Coaching For Reflection Dr. Anne Rodrigue July 4, 2007 I cannot teach unless I recognize my own ignorance, unless I identify what I do not know, what I have not mastered. (Freire, 1996) Teaching is full of enormous complexities, paradoxes, and tensions and hence, teaching itself invites inquiry. Dana, Fiteham, Nancy, Silva-Yendol Diance (2003, p.7) Teacher inquiry invites intentional planned reflection with a focus on problem posing. Cognitive Coaching • Developed by Art Costa and Robert Garmston. • Method of coaching that focuses on “metacognition”. • The knowledge of one’s own thinking process and strategies and the ability to consciously reflect and act on the knowledge of cognition to modify those processes and strategies. • Metacognition – perception, action, reason, emotion, and memory. Cognitive Coaching • Metacognition – adjective used to describe the awareness of thinking D. Daniels (2002) • Reflection – verb of the process of thinking Cognitive Coaching Uses Three Conversations: Planning Reflecting Problem-solving Cognitive Coaching • Planning Conversations: – Clarify goals – Determine success monitors – Anticipate approaches – Plan strategies – Make decisions – Identify personal learning • Event - Mentoring, Lesson, Activity, Demonstration, etc. – Indicators of success – Effectiveness of approaches, strategies, decisions Cognitive Coaching • Reflecting Conversations: – Analyze what was seen and heard; – Recall support information; – Compare; – Infer; – Help the individual construct new meanings. Cognitive Coaching • Problem-solving Conversations: – Get the person to move from “existing state to desired state”. How? – Pose a data search. – Ask for justification from research literature. – Pose an analytical question: • How does this compare to … ? • What is different about … ? – Invite creation or imagination. – Seek an expression of values. – Elicit a choice from among alternatives. Cognitive Coaching • Coach will: – Paraphrase – Report Discussion – Mirror – Ask question – Invite a shift Solution is reached Return to reflecting conversation Solution is implemented “The antithesis of reflection is mindless routine.” Rodrigue (2006) Some Starters • Planning • Routines • Beginning/end of class • Use of resources • Position in classroom • Questioning: who?, how? • Materials • Instructional techniques • Assessment practices • Why? – what? – for whom? • Levels of reflection The Routine T-Chart Looks Like … Sounds Like … “What is Reflective Practice?” The Definitions Barr, Sommers, Ghore & Montie It is a complex process that requires high levels of (2001, p.4) conscious thought as well as a commitment to making changes based on new understanding of how to practice. Brubaches, Case & Regan Reflective Practice provides a way to understand and (1994, p.36) make sense of the world. Campbell-Jones and Campbell- Reflective Practice is inner dialogue with oneself Jones whereby a person calls forth experiences, beliefs and (2002, p.134) perceptions. The Definitions Clarke (1995) Costa & Reflective educators are decision makers who develop Gramston (1998) thoughtful plans to move new understandings into action so that meaningful improvements result for students. Halton & Smith (1995, p.40) Deliberate thinking about action with a view to its improvement. Jay & Johnson (2002, p.75) Reflection is a process, both individual and collaborative, involving experience and uncertainty. It is comprised of identifying questions and key elements of a matter that has emerged as significant, then taking one’s thoughts into dialogue with oneself and with others. Killian & Todnem (1991) Reflection-on-action, reflection-in-action and reflection-for-action. The Definitions Lasley (1992, p.24) The capacity of a teacher to think creatively, imaginatively and in time, self-critically about classroom practice. Resko, Roskies and Vukelich Reflective Practice is the dialogue that should both (2002) inform and transform knowledge and action. Vaughan (1990, p.ix) Reflective Practice is as much a state of mind as it is a set of activities. Three commonalities exist in most definitions: • Methodical processes • Inquiry orientation • Improvement as a goal Taggard & Wilson (1998, p.17) Reflections as a New Paradigm Reflective Practice PURPOSE Understanding & Competence Learning is constructed. ASSUMPTIONS Learning is personal and holistic. Knowledge is a tool. Instructor as Facilitator STRATEGIES Practitioner as Action Researcher Dialectic Collaborative Contextually-Based Adapted from Osterman & Koltkamp (2004) Experiential Knowledge and Reflective Practice for Educators Formal Knowledge Individual Reflection contributes to: • enhanced educational practice; • greater awareness of personal performance; • increased recognition of professional dilemmas; • different ways of thinking about dilemmas; and • making adjustments in practice. Individual Reflection contributes to: • increased student learning; • increased personal capacity to learn and improve; • restored balance and perspective –a time out for reflection and change; • renewed clarity of self, personal, and professional growth; and • empowerment. Dewey’s Three Characteristics/Attitudes of a Reflective Teacher: • Open-mindedness • Responsibility • Wholeheartedness Taggard & Wilson (1998, p.17) Reflective Break (Open-mindness, Responsibility, Wholeheartedness) 1. Do you possess these characteristics now? At what level? (High, Medium, Low) ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. Which areas need more development? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. Where can you begin? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. Which other desirable characteristics should a reflective practitioner have? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Four Processes to Develop and Sustain a Critical Focus of Teaching • Describing - What do I do? • Informing - What does this description mean? • Confronting - How did I get here? • Reconstructing - How might I do things differently? (Smyth, 1991) Reflective Thinking Model (G. Taggart, 1996) Hierarchical Levels of Reflection LEVEL 3 Ethics, Morals LEVEL 2 Theories, Beliefs LEVEL 1 Actions, Behaviours Level 1: The level of a teacher’s actions in the classroom - a teacher’s observable behaviours Level 2: The theoretical level - the theories behind the teacher’s behaviours in Level 1 Level 3: The ethical, moral level - the role of the wider community in influencing a teacher’s theories (Level 2) and practices (Level 1) Activity – Levels of Reflection 1. Give an example of how a teacher could operate at each of the three levels. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. Which level of reflection do you find yourself working at now? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. What does this mean to you as a reflective teacher? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. Do you think a teacher should always operate (reflect) at any particular level? Explain. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ The Reflective Schema 8 Areas of Inquiry Reflective Stems Teacher Perceptions • Beliefs About Practice • Personal/Professional Identity • Who? • Student • What? • Context • When? Reality Destination • Curriculum • Where? • Content Knowledge • How? • Assessment • Why? • Instructional Strategies • Social Justice Two Essential Conditions for Reflective Practice • Trusting relationships • Thought and inquiry York-Barr, Sommers, Chere, Monte, (2001) Reflective Practice to Improve Schools Trusting Relationships • Treat information with confidentiality. • Deprivatize practice. • Provide framework for a relationship based on learning. • Let participants feel safe, secure, and able to take risks. Components of Trust • Being present. • Being aware of oneself, others and the environment. • Being open. • Listen without judgment and with empathy. • Seek understanding. • View learning as mutual. • Honour the person. • Honour the process. Coaching for Reflection Six Levels of Transfer Fogarty & Pete (2004) Six Levels of Transfer • Overlooks • Duplicates • Replicates • Integrates • Propagates • Innovates Fogarty & Pete (2004) Overlooks • Participates in the training but … • Is unable to see how to apply it when she/he returns to school. Fogarty & Pete (2004) Duplicates • Takes the learning strategy and … • Duplicates it exactly as was taught. • No modification or contextualization. Fogarty & Pete (2004) Replicates • Strategy is applied and it looks slightly different, but … • Is used in a similar context and with similar applications. Fogarty & Pete (2004) Integrates • Uses new strategy/ learning. • Blends new learning with old. Fogarty & Pete (2004) Propagates • Uses new strategy/ learning. • Maps the new strategy onto a different context or application. • Strategizes how and where it can be used. Fogarty & Pete (2004) Innovates • New learning, strategy is adapted, reworked, rethought and … • May not even look like the original. • New learning results from first exposure. Fogarty & Pete (2004) Activity – Group Discussion • What is the value of knowing the levels of transfer? • How can the levels of transfer be used to stimulate reflection? – Model lessons – Demonstrations – Use of resources – Video analysis – Student work “Teachers need to get out of the old mode of thinking that knowledge can be acquired, taught and trained through manuals, books and lectures.” Nonaki & Takeuchi, 1995 Activities to Promote Teacher Reflection and Learning Journaling Action Research Letters to Myself Book Clubs Metaphor as Reflection Cadres Mentoring Cases Teaching Portfolios Classroom Walk-Through Scrap-Booking Coaching Shadowing Students Critical Friends Study Groups Examining Student Work Tuning Protocols Sample Activities How do you view teaching? • An art form/or craft? • Instinctive? • Set of technical skills? Provide your own philosophy of teaching. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Teacher As Professional-Metaphor Activity Using a metaphor, describe how you believe you are viewed as a professional and how you view yourself. Society’s view of Teacher as My view of Teacher as Professional Professional What would it take to change society’s view to my view? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Reflective Journal “Reflective teachers can look back on events, make judgments about them, and alter their teaching behaviours in light of craft, research and ethical knowledge”. Valli, 1997 What is Journaling? • The process of thinking in writing • A way to reflect on experience Benefits of Using Reflective Journals Journals Provide: • A record of events and our reactions. • A source of data on which to base reflective discussions. • A means to analyze and reason through a dilemma. • An opportunity for us to challenge our assumptions and our practices and to make changes. • An impetus to take action that is informed and planned. • A lens through which to objectively view our teaching. • A reflective space for innovation. • A space in which to develop a personal philosophy of teaching. • Scholarly teaching involves an appreciation of the teaching and learning process and the ability to intervene purposefully and positively in the learning experience. A scholarly approach to teaching requires critical inquiry into practice and into learning. Journals can be structured: • as a diary; • as a single page; • as a personal learning journal; • in terms of issues; • as a critical reflection. Reflective Thinking 1. Set aside 5-10 minutes per day for reflective writing. 2. Ask yourself: • Was I as effective as I would like to be? • Answer the four main questions: • What happened? (description of the event) • Why? (analysis of the event) • What does it mean? • What can I do? (Implications for action) 3. Record the impact your actions are having on others and yourself. 4. When you feel brave enough, share the news. Journal Writing Takes Place At Three Different Levels • Describing • Reflecting • Theorizing Describing Questions • What happened? • What did I do? • Where was I? • Who was I interacting with? • Who else was in the range of interaction? Reflecting Questions Reflecting is about looking beyond the surface and asking questions such as: • Why did I do that? • What was I thinking and feeling at the time? • Where did these thoughts and feelings come from? • What assumptions was I making at the time? • What values and beliefs underline my decisions to act in this particular way? • How did relationships with other people influence what happened? Reflecting Questions Reflecting questions can become more complex over time … • Is this way of acting or speaking part of a pattern? • Whose interests does my acting or speaking in this way serve? • What competing views or value systems are apparent? • Are there personal or contextual factors which constrain/limit my view of what is possible in my professional practice? • Can or should these factors be changed? • Who would benefit or suffer if they were? Theorizing • Theorizing goes beyond reflection. • Takes the writer beyond the context of her personal experience. • Links personal experience to the theories of the profession. Theorizing Questions • How well does my practice fit in with contemporary practices in education? • How can my experience shape, revise or develop these theoretical perspectives/pedagogical approaches? Ideas for Getting Started 1. Use an Agenda: • What is the current problem or issue? Describe the context. • What additional information would be useful? • How is it related to other issues? • Who or what could help? • What are my assumptions? How can I test them? • What can I do to create a change? • What are the possible outcomes of these? • What action will I take? Why? • List the outcomes you hope to achieve. • Reflection on the actual outcome. What worked well? • What could I do differently next time? Ideas for Getting Started 2. Focus on the experience and think (not aloud) in writing: Take something you have read in the literature on teaching and learning, or take something that occurred as part of your activities undertaking this module and use the following questions to guide your reflection: • How does this connect with an aspect of my practice? • What are the teaching and learning principles that are involved? • What could I change in relation to this? • What would happen if I did? Ideas for Getting Started 3. Focus on a critical incident that took place in your classroom: • Describe the incident as objectively as possible. • What were the assumptions that you were operating with? • Is there another way to see this event? • How would your students explain this event? • How do the two explanations compare? • What could you do differently? Ideas for Getting Started 4. Take stock of my learning: • What is the most important thing I have learned about student learning? • What is the most important thing I have learned about myself as a professional? Ideas for Getting Started 5. And from time to time… • What has using this journal confirmed that I already know about my students learning and how I affect that? • What do I need to do to improve the quality of what I do? • What might I do instead of what I do now? • What innovation could I introduce? • What professional development activities should I be seeking? Example of a Reflective Journal Entry Class: ____________________ Date: _________________ Focus: Issue/Challenge or Success of the Lesson. ______________________________________________________________________ Inquiry: Compose questions that help you clarify the issue, or success you have decided to investigate. ______________________________________________________________________ Reference: Search for a similar problem or solution from past teaching and from the literature. ______________________________________________________________________ Strategy: Document how you will solve the issue, meet the challenge or the success. ______________________________________________________________________ Implementation: What happened when you implemented my solution? ______________________________________________________________________ Where do you go next? ______________________________________________________________________ (Adapted from Reflective Analysis of Student Work, Bella N., 2004, p. 21) Journaling Activity Topic Reflective Journaling Objective 1. The participant will journal about the piece of student work they have chosen. 2. The participant will meet with a partner to share their reflections as noted through their journals. Materials A piece of student work. Time 25 minutes – Total 10 minutes – Personal journaling 10 minutes – Sharing of journal reflection 5 minutes – Debriefing Procedure 1. Participants will examine the piece of student work they brought to the class and will write about the piece of work using the template provided. 2. Participants will share their journal with a friend. 3. Participants will debrief the process. Reflective Thinking/Journal Page What happened? Why? What does it mean? What can I do? A Pen-Portrait of Me 1. What kind of teacher am I? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. What are my core beliefs about: a) teaching? b) learning? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. How would I describe my teaching style? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. What ideas do I have about teaching? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. How can these ideas contribute to developing a knowledge base about teaching? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ A Pen-Portrait of Me 6. Where do my ideas about teaching come from? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 7. Who/What helped formulate my ideas about teaching? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 8. Do these ideas align/conflict with my current views about teaching? Why or Why not? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 9. What do I feel strongly about in education? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Conduct an Interview of a Colleague 1. What do you think are his/her core beliefs about teaching? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. What else would you like to know about his/her beliefs/attitudes? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. What needs to be clarified? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. What is missing? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Write down responses. Provide an analysis of responses. Taking a Personal Inventory • Self-Rubric • Survey Analysis Strategies for Reflective Thinking Topic Teacher Self-Reflection Teacher Self-Reflection Survey Objective The group will examine a survey contained within the NSTU Teacher Self-Reflection document and make modifications. Materials A copy of the NSTU Teacher Self-Reflection document. Time 40 minutes – Total 20 minutes – Revision of survey 10 minutes – 2-minute group presentation in plenary session Procedure 1. Each group will chose a topic survey from the NSTU Self-Reflection booklet. 2. The group members will brainstorm and will suggest modifications and deletions to the survey. 3. The group will revise the survey. 4. The group will present the revised survey to the group and will justify the revisions. Using Casebooks for Teacher Education What Can You Use for Cases? Problem Sets Problem-based Learning Activities Critical Incidents Slice of Life Accounts Ethnographic Studies Clinical Descriptions Appraisals/Consultant Personal Stories/Narratives Report Case Histories Newspaper Stories Scenarios “Armchair” Cases Simulation Activities Video Cases/Trigger Films Ask one opening question to begin discussion of the case. Facilitate a brainstorming discussion on the participant’s reaction to the question. After reading a case, outline at least three questions that would broaden the discussion around this case. Ask the following questions: What is the problem? When did the problem begin? What is the source of the problem? How can the problem be addressed? Who can help address the problem? How can the possible solutions be evaluated? Drive – Pull - Push Images of Facilitation: 1. The facilitator drives the discussion by asking the group to: • stay with an idea before moving on; • return to a previous idea; • slow the pace of the discussion; • allow an individual time to fully articulate an idea. Source: Mathematics Case Methods Project, WestEd, www.wested.org. Used with permission. Powerful Designs for Professional Learning National Staff Development Council www.nsdc.org Drive – Pull - Push Images of Facilitation: 2. The facilitator pulls the discussion by asking the group to: • provide drawings, examples, or evidence; • explain an idea; • comment on others’ ideas; • weigh benefits and drawbacks; • clarify ideas; • explain why? or how?; • make conjectures or predictions. Source: Mathematics Case Methods Project, WestEd, www.wested.org. Used with permission. Powerful Designs for Professional Learning National Staff Development Council www.nsdc.org Drive – Pull - Push Images of Facilitation: 3. The facilitator pushes the discussion by: • asking the group to prove or test ideas; • playing devil's advocate; • asking someone to argue a point of view they disagree with; • challenging an idea that has been presented; • pressing for decisions or generalizations. Source: Mathematics Case Methods Project, WestEd, www.wested.org. Used with permission. Powerful Designs for Professional Learning National Staff Development Council www.nsdc.org Drive – Pull - Push Case Discussion Roadmap: • Warm up activities • Read or quickly review the case • Facts • Issues framed as questions • Begin the discussion • Closing reflection activity • Process check • Read facilitator guide notes Source: Mathematics Case Methods Project, WestEd, www.wested.org. Used with permission. Powerful Designs for Professional Learning National Staff Development Council www.nsdc.org Scrapbooks Scrapbooks Scrapbooks • What are the advantages of using scrapbooks for reflection? • What information about the teacher can be learned from a scrapbook? • What type of probing questions could you ask about a scrapbook or scrapbook page? Portfolios • Teacher portfolios are not only useful for show and tell. • They can be useful for reflection. • How? Strategies for Reflective Thinking Choosing the Appropriate Strategy Analysis Grid Topic Examining a series of reflective strategies and determining their appropriateness. Objective To analyze a reflective strategy as to where and how it should be used?, the level of difficulty for using the strategy, and the resources needed. Materials A list of the reflective strategies studied in depth and the analysis chart. Time 30 minutes – total 15 minutes – preparation of grid 15 minutes – presentation Procedure 1. Each participant will number off from 1 to 8. The participant will then find her assigned group and the strategy the group must analyze. 2. The group will brainstorm to find the appropriate answers to complete the analysis grid. 3. The group will complete the analysis grid and will present it to the whole group. Activity Grid Type of Strategy Individual When Should Activity Rate the Level of Resources or be Used? Difficulty Needed Group 1 – Low 4 -- High Journaling Critical Friends Group Portfolios Case Study Tuning Protocols Self-Reflection Surveys Action Research Cadres Coaching for Reflection Placemat Content Process and Purpose What is Reflective Practice? What is Reflective Practice? Areas of Reflection Routine What is Reflective Practice What is Reflective Practice? Characteristics Coaching Characteristics Processes ( ) Processes ( ) For Levels Levels Reflection 6 Levels of Transfer 6 Levels of Transfer The Practices The Practices Reflection Activity Record: • Three key messages from this session that are significant. • Two things that you can apply immediately to your coaching repertoire. • One question you are still wondering about.
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