         ls=ld                         179Ü

       lgdf{0f
       u|fdL0f           ;+Vof 2834000       2777500
                                                         98Ü
       ljB'lts/0f
                                     950         717
       :ofdn pBf]u       ;+Vof                           75Ü

       ;~rfng
                                    34665      22143
       j]/ xfp; lgdf{0f ;+Vof                            42Ü

              u|fdL0f ;'wf/sf ;"rsx? -;g\ !(&! – !(*)_

&=# :ofdn pGb'Ë / ;f]rdf kl/jt{g
:ofdn pGb'Ë kl/of]hgfsf] csf]{ dxTjk"0f{ pknlAw eg]sf] o;sf]
sfof{Gjogsf sf/0f sf]l/ofnL hgtfsf] ;f]rdf cfPsf] kl/jt{g xf] .
cf}klgj]lzs zf]if0f, b]zsf] ljefhg, sf]l/og o'4, zLt o'4sf] lvrftfgL /
v:sFbf] cfly{s cj:yfsf] sf/0f wfts g}/fZotfdf hLjg JotLt ug{ afWo
sf]l/ofnL hgtfsf] lu/]sf] dflg;stf p7fP/ /fi6« lgdf{0ftkm{ nufpg
7"n} pTk|]/0ffsf] cfjZostf lyof] . :ofdn pGb'Ën] u|fdL0f
hgtfnfO{ ;+ul7t u¥of] . ;fd'bflos ejg dfkm{t Ps 7fpFdf NofP/

                                  190
ljrf/ dGyg ug{ k|]l/t u¥of] . ;dfhsf ;d:of / ljsf;af/] pgLx?df ;f]r
ljsl;t u/fof] . ljleGg tflndaf6 u|fdL0f hgtfx? Ps csf]{df ;Dkls{t
eP . tflndsf] dfWodaf6 ljrf/ / efjgf ;f6f;f6 ug]{ cj;/ k|fKt u/] .
/fHon] lbPsf] ;fdu|L ;xof]uaf6 af6f]3f6f], k"nk'n];f lgdf{0fdf
;lqmo eP . cfˆgf] cd"No >dbfgaf6 pgLx?df zf/Ll/s kl/>d ug]{
Ifdtf a9]/ uof] . x]bf{x]b}{ pgLx?sf] ;dfhdf af6f]3f6f], k"nk'n];f,
;fd'bflos ejg, :s"n, x]Nykf]i6 v8f eP eg] 3/sf k"/fgf k/fn] 5fgfx?
l6g÷6fonaf6 k|lt:yflkt eP . ;fFRr} g} ;dfhdf tflTjs kl/jt{g cfPsf]
s'/f pgLx?n] 5fDg ;s] dx;"; ug{ ;s] . d"t{ pknlAwx?nfO{
pgLx?n] hf]v], tf}lnP / hLjgofkg qmddf pkef]u ug{ yfn] . o;af6
pgLx?sf] ;f]+rdf qmflGtsf/L kl/jt{g cfof] . æxfdL ug{
;Sb}gf}+Æ eGg] 3fts lg/fzfafbL ;f]+rnfO{ æxfdL ug{ ;S5}+fÆ
eGg] k|ultzLn ;f]+rn] k|lt:yfkg u¥of] . of] efjgfsf] ljsf; g} :ofdn
kl/of]hgfn] sf]l/ofnL hgtfsf] ;f]+rdf NofPsf] kl/jt{g lyof] h'g Ps
ckl/xfo{ / o'ufGtsf/L pknlAw ;fljt x'g k'Uof] .

*= sfo{qmd ;kmn x'gfsf sf/0fx?
;fdflhs, cfly{s ljsf;sf nflu k|To]s ;/sf/x? lhDd]af/ x'G5g . :ofdn
pGb'Ë s]Gb|Lo ;/sf/n] u|fdL0f cfw'lgsLs/0f ug{ x]t' k"0f{ /fli6«o
k|ltj4tf ;lxt sfof{Gjogdf NofPsf] sfo{qmd lyof] . h;n] Ps}k6s
;Dk"0f{ /fi6«sf] u|fdL0f ;d'bfonfO{ rnfodfg t'NofPsf] lyof] .
tTsfnLg ;/sf/n] sf]l/og ;dfhsf] jf:tljs l:ylt dx;"; u/]sf] lyof] h'g
cToGt bogLo lyof] . o:tf] kl/l:yltnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL /fHon]
km"n:s]ndf hg:t/df sfo{ ug]{ k|0f u¥of] / ;xefuL eof] . lau|]sf]
/fi6«nfO{ agfpg' kb{5 eGg] k|0f g]t[Tjn] u¥of] / tfgfzfxL z}nLdf
eP klg Jofks hgkl/rfng eof] h;n] /fi6«sf] ;'wf/sf] nflu cd"No
>dbfg h'6fof] / d"t{ pknlAwx?sf] yfs nufof] . a[xQ/?kdf, :ofdn
kl/of]hgf ;kmn x'gsf sf/0fx? lgDg cg';f/ k|:t't ug{
;lsG5 .

*=! ;/sf/sf] h?/L sfo{ ul/aLnfO{ k/f:t ug]{
sf]l/og ;dfhdf ljBdfg ljs/fn u/LaL h;sf sf/0fx?df pRr hg;+Vof
a[l4, Go"g s[lif pTkfbg, a]/f]huf/L cflb /x]sf lyP . ltgnfO{ k/f:t
ug'{kg]{ ljifonfO{ tTsfnLg ;/sf/n] cfsl:ds / h?/L sfo{sf ?kdf
u|x0f u¥of] . o;y{ u/LaL lj?4 hfOnfUGf :ofdn pGb'ËnfO{

                                 191
cf}hf/sf] ?kdf k|of]u ul/of] . k|ltj4tf ;lxt /fHon] rnfPsf] xltof/ ;w}
wfl/nf] / rlDsnf] /x\of] h;n] sf]l/og u|fdL0f u/LaLsf] b'irqmnfO{
w/f;foL t'Nofof] .
*=@ ;j{;fwf/0fsf] kl/rfng

u|fdL0f ljsf;sf nflu To; e]ssf hgtf kl/rflnt x'g} kb{5 . aflx/af6
yf]kl/Psf] / hgtfåf/f lt/:s[t sfo{qmdsf] s'g} cy{ /xb}g . :ofdn
pGb'Ë kl/of]hgfsf] cfwf/ eg]sf] u|fdL0f hgtfnfO{ dflns agfpg]
lyof] . t;y{, o;n] u|fdL0f hgtfnfO{ ;j{:j 7fGof] / ;d"xdf cfj4 u/fO{
Jofks kl/rfng u¥of] . /fHon] vr{ ug]{ xf] eg] nfvf}+ 8n/ kg]{
d"No a/fa/sf] hg>dbfg h'6\g uof] . pbfx/0fsf] nflu :ofdn
kl/of]hgfsf] Ps bzssf] cjlwdf em08} &),))) k"n÷k'n];fx? lgdf{0f
ePsf lyP h;sf] lgdf{0fdf u|fdL0f hgtfn] ;fFRr} g} /ut kl;gf aufPsf
lyP .

*=# /fli6«o Pj+ /fhg}lts ;+nUgtf

l;4fGttM /fhgLlt1x?n] gLlt lgdf{0f ub{5g\ . sd{rf/L–tGqn]
sfof{Gjog ub{5 . gLltsf] ;kmn sfof{Gjogsfnflu b[9 OR5fzlQm /
/fhg}lts k|ltj4tf rflxG5 . :ofdn kl/of]hgfsf] xsdf o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf]
nflu l;+uf] /fi6« g} nflu k/]sf] lyof] . u[xdGqfno dfkm{t :yfgLo
k|zf;sx?nfO{ kl/of]hgfsf] cflwsfl/s JolQmsf] ?kdf v6fOPsf]
lyof] . k|To]s cGt/;DalGwt dGqfnox?n] k"/} ;xof]u ug'{kg]{
Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] lyof] . :jo+ /fi6«klt kfs{ r'Ë–lx :ofdn kl/of]hgfsf]
sfof{Gjog cg'udg ug{ lx8\g' ePsf] / u|fdL0f hgtf;+u} xft]dfnf]
u/L j]Nrf / u}tLsf ;fy >dbfg ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . o;y{, /fhg}lts
k|lta4tf, b]zsf] /fli6«o ;+nUgtf / '/fi6« ljsf; ug'{ kb{5' eGg]
sd{rf/L ju{sf] ;f]+r, Tofu / lgM:jfy{ nufjsf sf/0f of] sfo{qmd
;kmn eof] .

*=$ d"t{ pknlAwx?sf] yfs

:ofdn kl/of]hgfn] tTsfn} d"t{ pknlAwx? lbof] . x]bf{x]b}{ k"n
ag], ;8s ag], ;f3'F/f ;8s km/flsnf eP, ?vsf km]bdf e]nf x'g] hgtf
;fd'bflos ejgdf 5nkmndf a:g yfn], 3/sf k/fn] 5fgf l6g÷6fondf

                                  192
kl/0ft eP . d§Lt]nsf] 6'lsnfO{ lah'nLaQLn] k|lt:yfkg u¥of] .
:jf:Yo rf}lsx? :yfkgf eP . o:tf pknlAwx? ;a} d"t{ lyP . hgtfn]
dx;"; ug{ ;Sg], b]Vg ;Sg] / dfkg ug{ ;Sg] lyP . o:tf] pknlAw
k|fKt eP kl5 hgtfdf cfzf knfof] / ;dfh lgdf{0fsf nflu Jofks
hg;xeflutf a9\of] . xf]i6]df x};] k|j[lt a9]/ uof] h;n] ubf{ :ofdn
kl/of]hgfn] Jofks >dbfg kfof] / of] ;kmn eof] .

(= g]kfndf :ofdn pGb'Ë kl/of]hgf
yfONof08sf] /fhwfgL a}+ssdf ;g\ @))! sf] ;]K6]Da/df ;DkGg
UNESCAP sf] %& cf}+ ;wf/0f;efn] Regional Poverty Alleviation
Programme cGtu{t u/LaL lgjf/0fsf          sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{
;DaGwdf k|:tfj kfl/t u¥of] . o;sf nflu Asia Pacific Region df u/LaL
lgjf/0fsf] If]qdf ;kmn 7xl/Psf pQd cEof;x? (Best Practices) sf] cGo
b]zdf cg'z/0f (Replicate) ug{ ;lsg] lg0f{o u¥of] . ;g\ !(&) sf] bzsdf
sf]l/og u|fdL0f hghLjgnfO{ cfw'lgsLs/0ftkm{ n}hfg o'ufGtsf/L
kl/0ffd k|fKt ug{ ;kmn sf]l/og z}nLsf] :ofdn pGb'Ë
sfo{qmdnfO{ Best Practices sf] ?kdf cg'z/0f ug{ sDaf]l8of / nfcf]
u0ftGq;+u} g]kfnsf] klg rog x'g k'Uof] . UNESCAP sf] cg'/f]w
cg';f/ ;f] sfo{qmd cg'z/0f ug{sf nflu /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]un]
slknj:t' lhNnf rog u¥of] .
(=! kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf] jt{dfg cj:yf
slknj:t' lhNnfsf b'O{ uflj;x? rgO{ / xl/x/k'/sf dbjf / em'l;of b'O{
;d'bfodf kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf] r/0fdf 5 . dbjf tyf em'l;ofsf
qmdzM !*( / &^ u/L s"n @^% 3/w"/Lsf nflu ;f] kl/of]hgf
gd"gfsf] ?kdf cg'z/0f ul/Psf] xf] . kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf] km]hdf
cfpbf ;Dd ;DkGg ePsf k|d'v ultljlwx? o;k|sf/ k|:t't ul/Psf 5g\ –
   UNESCAP / ;lrjfnosf] ;+nUgtfdf ;DefJotf cWog
   sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ;DaGwL ljb]zdf tflnd lng] sfo{ ;DkGg
   Baseline Survey ;DkGg
   National Level sf] tflnd sf7df08f}+df ;DkGg
   UNESCAP / KOICA af6 kl/of]hgf If]qsf] :ynut cjnf]sg
   lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltdf Local Level Training ;DkGg

                                 193
   kl/of]hgfsf] LOA df ;DaGwLt kIfx?af6 x:tfIf/ ;DkGg
   lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltdf Action Plan th{'df sfo{zfnf uf]i7L ;DkGg
   Action Plan sf] tof/L
   kl/of]hgfsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] lgo'lQm
   kl/of]hgfsf] jflif{s sfo{qmddf ;dfj]zL M kl/of]hgfnfO{
    bftfx?af6 US $ !,!@,@@)=)) k|fKt x'g] u/L ;Demf}tf ;DkGg
    ePsf]5 . h;dWo] ;d'bfosf] ljsf;sf nflu US $ *),)))=)) l;w}
    k|bfg ul/g]5 eg] afFsL US $ #@,!@)=)) /sd /fli6«o:t/df
    tflnd, :yfgLo:t/df tflnd, 8s'd]G6 cg'jfb, cg';Gwfg,
    sd{rf/Lsf] tna cflbdf vr{ ug]{ u/L k|bfg ul/Psf]5 . ;/sf/n]
    cfˆgf]tkm{af6 5'6ofpg' kg]{ Counterpart fund ;d]t ljlgof]lht
    u/]sf]5 .
   sfof{Gjog ;+oGqsf] lgdf0f{ M kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu
    s]Gb|df Ps Steering Committee /xg] Joj:yf 5 . lhNnfdf
    sfof{Gjog ;ldlt /xg]5 . k|To]s ;dbfodf :ofdn kl/ifb\ u7g
    ul/Psf 5g\ . :ofdn kl/ifb\ cGtu{t ljleGg Functional Group x?
    klg lgdf{0f ePsf 5g\ .
   a}+ssdf kl/of]hgfsf] klxnf] Steering Committee sf] a}7s ;DkGg
    .
   Mid-term Evaluation ;DkGGf .

!)= :ofdn pGb'Ë / cGo sfo{qmd aLrsf] leGgtf
:ofdn pGb'Ë d"nt u/LaL lgjf/0f ug]{ sfo{qmd xf] . ;g\ !(&) sf]
bzsdf sf]l/og u|fdL0f ;d'bfodf ljBdfg Go"g cfo:t/, cfwf/e"t
cfjZostfsf] cefjnfO{ lrb}{ k'/ftg sf]l/og u|fdL0f hLjgnfO{
cfw'lgsLs/0ftkm{ n}hfg] sfo{qmlds x:tIf]k xf] :ofdn pGb'Ë .
g]kfndf klg of]hgfj4 ljsf; yfn]b]lv g} u|fdL0f u/LaLnfO{ k/f:t ug]{
d"ne"t nIosf ;fy bh{gf} sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjogdf NofOP .
u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f, If]qLo ljsf;, cfwf/e"t cfjZostfsf] k"lt{,
u|fdL0f :jfanDag sfo{qmd, cfˆgf] ufpF cfkm} agfp h:tf
sfo{qmdx?nfO{ /fli6«o cleofgs} ?kdf ;~rfng u/L u/LaL x6fpg]
k|of; ePsf 5g\ . o;}u/L nlIft ;d'bfosf] pTyfgsf nflu Safety nets &
Social Welfare Programme (food for work), Subsidy and Transfer Programme
(food subsidy, price subsity), Integrated Rural Development Projects (IRDP),
Targetted Credit Programme (SFDP\PCRW), Intensive Banking Programme, Rural


                                     194
Self-reliance Scheme, Deprive Sector Credit, Gramin Bikash Banks, Social Micro
Credit) cflb . o;}u/L PDDP, LGP h:tf sfo{qmdx? klg Social Mobilization
nfO{ Implementation Modality sf] ?kdf u|x0f u/L ;~rfng ePsf 5g\ t/
klg jt{dfg cj:yfdf u/LaLsf] /]vfd'gL /x]sf hgtfsf] k|ltzt #! 5 . t/
cleofgsf] ?kdf /fi6«df Ps};fy sfof{Gjogdf NofOPsf] :ofdn
pGb'Ë kl/of]hgfn] sf]l/ofdf 7"nf] kl/jt{g Nofof] . af6f], wf/f,
k'n÷k'n];f, u|fdL0f ljB'lts/0f, 3/x?sf] gjLs/0f, :jf:Yo tyf ;/;kmfO,
lzIffsf] k|;f/ cflb If]qdf o;n] 7"nf] kl/df0fdf pknlAw xfl;n u¥of]
h;sf] ljj/0f k"j{jt?kdf k|:t't ul/;lsPsf] 5 . k|:t't kl/k|]Iodf :ofdn
pGb'Ë kl/of]hgf lsg ljlzi6 / ;kmn /x\of] / g]kfndf ;~rflnt sfo{qmd
eGbf s'g dfg]df k[ys 5 t < lgDglnlvt kIfx?nfO{ ljZn]if0f ubf{
af]w ug{ ;lsG5 .
   Combined Approach in Rural Development: u|fdL0f ljsf;sf] nflu
      s]Gb| / :yfgLo ;/sf/ b'a}sf] PsLs[t k|of; . o;nfO{ Bottom-up
      planning / Top-down planning sf] ;+o'Qm k|of]usf] ?kdf klg x]g{
      ;lsG5 .
   s]Gb|sf] sfo{qmlds x:tIf]k
   u[xdGqfno dfkm{t kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjog
   >dbfg / e"ldbfg clgjfo{
   /fHoåf/f l;w} ;fdu|L ljt/0f
   sfo{qmddf ;xof]u gug]{nfO{ ;hfFosf] Joj:yf
   :yfgLo:t/df cflwsfl/s :ofdn kl/ifb\ u7g u/L hgkl/rfng
   /fi6«klt kfs{ r'ª–lxsf] k|ToIf lgb]{zg / ;+nUgtf
   k|To]s 3/w"/Lsf nflu nlIft
   k'/ftg u|fdL0f kl/j]zdfly l;w} k|xf/
   dfkgof]Uo pknlAw ;kmntfsf] cfwf/
   cfdhg;xeflutf

!!= :ofdn pGb'Ësf] 6«fG;km/]ljln6L
:ofdn pGb'Ë sfo{qmd u|fdL0f If]qsf] cfw'lgsLs/0fsf nflu
;xof]ul;4 ;fljt eof] . o;n] sd ;fdflhs d"Nodf p2]Zo xfFl;n u¥of] .
sltko /fi6«x?df kf/Dkl/s s[lif k|0ffnLsf] cfw'lgls/0f ug]{ sfo{ cem
klg      /fi6«      ljsf;sf]   d'Vo      ;d:ofsf]     ?kdf     /x]sf]
5 . h;sf nflu 7"nf] ;fj{hlgs sf]if / nfdf] ;do cfjZos kb{5 . o;y{,

                                      195
sf]l/ofsf] cg'ej ljsf;zLn÷sdljsl;t /fi6«x?sf] nflu klg :yfgfGtl/t ug{
;lsG5 .

!!=! u|fdL0f cfw'lgsLs/0fdf ls;fgx?n] dx;"; u/]sf
h?/L kIfx?

sf]l/ofnL kl/j]z M ha ;g\ !(^) sf] bzsdf lgof{td'vL cf}Bf]lus
If]qdf lj:tf/} ;'wf/ cfpg yfNof], u/LaLsf] b'irqmdf k/]sf ls;fgx?n]
u|fdL0f cfw'lgsLs/0f x'g' kb{5 eGg] ljifonfO{ h?/L 7fg] . o;}u/L
pQ/ sf]l/ofsf] sDo'lgi6 zf;g Joj:yfNf] u/]sf] e"ld;'wf/ / hUuf
ljt/0fsf] k|efj / ;}lgs bjbjfsf] sf/0fn] klg blIf0f sf]l/ofn] sDo'lg:6
zf;gsf] k|efj dGy/ ug{ ls;fgsf] a:g] jftfj/0fsf] cfw'lgsLs/0f ul/g'
kb{5 eGg] dx;"; u¥of] . ;/sf/n] ls;fgx?nfO{ :ofdn kl/of]hgfdf
sfo{ ug{ ;xefuL x'g k|]l/t u¥of] .

g]kfnL kl/j]zM g]kfndf cf}Bf]lusLs/0fsf] tLa| cfjZostf 5 .
lgof{TfhGo pBf]u wGbfsf] :yfkgf / u'0f:t/Lo a:t'x?sf] pTkfbg
x'g' h?/L 5 . xfn;Dd k|ToIf ?kdf b]zsf] /fli6«otfdf l5d]sL b]zsf]
s'g} To:tf] bjbjf 5}g . oBlk of] ljifo ljjfb–/lxt eg] 5}g . b]zsf
u|fdL0f If]qdf clxn] klg *$ Ü hgtf a;f]jf; ub{5g\ eg] s[lifdf cfl>t
hg;+Vof &*Ü 5 . o;y{, u|fdL0f If]qdf ljljw k"jf{wf/x?sf] ljsf;,
hdLgsf] ;d'lrt ljt/0f / pkof]u, ls;fgx?sf] xslxtsf] ;+/If0f, u|fdL0f
k'/ftg hLjgz}nLaf6 cfw'lgsLs/0ftkm{ 8f]¥ofpg] cflb h:tf kIfx?
g]t[Tjju{n] dx;"; u/]sf ljifo x'g . u|fdL0f hgtf tyf s[lifdf cfl>t
ls;fgx?sf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ Nofpg' h?/L kIf xf] . sf]l/ofsf] ;g\ !(^)–
!(&) sf] bzssf] u|fdL0f cj:yf / clxn]sf] g]kfnsf] cj:yfdf w]/}
Ps?ktf 5 . o;y{, :ofdn pGb'Ë g]kfnsf] u|fdL0f ljsf;sf] nflu
gfd"lgs sfo{qmd x'g ;Sb5 .

!!=@ ls;fgx? aLrsf] ;dfgtf

sf]l/ofnL kl/j]z M ;g\ !(%)–!(%% df æhf]Tg]nfO{ hldgÆ sf]
cfwf/df ul/Psf] e"ld;'wf/ kZrft blIf0f sf]l/ofsf k|foZfM ;a} ls;fgx?
kfl/jfl/s s[lif kmfd{sf wgL eP . ;a} ls;fgx? hUuf dflns ePkl5
:ofdn kl/of]hgfdf sfo{ ug{ / ;xof]uL x'g k|]l/t u¥of] . h'g b]zdf

                                  196
e"ldklt / hf]tfxf aLr vf8n 5 / åGå 5 Toxf+ ls;fgx?nfO{ ljsf;
kl/of]hgfsf] nflu sfo{ ug{ pTk|]l/t ug{ ufx|f] kb{5 . t/ sf]l/ofdf
To;a]nf ;a} ls;fg hUuf dflns ePaf6 :ofdn kl/of]hgfdf ;a}
ls;fgx?n] ljsf; xfd|} nflu xf] eGG]f a'em] / k"/f ;xof]u u/] .

g]kfnL kl/j]z M g]kfndf hUufwgL / hf]tfxfaLr hdLgsf] ef]u /
:jfldTjsf] k|ZgnfO{ lnP/ ;lbof}+b]lv ;+3if{ rn]sf] 5 . /fHon]
nf]ssNof0fsf] nflu / ;fdflhs Gofosf] b[li6sf]0faf6 klg hf]tfxfx?sf]
kIfdf sfo{ ug'{kg]{ xf] t/ ljljw k|of; / 3f]if0ffsf afah'b klg hf]tfxfsf]
kIfdf sfo{ x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . hldgsf] c;dfg ljt/0fn] ubf{ hUufwgL /
ls;fgx? aLr hldgsf] dfqfsf] :jfldTjsf] b[li6sf]0fn] 7"nf] vf8n 5 .
;a} ls;fgx? hUuf dflns 5}gg\ . pgLx?df hUuf w]/} x'g]ju{ k|lt
k|ltzf]w 5 . x'g] / gx'g] aLrsf] vf8n km/flsnf] 5 . t;y{, ls;fgsf] Ps}
k|sf/sf] ;f]+r / efjgf 5}g . ls;fgnfO{ Pslqt?kdf ljsf; sfo{df nufpg
g;Sg]                                                               cj:yf
5 . t;y{ ;j{k|yd ls;fgx?nfO{ e"ldklt t'Nofpg' k¥of] / ;a} ls;fg hUuf
dflns eP kZrft dfq ;dfgtfsf] efjgfn] ljsf; sfo{df ;dflxt x'g] cj:yf
cfp5 .

!!=# ;xof]usf] kf/Dkl/s k|rng
sf]l/ofnL kl/j]z       M sf]l/ofdf v]tLkftL ;lsPsf] km";{b ;dodf
;fj{hlgs af6f] dd{t / ufpFsf cGo ;'ljwfx? lgdf{0fdf >dbfg ug]{
k|rng lyof] . o:tf] k|rngn] ubf{ :ofdn kl/of]hgf ufpF:t/df
sfof{Gjog ug{ ;lhnf] eof] . ls;fgx? km";{bsf] ;dodf ;fj{hlgs
lgdf{0fdf ;xof]u ug{ cu|;/ eP .
g]kfnL kl/j]z M km';{tsf] ;dodf ufpF3/sf ;'wf/ tyf ;d:of lgbfgsf
nflu >dbfg ug]{ k/Dk/f g]kfnL u|fdL0f ;d'bfodf klg ljBdfg 5 .
csf]{tkm{, ;dfhsf] k|ult / pGgltsf nflu af6f]3f6f], k'nk'n];f, s'nf],
kf6L–kf}jf cflb lgdf{0f ug'{kg]{ cj:yfdf u|fdL0f hgtfn] h'g;'s}
a]nfklg >dbfg ug]{ u/]sf pbfx/0fx? k|;:t 5g\ . k"j{– klZrd
/fhdfu{sf] lgdf{0f ubf{ /fhdfu{df kg]{ k|To]s ufpFx?n] cfˆgf]
If]qleqsf] nDafO a/fa/sf] af6f] vGg} kg]{ pbL{ lyof] / hgtfn]
Jofks?kdf ;f] sfo{df >dbfg u/]sf] pbfx/0f oxf dgg ug{ ;lsG5 .


                                   197
hgtfdf d]x]gt / >d ug]{ tyf ;dfhsf nflu >d vr{ ug'{kg]{ ;f]+r /
kl/kfl6 ljBdfg ePaf6 ;xof]u x'g ;Sb5 .

!!=$ cGt/dGqfno ;xof]u÷/fhg}lts OR5f
sf]l/ofnL kl/j]z M u|fdL0f cfw'lgsLs/0fsf cj/f]wx? sd ug{sf
nflu ;/sf/L dGqfnox? aLr glhssf] ;xof]u / ;befj cfjZos lyof] . tL
cj/f]wx? cGt/;DalGwt / hl6n k|s[ltsf lyP . :ofdn kl/of]hgf
sfo{fGjogsf nflu dGqfnox? aLr ;xof]u, ;dGjo / /fhg}lts OR5f
zlQm cfjZos lyof] . Pp6} dGqfnon] dfq To:tf ;d:ofx? ;dfwfg
ug{ kof{Kt lyPg . sltko dGqfnox? zx/L ljsf;sf] nflu dfq ah]6
ljlgof]hg ub{y] . h;af6 u|fdL0f ljsf;nfO{ a]jf:tf ul/GYof] . o;y{,
dGqfnox?aLr r':t ;dGjo / sfof{GjogzLntf ljsl;t ug'{ lyof] . o;sf
nflu tfn's dGqfno / cGo lgsfox? aLr ;zQm ;DfGjo :yflkt ul/of] .
:juL{o /fi6«klt kfs{sf] k'/ftg u|fdL0f If]qsf] cfw'lgsLs/0f ug]{ b[9
/fhg}lts OR5fsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ ;/sf/L dGqfnoaLr ghLssf] ;xof]u /
;dGjo l;h{gf eof] . o;n] :ofdn kl/of]hgfsf] sfof{Gjogdf ;xof]u
u¥of] / d'Vo–d'Vo cj/f]wL TfTjx? ;Daf]lwt ul/P .
g]kfnL kl/j]z M g]kfndf klg cGt/dGqfno aLr sfo{qmd
sfof{Gjogsf] ;Gbe{df ;dGjo x'g' kb{5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ l;4fGtut
?kdf :jLsf/ ul/Psf] 5 . cg'udgsf nflu cf–cfˆg} lsl;dn] ;+;bb]lv,
NDAC, MDAC, Poverty Monitoring Divison / dGqfnosf cg'udg tyf
d"NofÍg zfvfx? ;lqmo 5g\ . lhNnfdf klg ljsf; lgdf{0fsf]
lg/LIf0f÷cg'udg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/LnfO{ ;d]t
tf]lsPsf] 5 . ;dGjo / cg'udgsf k|fjwfg / ;f] cg';f/sf ;+oGqx?
lqmofzLn ePtf klg cGt/dGqfno ;dGjo / cg'udg k|efjsf/L x'g
g;s]sf] ljifonfO{ ;a}n] :jLsf/]sf 5g\ . u|fdL0f:t/df sfof{Gjog ePsf]
ljsf; kl/of]hgfx?df hg>dbfg h'6fpg xf};nf k|bfg ug{ / hgtf;Fu
xft]dfnf] u/L ljsf;–lgdf{0fdf efu lnO{ k|]l/t ug]{ s'g} /fli6«o
JolQmTj Pj+ g]tf ;+nUg ePsf] b[io rfFlx b]Vg ;lsPsf] 5}g .
cyf{t, /fi6«sf] g]t[Tj ug]{ JolQmTjx? u|fdL0f hghLjg;+u}
xft]dfnf] ub}{ >dbfg u/]sf] / /fli6«o ljsf; cleofgdf ;+nUg ePsf]
b[io æAn" d"gÆ g} ePsf] 5 eGbf cltzof]lQm gxf]nf . o;y{, s8f
;dGjo Joj:yf, j:t'k/s d"NofÍg / /fli6«o JolQmTjx?sf] ef}lts >d
ug]{ :jhfFu/ ePdf :ofdn pGb'Ë kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu
tTsfnLg sf]l/ofsf] h:t} jftfj/0f aGg]5 .

                                 198
!!=% u|fdL0f If]qdf :yfgLo k|zf;gsf] ljsf;

sf]l/ofnL kl/j]z M ;j sG6«L txdf :yfgLo k|zf;g klxn]b]lv g}
:yflkt lyof] . o;n] @) ufpFx? ;d]6]sf] x'GYof] / s/La %% hgf
sd{rf/Lx? sfo{/t x'GYf] . :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?n] l;d]G6 tyf cGo
lgdf{0f ;fdu|L h:t}– l:6n tf/ ljt/0fdf 7"nf] ;sf/fTds e"ldsf lgefP .
logn] :ofdn kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjog ;DaGwdf klg dfu{ lgb]{zg u/] .

g]kfnL kl/j]z M :yfgLo txsf] k|zf;lgs ;+/rgf ljsl;t / Jojl:yt g} 5 .
&% a6} lhNnfdf lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsfx? / #(!# ufpFljsf; ;ldlt
:yfgLo lgsfosf ?kdf ;+ul7t 5g\ . k|To]s uflj;df lgj{flrt g]t[Tj
cGtu{t k|zf;g lqmofzLn 5 . To;}u/L lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt klg . s'/f
/x\of] ljsf; sfo{df ;dk{0f / lgM:jfy{ ;]jfsf] . :f+/rgfsf] ?kdf :yflkt /
ljsf; cg'ej ;d]t ;Dxfn]sf] :yfgLo k|zf;gsf] k|f?k eg] oy]i7 g}
b]lvG5 . sf]l/ofdf :ofdn pGb'Ë sfof{Gjog ug]{ lhDd]jf/L
u[xdGqfnosf] lyof] . ;f] dftxtsf] :yfgLo k|zf;gsf] clwsf/L d'Vo
lhDd]jf/ JolQm tf]lsGYof] . g]kfndf klg k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/LnfO{
ljsf; lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ lgl/If0f÷cg'udg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] 5
eg] :yfgLo jsf; clwsf/Ln] ljsf; sfo{sf] lhDdf g} kfPsf x'G5g\ .

!!=^ :ofdn kl/of]hgfsf] ;dod} sfof{Gjog

sf]l/ofnL kl/j]z M hlt a]nf ;g\ !(&) sf] bzsdf :ofdn kl/of]hgfsf]
sfof{Gjog yflnof] To;a]nf hldgsf] d"No, u|fdL0f Hofnf Go"g
lyof] . >dsf] j}slNks nfut Go"g lyof] . o;n] ubf{ ufpFn]x?n]
:ofdn kl/of]hgfsf] nflu >dbfg ug{ / hUufwgLx?n] ;fj{hlgs
lgdf{0fsf] nflu cfˆgf] hldgsf] lx:;f bfg ug{ ;lhnf] eof] . h;sf]
kl/0ffd :j?k ;fj{hlgs vr{df klg ufpFdf k"jf{wf/ ;'ljwfx?sf] lj:tf/ ug{
;lsof] . >dsf] Hofnf sd ePsf] / hldgsf] d"No sd ePsf] pko'Qm
;dodf kl/of]hgf nfu" ePaf6 klg of] ;kmn /x\of] .

g]kfnL kl/j]z M kl/of]hgfsf] ;dod} sfof{Gjog x'g g;Sg'
clwsf+z kl/of]hgfx? c;kmn x'g'sf] d'Vo sf/0f xf] . kl/of]hgfsf]
th'{df            /           sfof{GjogaLr                vf8n

                                   199
5 . cyf{t, sfof{Gjogdf l9nf;'l:t 5 . oBlk, kl/of]hgfsf] nflu vr{g'
kg]{ >dsf] d"No klg dx+uf] 5}g . ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0fsf] nflu cfjZos
hUuf hldg d'cfAhf lt/L /fHon] lng ;Sb5 . sltko cj:yfdf :j]lR5s
bfg klg xf]nf . 7"nf] hg >dbfg k|fKTf ug]{ cj:yf 5b}+5 .

!@= ;du| ;fGble{stf
:ofdn pGb'Ë kl/of]hgfsf] sfof{Gjog tTsfnLg sf]l/og ;/sf/n]
u|fdL0f k'/ftg sf]l/og kl/j]zdf tflTjs kl/jt{g NofO{ u/LaL x6fpg]
/fli6«o gLlt cGtu{t ePsf] lyof] . h;n] /fi6«sf ;a} ##,))) u|fdL0f
OsfO{x?nfO{ nlIft u/L kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjogdf NofPsf] lyof] .
g]kfndf klg ;/sf/sf] /fli6«o gLlt u/LaL sd ug]{ /x]sf] 5 . bzf}+
of]ghfsf] Psdfq nIo klg xfn u/LaLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf hg;+Vofsf] #*
k|ltztnfO{ #) k|ltztdf emfg]{ /x]sf] 5 . o;y{, ;/sf/sf] gLlt u/LaL
lgjf/0f ug]{ / /fi6«df ljBdfg ;du| u/LaLnfO{ g} sd ug]{ nIo /x]sf]
kl/k|]Iodf ;du|?kn] :ofdn kl/of]hgf /fli6«o kl/j]zdf klg ;fGble{s
/x]sf] 5 .

!@=! sfo{qmdsf] ?kdf ;fGble{stf

g]kfndf nlIftju{;Dd k'u]/ u/LaL 36fpg] ljljw sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng
ul/b} cfPsf 5g\ . t/ tL sfo{qmdx? 5l/P/ ;~rflnt 5g\ eg] jf:tljs
nlIftju{;Dd k'Ug g;s]sf] cj:yf klg 5 . /fi6«sf] ;Dk"0f{ u|fdL0f
u/LaLnfO{ Ps};fy ;Daf]wg ug]{ u/L sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogdf
NofOPsf 5}gg\ . hals :ofdn pGb'Ë kl/of]hgfn] /fi6«sf ;Dk"0f{
u|fdL0f OsfOnfO{ nlIft u/]sf] lyof] . To;}u/L /fHon] l;w} lgdf{0f
;fdu|L / k|fljlws ;xof]u u/]sf] cj:yf 5}g . o; kl/k|]Iodf sf]l/og
gd"gfsf] :ofdn pGb'Ë kl/of]hgf x'–ax' ;fGble{s x'g ;Sb}g .

!@=@       sfo{qmd          sfof{Gjog       ;+oGqsf]       ?kdf
;fGble{stf

:ofdn pGb'Ë u[x dGqfnosf] dftxt / tTsfnLg /fi6«kltsf] k|ToIf
lgu/fgLdf sfof{Gjogdf NofOPsf] lyof] . g]kfndf /fi6«sf] u|fdL0f
ljsf;sf] nflu :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnon] k|ToIf / ck|ToIf?kdf g]t[Tj

                                200
u/]sf] 5 . ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ nfu" ug{ /fHo k|of;/t 5 .
:yfgLo:t/df lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf / ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt 5g\ ;fy}
h;df ;/sf/L ljifout sfo{fno klg ;+:yfut?kdf ;an g} 5 . s]Gb|af6
l;w} lgb]{zg / lgoGq0f u/L :ofdn kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug{ ;Sg]
cj:yf 5}g . o;f] ePdf k|hftGqn] :jLsf/]sf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0f tyf
:jtM:km"t{ ?kdf x'g] hg;xeflutfsf] ck]Iff s'l07t x'g ;Sb5 . t;y{,
sf]l/og kl/j]z cg';f/sf] ;+oGqåf/f kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg
;fGble{s x'Fb}g .

!#= r'gf}tLx?
kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjog ubf{ ljljw r'gf}tLx?sf] ;fdgf ug'{ k/]sf]5 .
eljiodf cfpg] gofF gofF r'gf}tLx? t 5b} 5g\ .

!#=! åGåsf] k|efjsf] ;fdgf

kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjog :ynx? em'l;of tyf dbjf ;d'bfo b'a} jt{dfg
åGåsf] rk]6fdf k/]sf If]q x'g\ . ljsf; lgdf{0fk|ltsf] k|lt/f]w t 5b}5 .
kl/of]hgf sfof{Gjog OsfOx?df a:g] JolQmx? ;d]t 9'Ss 5}gg\ .
kl/of]hgfsf] ;+efJotf cWogb]lv g} ;+nUgx'g] JolQmx? dWo]
s]xL ljb]z knfog ;d]t ePsf 5g\ . eO/x]sf sfo{x? /f]Sg ;d]t bjfa
kl//x]sf] 5 . åGåsf] k|lts"n k|efjsf] ;fdgf ub}{ kl/of]hgf cl3 a9fpg'
r'gf}tLk"0f{ 5 .

!#=@ sfof{Gjogk|lt k|ltj4tf÷;dk{0f

:ofdn pGb'Ë kl/of]hgfsf] ;kmntfsf] s8L g} ;kmn sfof{Gjog ug{
;Sg' lyof] . g]kfndf kl/of]hgf / ltgsf] sfof{GjogaLr 7"nf] vf8n 5 .
Project without Implementation is meaningless elgG5 . t;y{, Project nfO{
;f]xL ;doleq Stakeholder-friendly lsl;dn] sfof{Gjg ug]{ sfo{
r'gf}tLk"0f{ 5 .

!$= lgisif{


                                   201
:ofdn cfGbf]ngsf] gfddf ;~rflnt kl/of]hgfn] u|fdL0f
cfw'lgsLs/0fsf nflu cfjZos k|foZfM ;a} kIfnfO{ ;d]6]sf] lyof] .
ltgLx? lyP– u|fdL0f ;8ssf] ;'wf/, 3/x?sf] gjLs/0f, vfg] kfgL
k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/, u|fdL0f ljB'lts/0f, pRr pTkfbg x'g] aLpsf] k|of]u,
art cleofg, ufpF ejgsf] lgdf{0f, u|fdL0f dlxnfx?sf] ;xeflutf
clej[l4, ufpFsf d'lvofx?sf] tflnd cflb . o;y{, of] eGg ;lsG5 ls
:ofdn cfGbf]ng u|fdL0f ljsf;sf] Pp6f PsLs[t k|of; lyof] h;n]
kf/Dkl/s u|fdL0f >f]tsf] pkof]u Pj+ cfw'lgsLs/0fnfO{ ;/n Pj+
l56f] kf¥of] . u|fdL0f hgtfsf] pRr pT;fxn] ubf{ zx/L
afl;Gbfx?’cf}Bf]lus If]qdf sfo{/t JolQmx? ;d]t cfˆgf] ;d'bfonfO{
/fd|f] sfo{:yn agfpg pTk|]l/t eP . cys k|of;, cfTdlge{/tf / k/:k/
;xof]unfO{ bLuf] cfly{s j[l4sf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ sfo{ l;4fGtsf]
?kdf hgtfn] u|x0f u/] . :ofdn pGb'Ë sfo{qmdnfO{ sf]l/og hgtfn]
æ/fd|f] a;fOÆ sf] nflu rnfOPsf] cfGbf]ng egL dx;"; u/] . /fi6«–
/fi6«df ljBdfg /fhg}lts k|0ffnL tyf ltgsf] ljsf;sf] cj:yf, u|fdL0f
hLjgz}nL / agf}6 cg';f/ :ofd"n kl/of]hgfnfO{ kl/is[t u/L
sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg ;lsG5 . oBlk u|fdL0f u/LaLnfO{ k/f:t ug]{
o; kl/of]hgfsf] Crux nfO{ xfFl;n ug{ o;nfO{ cleofgs} ?kdf
sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg' kg]{ x'G5 h;sf] nflu /fhg}lts g]t[Tj, gf]s/zfx /
hgtf ;d]t sl6a4, r':t, ;r]t / pRr g}lts cfbz{n] k|]l/t x'g' cfjZos 5 .


                          ;Gbe{–;fdu|L
   Saemaul Undong in Korea: The National Council of Saemaul Undong
    Movement in Korea 1999
   Saemaul Undong Movement in Korea: The National Council of Saemaul
    Undong Movement in Korea 2001
   How to Develop Our Village & Country: Handbook for Saemaul Undong
    Movement – 2003
   Business of Bureaucracy: Madhu Raman Acharya -2002
   bzf}+ of]hgf -@)%(–@)^$_, /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u
   sf]l/og :ofdn pGb'Ë sfo{qmd Ps kl/ro M /flj:j ;]jf ;+sng
                                   




                                    202
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


          k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf nflu /0fgLlts
                    sfo{of]hgf




                                                           — af;'b]j zdf{

/fHon] hgtfnfO{ ;]jf, ;'ljwf, /fxt / sNof0fsf/L lqmofsnfkx? pknJw
u/fpg] lhDd]jf/L lnPsf] x'G5 . hgtf / /fHosf] s]Gb|ljGb'sf] ?kdf
;fj{hlgs k|zf;g /x]sf] x'G5 . ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gs} dfWodaf6 d'n'ssf]
gLlt, lgod / sfg'gsf] sfof{Gjog x'g] ub{5 . k|zf;gn] ;Dkfbg ug]{
sfd hgtfnfO{ k|zf;gsdL{x?n] b]vfpg] Jojxf/ Pj+ k|zf;gljb\x?sf]
;f]r, d"No, dfGotf / cfr/0fn] ;/sf/k|lt hgtfsf] /fd|f] jf g/fd|f] 5lj k|:t't
x'g] ub{5 . æs'g} klg ;/sf/ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;geGbf c;n x'g ;Sb}gÆ
eGg] l;4fGtnfO{ ljrf/ ug]{ xf] eg] klg ;/sf/sf gLlt, sfo{qmd, ;f]r /
dfu{lrqnfO{ k"/f ug{sf nflu lgZro klg k|zf;gn] OdfGbf/, bIf Pj+
lqmofzLn eO{ lhDd]jf/L af]s]/ sfd ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . g"gsf] ;f]emf]
ug]{dfq} xf]Og ls hgtfn] lt/]sf] s/sf] ;xL pQ/ lbgsf nflu klg
lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?n] cfkm\gf] k]zfk|lt st{Jok/fo0f eP/ g}
pQ/bfloTj lgjf{x ug'{ kb{5 . ljZjdf ePsf kl/jt{gx?af6 l;lh{t
r'gf}tLx?sf] ;fdgf ub}{ ;du| ;fj{hlgs If]qnfO{ ;do;fk]If9+un] kl/jlt{t
jftfj/0f cg's"n 3'nldn x'g;Sg] agfpg] / gofF–gofF l;4fGt, cfljisf/
Pj+ lrGtgnfO{ cj;/sf] ?kdf lnO{ gofF k|ljlw, sfo{z}nL /
k|lqmofsf] k|of]u u/L tL cj;/x?sf] ;b'kof]u ug]{ bL3{sfnLg ;f]r
lgdf{0f ug]{ 1fg / v"aL k|zf;g;Fu x'g'kb{5 .



    k|lzIfs, /fhZj k|zf;g tflnd s]Gb| .

                                          203
k|zf;gn] hlt a'l4dQfk"j{s lgikIf, t6:y / z'4 eP/ sfd ug{ ;Sb5 TolQ
g} hgljZjf; cfh{g ug{ ;lhnf] x'G5 . k|zf;gnfO{ s'g lbzf / df]8tkm{
8f]¥ofpg] eGg] lbzflgb]{z d"ntM /fhg}lts g]t[Tjaf6 x'g] eP klg
o;sf] ;'wf/sf] k|lqmofsf] yfngL ug]{ / o;nfO{ ;'wfg]{ sfd eg] :jo+
sd{rf/Lx?af6 g} x'g'kg]{ ck]Iff ul/G5 . To;}n] k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf]
ljifo æsd{rf/Lsf] sfo{z}nLdf kl/j{tgÆ x'g'kb{5 eg] of] ;'wf/af6
nfeflGjt x'g] nlIft ;d"x hgtf x'g'kb{5 . hgtfnfO{ g} s]Gb|laGb'
dfg]/ k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf] /0fgLlt to ug'{kb{5 eg] cfdgful/sk|lt ;/f]sf/
/fVb} ;+j]bgzLn eP/ ;'[wf/sf Ph]08fx? to ul/g'kb{5 .

s] xf] t k|zf;g ;'wf/ <
k|zf;g ;'wf/sf l;4fGtx?nfO{ cWoog ug]{ xf] eg] k|foh;f] l;4fGtx?
;+/rgfut ;'wf/ ug]{, sd{rf/Lsf] ;+VofnfO{ 7Ls cfsf/df Nofpg],
dGqfnosf] ;+Vof 36fpg], gofF–gofF kl/kq ug]{ / lgb]{lzsfx?
agfpg], sfd ug]{ k2ltdf ;'wf/ Nofpg], sfo{ljlw ;/nLs/0f ug]{ Rethink
ug]{, Reengineering ug]{, Decentralize ug]{ Outsourcing ug]{, 7]Ssfdf lbg]
h:tf ljlwx? ckgfP/ k|zf;g ;'wf/ ug{ ;lsG5 eGg]tkm{ lgb]{lzt ePsf]
kfOG5 . k|zf;gsf] xf8{j]o/ kIf / ;ˆ6j]o/ kIf b'a}df ;'wf/ Nofpg'
kb{5 eGg] dfGotf klg k|zf;g ;'wf/sf lj1x?n] cfˆgf] Prescription df
pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ . o; afx]s klg k|zf;g ;'wf/sf nflu cfof]ux? u7g
ug]{, ;Dk"0f{ If]q / ljifodf ;'wf/ ug]{b]lv s'g} ;fgfltgf ljifox?df ;'wf/
ug]{ -Peacemeal approach) ;Ddsf k|of;x? klg pknlAwd"ns g} x'G5g\
eGg] dfGotf klg /x]sf] 5 .

oL ljleGg k|zf;g ;'wf/sf l6K;x?af6 k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf nflu dfu{ v'Nnf
/xg] eP klg hj;Dd k|zf;lgs sd{rf/Lsf] cfr/0f, ;]fr, 1fg, x]/fO,
a'emfO, b[li6sf]0f / ;+:sf/df kl/jt{g cfpFb}g ta;Dd k|zf;lgs ;'wf/
x'g ;Sb}g . k|zf;g ;'wf/ eP/ dfq} hgtfn] ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgk|lt ljZjf;
ub}{gg\ o;sf nflu o:tf] ;'wf/sf] cfjZostf kb{5 h'g ;'wf/ k|zf;g
;'wf/eGbf Ps kfOnf cufl8 a9]/ k|zf;sx?sf] ;du| ;f]r, ;+:sf/ /
cg'e"ltdf kl/jt{g u/]/ dfq} k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . g]kfndf k|zf;gdf ;'wf/
eP klg k|zf;lgs ;'wf/ eg] x'g;s]sf] 5}g . sd{rf/Ln] v'Nnf x[bon]
lgM:jfy{ eP/ sfd ug]{ cEof; cem} ug{ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\. gful/ssf] dg
5'g] u/L ;+j]bgzLn eP/ lhDd]jf/L ;DkGg ug]{ sfo{z}nLsf] k|of]u


                                    204
gul/sg k|zf;lgs ;'wf/ x'g ;Sb}g . k|zf;lgs ;'wf/ geOsg /fHon]
cfly{s, ;fdflhs Pj+ /fli6«o Pj+ cGt/f{li6«o s'g} klg p2]Zo xfl;n
ug{ ;Sb}g .
k|zf;lgs    ;'wf/nfO{      d'VotM       Change-oriented   feeling,   Change-oriented
                                   tLgj6f cg'e"lt -lqj]0fL_ sf] ?kdf
commitment / Change-oriented devotion h:tf
lng ;lsG5 . klxnf]n] sd{rf/LnfO{ dfq} kl/jt{g ePsf] cg'e"lt k|bfg
gu/]/ ;du| hgtfnfO{ g} sd{rf/Lsf] sfo{ cfr/0fdf kl/jt{g ePsf] cfef;
lbnfpF5 . bf];|f]n] lghfdlt sd{rf/Lx? ;dfhsf /fd|f dflgg] d"No,
dfGotf, g}ltstf, cfbz{, l;4fGt / Jojxf/k|lt k"0f{?kn] k|ltj4 5g\,
/fi6«k|lt cGoGt} lgi7fjfg 5g\, /fi6«jfbk|lt ;hu 5g\ / /fli6«otfsf nflu
lrlGtt 5g\ eGg] s'/fsf] k'i6L ub{5 eg] t];|f]n] lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?
lgodk"j{ssf] tnj–eQf Pj+ cGo sfg"gtM jlh{t gdflgPsf ;'ljwfdf
dfq} s]Gb|Lt /x]/ ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGg hgtfnfO{ k"0f{?kn] dflns
;Dem]/ Gofok"0f{ 9+un], hft, hflt, If]q, ju{ / gftf Pj+ ;DaGwaf6
dfly p7]/ ;a}nfO{ ;dfg cj;/ lbO{ cem lk5l8Psf / /fHon]
k|fyldstfdf /fv]sf hgtfnfO{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbO{ hgtfdf sd{rf/Lk|lt
/fd|f] 5fk /xg] u/L sfd ;Dkfbg ub{5g\ eGg] s'/fsf] k'li6 ub{5 .
log} l;4fGtnfO{ dgg u/]/ sd{rf/Ln] sfd ug]{ jftfj/0f agfpg] /
sd{rf/Lsf] kl/sNkgf klg o:t} s'/fdf dfq} /xg] u/L ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g
;~rfng ug'{ k|zf;lgs ;'wf/ xf] eGg] 7fGg' kb{5 .

k|zf;lgs ;'wf/ dflyaf6 nflbP/ k|fKt x'g] ljifo geP/ k|zf;gdf ;+nUg
/xg] sd{rf/Lju{n] lghLIf]q, gful/s ;dfh, h]i7 gful/s, ;fd'bflos ;+:yf,
:jo+;]jL ;+:yf Pj+ hfu?s ;r]t gful/s;Fu cGt/lqmof / 5nkmn u/L
;du| ;dfhn] ck]Iff u/] h:tf] jfgL, Joxf]/f / sfd ug]{ d'Vo dgzfodf
s]Gb|Lt /x]/ cfk"mnfO{ gful/sx?sf] ;Rrf ;xof]uL / ldqsf] ?kdf
k|:t't u/]/ dfq} k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . o;sf nflu d"ntM æ/fi6«;]js
sd{rf/Lx?sf] sfd ug]{ z}nL / lrGtgdf ;'wf/Æ /0fgLltsf] cEof;
/fHon] x/]s ;+:yfx?df ;~rfng ug'{ kb{5 . k|zf;g ;'wf/sf] jt{dfg
cjwf/0ff klg ljutsf uNtL / sdhf]/Lx?nfO{ Tofu]/ cfhsf] cfjZostf
cg'?k cfkm"nfO{ kl/jlt{t t'Nofpg' / ;dfhn] ck]Iff u/] cg'?k sfd
ug]{ OR5f / tTk/tf b]vfpg' xf] . cfk"mnfO{ g} ;'wf/ u/L ;'wf/sf]
af6f]nfO{ ;lhnf] agfpg' xf] .
k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf cfofdx?

                                        205
k|zf;g ;'wf/sf] yfngL k|zf;gsf] ljsf; / :yfkgf;Fu g} ePsf] kfOG5 t/
ljutsf k|zf;g ;'wf/sf k|of;x? k/Dk/fut lyP eg] bf];|f] ljZjo'4kl5 ljsf;
k|zf;gnfO{ cfw'lgs k|zf;g ;'wf/sf] /0fgLltsf] ?kdf lnOof] . aL;f}+
ztfAbLdf ;Q/Lsf] bzsb]lv pBdL :jtGqtfsf] nx/ rNof] /
sd{rf/LtGqsf] lj/f]w ug]{ k|j[lQ a9]/ uof] . ljsf;sf] qmddf k|zf;g
;'wf/sf nflu ;fj{hlgs 5gf}6sf] l;4fGt, Principle-Agent Theory, Reid Inquiry,
gful/s a8fkqsf] l;4fGt, gofF ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g, From Red Tap to Result,
Batho Pale, Renewal of Vitality-2000, Vision Malaysia 2020, h:tf l;4fGtx?sf]
k|ltkfbg ePsf] kfOG5 .
ljZjdf k|zf;g ;'wf/sf nflu dfq} xf]Og k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf nflu d"ntM
Value-based administration, result-oriented administration, client-oriented administration,
                                                              h:tf
learning organization, knowledge-based administration, market-driven administration
k|zf;lgs lbUbz{gx?sf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 eg] ;'zf;g tyf zf;gdf ;xeflutf
;'wf/sf yk cfofd ag]sf 5g\ .
g]kfndf k|zf;g / k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf] Oltxf;nfO{ vf]tNg] xf] eg]
c+z'jdf{sf] ;'wf/, hol:ylt dNn / /fhf /fdzfxsf] ;'wf/ cleofg;Dd k'Ug
;lsG5 . led;]g yfkfsf] ;'wf/ / ljz]if u/L æ/fhfn] 7"nf] Gofo lg;fkm
x]g'{ cGofo d'n'sdf x'g glbg'Æ eGg] k[YjL gf/fo0f zfxsf] lbJo
pkb]z k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf nflu cg's/0fLo pbfx/0f aGg ;Sb5 .
k|zf;gd} ;'wf/ ug]{ p2]Zon] g]kfndf k|zf;sLo k'gMu7g ;ldlt @))(,
k|zf;g ;'wf/ k'gMu7g of]hgf cfof]u @)!#, k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u
@)@%, k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u @)#@÷@)## / k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u
@)$* u/L kfFr j6f ljz]if k|ltj]bgx? ag]sf 5g\ . oL ;'wf/sf k|of;x?
dfgj Jojxf/sf] kIf tyf dfgjLo k|j[lQ, ;+u7gfTds dgf]lj1fglt/ a9L
s]Gb|Lt gePsfn] gx'g ;s]sf x'g ;S5g\ . To;}n] k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf]
/0fgLltsf d'Vo kIfx? d"ntM dfgjLo dgf]j[lQsf 1fg, efj, lqmof,
lrQ, a'l4, dg, cx+sf/, ;f]r / b"/b[li6 tyf ;f+u7lgs Jojxf/df tNnLg
d"No, dfGotf, rng cEof;, k[i7e"ld h:tf s'/fx?df ul/g] kl/of]hg /
kl/jt{g x'g' kb{5 . k'/ftg jf cfw'lgs g/fd|f rngx?nfO{ ;do–
;fk]If?kdf ;sf/fTds kl/jt{gtkm{ ?kfGt/0f ug]{ /0fgLlt g} d'Vo
k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf] sfo{ of]hgf aGg ;Sb5 .
        k|zf;g ;'wf/                      k|zf;lgs ;'wf/
k|zflgs gLlt, lgod, d"No / dfgjLo cfr/0f / sfo{z}nL
dfGotfdf s]lGb|t .              ;'wf/df s]Gb|Lt .


                                            206
JolStsf] ;'wf/df s]Gb|Lt .        ;+:yfut ;'wf/df s]Gb|Lt .
pBdLnfO{ hf]8 lbG5 .              pBdzLntfnfO{ hf]8 lbG5 .
k|zf;gsf lglZrt If]q / ljifo;Fu   ;d:t k|zf;gsf] sfo{lbzf / ult;Fu
;DaGwLt .                         ;DaGwLt .
;+u7gnfO{ r':t kfg]{ s'/fdf       k2ltnfO{ c;n agfpg hf]8 lbG5
hf]8 lbG5 .                       .
k|zf;g ;'wf/ jfXo bafjaf6         k|zf;lgs ;'wf/ leq}af6 x'G5 .
x'G5 .

;'wf/sf] /0fgLlts sfo{ of]hgf
k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf] s'/f ubf{ ;j{k|yd ;'wf/ s]sf nflu ug]{ jf s'g ;d:of
;dfwfg ug{sf nflu ;'wf/ ug]{ eGg] k|Zg p7\g] ub{5 . xfd|f] b]zsf]
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf clxn] lgDglnlvt ;d:ofx? b]lvPsf 5g\ M
     lghfdtL ;]jf cToGt} of]Uo t/ sfd gug]{ JolQmx?sf] ;d"xsf]
      gfpFn] kl/lrt 5 .
     lghfdtL ;]jf cfˆgf] sfo{;Dkfbgdf ;Gtf]ifhgs 5}g .
     lghfdtL ;]jf cfˆgf] lhDd]jf/Lk|lt oy]i6?kdf ;+j]bgzLn 5}g .
     lg0f{o lng l9nf] ug]{, cfˆgf] / xflsdsf] :jfy{k"lt{ ug{ bQlrQ
      /xg], s';L{ hf]ufpg], ef]ln–ef]ln eGb} sfd kG5fpg], dfly x]/L
      dg;fo a'emL lg0f{o ug]{, cg'zf;gxLg, Joj;flostfsf] cefj cflb
      k|zf;g rfl/lqs nIf0f aGg k'u]sf 5g\ .
     of]Uo, ;Ifd / sfd ug{ rfxg] JolQmn] klg sfd ug{ gkfPsf] l:ylt
      lghfdtL ;]jfdf ljBdfg 5 .
     k|zf;lgs ;+:sf/ lj:tf/} tn emb}{ uPsf] 5, dgf]jn / ;fv b'j} lu/]sf]
      5.
     pTk|]/0ffsf] l:ylt gsf/fTds 5 .
     pTkfbsTj a9\g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g .
     k|zf;gsdL{sf g}lts d"No / dfGotfx? s]–s] x'g\ pgLx?n] s]–
      s:tf sfd sfo{jfxL clgjfo{?kdf ug}{ kb{5 eGg] s'/fx?
      ælg=;]=lg=sf] cfr/0fÆ kl/R5]bdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5}g .

;'wf/sf /0fgLltx?



                                    207
/0fgLlt !— k|zf;lgs cfr/0fsf] ljj/0f k|sflzt ug]{ M o:tf] k|zf;lgs
cfr/0fleq sd{rf/Ln] ;Dkfbg ug'{kg]{ Pj+ kfngf ug'{kg]{ pQ/bfloTj
/ lhDd]jf/L jxg ug'{kg]{ ljifox? k|i6;Fu pNn]v ug'{ kb{5 .
k|zf;gsf ;/f]sf/jfnfx? sf] x'g\ < k|zf;gn] ;fj{hlgs ug'{kg]{ s'/fx? s]
x'g ;Sb5g\ < pgLx?sf] nlIft u|fxsx? sf] x'g\ / tLk|lt s:tf] Jojxf/
ug'{ kb{5 < of] ljj/0fdf pNn]v ug'{ kb{5 .
/0fgLlt @— k|zf;sx?nfO{ pTk|]l/t ug]{ / pRr dgf]an sfod x'g]
jftfj/0fsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ M k|zf;sx?nfO{ pTk|]l/t ug{ cfly{seGbf
klg u}/cfly{s pkfox?nfO{ kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg' kb{5 . h:t}–sd{rf/Laf6
;Dkflbt c;n sfo{sf] ;Ddfg, sfd ug]{ / gug]{ sd{rf/LaLr :ki6
leGgtf, sd{rf/LnfO{ k|f]T;flxt ug]{, pT;flxt agfpg], ;sf/fTds ;f]r,
sfo{bIftf Ifdtf / ;fdYo{tfsf cfwf/df of]UonfO{ k'/:s[t ug]{ tyf
cof]Uo, e|i6, 7u / s'zf;gsf] ;+:sf/ ePsfnfO{ bl08t ug]{, sfdsf]
sb/ x'g] plrt d"Nof+sg x'g], rfs8L–rfKn';L–r'SnLsf] cGt eO{
sfo{;Dkfbg u'0f:t/ / c;n JolQmTjsf] k|z+;f ug]{ jftfj/0fsf] ljsf;
ug]{ s'/f o; /0fgLlt cGtu{t kb{5g\ .

/0fgLlt #— k|zf;g / /fhgLltsf] cGt/;DaGw / Jojxf/nfO{ ablnbf]
kl/j]z ;'xfpFbf] agfpg] M >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] -sfo{;Dkfbg_
lgodfjnLdf /fhgLlts kb -dGqL_ / cGo k|zf;sLo kbwf/0f
u/]sfx?sf] kbLo bfloTj ls6fg ug'{sf ;fy} ;lrj / dftxtsf sd{rf/Lx?df
k|Tofof]lht clwsf/ ;fj{hlgs?kdf k|sflzt ug]{ .

/0fgLlt $— ;+u7g:t/af6, k|zf;gdf ;+nUg JolStx?af6 /
gful/sx?af6 k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf nflu x'g'kg]{ k|of;x?sf] PsLg ug]{ M
o:tf k|of;x?sf] PsLg ug{sf nflu ;+u7gn] Banishing Bureaucracy df
pNn]v ul/Psf 5Cs Strategy sf] cjnDag ug]{, k|zf;gdf ;+nUg
JolQmn] æLet the system work" df ljZjf; ug]{ / gful/sx?n] cfˆgf] xs
clwsf/sf] vf]hL ug]{ Joj:yf ug'{ kb{5.

/0fgLlt %— sd{rf/Ldf nf} g cj t s]xL u/f}+ eGg] efjgfsf] ljsf;
tNnf] txb]lv dfly;Dd z'?jft ug]{ M ;sf/fTds ;f]r, ;+:yfd'vL ;f]r, ;fgf
:jfy{x?nfO{ Tofu]/ 7"nf :jfy{sf nflu k|of;/t\ gx'g] Jojxf/af6dfq} o;
lsl;dsf] ;f]r lgdf{0f ug{ ;lsG5 .



                                  208
k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf oL /0fgLltx?df d"ntM lgDglnlvt gLlt /
sfo{qmdx? /xg' cfjZos 7flgG5 M

        /fHon] cGt/f{li6«o Pj+ /fli6«o nIox? xfl;n ug]{ Pp6f
         Mission Statement lgdf{0f ug'{k5{ .
        x/]s ;+u7gn] cfˆgf eljiosf kl/sNkgfx?, cleofgx?, nIox? /
         p2]Zox?, ls6fg u/L oL p2]Zox? k|fKt ug]{ glthfd"ns
         OsfO jf kl/0ffd ;lxtsf] jflif{s sfo{–tflnsf tof/ ug]{ .
        gful/sx?n] k|fKt ug]{ ;]jfsf] xs clwsf/ / ;]jf k|fKt gx'Fbf plrt
         lgsf;fsf nflu ph"/L ug]{ :yfg ;xLtsf] j8fkq ;fj{hlgs ug]{ .
        sfof{nodf One Window System, One Man System, Desk System h:tf ;'ljwf
         sIfx?sf] Joj:yf u/L ;'ljwfhgs9+un] sfd lng ;lsg] jftfj/0f
         agfpg] .
        sfof{nosf x/]s lqmofsnfkx?sf] ;"rs tof/ u/L tL ;"rsx?sf
         cfwf/df sfo{;Dkfbgsf] dfkg x'g] Joj:yf ldnfpg] .
        æsfof{no ;bfrf/ k2ltÆ / æsfo{ k|jfx tflnsfÆ aflx/ g} b]Vg]
         u/L 6fF:g] .
        x/]s sfof{non] # jif{df ;DkGg ug{ ;lsg] cfr/0fut ;'wf/sf
         k|of;x? lglZrt u/L sfof{Gjog ug]{ .
        sfof{nox?sf] b/aGbL, sfo{ ;+/rgf / sfof{no ljGof;df
         ;dfof]hg ug'{k5{ .
        b08 / k'/:sf/nfO{ sfo{;Dkfbg, pTkfbsTj, l;h{gzLntf,
         gjk|jt{g / u|fxsnfO{ b]vfpg] Jojxf/df cfj4 ug'{ kb{5 .
        ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] k|of]u, cGt/lgsfo ;"rgf k|jfx, hgzlSt ljsf; /
         PsLs[t /0fgLlt agfP/ hgtfnfO{ j:t', ;'ljwf / /fxtsf] k|jfx ug]{
         Joj:yf ldnfpg' kb{5 .
        ;'wf/sf ljifox? sd{rf/Lsf] dg, lrQ, Wofg, ;f]r / ;f+u7lgs
         Jojxf/ kl/jt{gdf s]Gb|Lt x'g' kb{5 .

sfo{ of]hgf
k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf /0fgLltx?nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu lgDg
sfo{ of]hgf k|:tfj ug{ ;lsG5 M
l;=g++       lqmofsnfk        s;n] ug]{ <         lsg ug]{ <         slxn]
                                                                     ug]{ <


                                       209
!      k|zf;lgs              >L % sf] ;/sf/         k|zf;lgs sfd sfo{jfxLnfO{       lg/Gt/
       lbUbz{gnfO{ ;/n,      dlGqkl/ifb\\           ;/n, ldtJooL, Gofok"0f{,
       ;do;fk]If /           ;lrjfno jf             bIf, k|efjsf/L /
       Jojxf/f]kof]uL        k|=d=sf]               pTkfbsTjd'vL agfpg
       agfpg]                sfof{non]
@      k|zf;lgs sfo{         x/]s ;fj{hlgs          k|zf;gk|lt hgtfsf] ljZjf; /     tTsfn}
       jftfj/0fnfO{          ;+u7gx?n] cfd–         e/f];f lhTg tyf ;fj{hlgs sfd
       ;'zf;go'St, hgd'vL,   gful/s;Fu              sfo{jfxLnfO{ r':t Pj+
       lhDd]jf/ / pQ/bfoL    5nkmn u/]/             k|lt:kwf{Tds hgtfsf] ;Gt'li6
       agfpg]                                       k|fKt ug{
#      k|zf;gsdL{x?sf]       :jo+ k|zf;sx?n]        gful/sx?af6 JoSt ul/g]          # jif{leq
       cfr/0f ;+:sf/ /                              e|i6, 3':ofxf, sfdrf]/, ;':t,
       Jojxf/df ;'wf/                               d[tk|foM h:tf gsf/fTds
                                                    l6Kk0fLx?sf] nf~5gfnfO{
                                                    k|ltsf/ u/L :jR5 / ;kmf
                                                    k|zf;gsf] k'g:yf{kgf ug{
$      gful/s / k|zf;gsf]    lghLIf]q, gful/s       k|zf;gn] lglZrt cfr/0f, d"No    ! jif{leq
       ;dGjo, ;dembf/L /     ;dfh / k|zf;gn]        / dfGotfdf sfd u/L /fi6« /
       ljZjf;df ;fj{hlgs     cfk;L ;xdltdf          hgtfk|lt ;dlk{t 5 eGg] s'/f
       cfr/0f lgdf{0f u/L                           k'li6 ug{
       sfof{Gjog ug]{
%      cg'udg / d"Nof+sg     ;/sf/ / gful/s         ;/sf/n] nfu" u/]sf gLlt /       ^÷^
                             ;dfhn]                 sfo{qmdsf] sfof{Gjogdf          dlxgfdf
                                                    ljZj;gLotf sfod ug{


o; sfo{of]hgfsf] sfof{Gjog kIfsf] lg/Gt/ cg'udg, d"Nof+sg / k|efj
ljZn]if0f u/L ;do–;fk]If x'g] u/L kl/dfh{g ub}{ nUg' kb{5 .

k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf nflu tTsfn sfo{qmd
>L % dxf/fhflw/fh ;/sf/sf] cWoIftfdf ldlt @)^!÷!)÷@) df a;]sf]
dlGqkl/ifb\\n] @! a"Fb] sfo{qmd hf/L u/L /fi6«nfO{ ;+s6af6 kf/
nufO{ hgtfnfO{ Gofo Pj+ /f]huf/L lbg], gfhfoh ;DklQnfO{
/fli6«os/0f ug]{, k|efjsf/L b08 / ;hfosf] Joj:yf ug]{, /fi6«jfbL
hgzlStsf] pTkfbg ug]{, ljs]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ ufpF;Dd k'¥ofpg],
a}b]lzs /f]huf/sf cj;/ klxNofP/ tflnd / C0f ;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg],
lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;sf/fTds lje]bsf] Joj:yf ug]{, pkef]Stf dfkm{t ljsf;
sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ug]{ h:tf Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf
nflu of] Pp6f pNn]vgLo sfo{of]hgf aGg ;Sb5 .




                                              210
;'wf/sf] /0fgLlts sfo{of]hgfsf] ?kdf ;/sf/L ;]jf
;'ljwf lgb]{lzsf
;/sf/L ;]jf ljt/0f / cg'udgsf] k|efjsf/L ;+oGq agfpg ;/sf/n] æ;/sf/L
;]jf ;'ljwfnfO{ k|efjsf/L t'Nofpg] lgb]{lzsf–@)^!Æ nfu" u/]sf] 5 .
o; lgb]{lzsfsf] k|d'v p2]Zox? b]xfo adf]lhd 5g\ M

   (1)   ;/sf/L ;]jf k|fKt ug{ hgtfn] cg'ej u/]sf ;f:tL / x}/fgLsf] cGt
         u/L k|efjsf/L ;]jf k|jfxåf/f hgtfsf] ljZjf; cfh{g ug]{,
   (2)   ;]jf ljt/0fnfO{ k|efjsf/L t'NofO{ hgd'vL ;+:yfsf] ?kdf ;/sf/L
         lgsfox?nfO{ :yflkt u/fpg] .
   (3)   ;]jf lbg] lgsfo / ;]jfu|fxLaLrsf] b"/L 36fO{ ;]jfnfO{ hgtfsf]
         ghLs k'¥ofO{ ;/sf/L pkl:yltsf] cg'e"lt lbg] .
   (4)   ;/sf/L ;]jfdf, ;]jfu|fxLsf] e"ldsf a9fFpb} hgpQ/bfoL
         k|zf;gsf] ljsf; ug]{ .
   (5)   ;'zf;gnfO{ Jojxf/df nfu" ug]{ .
o; lgb]{lzsfn] hgtfnfO{ ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ sfof{non] cf—cfˆgf
sfof{nodf b]xfosf Joj:yf ug'{kg]{5 eGg] s'/f pNn]v u/]sf] 5 .

    k|To]s sd{rf/Ln] clgjfo{?kdf sd{rf/L kl/ro–kq nufpg]
    sfof{nodf klxn] cfpg]sf] sfd klxn] x'g] Joj:yf ldnfpg 6f]sg
     k|0ffnL nfu" ug]{ .
    ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] sfddf ;+nUg k|To]s sd{rf/Ln]
     ;]jfu|fxL;Fu Jojxf/ ubf{ ;]jfsf] efjgfsf ;fy} lzi6 Pj+ ;xof]uL
     e} k|:t't x'g'kg]{ .

plNnlvt Joj:yf ;lxtsf cGo k|efjsf/L ;]jf ljt/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf klg
cjnDag ug'{kg]{ s'/f lgb]{lzsfdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . of] lgb]{lzsfdf
sfof{no Joj:yfkg s;/L ug]{, u'gf;f] Joj:yfkg s;/L ug]{, ;fj{hlgs
;'g'jfOsf] Joj:yf s;/L ldnfpg], sfof{Gjog ;DaGwL Joj:yf s:tf] x'g'
kb{5 eGg] ;d]t dfu{bz{g lbPsf] 5 .

lhNnf sfof{Gjog ;ldlt, lhNnf cg'udg ;ldlt, If]qLo cg'udg tyf
;'k/Lj]If0f ;ldlt, dGqfno:t/Lo cg'dug tyf ;'k/Lj]If0f PsfO, s]Gb|Lo

                                    211
cg'udg PsfO, s]Gb|Lo cg'udg, lgb]{zg tyf ;dGjo ;ldlt h:tf
;+:yfut ;+/rgfx?sf] Joj:yfn] ubf{ o; lgb]{lzsfsf] sfof{Gjog ug{
s'g} sl7gfO gkg]{ Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 .

k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf] Pp6f dhj"t /0fgLltsf] ?kdf /x]sf] of] lgb]{lzsfsf]
sfof{Gjog eg] lghfdtL sd{rf/Ls} sfo{s'zntf, ;sf/fTds ;f]r / kl/jlt{t
kl/j]zdf sfd ug{;Sg] v"aLdf lge{/ /xG5 . k|zf;g ;'wf/sf nflu
rflnPsf x/]s sfo{ of]hgfx?df hgtfsf] ;xeflutf, :jfldTj / lgoGq0f
x'g' cfjZos 5 . hgtfn] of] lgb]{lzsfnfO{ /fd|/L a'em]/ cfˆgf xs–
clwsf/sf nflu ;/sf/L lgsfonfO{ bjfj lbg] sfd ug{sf nflu jfWo kfg]{,
sfd gu/]df tTsfn} u'gf;f] ;'Gg] clwsf/L -gf]8n clkm;/_ sxfF ph'/L
ug]{ k|lqmof ckgfpg ;s]sf] v08df o;nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{ sl7gfO
b]lvFb}g .

;'wf/sf] /0fgLlt zf;gsf] sdhf]/Lx?nfO{ x6fpg]
cleofgsf ;Gbe{df
ljut !$ jif{sf zf;gsf sdhf]/Lx?nfO{ k'g/fjnf]sg u/L gofF lrGtg /
b[li6sf]0faf6 /fHo ;~rfng ug]{ cleofgsf] ?kdf klg ;'wf/sf]
/0fgLltnfO{ lng ;lsG5 . v'Nnf Pj+ pbf/ Joj:yfn ;DkGg / ljkGg
aLrsf] km/snfO{ a9fPsf] dfq} xf]Og ls s]Gb|Ls[t ljsf; k|0ffnLsf]
klg ;'?jft u/fof] . oBlk ;+/rgfx? lgdf{0fdf ;~rf/, lzIff, :jf:Yo,
oftfoftsf If]qdf k|ult gePsf] eg] xf]Og t/ tL ;'wf/x? kof{Kt x'g
;s]gg\ /fhgLlt / k|zf;g unt9+un] kl/rfng eof] k|zf;lgs d"No /
dfGotf k|hftflGqs ;+:sf/ ;'xfpFbf] aGg ;s]gg\ . ljutsf /fd|f
kIfx?nfO{ dfq} yftL /fv]/ cj rflng] sbdx? k|zf;gnfO{ k"0f{?kn]
zf;gsf sdhf]/L / v/fjLnfO{ ;RofpFb} cl3 a9\g] vfnsf x'g' cfjZos 5
. cg'zfl;t9+un] ;+oldt eO{ åGånfO{ Joj:yfkg ug]{ d'n'sdf zflGt
axfnL u/L cfdgful/snfO{ cdg–rog / ;'vsf] Zjf; km]g{ kfpg] jftfj/0f
l;h{gf ug{sf nflu k|zf;gsf x/]s txaf6 ;xof]u ug'{ kb{5 . k|zf;gsf]
cjsf] ;'wf/sf] /0fgLlt eg]sf] g} ;dfhnfO{ ljsf;sf] af6f]df nUgsf nflu
rflxg] sbdx? p7fpg' xf] . k"0f{?kn] zflGt axfnL u/L ;+j}wflgs
/fhtGq / ax'bnLo k|hftGqnfO{ ;'b[9 ug]{ lbzfdf k|zf;gn] klg ;fy
lbg' kb{5 . /fi6«, /fli6«otf / /fi6« k|]ddf k|zf;gn] cfˆgf] hf];, hfFu/


                                  212
/ lxDdtnfO{ kl/rfng ug'{ kb{5 . s'zf;gsf] cGt u/L ;dfhnfO{
k|ultsf] af6f]df n}hfg k|zf;gn] j:t'lgi7 eP/ sfd ug'{ cfjZos 5 .




                               213
                  ;Gbe{–;fdu|L

 g]=k|=k|=k|=, æ;'zf;gsf] ;Gbe{df kf/blz{tfÆ @)%%
  h]7sf] k|ltj]bg, g]kfn k|zf;lgs k|lzIf0f k|lti7fg .
 ljGb|f xf8f, æk|zf;gÆ, k"0ff{+s ($ h]7 @)^), k|zf;lgs
  ;+:s[lt .
 8f= s[i0f k|;fb e§/fO{ æk|zf;gÆ, k"0ff{+s (^ df3 @)^),
  g]kfndf k|zf;g ;'wf/ .
 9'+u]n tyf /fhe08f/L, >L % sf] ;/sf/df ;'zf;gsf cfofdx?,
  @)%( .
 >L % sf] ;/sf/ k|wfgdGqLsf] sfof{no, ælgd'vfnfO{ Gofo,
  ljkGgnfO{ cfo lgb]{lzsf, @)%^ .


                         




                          214
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@



        ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, ljQLo ;fwgsf] kl/rfng /
               u|fdL0f u/LaL Go"gLs/0f




                                                   –tf/faxfb'/ g]kfn*
!=k[i7e"ld

ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«x?sf clwsf+z hgtfx? hf] u|fdL0f If]qdf a;f]af;
ub{5g\ pgLx?nfO{ Go"gtd lhjg lgjf{x ug{ ;d]t d'l:sn k/]sf] s'/f
ljleGg tYo tYofÍn] :ki6 kf/]sf] kfOG5 . ljZjdf Ps ca{ aL; s/f]8
eGbf a9L dflg; u/LaLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf], Plzofsf s/La $) k|ltzt
dflg;sf] b}lgs cfo ! 8n/ eGbf sd ePsf], g]kfndf ! s/f]8 eGbf a9L
dflg; u/LaLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf], ljZjdf g]kfn nufot %$ j6f /fi6«x? clt
u/LjLsf] :yfgdf /x]sf To;df klg u|fld0f u/LjLsf] afx'Notf /x]sf] ;jf
Ps s/f]8 eGbf a9L dflg; lg/If/ u/LaLdf /x]sf], sl/j @)Ü eGbf
a9L afnaflnsfx?n] ljBfno hfg gkfPsf] , krf; nfv eGbf a9L
dflg;x? ;kmf lkpg] kflgaf6 jlGrt /x]sf, sl/j %)Ü afnaflnsf s'kf]if0f
af6 u|l;t /x]sf], %^Ü ls;fgx? !) s¶f eGbf klg sd hldgaf6 lgjf{x
ug{ afWo /x]sf], $&Ü u/La kl/jf/ ls;fgsf] :jfldTjdf clw/fHosf]
s[lifof]Uo e"ldsf] !%Ü hldg /x]sf] kfOG5 . g]kfndf sl/a ! s/f]8 *)
nfv eGbf a9L dflg; s[lif If]qdf lge{/ /x]sf] kfOG5 . o;}u/L %Ü
wgL JolQmx?sf] cwLgdf v]ltof]Uo hldgsf] #&Ü lx:;f /x]sf], *^Ü
eGbf j9L dflg; u|fdL0f If]qdf j;f]jf; u/]sf], @)^) sf] hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0f
                                                                      !
cg';f/ #!Ü dflg; u/LjLsf] /]vfd"lg /x]sf], u|fdL0f u/LjL $$Ü /x]sf]
h:tf tYofÍn] u|fdL0f If]q cljsl;t Pjd\ kR5f}6]kgsf] ;fy;fy} u|fdL0f
*
    pkk|fWofks, dx]Gb|/Tg SofDk;, tfxfrn .

                                  215
u/LjLn] JofKt /x]sf] b]lvG5 . g]kfndf JofKt s'n u/LjL dWo]
                                       @
u|fdL0f If]q dfq ($=@Ü /x]sf] b]lvG5 .

oL dflysf tYofÍsf] cfwf/df ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«, To;df klg blIf0f
Plzofsf d'n'sx?sf] clwsf+z dflg;x? u|fdL0f If]qdf a;f]af; u/L
Go"g hLjg:t/ JotLt ug'{ kg]{ sf/0fn] pTkGg ePsf] u/LjLnfO{
Go"gLs/0f ug]{ k|d'v cf}hf/sf] ?kdf ljs]Gb|Ls/0f k|lqmofnfO{
cfTd;ft\ u/]sf] kfOG5 . ljQLo ;fwgsf] s'zntd k|of]u u/L u|fdL0f
u/LjL Go"gLs/0fdf cfzf;Lt k|ult x'g] s'/fdf ljZj:t eO{ ljs]Gb|Ls/0f
k|lqmofnfO{ g]kfn nufot cGo ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«x?n] cfTd;ft\ u/]sf]
kfOG5 .

g]kfndf :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g Pjd\ ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cjwf/0ff
lnR5jLsfnb]lv k~rfotL Joj:yf x'Fb} jx'bnLo k|hftflGqs Joj:yf;Dd
cfOk'Ubf ljsl;t Pjd\ kl/dflh{t x'Fb} cfPsf] s'/f ;f] ;DaGwL ljleGg
P]g, lgod, cfof]usf] u7g, ;'emfj cflbn] :ki6 kfb{5 . ljz]ift /fhg}lts
Pjd\ k|zf;lgs ljs]Gb|s/0fsf] cf}lrTo ljQLo ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cefjdf
z"Gok|foM x'g] x'Fbf ljQLo ljs]Gb|Ls/0fåf/f :yfgLo lgsfonfO{
ljQLo :jfoQtf lbg' kb{5 . :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] Joj:yf
ub}{ pgLx?nfO{ cfly{s sfdk|lt lhDd]jf/ agfpg] sfo{nfO{ ljQLo
ljs]Gb|Ls/0f elgG5 . o; cGtu{t ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] kl/rfng ug]{
dflyNnf] lgsfoaf6 /sd lgsf;Lsf] Joj:yf ug]{, s]Gb| / dftxtsf lgsfo
jLr /fhZjsf] jf8kmfF8 ug]{, cfly{s sfdnfO{ kf/bzL{ agfO{
pQ/bfloTj jxg ug]{ Ifdtfsf] a[l4 ug]{ h:tf st{Jox? kb{5g\ . :yfgLo
lgsfonfO{ /fhZj kl/rfng / cfly{s Joj:yfkg ug{ k"0f{ clVtof/L lbPdf
dfq jf:tljs ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] dd{ jGg k'uL u|fdL0f ljsf;af6 u|fld0f
u/LjL Go"gLs/0fdf dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'Ub5 .

!=@= :yfgLo lgsfo -uf=lj=;=_ / ljQLo ;fwg kl/rfng

ufFp ljsf; ;ldlt ljs]Gb|Ls/0f zf;g Pjd\ ljsf; k|zf;gsf b[li6n] ;jeGbf
tNnf] lgsfo xf] . :yfgLo txdf uf=lj=; sf] ;+Vof #(!# / j8f ;ldltx?
#%,@!% /x]sf] b]lvG5 . oL ;a} lgsfox?n] pknAw ;fwg /
;|f]tnfO{ OdfGbf/Lk"j{s k|lta4tfsf ;fy kl/rfng u/]df u|fdL0f

                                 216
/f]huf/L / cfodf a[l4 x'guO{ u|fdL0f u/LjL Go"gLs/0fdf
dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'Ub5 . >L % sf] ;/sf/n] ef}uf]lns cj:yf,
hg;Vof, ;fdflhs Pstf Pjd\ ljljwtfnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL lh=lj=;sf]
k/fdz{sf] cfwf/df uf=lj=;= sf] ;+Vof tf]Sg] / kfos kg]{ 7fFpnfO{
To;sf] s]Gb| tf]Sg] Joj:yf 5 . o:t} u/L ufpF ljsf; If]qnfO{
hg;+Vof / ef}uf]lns If]q ldnfO{ gf} j8fdf ljefhg ul/G5 . o;/L
tf]lsPsf] uf=lj=;=If]qdf j8f ;ldlt, ufpF kl/ifb\ / ufpF kl/ifbsf]
sfo{sf/Lsf] ?kdf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt /xG5 . :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;gsf]
cjwf/0ff adf]lhd :yfgLo ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] kl/rfng, ;]jf ;'ljwfsf] k|jfx,
kf/blz{tf / ;xeflutfd"ns lg0f{o k|lqmof, :yfgLo ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg,
Gofo Pjd\ k|zf;lgs sfo{x?sf] ;Dkfbg / cfly{s Joj:yfkg ug]{
k|of]hgsf] lgldQ P]g, lgod, ljlgod, lgb]{lzsf cflbn] tf]s] cg';f/sf]
e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ u/L j8f ;ldlt, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt / ufpF kl/ifb\ u7g
ug]{ Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . sfg"gtM Joj:yf u/LP jfx]s uf=lj=;=n]
u|fdL0f lk5l8Psf hgtfsf] hLjg:t/ ;'wf/ u/L u/LjL Go"gLs/0f ug{
cGo cfjZos sbdx? OdfGbf/Lk"j{s st{Jotfsf ;fy ul/g'kb{5 .

!=@=! uf=lj=;=sf] u7g

uf=lj=;=P]g @)$& n] b]zsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;fF:s[lts ljsf;sf nflu
k|To]s u|fdL0f ljsf; sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug{ tyf To:tf ljsf;
sfo{x?sf] /]vb]v tyf ;dGjo ug{ u|fdL0f ljsf; ;ldlt u7g ug]{ k|fjwfg
k|:tfjgfdf /fv]sf] 5 . uf=lj=;=n] cfjZos hfFra"em u/L s'g} ufpF jf
7fpFx?sf] ;d"xnfO{ u|fdL0f If]q 3f]lift ug{ ;Sb5 . 3f]lift k|To]s
u|fdL0f If]qdf u|fdL0f ljsf; sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug{, /]vb]v ug{ tyf
;dGjo ug{ uf=lj=;= u7g ul/G5 . k|To]s uf=lj=;=df cWoIf /
pkfWoIf ;lxt !! hgf lgjf{lrt / @ hgf dgf]lgt u/L !# hgfsf] ufFp ljsf;
;ldltsf] u7g x'G5 .

!=@=@ uf=lj=;=sf] ;DkQL / ljQLo ;fwgsf] kl/ro

cfhsf] u|fdL0f If]qdf /x]sf] ;fwg / ;+|f]tnfO{ pRrtd k|of]u u/L
/f]huf/Lsf cj;/ l;h{gf u/L u|fdL0f ljsf;sf] dfWodåf/f u|fdL0f u/LjL


                                  217
lgjf/0f ug{sf nflu uf=lj=;=sf] cfkm\gf] Pp6f sf]if /xg] Joj:yf
ul/Psf] kfOG5 .

uf=lj=;=sf] sf]ifdf lgDg /sdx? cfDbfgLdf jflwG5 M

-s_ P]g jdf]lhd p7fpg kfpg] s/, b:t"/ jf s/af6 cfPsf] cfDbfgL .
-v_ >L % sf] ;/sf/n] uf=lj=;=nfO{ x:tfGt/0f u/L lbPsf] lhG;L tyf
    gubL .
-u_ uf=lj=;=sf sd{rf/Lx?n] a6'n]sf df6f], afn'jf, uf]j/ cflbsf]
    ljqmLaf6 p7]sf] /sd .
-3_ uf=lj=;=n] ;fk6L shf{ lnPsf] /sd .
-ª_ g=kf=jf cGo ufpF ljsf; ;ldltn] k|bfg u/]sf] ;xfotf /sd .
-r_ uf=lj=;=sf] rn crn ;DklQaf6 p7]sf] cfDbfgL .
-5_ uf=lj=;=n] u/]sf] b08 hl/jfgf af6 p7]sf] /sd .
-h_ uf=lj=;=n] k|fKt u/]sf] rGbf, bfg–bftJo jf cGo s'g} /sd .
-em_ 7]Ssfaf6 k|fKt ePsf] /sd .

!=@=# uf=lj=;=sf] ;DklQ

uf=lj=;=sf] If]qleqsf] lgDg ;DklQx? pk/ uf=lj=;=sf] k"/f xs x'g]5
/ To;sf] /]vb]v / k|jGw uf=lj=;=n] ug'{kg]{ Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .



      -s_ uf=lj=;=sf]ifaf6 ag]sf], vl/b ePsf] / >L % sf] ;/sf/n]
         lbPsf] ;DklQ .
      -v_ ;fj{hlgs 9n, k'n, kf]v/L, b]jfno, kf6Lkf}jf uf}r/,
         kfgL3f6, lgsf; / jf6f] .
      -u_ >L % sf] ;/sf/n] 5'6\ofPsf] jg .
      -3_ o:tf ;DklQ uf=lj=;=n]= >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] :js[lt ljgf
         j]rljvg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .



                               218
!=@=$ uf=lj=;=n] p7fpg] s/, b:t"/

    s_       tf]lsPsf] Jofkf/ jf k]zfdf s/
    v_       ;jf/L b:t"/
    u_       xf6 ahf/, rf}kfofx? vl/b ljqmL ubf{sf] b:t"/
    3_       jxfn, d]nf, wfd
    ª_   ljb]zaf6 g]kfn clw/fHoe/ cfPsf] tf]lsPsf] ;jf/L ;fwgdf
         k|To]s k6s pQm ;jf/L ;fwg klxnf h'g uf=lj=;=sf] If]qdf
         k|j]z ub{5 To;n] tf]lsP jdf]lhd s/ nufpg ;Sb5 / Ps
         uf=lj=;=df lt/]kl5 cGoq k'gM To:tf] s/ nfUg] 5}g .
    r_   >L % sf] ;/sf/n] uf=lj=;=nfO{ lhDdf lbPsf] hldgaf6
         pTkflbt ePsf 3fF;, bfp/f, hl8a'6L cflb lrhj:t' p7fO{
         n}hfg] JolQmnfO{ b:t"/ nufO{ c;"n pk/ ug{ ;Sb5 .
         To;/L c;"n ePsf] /sdsf] %)Ü lh=lj=;=nfO{ j'emfpg'k5{
         .
    5_   uf=lj=;=n] p7fpg] s/ b:t"/sf] dfqf lh=lj=;=n] tf]lslbg'
         kb{5 .
    h_   uf=lj=;=n] tf]s]sf] s/ Pjd\ b:t"/ glt/]df ;f] nut dfnkf]t
         sfof{nodf k7fO{ ;/sf/L afFsL ;/x c;"n pk/ u/L p7]sf]
         /sd uf=lj=;=df k7fOg] 5 .

!=@=% ;DklQ shf{ lng] clwsf/
lh=lj=;=sf] :jLs[lt lnO{ uf=lj=;=n] s'g} sfdsf] nflu lh=lj=;=sf] zt{
aGb]hsf] cwLgdf /xL ;DklQ shf{ lng ;Sg]5 .

!=@=^ sf]ifsf] ;+rfng
uf=lj=;=sf]ifsf] ;+rfng cWoIf / ;lrjsf] ;+o'Qm b:tvtaf6 x'g]5 .




!=@=& ah]6

                                 219
uf=lj=;=n] k|To]s cfly{s jif{sf] cfo–Joosf] ljj/0f -ah]6_ tof/ kf/L
:jLs[ltsf] nflu lh=lj=;= ;dIf k]z ug'{ kb{5 / :JfLs[t kl5 ah]6
adf]lhd vr{ ug'{kb{5 .
!=@=* n]vf / n]vf k/LIf0f
-s_ uf=lj=;=n] cfkm\gf] cfo, Joosf] n]vf k|rlnt g]kfn sfg'g
          adf]lhd /fVg' kg]{5 .
-v_ uf=lj=;=sf cfGtl/s n]vf k/LIf0f lh=lj=;=af6 x'g]5 .
-u_ uf=lj=;=sf] clGtd n]vf k/LIf0f dxfn]vf k/LIfsn] tf]lsPsf]
JolQmaf6 x'g]5 .

!=#=     of]hgf th'{df / sfof{Gjog k|lqmof

:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;gsf] dxTjk"0f{ p2]Zo d"nssf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf
ef}uf]lns ljljwtf cg';f/ ljsf; k|of;df cf–cfˆgf] k|ltef, cfjZostf /
;+efjgf cg';f/ cf–cfˆgf] If]q / :yfg cg's"n :yfgLo:t/df g} of]hgfsf]
th'{df, 5gf}6, sfof{Gjog / ;+rfng k|lqmofsf] ljsf; u/L lgIf]lkt
sfdsf] bfloTj :yfgLo txn] g} axg ug]{ ;+oGqsf] lgdf{0f ug'{ xf] .
:yfgLo hgtf cfˆgf] efUosf] lgdf{0fstf{ cfkm} ePsf] x'gfn] s'g
:yfgdf s:tf] of]hgf ;+rfng ubf{ a9L eGbf a9L /f]huf/L, cfo Pjd\
lhjg:t/df ;'wf/ x'G5 eGg] s'/fsf] lg?k0f :yfgLo hgtf :jod\ cfkm}n]
ug{ ;Sb5g\ . o;/L ;+rfng x'g] of]hgfsf] nfut, nfe / lbuf]kgsf]
lx;fjn] k|efjsf/L x'g'sf] ;fy} of]hgfsf] ;+/If0f, ;+j4{g, dd{t–;Def/
cflbdf hgtfsf] ;+nUgtf pNn]vgLo?kdf /xg] ub{5 . o;/L ljsf;sf
sfo{x?df hgtfx? hfu[t x'gkb{5 . ljsf; of]hgfn] hgtfsf]
cfjZostfnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ug'{kb{5 . hgtfx?df ljsf; xfd|f] nflu xf] /
xfdLn] ug'{ kb{5 eGg] wf/0ffsf] cg'e"lt x'gkb{5 eGg] h:tf
s'/fx?NffO{ dx;"; u/L :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ k"0f{tof :jfoTjtf k|bfg
ul/Pdf u|fdL0f If]qsf] ljsf; x'g uO{ u/LjL Go"gLs/0fdf dxTjk"0f{
of]ubfg k'Ug ;Sb5 .

uf=lj=;=n] cfof]hgf th'{df / sfof{Gjog ubf{ lgDg s'/fnfO{
k|fydLstf                                             lbg'
kb{5 M

                                 220
!= k|To]s uf=lj=;=n] cfˆgf] ufpFsf] ljsf;sf] nflu ufFp ljsf; of]hgf
   th'{df ug'{ kg]{5 .
@= uf=lj=;=sf] of]hgf th'{df ubf{ hgtfnfO{ a9LeGbfa9L
   kmfObf k'¥ofO{ u|fdL0f /f]huf/Lsf] l;h{gf u/L u/LjL lgjf/0f
   ug]{ h:tf sfo{qmdnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' kb{5 .
#= cfof]hgfsf] ;kmntfsf] cWoog ubf{ clwsf+z hgtfnfO{
   kmfObf x'g], cfof]hgf ;DkGg ubf{ nfUg] vr{ tyf ;fdfu|Lx?sf]
   d"Nosf] cg'dfg ug]{, pkef]Qmfjf6 k|fKt x'g] ;xof]usf]
   cfsfF8f lgsfNg], dd{t ;+ef/ vr{ cflb s'/fnfO{ Wofg lbg' kb{5
   .
$= cfof]hgfsf] 5gf]6 ubf{ ljz]ift jftfj/0f ;+/If0f tyf ;+j4{g, :yfgLo
   jf;LGbfsf] ;xeflutfdf >d cfjZostf kg]{ / ;|f]t / ;fwgn] Eofpg
   ;Sg] h:tf s'/fnfO{ Wofg lbg' kb{5 .
%= 5gf]6 ePsf cfof]hgfx?sf] af/]df :yfgLo hgtfnfO{ hfgsf/L
   ug'{ kb{5 .
^= :yfgLo ;|f]taf6 ;+rfng x'g], lh=lj=;=sf] cg'bfg / ;|f]taf6 ;+rfng
   x'g], u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfaf6 ;+rfng x'g], cflb h:tf cfof]hgfsf]
   juL{s/0f ug'[{ kb{5 .
&= /f=of]=cf= / lh=lj=;=n] lbPsf] lgb]{zg kfngf ug'{ kb{5 .
*= u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfnfO{ uf=lj=;=sf] sfo{qmdsf] klxrfg, of]hgf
   th'{df, /]vb]v d"NofÍg / dd{t ;+ef/ ug{ k|f]T;flxt ug'{kb{5 .

!=#=! of]hgf th'{df / sfof{Gjog

    uf=lj=;=n] cfˆgf] If]qdf x'g] ljsf; sfo{ / To;sf] ;+rfng ug{
    /]vb]v ug]{, lg0f{o k|lqmofdf hgtfnfO{ k|ToIf?kdf ;xefuL
    agfO{ of]hgf Pjd\ sfo{qmd k|lt :yfoLTjjf]w u/fpg
    ;xeflutfd"ns of]hgf th'{df ug]{ lqmofsnfksf] cjnDag
    ug'{kb{5 . o;/L jflif{s of]hgf th'{df ubf{ uf=lj=;=n] lgDg
    k|lqmofnfO{ r/0fa4 ?kdf k"/f ub}{ n}hfg' kb{5 .




                                 221
    klxnf] r/0f – d+l;/ d;fGtleq uf=lj=;=n] cfufdL jif{sf] lglDt
                 ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] cg'dfg / hgzlQmsf] k|If]k0f ug'{
                 kb{5 .
    bf];|f] r/0f – kf}if dlxgfsf] klxnf] xKtf;Dd uf=lj=;=n] j8f
                 ;ldltnfO{ of]hgf ;DaGwL dfu{bz{g k7fpg' kb{5 .
    t];|f] r/0f – kf}ifsf] klxnf] xKtfdf j8f ;ldltn] j8f:t/Lo of]hgf
                 ;DaGwL cGt/lqmof / 5nkmn u/fpFg' kb{5 .
    rf}yf] r/0f – kf}ifsf] bf];|f] xKtf;Dd j8f ;ldltn] j8f:t/Lo of]hgfsf]
                 k|fyldstf lgwf{/0f ug]{ / ;"rgf k|sflzt ug'{ kb{5 .
    kfrf}+ r/0f – kf}ifsf] bf];|f] xKtf;Dd j8f ;ldltaf6 cfof]hgfsf]
                 k|fyldstf;fy lgwf{/0f u/L uf=lj=;=df k]z ug'{ kb{5
                 .
    5}7f}+ r/0f – kf}if d;fGt;Dd uf=lj=;=n] ufpF:t/Lo /
                 lhNnf:t/Lo cfof]hgf 5'6\ofO{ ufpF kl/ifb\df k]z
                 ug]{        /       kl/ifb\af6      :jLs[lt     u/fpFg'
                 kb{5 .
    ;ftf}+ r/0f – df3 d;fGt;Dd kfl/t cfof]hgfsf] ljj/0f ufpF:t/Lo /
                 lhNnf:t/Lo 5'6\ofO{ ljifout sfo{qmd / k|fyldstf
                 tf]sL lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltdf k]z ug'{ kb{5 .

cfof]hgf th'{df ubf{ To;sf ljljw kIfx?sf] cWoog u/L cfof]hgfsf]
p2]Zo, nIo, cfof]hgf ;+rfng ug]{ Dofb nfeflGjt hg;+Vof,
cfof]hgf ;+rfng ug{ nfUg] hgzlQm, ;do, hg;xeflutfsf] c+z,
pkef]Qmf ;ldltsf] ljj/0f, dd{t tyf ;+rfng Joj:yf, cg'dflgt nfut, cflb
h:tf of]hgfsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ kIfx? v'nfO{ ;f]sf] ljj/0f tof/ ug'{
kb{5 . To; ljj/0fsf] cfwf/df uf=lj=;=n] cfˆgf] ;|f]t / ;fwgn] Eofpg]
cfof]hgf :jLs[t u/L sfof{Gjog k|lqmof tTsfn} ;'? ug]{ / ;|f]t /
;fwgn] gEofpg] cfof]hgfsf] nflu s]–slt ;|f]t / ;fwgsf] cfjZostf kg]{
xf] To;sf] ljj/0f lh=lj=;=df tTsfn k]z ug'{ kb{5 . lh=lj=;=n] ;f]
ljj/0fsf] oyf{y cWoog u/L cfjZos sf/afxL tTsfn ug'{kb{5 .

!=#=@ cfof]hgf th'{df ubf{ ;dGjo / ;xof]u ug'{



                                   222
uf=lj=;= If]qleq uf=lj=;= :jod\n] / ljleGg ;+3;+:yfx?n] ljleGg
cfof]hgf ;+rfng ug]{ x'Fbf tL cfof]hgfx?sf] u'0ffTdstf / k|efjsfl/tf
a[l4 u/L ;dGjofTds9+un] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug]{ u/fpg] bfloTj
uf=lj=;=sf] x'G5 . uf=lj=;=n] cfof]hgf th'{df u/L cfˆgf] If]qleq
;+rfng ug]{ ljleGg ljsf; lgdf0f{sf] sfddf bf]xf]/f]kg x6fO{ ;fwg /
;|f]tsf] pRrtd Pjd\ lbuf] k|of]usf] nflu To; If]qleq u}/;/sf/L
;+:yfx?af6 ;+rflnt cfof]hgfx?df bf]xf]/f]kg gxf]; eGg] p2]Zon] tL
;+3;+:yf;Fu ;dGjo / ;xof]usf] efjgf l;h{gf ug'{ kb{5 . o;/L
lbuf]?kdf :yfgLo ljsf; u/L u|fdL0f u/LjL Go"gLs/0f ug{ u|fdL0f
If]qdf sfo{/t ljleGg ;+3;+:yf jLr ;dGjofTds Pjd\ ;xof]ufTds
efjgfsf] a[l4 u/L cfof]hgfdf bf]xf]/f]kg x6fO{ PsLs[t?kdf cfof]hgf
k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug'{ kb{5 .

uf=lj=;=n] :yfgLo :jfoQ P]g, lgodfjnL tyf k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd
cfˆgf] sfdnfO{ Jojl:yt / k|efjsf/L9Ën] ;+rfng ug{ ;dfhsf ljleGg tx
/ tKsfaf6 ;xof]u lng' kb{5 / tL ju{x?n] ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg' kg]{
st{Jo 7xl/G5 . o;/L uf=lj=;=n] ljsf; cfof]hgf tyf b}lgs k|zf;lgs
sfo{nfO{ ;dGjofTds jftfj/0fdf ;j} lgsfo, ;+3–;+:yf / JolQmsf]
;xof]u lnO{ sfo{;Dkfbg ug{ ;s]df To; If]qsf] lbuf] ljsf; eO{
/f]huf/L, cfo cflbdf a[l4 x'g k'uL hgtfsf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ cfO{
u|fdL0f u/LaL Go"gLs/0f x'g]df b'O{dt x'g ;Sb}g .

ljs]Gb|Ls/0f / u|fdL0f u/LaL Go"gLs/0fsf r'gf}tLx?

ljs]Gb|Ls/0f k4ltsf] :yfkgf / ;f]sf] ;kmn sfof{Gjogsf nflu
agfOPsf P]g, lgodn] dfq u|fdL0f u/LjL Go"gLs/0fdf vf;} k|efj
kfg{ g;s]sf] s'/f ljutsf] Oltxf;n] jtfO;s]sf] 5 . g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfgn] :yfgLo lgsfosf] kl/sNkgf ubf{ s]xL s+h':ofO u/]sf]
cfef; ljs]Gb|Ls/0f P]gn] e]6\g vf]h] klg ;+ljwfgdf cfpg] lbgx?df
:ki6 JofVof ul/g' kb{5 . ljs]Gb|s/0fnfO{ l56f] / ;/n tl/sfn] ;+:yfut
ug{ s]Gb|Lo ;+/rgfn] :yfgLo Ifdtf dfly ;w}+ z+sf u/]sf] kfOG5 .
txut clwsf/ qmdzM r/0fj4 ?kdf k|fyldstf cg';f/ ug]{ cflb h:tf
s'/fdf s]Gb|sf] :ki6 b[li6sf]0f gePsf] b]lvG5 eg] ;|f]tsf] nflu
s]Gb|sf] d'v tfSg] :yfgLo lgsfosf] k|a[lQdf sdL gcfpg] h:tf


                                 223
lqmofsnfkn] :yfgLo txsf] ljsf; x'g] s'/fdf k|z:t z+sf ug]{ 7fFp
b]lvG5 . o:tf] kl/l:yltdf u|fdL0f ljsf;df k|lts'n c;/ k/L u|fdL0f
u/LaL Go"gLs/0fdf vf;} pknlAw xfl;n x'g ;Sb}g . ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf]
rfxgf / To;sf] ?kfGt/sf nflu Jojl:yt 7Ls 7Ls ;+oGq ljrsf] cd]nsf
sf/0f dGbultsf] kl/0ffd :jefljs 7x/LG5 . c:jefljs kl/0ffdsf] k5fl8
:yfgLo lgsfosf] :j?k, k|ltlglwx?sf] Joj:yf, bnut lgjf{rg k|0ffnL,
pQ/bfloTj jxg h:tf s'/fx? sf/ssf] ?kdf /x]sf x'g ;Sb5g\ . clxn]
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ ;+:yfut ug{, :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ :jfoQtf k|bfg ug{
/ u|fdL0f u/LaL Go"gLs/0f ug{ g;lsg'sf d'Vo d'2fx? lgDg k|sf/
/x]sf] b]lvG5 M

    !=   :yfgLo :t/df ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ lgsfox? ;]jf k|bfg ug'{sf] ;§f
         a9L ;d:of yk u/L l9nf ;':tL u/]sf] kfOG5 .
    @=   ;fd"lxs pQ/bfloTjn] ubf{ kbflwsf/LnfO{ ;+:yfsf]
         hjfkmb]xLtf ls6fg ul/Psf] b]lvb}g .
    #=   :yfgLo lgsfo -uf=lj=;=_ n] dfu]sf] j]nf dfq clwsf/
         lgIf]k0f ug'{ kg]{ k|fjwfgaf6 ufpF:t/Lo ;]jf / k"jf{wf/
         ;DalGw ljifout zfvfsf] :yfkgf cf]em]ndf k/]sf] b]lvG5 .
    $=   of]hgf k4ltsf] ;do–tflnsf ef}uf]lns cj:yf cg'?k x'g ;s]sf]
         b]lvb}g . ;|f]tsf] cg'dfg, nufgLsf] k|fyldstf / ljsf;sf]
         lgb]{lzt If]qaf/] cg'zf;g sfod x'g ;s]sf] b]lvb}g . u|fdL0f
         ljsf;nfO{ k|efj kf/L u/LjL Go"gLs/0f ug]{ h:tf] jftfj/0f
         Pj+ ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf sfo{x? cf]em]ndf k/]sf] b]lvG5 .
         u|fdL0f If]qdf pknAw u/fOg] ;|f]t Pj+ cg'bfg k4lt
         j}1flgs / j:t'ut x'g ;s]sf] b]lvb}g .
    %=   :yfgLo ;]jf cfof]usf] u7g g;s]sf] cj:yfdf :yfgLo lgsfosf
         kbx? cfs{ifs x'g ;s]sf] b]lvb}g .
    ^=   :yfgLo lgsfo -uf=lj=;=_ nfO{ k"0f{ :jfoQtfsf] k|Tofe"lt
         lbg] qmddf P]gn] >L % sf] ;/sf/sf lgb]{zgx? jfWofTds
         x'g] cj:yf l;h{gf u/]sf] b]lvb}g . cg'udg ;DaGwL Joj:yf
         k|efjsf/L ePsf] b]lvb}g .

pk/f]Qm ljZn]if0faf6 ljs]Gb|Ls/0f Pjd\ u|fdL0f u/LaL
Go"gLs/0fdf jfxssf] ?kdf /x]sf] uf=lj=;=sf] ;+/rgf / lgjf{rg

                                224
k|0ffnLdf s]xL ;d:of p7]sf] kfOG5 . ljs]Gb|Ls/0fnfO{ ;xL lbzflt/
pGd'v u/fO{ u|fdL0f ljsf;af6 u|fdL0f u/LaL Go"gLs/0fdf s]xL
kl/dfh{g ePsf] b]lvP tfklg /fhg}lts k|ltj4tfsf ;fy ljsf; cfof]hgfx?sf]
k"0f{ sfof{Gjog x'g g;Sbf pTkGg ;d:ofn] u|fdL0f u/LjL
Go"gLs/0f ug{df cfzftLt pknlAw xfl;n ug{ ;s]sf] b]lvb}g .

!=$ ;'emfj / ;'wf/sf pkfox?

ljZjsf clwsf+z /fi6«x?df hxfF :yfgLo lgsfo ljBflos k|f?ksf] 5
ToxfF :yfgLo lgsfosf] e"ldsfnfO{ ljwflosL clwsf/ k|of]u ug]{ /
sfo{sf/Ln] sfof{Gjog ug]{ u/]sf] b]lvG5 . o:tf] Joj:yfn] zlQm
;Gt'ng / lgoGq0fsf] k|Tofe"lt k|bfg ub{5 . g]kfnsf] :yfgLo lgsfo
-uf=lj=;=_ sf] u7gsf] cjwf/0ff ldl>t k|sf/sf] /x]sf] kfOG5 . :yfgLo
lgsfosf] u7g k|0ffnLdf b]lvPsf sdL–sdhf]/Lx? x6fpg o;sf] u7g
k|lqmofnfO{ ldl>taf6 ;+;bLo 9fFrfdf ?kfGt/0f ug'{ g} ljsNksf]
k|f/lDes klxrfg x'g ;Sb5 .

;/sf/L gLlt /0fgLlt 9fFrf lgdf{0f, P]g–lgodsf] ;fdlos aGbf]j:t,
ljQLo ;fwgsf] lgIf]k0f, u|fdL0f of]hgf th'{df k4ltdf a[xt ;fdflhs
kl/rfng, k|efjsf/L ;"rgf k|0ffnL, s8f ;'kl/j]If0f / cg'udg, :yfgLo
lgsfosf] Ifdtf ljsf; / lghLIf]qsf] ;xeflutf h:tf k|d'v If]qx?df yk
;'wf/sf] dfWodaf6 :yfgLo :jfoQtf k|fKt u/L u|fdL0f u/LjL
Go"gLs/0fdf ;3fp k'Ug] b]lvG5 .

!=%       lgisif{

ljZjsf] s'n hg;+Vof dWo] sl/j ^)Ü eGbf j9L dflg;x? ljsf;f]Gd'v
/fi6«df / tL dWo] klg clwsf+z u|fdL0f If]qdf j;f]jf; u/L Go"gtd
hLjg lgjf{x ug{ ;d]t d'l:sn k/]sf] s'/f ljleGg tYo–tYofÍn] :ki6
kf/]sf] b]lvG5 . g]kfndf ! s/f]8 eGbf a9L dflg; u/LaLsf] /]vfd'lg
/x]sf] kfOG5 .




                                  225
;Lldt JolQmdf clwsf+z s[lifof]Uo e"ld / clwsf+z JolQmdf ;Lldt
s[lifof]Uo hldg /x]sf]af6 clwsf+z g]kfnLsf] hLjg bogLo?kdf
Joltt ePsf] b]lvG5 . u|fdL0f u/LjLsf] jfx'Notf /x]sf] sf/0f g]kfn
u/LaLsf] e"d/Ldf k/]sf] :ki6 x'g hfG5 . cf=j=@)^!.)^@ df sl/j
#!Ü hgtf u/LaLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf] cg'dfg 5 h'g cf=j=@)%@.)%#
df $@Ü /x]sf] cg'dfg lyof] . u|fdL0f u/LaL ;f]xL ;dodf $#Ü af6
#%Ü n] em/]sf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . o;sf] k|d'v sf/0f s[lif If]qsf]
cf};t Hofnf, u}/s[lif Joj;fosf] cfDbfgL / Hofnf, cfly{s?kn] ;lqmo
hgzlQmsf] cg'kft, ljk|]if0f cflb h:tf a[l4nfO{ lng ;lsG5 .
cf=j=@)%@.)%# sf] t'ngfdf @)^).)^! df u/LaLsf] ljifdtfdf klg
;'wf/ ePsf] b]lvG5 . pQm ;"rs cf=j=@)%@.)%# df !!=&%Ü
                                                     #
k|ltztaf6 36L &=%% k|ltzt /x]sf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 .

g]kfndf u|fdL0f ljsf; u/L u|fdL0f u/LjL Go"gLs/0f ug{
lnR5ljsfnb]lv k~rfotL zf;g Joj:yf x'Fb} ax'bnLo k|hftflGqs
Joj:yf;Dd cfOk'Ubf ljleGg ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ;DaGwL k|of;x? ePsf]
b]lvG5 . ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] d"ndGq ljQLo ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ePsf] /
o;sf] cnfjf /fhg}lts / k|zf;lgs ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] k|lqmofaf6
:yfgLotxdf :yfgLo hgtfnfO{ :yfgLo ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] s'zntd
k|of]uaf6 u|fdL0f /f]huf/L, pTkfbg, cfocfh{g, hgr]tgf, lzIff,
k|fljlws :j?k cflbsf] ljsf; x'g] u/L hgtfsf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ eO{
u|fdL0f u/LjL Go"gLs/0f x'g] s'/fdf b'Odt x'g ;Sb}g .

Foot-Notes


!_ u/LaL x6fpg] d]nf], ;j} hgtfsf] xft]dfnf], ;fd"lxs cleofg
   @)^@ h]i7 sf7df8f}+ .
@_ Asian Development Bank, 2005 "Key Indicator".
#_ u/LaL ljZn]if0fsf] ;+lIfKt glthf – s]Gb|Lo tYofÍ ljefu @)^@
   a}zfv .

;Gbe{–;fdfu|Lx?



                               226
   u/LjL Go"gLs/0fk|lt ;ts{tf, gful/s ;dfhsf] ;xeflutf – ;fd"lxs
    \cleofg, sdnkf]v/L, sf7df8f}+ – @)^)

   u/LjL x6fpg] d]nf] ;j} hgtfsf] xft]dfnf] – ;fd"lxs cleofg,
    sdnkf]v/L sf7df8f}+–@)^@

   u/LjL cg'udg tyf ljZn]if0f k|0ffnL, /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u,
    l;+xb/af/ sf7df8f}+–@)^!
   An Assessment of the Implementation of the Tenth Plan, Second
    Progress Report on the Road to Freedom from Poverty, National
    Planning Commission, Kathmandu-2005

   /fhZj, jif{ @!, c+s # – @)%*, >L % sf] ;/sf/, cy{ dGqfno,
    /fhZj k|zf;g tflnd s]Gb|,
   Nepalese Economy, Central Department of Economics, TU, - 2004.

   Shrestha, Tulsi Narayan (1990), The Implementation of
    Decentralization Scheme in Nepal, Modern Principle, Kathmandu.

   Shresha, Tulsi Narayan (2000), The Concept of Local Government
    and Decentraliation.

   Sharma, Sharad (1998), Decentralization and Local Participation for
    Development Policies and Realilites in Nepal.

   yklnof, lbg]z – g]kfndf ljs]Gb|s/0f tyf :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g
    pknlAw / r'gf}tL, a}l4s ;+;f/, sf7df8f}+ .

   c;n zf;gsf] nflu jsfnt – ;|f]t ;+ufnf], hglxt ;+/If0f dGq,
    sf7df8f}+ .
   Cheema G. Shabbir, Rondinelli, Dennis, Implementating
    Decenntralization Programmes in Asia, Local Capacity for Rural
    Development UNCRD – Naguya, Japan.

   Thapa, Gang Bdr. (1996), Democracy and Decentralization A policy
    Perspective on Nepal from polsan Seminar.

   Technical Consultation on Decentralization for Rural Developmnt,
    Proceedings, FAO, Rove – 1997.



                                 227
   u/LjL ljin]if0fsf] ;+lIfKt glthf– s]Gb|Lo tYofÍ ljefu @)^@
    a}zfv .
   P.Todaro, Michael, C. Smith, Stephen – Eco. Development 2004,
    Pearson Education (Singapur) Pvt.Ltd.


                              




                               228
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


    Positive Discrimination and Inclusive Civil Service in
                    the Nepalese Context




                                                           - Shyam Prasad Mainali

Background

In modern era, there is an advocacy all over the world for democratic
government, which is formed by pluralistic representation. Imbalanced
representation in the government ultimately creates obstacles for the pace of
smooth development. The population of Nepal consists of socio-cultural
diverse groups, such as caste, ethnicity, language, culture, class and religion.
A large share of women, disadvantaged and minorities are excluded from
the participation of different forms of public affairs. These groups are always
isolated from the mainstreaming of state affairs. Indigenous ethnics, women
and downtrodden groups are historically disadvantaged by continuing to lag
behind in income, getting educational achievement, human development and
representing in the power structure. Ethnic groups and dalits are mired in
extreme poverty. They are economically, socially and educationally
oppressed since long time. Problems of women and other disadvantaged
groups are more or less similar but in many cases they are different. The
status of women if it is compared with ethnic and downtrodden is different.
Here I would like to propose a discussion based on common and group-wise
issue, so that it would to be easier to identify the problems and finding
appropriate ways and alternative, for solving these problems. This is a
multidimensional problems. However, in this paper the focus is given
especially to increase the participation of these groups in civil service
including in policy and decision-making levels.



    Joint Secretary, Ministry of General Administration.

                                               229
The following tables highlight on the status of women and different caste
groups in Nepalese Civil Service. It is clear to see that only 8.03 percent of
Civil Service is represented by females. Similarly, only 12.2 percent females
file their applications to preliminary examination of Public Service
Commission against 87.8 percent of the male counter part. Among the
applicants only 5.3 percent of women get success in the pre-test
examination. Similarly, if we view the scenario form caste groups
perspectives we find the 97.7 percent of civil service positions are occupied
by the Bahun, Chhetri, Shah, Thakuri and Newar groups where only 2.3
percent of the total civil service positions are available to other ethnic
groups. Similarly, very few Dalits (0.79%) file applications for PSC exams.
In the same vein pass out percentages are also very low for Dalits and caste
groups other than Bahun, Chhetri and Newar (Table 5). The scenario is self-
evident for the need to identify the root cause for under representation of
these groups in Civil Service and formulate public policies accordingly
including the necessary amendments in Civil Service Act and Regulation in
order to make Civil Service much more representative.

                                    Table - 1
                   Status of Women in the Nepalese Civil Service
                                  (As of 2003)

No.               Class           Male     Female       Total       Male     Female     Total
 1        Special                    41      1           42         97.62     02.38     00.05
 2        Gazetted First            304      4           308        98.70     01.30     00.41
 3        Gazetted Second          1399      52         1451        96.42     03.38     01.93
 4        Gazetted Third           4909     304         5213        94.17     05.83     06.93
 5        Non-Gazetted First      12816     1250        14066       91.11     08.89     18.70
 6        Non-Gazetted Second     18169     1623        19801       91.96     08.24     26.33
 7        Non-Gazetted Third       5830     1293        7123        81.85     18.15     09.47
 8        Non-Gazetted Fourth      1781      58         1839        96.85     03.15     02.45
 9        Classless               23885     1432        25317       94.34     05.66     33.66
10        Not Available              47      2           49         95.92     04.08     00.07
          Total                   69181     6019        72089       91.98      8.02      100
Source : Nijamati Kitabkhana, MOGA

                              Table - 2
Candidate, attended and passed in the preliminary examination of PSC

    No.        Gender               Applicants number                 Passed Number
                                Number        Percent           Number        Percent
1         Male                  11,303        87.8              2,021         94.7
2         Female                1,566         12.2              112           5.3



                                           230
                                  Table - 3
            Status of caste groups in the Nepalese Civil Service
                          (Only in Gazetted Level)
No                       Caste Groups                 Total Percentage
1        Bahun, Chhetri, Shaha and Thakuri            84.3
2        Newar                                        13.4
3        Other ethnic group                           2.3
Source : Manandhar, 2056 (Extracted from Tamang)

                                Table - 4
         Caste and Tribe-wise applicants in the PSC Examinations
No.      Caste                                 Applicants
         Group      057/58         %        058/59      %     059/60        %
                   Number       Percent    Number Percent    Number      Percent
1      Bahun       23821        61.26      4815      62.63   71492       55.08
2      Chhetri     8817         22.68      1321      17.18   28250       21.76
3      Newar       1771         4.56       346       4.50    6117         5.33
4      Kirat       719          1.85       135       1.75    2483        1.91
5      Sherpa      12           0.03       6         0.08    123         0.09
6      Gurung      127          0.33       27        0.35    687         0.53
7      Magar       696          1.79       168       2.19    3071        2.37
8      Tamang      323          0.83       170       2.21    1064        0.82
9      Tharu       525          1.35       172       2.24    2591        2.00
10     Muslim      93           0.24       174       2.26    476         0.37
11     Dalit       250          0.64       176       2.29    1028        0.79
12     Others      1728         4.44       178       2.32    11619       8.25
             Total 38882        100        7688      100     129801      100
Source : Annual Reports of PSC

                                  Table –5
      Caste and tribe-wise applicants passed in the PSC examinations
                 (Non-technical service, Gazetted 3rd class)

 No.             Caste Group                Applicants       Passed Number
                                             Number
1        Bahun                          8585 (66.71%)        1669 (78.25%)
2        Chhetri                        2153 (16.73%)        327 (15.33%)
3        Newar                          1034 (8.03%)         61 (2.86%)
4        Dalit                          84 (0.65%)           14 (0.66%)
5        Others (Caste Group)           1013 (7.87 %)        62 (2.91%)
                                  Total 12869 (100%)         2133 (100%)
Source: Annual Reports of PSC

                                          231
While talking about indigenous ethnic groups, a task force was formed in
1995 for the enhancement of status of these groups. This task force enlisted
some groups of tribes as vulnerable backward and isolated. Major indicators
for identifying the vulnerable were economic, education and health status of
these ethnic tribes. Newar and Thakali which is considered as privileged
class in the society are also enlisted in indigenous ethnic groups. All ethnic
groups cannot be treated keeping in the same basket. So the list maintained
as disadvantaged ethnic groups of Nepal needs to be reviewed as soon as
possible.

Problems

1. Deeply rooted socio-cultural values creating the norms of division of
   labour between privileged and disadvantaged groups as well as between
   men and women has been the responsible factor for widening the gaps
   among these groups of people.

2. Governance Reform Program is being implemented with a objective of
   establishing inclusiveness in state affairs. However, no concrete results
   are seen except formulating the policy of reservation for female and
   disadvantaged group of society. It lacks strong commitment of the state
   to overcome this problem.

3. No balanced allocation of national resources are made which lacks the
   spirit of equity, equality and justice.

4. Suffered from vicious circle of poverty, these groups are deprived of
   getting quality education, health services, sufficient caters, social
   recognition pushing to the isolation from the mainstream of the state
   affairs.

5. Suffered from legal inequality i.e. downtrodden groups are treated
   unequally to date. Even other ethnic groups are performing traditional
   occupation as mentioned in Muluki Ain. Legal discrimination between
   privileged and disadvantaged class of society still continue.

6. The lack of access to education, health facilities and human resources
   development opportunities, especially in deprived communities where
   most of the poor people reside.

7. The lack of development infrastructures in rural areas where almost these
   vulnerable groups live.

                                      232
8. The examination centers of public service commission are located up-to
   the zonal level and at the center and the advertisement procedures for
   recruitment have remained much more formal. The people living in
   outlying parts do not have enough information and experience about
   PSC procedures and the recruitment processes in Civil service.

9. No effective programs for these targeted groups are launched for
   capacity development.

10. Most of the programs are urban centered which are unable even to touch
    the majority target groups residing in rural areas.

11. The lack of sufficient participation of these target groups of people in the
    process of formulation, implementation and evaluation of plans, policies,
    programs and projects.

12. The lack of sufficient awareness and deeply affected by superstition.

13. The male dominated society is hampering the progress to utilize their
    potentialities and talents in national building process.

14. The achievement gained and facilities provided for the targeted group are
    utilized by others.

15. The programs formulated and launched for bringing these groups in
    mainstreaming are not effective. Only lip service is paid. So, these areas
    have been limited only in the slogan of government and the concerned
    political parties.

16. The ground work for identifying the real needs of these target groups are
    not sufficient. Plans and programs are finalized without identifying the
    real need of these vulnerable.

17. No target groups are clearly identified, to provide opportunities to the
    needy people. Sometimes, the criteria of defining disadvantaged groups
    are also creating confusion.

Regarding the better participation of women in the civil service, some
provisions are made in the Civil Service Act, 1993. Likewise, in the second
amendment of this Act, rooms are given for positive discrimination.
Provisions made under this Act are as follows.


                                       233
1. Age bar to enter into civil service has been increased to 40 years to
   women against 35 years for men.

2. Probation period for women is only six months whereas it is one year for
   the male candidates.

3. Husbands and wives are posted in the same districts if both of them are
   working in government service depending on the availability of the
   vacant posts.

4. Some privileges are given to the female candidates regarding the
   minimum period to be eligible for promotion.

5. In the second amendment of the Civil Service Act a strong provision for
   reservation is clearly mentioned. Now progress is underway to determine
   the reservation percentage for different group. (Women, Dalits, Ethnic
   Groups and Disabled ).

Besides the provisions incorporated in the Civil Service Act, 1993, the
government has a policy to exempt age limit to participate in the civil
service examinations to the women having at least five years' experience in
temporary job. Similarly, the transfer policy has given priority to employees
from women, dalits and ethnic communities. Likewise, the government has
been conducting special training programs for these groups to train them in
order to enhance their capabilities for competitive examinations of PSC. The
government has been continuing its efforts to implement massively the
policy of positive discrimination in the civil service. The forthcoming
amendment of the Civil Service Rules is expected to be a milestone in giving
a concrete shape to the policy of positive discriminations in the Nepalese
Civil Service

What may be the solution?
To solve the existing problems of these vulnerable groups, many
recommendations can be taken and materialized. Efforts made so far have
not been effective desirable extent. Programs launched so for are also
superficial. Policies declared from the government are also not fully
materialised and are only concentrated in entry level for the last 5 years. No
clear-cut commitment is seen for the participation of these groups in policy
formulation and decision making level. Keeping in mind the above
phenomenon the following strategies, policies and programs are suggested
so that it can be improved tangibly within a given time framework.


                                      234
1.   Long-term strategy: The root cause lies on educational and
     economic problem Children of these groups are fighting for solving
     the hand to mouth problem. Majority of them do not get chance to
     join the school and those who have joined do not get qualitative
     education. In terms of quality and quantity, these group are always
     remain far behind; quite incapable to be selected in the competitive
     examinations. We can imagine and compare the product of rural
     areas with the product of very costly and well-equipped schools of
     capital city. So programs should be focused on increasing the access
     of qualitative education. Without increasing the number of
     qualitative graduates all other efforts cannot help to increase the
     participation of these people in any level of civil service, especially
     in the officer level. To enhance the educational capacity the
     following measures are suggested:
-    Full commitment of the government and development partners, bi-
     lateral and multilateral donors and the elected local authority by
     disbursing reasonable amount of their budget.
-    An umbrella agreement between these authorities for providing
     sufficient amount to create education fund for the targeted group is
     highly essential. At a glance, it might be seen quite ambitious but in a
     long run it could be quite tangible and productive.
-    Likewise, at least 10% budget of the local bodies needs to be
     allocated for the development of targeted groups.
-    The cases and circumstances of women and other disadvantaged
     groups are different. Our motto must be to promote the standard of
     living of the poorest of the poor residing in remote areas. If it is not
     clearly identified, people of wealthy families belonging to these
     groups will be privileged. In case of sophisticated families women
     are reluctant to join civil service in lower positions, the women of the
     middle class families do not get quality education so they are always
     far behind to be selected in the competitive examinations and women
     belonging to the below poverty line are depriving of educational
     facilities leading to unavailability of women candidate in the labour
     markets. So to achieve this purpose, an integrated fund needs to be
     created. Utilizing this fund qualitative education to the children of
     targeted groups will be provided so that in a long run we can plan for
     the representation of larger number of rural poor people including
     women in each position of the civil service.Similarly, in the long run,
     their representation in decision and policy level will be possible and
     substacive progress can be seen.


                                    235
Therefore, the holistic approach is essential to combat this problem. In every
sphere of state affairs, a reasonable involvement (including politics and civil
service) is a must. If the representation of these groups is behind, there wil
be low level of opportunity. We can see the example of the Philippines and
Sri-Lanka where the nation is led by women. The participation of women are
found significant even in policy and decision-making level.

Short-term strategy

Capacity enhancement: Every sectoral ministry has to formulae policies
and programs. Internalizing and acknowledging this problem as a cross-
cutting issue, proper arrangements for getting expertise, information and
resources should be maintained. The following measures for enhancing the
capacity of women, dalits and ethnic groups are suggested.

(a)    The expansion of freedom of choice and action to all the
       disadvantaged groups as well as to the women : The problems
       regarding to all these groups are different. Among them women's
       problems can be considered entirely as a cross-cutting issue.
       However, it cannot be interlalized and materialized in the same
       manner as it would work for others. The lack of self-confidence and
       unavailability of such candidates in the labour market demands
       capacity enhancement so that they can build up confidence resulting
       the better participation in bureaucracy. Coaching classes and training
       programs need to be launched massively up to the level of district
       headquarters. For this, the concerned authorities have to work in
       detail about the resources and facilities available in different parts of
       the Kingdom. At present, the government has taken decision to run
       the coaching classes for entry-level positions, i.e, up-to gazetted class
       three level which needs to be extended to the gazetted class one level
       so that we can see the participation of such groups at higher
       positions. These programs also need to cover the assistant level
       positions with especial emphasis to the rural population providing
       subsistence level allowances to attract in the program. Wide
       dissemination of such programs is necessary to publicize and make
       better participation of targeted group of people. Every effort should
       be made to reach to the perspective candidates from backward areas
       and disadvantaged ethnic groups.
(b)    By creating educational fund, a countrywide scholarship program for
       providing qualitative and quantitative education is necessary. Despite
       this, opportunities to provide different scholarship programs


                                      236
      indigenously and abroad to those who have already joined
      government service is significant. All efforts of the government need
      to be concentrated on searching the ways for the presence of such
      groups in all level of bureaucratic structure.

(c)   One national level committee comprising the potential activists of
      each and every group and the focal point in every ministry need to be
      organized immediately. These committees and focal points are
      responsible for the following –

           To study the pros and cons as well as the potentialities of
            these groups and provide feed back to the government.
           Finding possible ways and resources for betterment of such
            groups.
           Maintaining records and regularly updating it.
           Provide possible feed back for legal amendments and
            formulating different plans, policies and programs in a
            regular manner.
           To break our deeply rooted cultural values and mind-set, a
            massive campaign is highly desirable. For this, the role of
            social organizations including NGOs is very significant. For
            this purpose, the favorable environment should be furnished
            by providing possible resources, supports as well as logistics
            at the full extent.

(d)   Searching the positions within the civil service which are
      comparatively better suited to these groups is highly essential. These
      positions will be separated as a form of reservation. However,
      reservation itself is not thought appropriate. It creates different
      anomalies and differences. Ultimately it leads to the weak and
      inferior bureaucracy. Therefore, advanced level refreshment
      workshops trainings, conferences, seminars etc. for different level of
      civil service should be organized on periodic basis for those who
      have come from the reservation is highly essential so that these group
      would enhance the level of confidence to mix with other civil
      servants recruited through merit basis.

(e)   The policy declaration and Civil Service Act amendment made in
      favour of reservation to these groups are highly encouraging steps for
      the future prosperity. The policy of reservation on 20, 10, 10 and 5
      percent seats for women, ethnic groups (Janajati), down-trodden
      groups (dalits) and disabled group respectively have been declared.

                                    237
      In the second amendment of Civil Service Act, provisions of positive
      discrimination including reservation are clearly mentioned.
      HMG/Nepal is making homework to define these provision muh
      more clearly through the amendment of Civil Service Rules in the
      near future. No doubt, these provisions are very much significant for
      better participation but do not address to the effective presence of
      these groups at the policy and decision-making level. To meet these
      problems, there must be the provision of reservation in higher
      positions as well, so that these groups will enhance their capabilities
      by contributing at the stage of policy formulations and programming.

At present, HMG/N is in the preparation of amending Civil Service
Regulations. Keeping all these in mind the following issues should be
incorporated through the amendment of the Civil Service Rule.

(1)   Encouraging these groups and making them to participate in the civil
      service has been more or less cross-cutting issue. So, from
      recruitment to retirement, conducive and favorable environment for
      such groups needs to be created.

(2)   Especially women in Nepal have to shoulder the domestic chores. To
      care children has been the responsibilities of women. So, a
      reasonable amount of allowance, should be provided to women to
      admit their children in child care center so that they can resume
      offices comfortably.

(3)   Proper adjustment of scholarship provision in the Act as mentioned
      earlier is essential.

(4)   Priorities should be given to the candidate of these groups in the
      interview of competitive examination if he/she passes the written
      examinations.

(5)   The Civil Service Regulation should reserve civil service positions
      allocated for recruitment to women, dalits, ethnic communities and
      disabled persons by 20,10, 10 and 5 percent respectively.

(6)   In this way, women should be allowed to compete in the seats that
      are open to all and for the seats reserved for their respective classes
      in addition to the seats reserved for them.



                                    238
(7)       The regulations should make a provision of 100 days paid maternal
          leave and six months non-paid maternal leave.

(8)       Including at least one woman in Grievance Handling Committee in
          each level should be made mandatory.

(9)       Gender-friendly environment should be created in every government
          offices in order to attract and retain the under represented classes in
          the civil service.

References:

         Sharma, Dr. Munni, 1999 "Gender and Development: Conceptual
          Clarity for a Gender Analysis Framework" CAMAD, Kathmandu,
          Nepal
         Acharya, Meena and Beneth Lyn. 1983, "Women and subsistance
          Sector Economic Participation and Household Decesion Making in
          Nepal" Staff Working Paper. The World Bank, Washington D.C.
         Mainali, Shyam Prasad, 2005, 2005, "Positive Discrimination and
          strengthening the Civil Service", a paper presented in the seminar,
          program organized by MGEP.
         Mainali, Shyam Prasad, 2003, "Balancing Gender in the Nepalese
          Context", a paper presented in the seminar organized by Ministry of
          General Administration, Lalitpur.
         UNDP, 2003 "Engendering Nepalese Civil Service with specific
          Reference to Promotion and Entry in Administrative Service",
          Mainstreaming Gender Equity Program Lalitpur, Nepal.
         ADB, 2002, Reports on Gender Mainstreaming submitted for
          Institutional Support for Governance Reform.
         HMG, Civil Service Act 1992
         MOGA, Different Publications of "Prasashan" (The Nepalese Journal
          of Public Administration)
         CAMAD, Different Publications of CAMAD (A Journal of
          Administration Management and Development)

                                       




                                        239
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@

     Aspect of Scientific Management (Taylorism)




                                                                    –Ms. Sabitri Aryal*
General Introduction
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) is renowned as founding father of
the principle of scientific management in industrial and production field. He
advocated the idea that the conditions of the workers and output in an
industrial sector could be improved by introducing certain scientific
systematic procedures. In his early life, Taylor was pursuing to make
engineering his career, but weak-eye sight forced him to give up his studies
in 1848. He entered as a worker in Midvale Steel Company and rose to the
position of Chief Engineer by dint of hard work and intelligent pursuit of his
avocation. Later on, he took up the chair of General Manager in
Manufacturing Investment Company in Philadelphia and served there for
three years. Here he coined the concept of Scientific Management. He had
also been associated with the Bethelem Steel Company for three years
(1818-1901). The later period of his life was totally devoted to improving
upon the techniques of Scientific Management.

Taylor, being basically a researcher and innovator, was very much frustrated
at the then existing production practices - the crude equipment employed, the
way the workers were graded to increase output, the multifunctional
supervisors (i.e. one supervisor handling varied and often unrelated
activities) and the pervasive atmosphere of suspicion under which industrial
production was carried on. In short, Taylor found, as to speak, an aimlessly
drifting industrial systems in which the components tended to contradict to
each other. For Taylor, a robust empiricist himself, the best way to initiate

*
    Lecturer, Tribhuvan University, Public Administration Campus.



                                             240
corrective measures was to start inductively from the bottom of hierarchy. If
he has succeeded in establishing scientific relationship between the two
main instruments of production viz., the machine and man (here worker), his
task of reconstructing the edifice would be a logical extension of the very
same principle and that much easier. Taylor’s approach was that increasing
production and profits necessarily implies increasing the per worker
productivity. And an enduring policy towards sustained worker productivity
is inescapably linked up with corresponding wage incentives - what he
called the fair day’s salary for a fair day's work.

Taylor felt that worker’s efficiency is conditioned by the type of equipment
with which he works. He, therefore, initiated a series of experiments,
especially with the shovels to shovel coal into wheel barrows for
transporting coal to the furnaces. His experiments revealed that different
type of shovels were to be used for efficiently loading different types of
materials. As he designed suitable shovels, it was found that a worker could
now shovel twice the quantity of coal in one shift. Interestingly, scientific
equipment designing, not only minimized wastage of energy and increased
output but also led to the establishment of objective standards for
determining a fair day's work. These and other experiments and research
have led to the progressive expansion of the scientific management approach
into a self consistent body of knowledge on early industrial management.
Taylor’s papers on Scientific Management first appeared in the proceedings
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. His books FShop
Management" and "Principles of Scientific Management" appeared in 1903
and 1911 respectively. The Taylor society, which was formed round about
this limit, subsequently emerged as the FSociety for Advancement.” in 1936.
( Taylor,1947)

Concept of Scientific Management and Its Essentials
The application of the Scientific method in the management of industrial
affairs is called Scientific Management. In Taylor’s view, Scientific
Management leads a systematic and optimal work situation in a productive
organization. Scientific Management is a device by which maximum utility
is obtained from man and machine to achieve the goal in a given situation in
an industry.

Scientific Management was one of the most outstanding movements of the
early twentieth century to introduce systematic management and production
practices in industry. The movement was reaction to ‘Rule of Thumb’


                                     241
approach of the manager and engineers to industrial management and
production. In other words, management was taken to mean individual skill
and discretion, in which process each manager marked out his own best way
of managing industrial administration.

The origin of the Scientific Management Movement started with three major
corrective approaches viz., to introduce:
 (a) systematic and objective criteria in the management practices,
 (b) to design and develop instrument and equipment most conducive for
     enhancing labor productivity, and
 (c) to bring about the much needed worker cooperation.

Scientific Management has taken the shape of a movement all over the
Western World and it in the fitness of things that numerous thinkers have
played varied roles in perfecting its methods and content. Scientific
Management, its approach, philosophy and, above all, its pervasive massage
became the absorbing pre-occupations for the most outstanding industrial
engineers of the United States of America and Europe of the early 20th
century. Among the galaxy of industrial Engineers and Management
specialists who have contributed to the movement, ( Taylor,1947).

Taylor thought of cooperation between the management and workers
through the application of the Scientific method. He believed that scientific
method should be applied in selecting workers, in determining their jobs,
and in creating an understanding between management and the workers that
would improve the overall industrial efficiency. Taylor observed that if the
output of the worker achieved a level excellence under the given conditions,
the worker should be rewarded but conversely, if he fails in increasing his
output, penalty should be imposed on him. Taylor’s concept of management
involved a ‘mental revolution’ both on the part of the management and the
workers. It needs a radical change in the output of both sides towards their
respective duties and mutual relationships ( Taylor,1947).

Taylor listed four principles as a guide for the best type of management.
These are:
(1) Daily Defined Task: Each man is the organization high or low, should
    have a clearly defined task before him every day, so that he may work
    with a set aim. He should know what he is expected to do.
(2) Standardized working conditions: The working conditions should be
    standardized in such a way that the workers and management may
    accomplish their task in an environment of certainty.


                                     242
(3) Reward for success: The work man should be given high pay if he
    accomplishes his task successfully and efficiently.
(4) Penalty for failure: If the worker fails to achieve the task entrusted to
    him, he should be given a penalty for it.

Taylor’s Work
Taylor’s first paper in the field of the management was ‘A Piece Rate
System.’ Although the paper was outstanding, it had a narrow focus as it
discussed only the principles used for wage payment. Later, in 1903, Taylor
presented another paper on ‘Shop Management’ before and American
Society of Mechanical Engineers. In this paper, he considered these points:-

(a) The goal good management should be either higher productivity or
     lower unit cost; to achieve this goal, management must pay high
     wages, only then increased industrial efficiency could be achieved.
(b) It is important to promote the application of method of science to the
     problems of management.
(c) Standardization of working conditions by scientifically placing workers
     on job is crucially important.
(d) In order to increase workers’ output, they should be imparted scientific
     training.

Later, in the year 1906, Taylor published another paper entitled, ‘On the Art
of Cutting Metals’ and this work influenced and impressed the engineers and
experts engaged in this field to a commendable extent. And soon (1911)
came out his well known book "Principles of Scientific Management" (
Taylor,1905).

Scientific Management was developed by Taylor and his illustrious
associates embodied rigorous application of scientific methods to industrial
management and work processes. The knowledge obtained through scientific
investigations was analyzed and systematized into a body of principles and
rules. This approach meant a systematic examination of all phases of human
and mechanical activities that go about in an industry.

Secondly, it was the investigator’s purpose to discover the best possible
combination of man-machine integration which would yield conservation of
energy and elimination of waste.




                                     243
Thirdly, it was necessary to formulate the related principles, rules and laws
which could be applied on a recurrent basis.

Fourthly, maximization of output meant the evolving of ‘automatic
coordination’ of all elements of production.

Finally, it was necessary to organize and interrelate the components of the
production system such as the man, process, equipment and material into
perfect harmony and cooperation so as to ensure collective effort.

Taylor, in order to achieve these objectives, designed a management system
which he described as ‘Functionalized Formanship’. This meant the division
of work processes into specific functional areas, each to be managed by
specialist boss. The gang boss is to deal general supervision of the work in
the ship, the speed boss to control the setting up of machines, the inspection
boss to inspect the work at the beginning and at the end the repair boss is to
repair the machine. The remaining four bosses- the order of work and route
clerk, instruction and card clerk, time and cost clerk, and the shop
disciplinarian were to constitute the planning cell and they were to function
in a specially arranged ‘Planning Room’. The governing principle behind
this work organization was that there should be division of labor and
specialization throughout the production system, including the management
(Taylor, 1905).

Mechanism of Management
Taylor made a distinction between the ‘Principles of Management and
‘Mechanisms of Management". He studied following mechanisms:

(1)   He used the stop watch, essentially for the technique of time study.
(2)   The concept of functional foremanship should take place of single
      foremanship. He himself had been a foreman at some time and thus
      realized this malady, he advocated for eight types of functional
      foreman guiding the functioning of a worker.
(3)   Standardization of all tools and techniques used.
(4)   Planning for daily task should be charted so as to enhance industrial
      efficiency. Further, he added that there should be a separate planning
      cell in each industrial unit.
(5)   Time study for the use of time saving devices, e.g. slide rules.
(6)   The use of instruction card system to record what to do and how to do
      the particular task.


                                      244
(7)  Adoption of proper classification pattern for products as well as
     implements used in manufacturing process.
(8) Use of the bonus system for the successful performance of the task.
(9) Application of the ‘rule of exception’ under which Taylor called for
     setting up a large daily task, with reward for meeting it penalty for not
     attaining the targets.
(10) Encouraging modern costing system.

Objectives
Taylor laid down five original objectives of the Scientific Management
which were modified and expanded by the Taylor’s society. These are:-
1. To help in developing higher standard of living by increasing the
    income of workers;
2. To avoid wastage of human and material resources in order to get larger
    income from expenditure. This income should be shared between the
    management and the workers.
3. Management should assure a happier environment to the worker by
    removing disagreeable factors.
4. Individually and socially, healthy working condition should be
    provided to the members of the organization.
5. Maximum opportunities should be provided for the highest
    development of individuals’ capacity through scientific method of work
    assignment and selection training, transfer and promotion.
6. Training should be imparted to workers so that they may develop better
    capabilities and at the same time become eligible for promotion.
7. Efforts should be raised for the development of self-confidence and
    self-respect among workers.
8. An atmosphere of research should be created where workers could
    develop the capacity to express and understand the aims and objectives
    of the organization.
9. Discrimination in wages should be avoided in order to promote justice.
10. Factors causing conflict should be eliminated from the environment.

Assumption
The basic assumption of the scientific management relates to the nature of
worker and his motivation, and the nature of work organization. Firstly, the
implicit assumption of the scientific management regarding the worker.
Motivation is that he is selfish, affected with basic inertia towards work, that
is lowly endowed and that the essential driving force in his motivation is


                                       245
economic gains. That is why Taylor called that man is an economic man,
give more money and have a good amount of work. If this is the assumption
of worker motivation, it follows that the worker is not to be trusted that he is
not capable of any higher order work and that he should be constantly good
into work. Secondly, it is assumed that a worker, working individually is
capable of involved effort and does a good job but in group, his effort
perceptibly reduced. The best way to organize work, there, is to emphasize
on individual worker and discourage all group formations. Third, assumption
was that the detachment of planning tasks and entrusting them to a specialist
group would yield greater efficiency. Finally, it is assumed that the interests
of the workers and the management are not antagonistic but are inter-
dependent and identical in nature. That way, maximization of production
should necessarily bring more profit and better wages to workers
(D.S.Pugh.1977).

Taylor mentioned the following points in connection of the scientific
Management work:
1. Man is an economic man (Monetary Incentives).
2. Efficiency and Economy in organization.
3. Rule of thumb practices - owners may not necessarily be good
    managers in all cases.
4. One best way of doing one job- this involved the "Time and Motion
    Studies" and also the work study to find out one best style of doing one
    work.
5. Work study and work management.
6. Differential wage rate or piece rate for the workers - more pay for more
    work.
7. Official Technology - use of office tools to assist the job of
    management
8. Functional foremanship.
9. Principle of harmony.
10. Rule of Exception - full utilization of the capacity and capabilities of
    the workers and managers for achieving organizational goals.
11. No place for trade unions and collective bargaining.

Criticism
Despite his best efforts to evolve new principles of management in the field
of industry based upon practical research experiments and studies, Taylor
was criticized from many platforms. His assumptions and pronouncements
about different aspects of industrial management have been subjected to


                                       246
severe criticism. Taylor’s assumptions about the motivation of the workers
are perhaps the most fiercely attacked idea. His contempt for the low mental
endowment of the worker has been a subject of criticism of equal strength.
He even compared the mental caliber of the worker to that of an ox
(Luthans, 1977, P.26)
Although, he argued for a better wages to the workers, he assumed that the
worker is incapable of any creative talent. This has been his most erroneous
assumption. That the worker is equally motivated, under certain conditions
by non-monetary. Human and social consideration was amply demonstrated
in subsequent research. Thus, his concept of an economic man was
misleading and incomplete. Robert Hoxy in 1915 presented a research paper
before the Industrial Relations Commission (U.S.A) in which he raised the
following important objections to Taylorism:
1.   The term ‘Scientific’ is improper as the concept of Science is used in
     management and not Science itself.
2.   Taylor has attached the relevance of Scientific Management only with
     the production (output) while keeping aside some important aspects
     like finance, marketing etc.
3.   In his Scientific Management the rule of exception is practically
     impossible for the worker.
4.   Taylor has put all the decision authority in management and keeping
     the workers out of participation, this leads discord in organization.
5.   Taylor’s managerial techniques have no room for human relation
     aspect, which is a main factor in productivity of an organization.
The suggestion given by Taylor was opposed by viz., management and the
workers, as they involved painstaking efforts from both sides.
Manager’s Opposition

1. Unit for Small Organizations: The Scientific Management is a
   complex procedure; it needs huge amount of money, trained manpower
   and time which is often difficult for small industries.
2. Lack of Correct Standardization:
        It is not possible to have common standards of works and process to
   all employees of one organization as it differs from person to person and
   it is very difficult to attain standard of some type in all the industries.
3. Problem of Control and Supervision: on account of functional
   supervisions, unity of command is diluted and it has become difficult to
   establish coordination among direction given by several formen. This
   leads obstruction in work and confusion among the workers.


                                      247
Opposition by workers
1.   The worker is treated like a machine in Scientific Management. Taylor
     expects maximum work and close watch over the worker. This affects
     the power of initiation and interest adversely causing decline in
     efficiency. Human relations were not in the mind of Taylor to
     complement such a situation.
2.   Workers find no participation in management and organization goals,
     thus, they cannot protect their rights and interests against the atrocities
     of management.
3.   Workers have no association or trade union in Taylor’s Scientific
     Management, thus, they feel themselves helpless, poor and weak, they
     also can not realize their collective strength even for right demands and
     the management can humiliate the workers individually (one by one).
4.   Scientific Management led ousting of many workers because of
     management technology and use of more official tools in industries,
     thus, rendering them (workers) jobless.
5.   The different wage rate policy create to tension and conflict among the
     workers, which reduces the quality and homogeneity of products.

Conclusion
The scientific theory, as propounded by Taylor, despite all its weaknesses,
limitations and criticisms stands fruitful. Taylor laid the theoretical
foundations of the principles of scientific Management but behavioral
anomalies created the trouble in different industries. It is not his fault if
managers and workers do not want to take pain and raise efforts for the well
being of the organization. Indeed, Taylor was the first person of his kind to
initiate systematic reform in management of industries and in the given
conditions he performed experiments and showed the right path to the
members of an industry. His work is the landmarks in the history of
management science and the credit for modern management of industrial
organization goes to him to some extent (Luthans, 1977, P.26)

The Scientific Management has given a right turn to the workers as also to
the management to achieve the planned targets. It has also provoked that the
concepts of human relations are complementary to each other to achieve the
goal and not contradictory only by the intention of being criticizing it.
Efforts should be invited to develop, improve and reform the basic tenets of
Taylor’s Scientific Management, so as to make its maximum use for the
welfare of mankind (Luthans, 1977, P.26).


                                       248
Reference

    D.S.Pugh: ‘Organization Theory’, Penguin, 1977.
    F.W. Taylor: ‘The Shop Management’, 1905
    F.W. Taylor: ‘Principles of Scientific Management, Harper and
     Row,’1947
    Luthans: ‘Organizational Behaviour’ I. S. E. (II), 1977.

                                  




                                   249
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


                   Fiscal Policy and Budget




                                                           –Dr. Badri Pokhrel

Fiscal Management

All organizations and states need human, capital & financial resources. They
plan to receive there recourses from different sources in a priority basis. In
articulating the sources of resources the organizations and states play
attention on about their future obligation, and liability. Generally, they prefer
those resources that bear less cost and burden. Here, we talk about the
financial resources met from domestic and foreign resources.

The companies, firms, corporations, trusts etc. are dealt with the private
sector, which receive resources from loan, internal transaction and rate of
goods and services, whereas the government or state authority is called
public sector. This sector collects resources from tax, internal and external
loan, grant, services. Charges and sale of goods and services. Such a
planning of generating resources, prioritization and auditing is collectively
called fiscal Management in the dictionary of economics.

Fiscal Policy

Fiscal policy, now, is the policy of managing 'Fisc' or public treasury.
Generally, this terminology is related with the public sector. In the eve of
fiscal history, it was related with industrialized countries. Now, it is taken as
the government financial policies designed to benefit the people and
economy. It benefits the people by providing opportunities of income
earning and making life standard higher and economy by diverting resources


    Under Secretary, Ministry of Finance.

                                            250
from low priority uses to high priority uses. Such a function of economy
stimulates economic growth with anti-inflationary policy persuasion.

After the great depression of 1930s, the role of the government income and
expenditure has widened. J. M. Keynes has made important contribution in
the development of thesis view. Some of the economists, like S.K. Singh are
of the view that 'public finance is now the fiscal policy. Fiscal Policy is the
use of government taxing, borrowing and spending powers to maintain full
employment without inflation.

The objective of fiscal policy may differ from country to country to the level
of development. So the objectives may also be different on the basis of time,
country and level of development. However, the objective of fiscal policy
has been widened in the following areas:
    a. To correct the excessive and harmful inequalities in economic
       distribution,
    b. To expand the informal market and to reduce imports,
    c. To increase the desirable development projects,
    d. To counteract inflation, and
    e. To increase the total volume of saving and investment.

However, the area covered by fiscal policy in a developing country is as
following:

1. Capital Formation

           -   By expanding investments in private and public sector.
               Human capital formation has been the key area of
               government fiscal policy,
           -   By diverting resources from less desirable sector to more
               desirable sectors, (Tax concession, exception, subsidy are the
               ways of resource diverting in the economy).

2. Resource Mobilization

       Major goal of the fiscal policy is to mobilize resources from different
       potential resources, especially in developing countries financial
       resources are inadequate. Nevertheless, the small amount of income
       is also heavily spent in consumption. In this situation, government
       gives facilities to save providing tax facilities in saving and
       investment.


                                      251
       Public enterprises are breeding losses in their transaction. The
       objective of the establishment of public enterprises also is
       disappearing. Therefore, in order to make fiscal policy more prudent,
       government has chosen the option of privatization.

       Similarly, efforts are being made to transfer the idle resources from
       agriculture to non-agricultural sector in possible regions. Thus the
       objective of the fiscal policy has always been diverted to raise the
       income, saving, investment and the rate of economic growth.

3. Price Stability

       Price stability does not only mean stabilize the prices of the
       commodities in the market. The main focus goes to check the
       distortion that tries to happen in the economy by the name of
       inflation and deflation. Pressure of inflation is higher in developing
       countries like Nepal. Expenditure curtailing is the best way out for it.
       But the reduction in expenditure hampers employment, which
       narrows the income again. So, the expenditure should be controlled
       only in regularly budget not in development one. Tax increment
       could be the way out of inflation prevention. But it should also go in
       progressive way also. Otherwise, the low-income brackets will not
       have relief.

       By the active, logical and needful application of fiscal policy, it helps
       to reduce the economic inequality.

       Unemployment is a grave problem in the less developed countries.
       Its forms differ. They may be open, disguised or underemployed. All
       these create social and political disturbance. Area-wise employment
       planning could be the solution over here.

       Adverse balance of payment also is a negative symptom of economic
       development. Sooner or later, it should be corrected. The tax policy,
       monetary policy, import-export which could be the correcting
       measures of adverse balance of payment, which is the basic fillers of
       fiscal policy.

       In Mitchell, fiscal policy by and large is a weapon to correct the
       economy. Deficit financing, borrowing, new taxes or expenditure
       elasticity might be the options, which can accelerate the rate of
       growth of the economy.

                                      252
Budget

Budget is an active weapon of success or failure of fiscal policy. All the
measures of fiscal policy are articulated, provisioned and administered
through annual budget.

Generally, budget denotes the document of income and expenditure of the
government for a specific time period. It is an estimate. The objectives taken
by the government to meet or bridge the gap of society are addressed in the
budget. Right from infrastructure development to social justice, development
models and thrusts, foreign aid policy, policy for private sector and the
desired rate of economic growth are estimated in the budget. Periodic
planning, MTEF and other specific planning are supported by annual budget;
however, the subject matters incorporated in the budget can be categorized
in the following manner:

           -   Economic/Financial Budget
           -   Policy Budget

Financial or Economic Budget includes the estimated amount of income and
expenditure. The income may be from tax or non-tax, domestic or foreign,
saving or deficit, similarly, the expenditure may be regular or development
and/or current or capital.

The budgetary actions within the fiscal policy, generally in the developing
countries are:
           - Capital Formation for the state
           - Mobilization of resources
           - Increase employment opportunities
           - Price stability
           - BOP
           - Economic stability
           - Economic growth
           - Redistribution
           - Poverty reduction

In brief, underdeveloped countries are mostly characterized by
mismanagement of resources, which creates mass poverty. A proper policy
is demanded there. Good fiscal policy can be the panacea to reduce the
mismanagement.

                                    


                                      253
k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf
jif{ #&, c+s @, k"0ff{Í !)@, df3 @)^@


Intellectual Property Administration in
                 Nepal




                                                               -Bisu Kumar K.C.

Intellectual Property
In general terms 'intellectual property refers to creation of the mind' (WIPO).
Creative or inventive works and distinctive sign or marks are taken as
intellectual property. But there is not concrete definition of intellectual
property. The term intellectual property, means Literary artistic and
scientific works; performance of performing artists, phonograms, and
broadcasters: inventions in all kinds of human endeavor; scientific
discoveries; industrial design; trade marks and service marks, and
commercial names and designations; protection against unfair competition;
and all other rights resulting from intellectual activity in the industrial
scientific, literary and artistic fields." (WIPO)

All intellectual property rights (IPRs) generally exclude third parties from
exploiting protected subject matter without explicit authorization of the right
holder for the certain duration of the time. This enables the IPR owners to
use or disclose their dissemination. It is generally assumed that IPR helps
encourage creative and inventive activities and make for orderly marketing
of proprietary goods and services. In the case of protection of distinctive
signs like trademarks, the objective is that it avoids confusion among free
riders and deception of consumers of differentiated goods and services.
Protection against is the underlying philosophy of all IPRs, and there are
some specific rules in international IP law targeted toward this. Protection of
IPRs is meant for the general benefits and progress of society. (Watal, 2001).
Today, IPR is regarded as acornerstone of economic development of the

    Under Secretary, Ministry of Land Reform and Management.

                                           254
society because it facilitates the growth of both domestic industries and
culture, and international trade. Without IPR protection, it was not possible
of present state of development. Therefore, development of a nation and
advancement of a society also depend on the sound IPR protection and
promotion system.

Lack of Policy and Program
As in the context of economic and social development, Nepal is regarded as
the one of the least developed countries, in the same way it is also lagging
behind in respect of the development of intellectual property system. "The
intellectual property system is one of the corner stones of modern economic
policy at the national level and a catalyst for development" (Alikhan; 2000).
There are no specific policy guidelines or long-term vision document,
regarding the intellectual property matter in Nepal. In the Tenth plan
document intellectual property has been spelt out as a strategy for the
industrial and R&D development. There are two sentences in two separate
chapters of the 10th plan document, such ass entrepreneurial use of IP will
be promoted through its protection' and 'in relation to the intellectual
property right necessary record will be prepared' (Tenth Plan). It can be
taken as government recognition without programs and activities in this
regard. In spite of these little policy guidelines, in course of WTO accession
government has expressed its strong commitment for the development of IP
system through enforcement of new Act that is compatible with TRIPS
agreement within 2006. With regards the importance of IP tools for the
development of the nation and its emergence in scientific, technological as
well as in the national and international trade regime, it is obvious that a
broad policy with clear vision, strategies and program is highly necessary in
Nepal.

Intellectual Property Laws
"Strong intellectual property protection with adequate and modernized
legislation and its effective enforcement is essential for ensuring economic
growth" (Alikhan, 2000). First, intellectual property related law came into
enforcement in Nepal in 1937 with promulgation of Patent, Design and
Trademark Act. Provisions for the protection of industrial property of the
nationals were included in this first act. Patent, Design and Trademark Act,
1965 replaced the first act and it is still in force. Present act also provides
intellectual property rights to industrial property of foreign origin as well.
This act, having undergone an amendment in 1987, regulates present
industrial property system of Nepal.


                                      255
The existing, Patent, Design and Trademark Act 1965 gives the definition of
patent, design and trademark. Procedures for application, examination and
registration are broadly written. Areas of protection and limitation of right of
the owner are defined in the act. The registered patent and trademark shall be
valid for a period of seven years and design for five years from the date of
registration. The registered trademark should be renewed within 35 days
from the date of expiry. Regarding the patent and design, registration can be
renewed for only another two terms respectively. The act has the provisions
for penalty and compensation against the violation of rights and the
infringement.
However, present volume of economic activities, need of scientific and
technological development, emergence of cultural industries, and
sensitiveness of trade regime as well as compared to the international
practice, the existing Industrial Property Act lacks in various respects. More
considerable fact does not seem compatible with the provisions of Trade
Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Agreement (TRIPS) and the Paris
Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. As a party of these
international conventions and agreements, government has the obligation to
make the national law conformity with their provisions. It is understood that
a new Industrial Property Act is under the process of legislation since last
decade.
Copyright Act deals with the important field of IPR, the right over the
artistic and literary works, which is popular as copyrights. It came into the
legal step only in 1965 by the enactment of Copyright Act, 1965. But the
copyright sector has made significant improvement in legal arrangement for
protecting the right of literary and artistic works with the enactment of new
Copyright Act, 2002 which is compatible with various international
conventions and treaties as well as national and international needs and
practices.
Previous Copyrights Act has the various lacking in respect of the protecting
right of creature of artistic and literary works. It was not compatible with the
provision of Berne Convention; TRIPS agreements and other international
convention and treaties related to copyright and related rights. It was must to
register to confer the right over the ones' creative work. Terms of copyrights
and neighboring rights were not clearly defined and not all types of rights as
rights of performers, broadcasters, sound recorders etc. were included in that
act. The provision of enforcement was not sufficient and clear. To address
these lacking in the act, a new Copyrights Act was promulgated in 2002.
This act is more compatible with international practice and will be able to
address the need of copyright holder of the country.

                                       256
The act has clearly defined various terms of copyrights and related rights.
Rights over the different creative works as well as economic rights, moral
rights performer's rights broadcaster's rights and rights of sound recorders
are recognized and well defined in the act. As per the act, economic and
moral rights of authors or creators are protected from the date of publishing
to the 50 years of the death of right holder. To protect the right holder from
infringement of their works and violation of right the act has applied civil
and criminal remedies as well as border measures. The act has also
mentioned the role of copyright registrar and royalty collection societies. For
the full functioning of this act, 'Copyright Rule' has come into the force and
'Registrar's Office' has been set up recently.

Besides this Act, some other acts are also supporting to intellectual property
system of Nepal. Industrial Enterprise Act 1992 contributes to control false
inductions and anti-competitive practices. In the same way Foreign
Investment and Technology Transfer Act 1992 has the provision on
technology transfer and franchising technical know-how. Company Act
2054 contributes to regulate company names, i.e. trade names and Export
Import (Control) Act 1957 controls the export and import of commercial
goods.

Administration of Intellectual Property
As mentioned in above paragraph, there are two basic acts for the protection
of IPR in Nepal as Patent Design and Trademarks Act 1965 and Copyrights
Act 2002. Implementations of these acts fall under the perview of two
separate ministries such as Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Supplies
and Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation.

Under the policy directives from the Ministry of Industry, Commerce &
Supplies, the Department of Industries (DOI) is the designated as
responsible agency of HMG for implementation of Patent, Design and
Trademarks Act. Therefore, it is regarded as 'Industrial Property Office' in
the country. DOI also looks after the industrial promotion, administration
and facilitation of Foreign Direct Investment in the country. The
administration of industrial property is the responsibility of Industrial
Property Section of this department. This section provides the followings
services in respect of industrial property only on the matter of patent for
inventions, industrial design and trademarks:




                                      257
      Filling of application.
      Provides search reports on request with the prescribed fee. The
       search is carried out in the previous registration records.
      Examination of registrability of applicants of inventions designs or
       marks.
      Renewals of the registered patent, design and marks as per the act,
      Investigation of infringement and violation of IP rights up on the
       complaint made by right-holder,
      Give the order of penalty, and confiscation of thins involved in
       infringing or violating the others IP rights,
      Publications of journal yearly with information of registration,
       renewal, cancellation of patent, design and marks, decisions on case
       of infringements, as well as major activities carried out by the
       department in respect of IPR.
      Advice and consultation to the needy person and organizations for
       the possible measures of protecting IP.
      Organization of meeting seminar with the cooperation of other
       national and international organizations for enhancing awareness
       among the entrepreneurs and general people and for the development
       of IP system.

Records of Industrial Property Section of DOI, shows that there are total
18,969 marks, 60 industrial designs and 53 patents have been registered till
March 2002. Only patent for invention, industrial design and trademarks
(including service marks) are dealt as industrial property. Other types of
property like utility model, integrated circuit topographic, various types of
marks as group marks, certification marks, geographical indication as well as
appellation of origin are not covered by the administration of industrial
property. Even transition regarding the patent and design are not sizable to
analyze. Regarding the number of registered marks, more than 48Ü are of
foreign origin.

Status and Issues of IP Administration
A strong and well functioning intellectual property system is anessential
factor in the economic and technological development of all the countries.
For the efficient and effective IP system, it is presupposed and adequate
legal and administrative infrastructure in the country. In Nepal, intellectual
property right law was introduced 70 years ago. As illustrated previously 50
patents, 60 design and 18696 trademarks have been registered as industrial
properties. Among the registered IP, about half are of foreign origin.

                                      258
Regarding the research and development, about 50 sciences and technology
related institutions, five universities, about 250 large industrial
establishments, more than 200 professional organizations and many small
workshops and manufacturing enterprises are there involved in the
technology field but have not made single patent application. In the same
way, other IP related business and transactions as technology transfer or
licensing, buying and selling of IP are very few. With regard the cases on IP
right violations are also not so much as expected. With observation of
curriculum of teaching and training institutions of Nepal, it is noticed that
still 'Intellectual property' has not been established as an academic subject
for teaching and as a necessary field of knowledge and skill for training.

This is the poor scenario of intellectual property system of Nepal. But there
is a big challenge not only for the public sector but also for private sector to
strengthen, develop and modernize the IP system to follow present open and
market-driven economic system and international economic and trade
relations. For the overall development of IP system of the country IP
administration can play a major and leading role. With available manpower,
legal provision and other resources, the Industrial Property Section is doing
a lot. However, the entrepreneurs and other IP service-users have viewed
that present IP administration is not user-friendly, transparent, efficient and
easily accessible. To support the small entrepreneurs, technologist, scientist
and all types of creative works, the IP administration must be changed,
improved and developed in multiple dimensions. To meet the challenge of
new economic trend and international practice and to bring majority section
of IP-users of the country within the administration, it has to change its
working culture from administrator to promoter, facilitator, adviser and
educator.

"Currently, the administration of industrial property system is based on work
practices and procedures which are neither transparent nor user-friendly,
they are not conducive to efficient and effective disposal of work " (WIPO
Mission, 1996). Enforcement is hampered by inadequate administrative
capacity (MOICS, 2004). Following issues are there in respect of industrial
property administration:

      Present IP administration has no separate identity.
      It is not easily accessible to all the entrepreneurs, especially to small
       enterprises scattered in different parts of the country.
      Its functions and procedures are not transparent.



                                       259
      There is lack of sufficient laws, regulations and examination and
       administrative manuals.
      There are not adequate numbers of trained manpower, especially
       trademark and patent examiners.
      Lack of systematic record system and search database.
      Lack of IP information and promotional services.
      There is no imitation for enhancing the market of IP service.
      The enforcement of IP right is the main function of IP
       administration, which is very poor in quantity and quality as well.

Suggestions for New Set-up
"The national and regional patent and trademark offices and their
infrastructure should be proactively modernized and computerized, taking
steps to make them responsive, user-oriented and helpful in rendering
quality services to all categories of their clients, and to meet the growing
demand of their users. Their administration might be made autonomous and
self-financing, with suitable increase in fees where considered
necessary."(Alikhan, 2000)

   1. As based on above discussions, it is perceived that there is an urgent
      need to set up a separate Industrial Property Office as an independent
      government organization with sufficient authority and necessary
      autonomy.

   2. Considering the expected role of new IP office and need and urgency
      of providing IP services to all possible IP users and promoting and
      enhancing the IP system in the country, industrial property
      administering institution should have separate functional wings for
      trademarks and other marks administration, patent and design
      administration, enforcement and litigation functions, development
      and promotion activities as well as to enhance the international
      cooperation.

   3. The proposed industrial property administration must be equipped
      with new industrial property act with covering administrative and
      enforcement requirements and conformity with international treaties
      and practices. Necessary regulations for administration and litigation
      and separate manuals for search and litigation and examination of
      trademarks and patent for other IP tools are also required.



                                     260
4. Trained and learned personnel are basic requirements for the efficient
   and effective IP administration, so, adequate number of trained
   people especially in the field of patent examination, trademark
   examination and enforcement measures are to be fulfilled.

5. IP administration and its network within the country and outside is
   very complex. Considering this fact and practice of other countries,
   sufficient authority and necessary autonomy is to be provided to IP
   administrative office for the administration, enforcement and
   development of IP system, providing training and manpower
   development, to extend relationship and cooperation with private
   and international organization, to provide facilities and incentives to
   small enterprises and inventors and determine the fees of service
   must be provided to the IP office.

6. Special arrangements should be made regarding the revenue
   collection from IP services. IP office should have the authority to
   determine the various fees of the services and to use certain percent
   of revenue for the development of IP. These kinds of arrangement
   could contribute significantly for the development of IP system in the
   country.

7. Regarding the copyright and related right administration after
   enactment of the new Copyright Act and Rule. According to the new
   act, registration is not necessary for copyright and enforcement of the
   right is investigated by the police administration and litigation
   process goes to the district courts so that copy rights registrars' office
   has to focus its activity to awareness campaign for the artists, authors
   and also to the small entrepreneurs.

8. Enforcement of IP right is concerned with police administration,
   judiciaries and custom officials also. To enhance the use of IP tools,
   it is necessary to strengthen enforcement system. So there is
   necessity to create the core group of police officers, custom official
   and judges with sufficient knowledge on IP. For this purpose
   separate group training courses should be conducted. To this end, the
   National Police Training Center, Justice Administration Training
   Center and Revenue Administration Training Center will be partners.

9. Presently, business development service to the small and micro-
   industries are being provided directly by the Department of Cottage
   and Small Industries (DCSI) and Cottage and Small Industry

                                   261
      Development Board. Industrial Enterprises Development Institute is
      imparting training and consultancy for the enterprises. Federation of
      Nepalese Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FNCCI) and
      Federation of Nepalese Cottage and Small Industries (FNCSI) are
      private organizations of the Nepalese business sector. Institutional
      framework of these governmental and private organizations will be
      helpful for IP related business development service also. These
      organizations will be the partners for providing IP related trainings,
      distributing informative materials are launching awareness campaign
      etc.

References

     Alikhan, Shahid (2000), Socio-economic Benefits of Intellectual
      Property Protection in Developing Countries, published By: World
      Intellectual Property Organization, Zeneva.
     Copyright Act, 2002.
     MOICS/Ministry of Industry, Commerce & Supplies (2004), Nepal
      Trade and Competitiveness Study.
     Patent, Design and Trademarks Act, 1965, Published by :
      Department of Industries, Tripureswor, Kathmandu, Nepal.
     Tenth Plan 2002, Published By: National Planning Commission,
      Kathmandu, Nepal.
     Watal, Jayashree, 2001. Intellectual Property Right in WTO and
      Developing Countries, Published By: Oxford University Press.
     WIPO/World Intellectual Property Organization, Zeveva, An
      organization for the future FAQS.
     WIPO/ World Intellectual Property Organozation, Zeveva,
      Convention Establishing the world Intellectual Property
      Organization (WIPO Convention) Stockholm, 1967.
     WIPO/World Intellectual Property Organization, Zeneva, Report of
      the Mission Visited to Nepal to study the IP system.
                                    
                                    
                                   




                                    262

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:63
posted:11/10/2011
language:English
pages:262