Coaching for Reflection by cuiliqing


									Coaching For Reflection
   Dr. Anne Rodrigue
      July 4, 2007
I cannot teach unless I recognize my own
ignorance, unless I identify what I do not
    know, what I have not mastered.

                                  (Freire, 1996)
Teaching is full of enormous complexities,
   paradoxes, and tensions and hence,
     teaching itself invites inquiry.

                             Dana, Fiteham, Nancy, Silva-Yendol
                                             Diance (2003, p.7)
Teacher inquiry invites intentional
planned reflection with a focus on
         problem posing.
              Cognitive Coaching
• Developed by Art Costa and Robert Garmston.
• Method of coaching that focuses on “metacognition”.
• The knowledge of one’s own thinking process and
  strategies and the ability to consciously reflect and
  act on the knowledge of cognition to modify those
  processes and strategies.
• Metacognition – perception, action, reason, emotion,
  and memory.
          Cognitive Coaching
• Metacognition – adjective used to describe the
  awareness of thinking D. Daniels (2002)

• Reflection – verb of the process of thinking
   Cognitive Coaching
Uses Three Conversations:

        Planning

        Reflecting

        Problem-solving
               Cognitive Coaching
• Planning Conversations:
   – Clarify goals
   – Determine success monitors
   – Anticipate approaches
   – Plan strategies
   – Make decisions
   – Identify personal learning

• Event - Mentoring, Lesson, Activity, Demonstration, etc.
   – Indicators of success
   – Effectiveness of approaches, strategies, decisions
        Cognitive Coaching
• Reflecting Conversations:
   – Analyze what was seen and heard;
   – Recall support information;
   – Compare;
   – Infer;
   – Help the individual construct new
                    Cognitive Coaching
• Problem-solving Conversations:
   – Get the person to move from “existing state to desired state”.

   – Pose a data search.
   – Ask for justification from research literature.
   – Pose an analytical question:
      • How does this compare to … ?
      • What is different about … ?
   – Invite creation or imagination.
   – Seek an expression of values.
   – Elicit a choice from among alternatives.
               Cognitive Coaching
  • Coach will:
     – Paraphrase
     – Report
     – Mirror
     – Ask question
     – Invite a shift

                                            Solution is reached
 Return to
                  Solution is implemented
“The antithesis of reflection is
     mindless routine.”

                                   Rodrigue (2006)
       Some Starters
•   Planning
•   Routines
•   Beginning/end of class
•   Use of resources
•   Position in classroom
•   Questioning: who?, how?
•   Materials
•   Instructional techniques
•   Assessment practices
•   Why? – what? – for whom?
•   Levels of reflection
      The Routine T-Chart
Looks Like …        Sounds Like …
“What is Reflective Practice?”
                            The Definitions
Barr, Sommers, Ghore & Montie It is a complex process that requires high levels of
(2001, p.4)                   conscious thought as well as a commitment to making
                              changes based on new understanding of how to

Brubaches, Case & Regan         Reflective Practice provides a way to understand and
(1994, p.36)                    make sense of the world.

Campbell-Jones and Campbell-    Reflective Practice is inner dialogue with oneself
Jones                           whereby a person calls forth experiences, beliefs and
(2002, p.134)                   perceptions.
                              The Definitions
Clarke (1995) Costa &           Reflective educators are decision makers who develop
Gramston (1998)                 thoughtful plans to move new understandings into
                                action so that meaningful improvements result for
Halton & Smith (1995, p.40)     Deliberate thinking about action with a view to its
Jay & Johnson (2002, p.75)      Reflection is a process, both individual and
                                collaborative, involving experience and uncertainty. It
                                is comprised of identifying questions and key elements
                                of a matter that has emerged as significant, then taking
                                one’s thoughts into dialogue with oneself and with
Killian & Todnem (1991)         Reflection-on-action, reflection-in-action and
                              The Definitions
Lasley (1992, p.24)             The capacity of a teacher to think creatively,
                                imaginatively and in time, self-critically about
                                classroom practice.

Resko, Roskies and Vukelich     Reflective Practice is the dialogue that should both
(2002)                          inform and transform knowledge and action.

Vaughan (1990, p.ix)            Reflective Practice is as much a state of mind as it is a
                                set of activities.
Three commonalities exist in most
     • Methodical processes

     • Inquiry orientation

     • Improvement as a goal

                               Taggard & Wilson (1998, p.17)
                    Reflections as a New Paradigm
                                           Reflective Practice
                              PURPOSE     Understanding & Competence

                                          Learning is constructed.
                          ASSUMPTIONS     Learning is personal and holistic.
                                          Knowledge is a tool.

                                          Instructor as Facilitator
                           STRATEGIES     Practitioner as Action Researcher
Adapted from Osterman & Koltkamp (2004)   Experiential Knowledge and
Reflective Practice for Educators         Formal Knowledge
   Individual Reflection contributes to:
• enhanced educational practice;

• greater awareness of personal performance;

• increased recognition of professional dilemmas;

• different ways of thinking about dilemmas; and

• making adjustments in practice.
   Individual Reflection contributes to:
• increased student learning;

• increased personal capacity to learn and improve;

• restored balance and perspective –a time out for reflection
  and change;

• renewed clarity of self, personal, and professional growth; and

• empowerment.
Dewey’s Three Characteristics/Attitudes
       of a Reflective Teacher:
        • Open-mindedness

        • Responsibility

        • Wholeheartedness
                             Taggard & Wilson (1998, p.17)
                         Reflective Break
          (Open-mindness, Responsibility, Wholeheartedness)

1.   Do you possess these characteristics now? At what level? (High, Medium, Low)

2.   Which areas need more development?

3.   Where can you begin?

4.   Which other desirable characteristics should a reflective practitioner have?
  Four Processes to Develop and Sustain a
        Critical Focus of Teaching
• Describing       - What do I do?

• Informing        - What does this description mean?

• Confronting      - How did I get here?

• Reconstructing   - How might I do things differently?
                                                   (Smyth, 1991)
Reflective Thinking Model

                            (G. Taggart, 1996)
             Hierarchical Levels of Reflection
                                           LEVEL 3
                                         Ethics, Morals

                                          LEVEL 2
                                       Theories, Beliefs

                                           LEVEL 1
                                      Actions, Behaviours

Level 1:   The level of a teacher’s actions in the classroom - a teacher’s observable behaviours
Level 2:   The theoretical level - the theories behind the teacher’s behaviours in Level 1
Level 3:   The ethical, moral level - the role of the wider community in influencing a teacher’s
           theories (Level 2) and practices (Level 1)
            Activity – Levels of Reflection
1.   Give an example of how a teacher could operate at each of the three levels.

2.   Which level of reflection do you find yourself working at now?

3.   What does this mean to you as a reflective teacher?

4.   Do you think a teacher should always operate (reflect) at any particular level?
                      The Reflective Schema

    8 Areas of Inquiry               Reflective Stems   Teacher Perceptions

•   Beliefs About Practice
•   Personal/Professional Identity      •   Who?
•   Student                             •   What?
•   Context                             •   When?        Reality      Destination
•   Curriculum                          •   Where?
•   Content Knowledge                   •   How?
•   Assessment                          •   Why?
•   Instructional Strategies
•   Social Justice
Two Essential Conditions for
    Reflective Practice

     • Trusting relationships

     • Thought and inquiry

                          York-Barr, Sommers, Chere, Monte, (2001)
                              Reflective Practice to Improve Schools
             Trusting Relationships
• Treat information with confidentiality.

• Deprivatize practice.

• Provide framework for a relationship based on

• Let participants feel safe, secure, and able to take
            Components of Trust
• Being present.
• Being aware of oneself, others and the
• Being open.
• Listen without judgment and with empathy.
• Seek understanding.
• View learning as mutual.
• Honour the person.
• Honour the process.
Coaching for Reflection

Six Levels of Transfer

                          Fogarty & Pete (2004)
Six Levels of Transfer

     • Overlooks

     • Duplicates

     • Replicates

     • Integrates

     • Propagates

     • Innovates
                         Fogarty & Pete (2004)

• Participates in the training but …

• Is unable to see how to apply it when
  she/he returns to school.

                                          Fogarty & Pete (2004)

• Takes the learning strategy and …

• Duplicates it exactly as was taught.

• No modification or contextualization.

                                         Fogarty & Pete (2004)

• Strategy is applied and it looks slightly
  different, but …

• Is used in a similar context and with
  similar applications.

                                              Fogarty & Pete (2004)

• Uses new strategy/ learning.

• Blends new learning with old.

                                  Fogarty & Pete (2004)

• Uses new strategy/ learning.

• Maps the new strategy onto a different context or

• Strategizes how and where it can be used.
                                              Fogarty & Pete (2004)

• New learning, strategy is adapted, reworked,
  rethought and …

• May not even look like the original.

• New learning results from first exposure.
                                          Fogarty & Pete (2004)
       Activity – Group Discussion
• What is the value of knowing the levels of

• How can the levels of transfer be used to
  stimulate reflection?
   –   Model lessons
   –   Demonstrations
   –   Use of resources
   –   Video analysis
   –   Student work
“Teachers need to get out of the
   old mode of thinking that
  knowledge can be acquired,
  taught and trained through
 manuals, books and lectures.”
                   Nonaki & Takeuchi, 1995
          Activities to Promote
     Teacher Reflection and Learning
   Action Research
                           Letters to Myself
     Book Clubs
                         Metaphor as Reflection
                          Teaching Portfolios
Classroom Walk-Through
                          Shadowing Students
    Critical Friends
                             Study Groups
Examining Student Work
                            Tuning Protocols
            Sample Activities
       How do you view teaching?

• An art form/or craft?
• Instinctive?
• Set of technical skills?

Provide your own philosophy of teaching.
Teacher As Professional-Metaphor Activity
Using a metaphor, describe how you believe you are viewed as a professional and
how you view yourself.
    Society’s view of Teacher as            My view of Teacher as Professional

What would it take to change society’s view to my view?
       Reflective Journal

“Reflective teachers can look back
on events, make judgments about
   them, and alter their teaching
    behaviours in light of craft,
 research and ethical knowledge”.
                            Valli, 1997
    What is Journaling?
• The process of thinking in writing

• A way to reflect on experience
      Benefits of Using Reflective Journals
  Journals Provide:
  • A record of events and our reactions.
  • A source of data on which to base reflective discussions.
  • A means to analyze and reason through a dilemma.
  • An opportunity for us to challenge our assumptions and our practices and to
     make changes.
  • An impetus to take action that is informed and planned.
  • A lens through which to objectively view our teaching.
  • A reflective space for innovation.
  • A space in which to develop a personal philosophy of teaching.

  •   Scholarly teaching involves an appreciation of the teaching and learning
      process and the ability to intervene purposefully and positively in the
      learning experience.

A scholarly approach to teaching requires critical inquiry into practice and into learning.
Journals can be structured:
 • as a diary;

 • as a single page;

 • as a personal learning journal;

 • in terms of issues;

 • as a critical reflection.
             Reflective Thinking
1. Set aside 5-10 minutes per day for reflective
2. Ask yourself:
     •   Was I as effective as I would like to be?
     •   Answer the four main questions:
         •   What happened? (description of the event)
         •   Why? (analysis of the event)
         •   What does it mean?
         •   What can I do? (Implications for action)
3.   Record the impact your actions are having on
     others and yourself.
4.   When you feel brave enough, share the news.
Journal Writing Takes Place At
    Three Different Levels

• Describing

• Reflecting

• Theorizing
        Describing Questions
• What happened?

• What did I do?

• Where was I?

• Who was I interacting with?

• Who else was in the range of interaction?
                    Reflecting Questions
Reflecting is about looking beyond the surface and asking questions such as:

  •   Why did I do that?

  •   What was I thinking and feeling at the time?

  •   Where did these thoughts and feelings come from?

  •   What assumptions was I making at the time?

  •   What values and beliefs underline my decisions to act in this particular

  •   How did relationships with other people influence what happened?
                  Reflecting Questions
Reflecting questions can become more complex over time …

  •   Is this way of acting or speaking part of a pattern?

  •   Whose interests does my acting or speaking in this way serve?

  •   What competing views or value systems are apparent?

  •   Are there personal or contextual factors which constrain/limit my view
      of what is possible in my professional practice?

  •   Can or should these factors be changed?

  •   Who would benefit or suffer if they were?
•   Theorizing goes beyond reflection.

•   Takes the writer beyond the context of her personal experience.

•   Links personal experience to the theories of the profession.

                     Theorizing Questions
•   How well does my practice fit in with contemporary practices in education?

•   How can my experience shape, revise or develop these theoretical
    perspectives/pedagogical approaches?
                Ideas for Getting Started
1. Use an Agenda:
     •   What is the current problem or issue? Describe the context.
     •   What additional information would be useful?
     •   How is it related to other issues?
     •   Who or what could help?
     •   What are my assumptions? How can I test them?
     •   What can I do to create a change?
     •   What are the possible outcomes of these?
     •   What action will I take? Why?
     •   List the outcomes you hope to achieve.
     •   Reflection on the actual outcome. What worked well?
     •   What could I do differently next time?
                 Ideas for Getting Started
2. Focus on the experience and think (not aloud) in writing:
   Take something you have read in the literature on teaching and learning, or
   take something that occurred as part of your activities undertaking this module
   and use the following questions to guide your reflection:
      • How does this connect with an aspect of my practice?
      • What are the teaching and learning principles that are involved?
      • What could I change in relation to this?
      •   What would happen if I did?
                Ideas for Getting Started
3.   Focus on a critical incident that took place in your classroom:
     •   Describe the incident as objectively as possible.
     •   What were the assumptions that you were operating with?
     •    Is there another way to see this event?
     •    How would your students explain this event?
     •    How do the two explanations compare?
     •    What could you do differently?
                Ideas for Getting Started
4.   Take stock of my learning:
     •    What is the most important thing I have learned about student learning?
     •    What is the most important thing I have learned about myself as a
                Ideas for Getting Started
5. And from time to time…
    •   What has using this journal confirmed that I already know about my
        students learning and how I affect that?
     •   What do I need to do to improve the quality of what I do?
     •   What might I do instead of what I do now?
     •   What innovation could I introduce?
     •   What professional development activities should I be seeking?
     Example of a Reflective Journal Entry
                Class: ____________________           Date: _________________

Focus:         Issue/Challenge or Success of the Lesson.

Inquiry:       Compose questions that help you clarify the issue, or success you have decided to

Reference:     Search for a similar problem or solution from past teaching and from the literature.

Strategy:      Document how you will solve the issue, meet the challenge or the success.

Implementation: What happened when you implemented my solution?

               Where do you go next?
                                                 (Adapted from Reflective Analysis of Student Work, Bella N., 2004, p. 21)
                               Journaling Activity
   Reflective Journaling
   1. The participant will journal about the piece of student work they have chosen.
   2. The participant will meet with a partner to share their reflections as noted through their journals.
   A piece of student work.
   25 minutes – Total
   10 minutes – Personal journaling
   10 minutes – Sharing of journal reflection
    5 minutes – Debriefing
   1. Participants will examine the piece of student work they brought to the class and will write about the
       piece of work using the template provided.
   2. Participants will share their journal with a friend.
   3. Participants will debrief the process.
        Reflective Thinking/Journal Page
What happened?   Why?   What does it mean?   What can I do?
               A Pen-Portrait of Me
1.   What kind of teacher am I?

2.   What are my core beliefs about: a) teaching? b) learning?

3.   How would I describe my teaching style?

4.   What ideas do I have about teaching?

5.   How can these ideas contribute to developing a knowledge base about teaching?
              A Pen-Portrait of Me
6.   Where do my ideas about teaching come from?

7.   Who/What helped formulate my ideas about teaching?

8.   Do these ideas align/conflict with my current views about teaching?
     Why or Why not?

9.   What do I feel strongly about in education?
Conduct an Interview of a Colleague
1.    What do you think are his/her core beliefs about teaching?

2.    What else would you like to know about his/her beliefs/attitudes?

3.    What needs to be clarified?

4.    What is missing?

Write down responses. Provide an analysis of responses.
Taking a Personal Inventory

    • Self-Rubric

    • Survey Analysis
             Strategies for Reflective Thinking
                  Teacher Self-Reflection
   Teacher Self-Reflection Survey
   The group will examine a survey contained within the NSTU Teacher Self-Reflection document and make
   A copy of the NSTU Teacher Self-Reflection document.
   40 minutes – Total
   20 minutes – Revision of survey
   10 minutes – 2-minute group presentation in plenary session
   1. Each group will chose a topic survey from the NSTU Self-Reflection booklet.
   2. The group members will brainstorm and will suggest modifications and deletions to the survey.
   3. The group will revise the survey.
   4. The group will present the revised survey to the group and will justify the revisions.
Using Casebooks for Teacher Education
              What Can You Use for Cases?
                    Problem Sets                                        Problem-based Learning Activities
                  Critical Incidents                                          Slice of Life Accounts
                Ethnographic Studies                                          Clinical Descriptions
                Appraisals/Consultant                                      Personal Stories/Narratives
                        Report                                                    Case Histories
                 Newspaper Stories                                                   Scenarios
                  “Armchair” Cases                                            Simulation Activities
              Video Cases/Trigger Films

Ask one opening question to begin discussion of the case. Facilitate a brainstorming discussion on the participant’s
reaction to the question.

After reading a case, outline at least three questions that would broaden the discussion around this case.

Ask the following questions:

            What is the problem?
            When did the problem begin?
            What is the source of the problem?
            How can the problem be addressed?
            Who can help address the problem?
            How can the possible solutions be evaluated?
                       Drive – Pull - Push
Images of Facilitation:

  1. The facilitator drives the discussion by asking the group to:
       • stay with an idea before moving on;
       • return to a previous idea;
        • slow the pace of the discussion;
        • allow an individual time to fully articulate an idea.

                                   Source: Mathematics Case Methods Project, WestEd, Used with permission.
                                  Powerful Designs for Professional Learning National Staff Development Council
                        Drive – Pull - Push
Images of Facilitation:

  2. The facilitator pulls the discussion by asking the group to:
       • provide drawings, examples, or evidence;
       • explain an idea;
        •   comment on others’ ideas;
        •   weigh benefits and drawbacks;
        •   clarify ideas;
        •   explain why? or how?;
        •   make conjectures or predictions.

                                   Source: Mathematics Case Methods Project, WestEd, Used with permission.
                                  Powerful Designs for Professional Learning National Staff Development Council
                      Drive – Pull - Push
Images of Facilitation:

  3. The facilitator pushes the discussion by:
       • asking the group to prove or test ideas;
       • playing devil's advocate;
        • asking someone to argue a point of view they disagree with;
        • challenging an idea that has been presented;
        • pressing for decisions or generalizations.

                                 Source: Mathematics Case Methods Project, WestEd, Used with permission.
                                Powerful Designs for Professional Learning National Staff Development Council
                     Drive – Pull - Push
Case Discussion Roadmap:
  • Warm up activities
  • Read or quickly review the case
  • Facts
  • Issues framed as questions
  • Begin the discussion
  • Closing reflection activity
  • Process check
  • Read facilitator guide notes

                                Source: Mathematics Case Methods Project, WestEd, Used with permission.
                               Powerful Designs for Professional Learning National Staff Development Council
• What are the advantages of using scrapbooks for

• What information about the teacher can be
  learned from a scrapbook?

• What type of probing questions could you ask
  about a scrapbook or scrapbook page?

• Teacher portfolios are not only useful for show
  and tell.

• They can be useful for reflection.

• How?
            Strategies for Reflective Thinking
            Choosing the Appropriate Strategy Analysis Grid
Topic       Examining a series of reflective strategies and determining their appropriateness.

Objective   To analyze a reflective strategy as to where and how it should be used?, the level of difficulty
            for using the strategy, and the resources needed.

Materials   A list of the reflective strategies studied in depth and the analysis chart.

Time        30 minutes – total
            15 minutes – preparation of grid
            15 minutes – presentation

Procedure   1. Each participant will number off from 1 to 8. The participant will then find her assigned
            group and the strategy the group must analyze.

            2. The group will brainstorm to find the appropriate answers to complete the analysis grid.

            3. The group will complete the analysis grid and will present it to the whole group.
                                       Activity Grid
      Type of Strategy    Individual    When Should Activity      Rate the Level of     Resources
                              or             be Used?                Difficulty          Needed
                            Group                              1 – Low      4 -- High

Critical Friends Group


Case Study

Tuning Protocols

Self-Reflection Surveys

Action Research

           Coaching for Reflection Placemat
              Content                         Process and Purpose
What is Reflective Practice?                What is Reflective Practice?

Areas of Reflection                         Routine

What is Reflective Practice                 What is Reflective Practice?

Characteristics                Coaching     Characteristics

Processes (            )                    Processes (            )
Levels                                      Levels
6 Levels of Transfer                        6 Levels of Transfer

The Practices                               The Practices
                 Reflection Activity


• Three key messages from this session that are significant.

• Two things that you can apply immediately to your
  coaching repertoire.

• One question you are still wondering about.

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