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					INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT 2
                        
      A WORD FAMILY SPELLING PROGRAM




          DESIGNED BY: JENNIFER CULLEN

              Ed Tech 503 (Fall 2009)


           Submitted to: Dr. Ross Perkins


                 December 8, 2009
Table of Contents

SYNTHESIS PAPER
SYNTHESIS PAPER REFLECTIONS                                                    4
SYNTHESIS PAPER THINGS LEARNED AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS                         5

PART 1: TOPIC
PART 1A: LEARNING GOAL                                                       5
PART IB: AUDIENCE DESCRIPTION                                                5
PART 1C: TOPIC RATIONALE                                                   6-7

PART 2: ANALYSIS REPORT
PART 2A: LEARNING CONTEXT DESCRIPTION                                        7
PART 2A.1: LEARNING CONTEXT                                                7-8
PART 2A.2: TRANSFER CONTEXT                                                  8
PART2B. LEARNER DESCRIPTION                                                  8

PART 3: PLANNING
PART 3A: LEARNING OBJECTIVES                                              8-12
PART 3B: MATRIX OF OBJECTIVES, BLOOM'S TAXONOMY, AND TYPES OF LEARNING   13-14
PART 3C: ARCS TABLE                                                      14-15

PART 4: INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
INTRODUCTION                                                                16
BODY                                                                     17-18
CONCLUSION                                                               18-19

PART 5: LEARNER CONTENT
PART 5A: LEARNING MATERIALS                                              19-26
PART 5B: FORMATIVE AND/OR SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT MATERIALS                 27-36
PART 5C: TECHNOLOGY TOOL JUSTIFICATION                                   37-40

PART 6: FORMATIVE EVALUATION PLAN
PART 6A: EXPERT REVIEW                                                     41
PART 6B: ONE-TO-ONE EVALUATION                                             41
PART 6C: SMALL GROUP EVALUATION                                            41
PART6D: FIELD TRIAL                                                        42

PART 7: FORMATIVE EVALUATION REPORT
PART 7A: EVALUATION SURVEY OR RUBRIC                                       42
PART 7B.: REPORT THE RESULTS OF THE EXPERT REVIEW                          43
PART 7C: COMMENTS ON CHANGE                                                44



                                                                           2
PART 8: AECT STANDARDS GRID   45




APPENDICES                    46




                              3
                                Synthesis Reflection Paper

         The instructional design process is like creating a delicious seven- course meal.
When a seven course meal is made correctly it looks, tastes, and smells fantastic.
Likewise, properly designed instruction looks professional, works well and effectively
improves student learning. A seven-course meal is prepared in a specific order. First,
appetizers are made. Then the salad course is prepared followed by soup and sorbet. Next
a main meat course that consists of beef, fish, lamb or poultry is fixed. Then a vegetable
course is served. Finally, the meal ends with a mouth-watering dessert. All the foods in a
seven-course meal are meant to compliment each other. Comparatively, when designing
instruction a process is followed. Each part of the design process compliments the others.
First a designer analyzes the learning context, the learners and the learning tasks. Then
learner assessments are designed. Next designers select an instructional strategy that
helps them determine how learning materials will be presented and which learning
activities should be included. Then the instruction is implemented. Finally designers
evaluate their instruction to determine ways the instruction can be improved. Behind the
scenes, in the kitchen, cooking a seven-course meal can be a systematic but messy
process. A chef often follows tried and true recipes when cooking a seven-course meal so
the meal is prepared properly. However, sometimes a taste test reveals that too much or
too little of an important ingredient was added to the food. In this case, the chef has to
modify the recipe to make the food taste good. A similar thing can happen when
designing instruction. A designer may think that the tools and materials she has built are
perfectly suited for her audience of learners only to find out after expert review, one-to-
one evaluations, small group evaluations, and field trials that the products she has
designed need modifications to be effective. Whether you’re a chef of seven-course
meals or an instructional designer the process of evaluation and constant improvement is
an important component of your job.

         Before taking this class, I thought the most important part of design was making
sure that instructional materials were fun and hands-on. Through this class I have learned
that all the parts of design are interrelated and that it is important to carefully consider the
learners, the learning context and the learning goals before designing instruction. The
analysis part of design is like building the foundation on a house. If a builder takes the
time to set up a firm foundation it will hold up a house for years to come. When homes
are built on a weak foundation, they fall apart. Amrein-Beardsley, Foulger & Toth (2007)
analyzed learners to identify what things should be considered in the design, promotion
and delivery of a hybrid degree program. They found that student perspectives and
student technology experience significantly impacted student success in hybrid courses.
Similar to the findings of Amrein-Beardsley, Foulger & Toth, I found that learner and
context analysis are important steps in instructional design. For example, in ID Project 1,
I focused on training teachers how to implement interactive white boards into their
lessons. Before I could build appropriate instruction for these teachers I had to find out
about their educational backgrounds, their prior technology experiences and previous
experience with interactive white boards. Analysis of the learners helped me realize that I
needed to design multi-faceted instruction. The teachers had a wide variety of educational


                                                                                              4
backgrounds and prior technology experience. They fell into three categories in regards
to their interactive whiteboard experience: novice, intermediate, and expert. The novice
group would need a lot of tutoring and hands-on practice. The intermediate group would
need some hands-on practice, some tutoring, and a few enrichment activities. The expert
group would need a lot of enrichment. For ID Project 2, analysis of the learning context
helped me design proper instruction for the students. For this project I designed spelling
instruction for second graders that came from a low-income, urban area. Originally I
designed the spelling activities to be all online. Instruction was meant to take place
mostly in school where students would have online access. After analyzing the learners, I
realized that some students would prefer to take work home or would need to take work
home to get the extra practice they needed. Since most of the students in this context
would not have access to computers at home I decided to add a paper/pencil aspect to the
program to make sure all learners would have adequate access to practice materials and
learning activities.

        I think my understanding of the design process will help me design more effective
lessons for my students throughout my teaching career and also the skills gained in this
class will help me assess whether pre-made instructional products are worth buying for
use in my classroom. Through this class, I have learned more about my teaching
philosophy. I realized that I tend to design instruction from a generative approach rather
than a supplantive approach. I like to put students in control of their learning. This
control comes when the instructional design provides the students with learning choices.
For example, in my ID project 2, I allow students to chose the spelling list they work on,
their spelling practice activities and the way they want to be tested. I also learned the
importance of writing detalied instructional goals. In my ID project 1, when I first wrote
my instructional goals flow chart it was very vague and open ended. When the instructor
encouraged me to add more detail to it I realized that there were details of the instruction
that I had forgotten to include or explain clearly. I have also learned that it is important to
constantly re-evaluate your instruction and improve it. It is not effective to teach the same
lesson plan for twenty years. Learners change from year to year and the instruction
should too.

References:
Amrein-Beardsley, A., Foulger, T.S., & Toth, M. (2007). Examining the development of
  a hybrid degree program: Using student and instructor data to inform decision-
  making. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, (39)4, pg. 331-358.




                                                                                             5
Part 1. Topic

Part 1a. Learning Goal

Over the course of a school year, students who participate in the
Cullen Spelling Method will engage in traditional and technology-based
learning activities for twenty minutes, five days a week that will teach
them how to correctly spell hundreds of words based on 37 of the
most common word families (Wylie and Durrell, 1970).


Part 1b. Audience Description

Second grade students attending Sweet Elementary, a Title 1 (low-
income) school located in the CoolWhip County, California school
district.

Part 1c. Rationale for topic.

1. While working as a student teacher in a second grade classroom I
saw several English Language Learners (ELL) and special needs
students struggle to learn spelling words taken from their reading
curriculum. I feel that all types of students, especially students with
special needs would benefit from a flexible spelling program based on
the word patterns found in Wylie and Durrell's (1970) 37 word families
than traditional spelling lists based on Ayers Spelling Scale (1915) or
Dolch's Word list (1936). Also in my experience in working with ELL
students and students who have special needs I have found that
putting spelling words to music helps the students see, hear and
memorize the patterns found in spelling words. Over the years
researchers have found that music is an effective tool in helping
children aquire first and second language skills. Music has also been
shown "to help second language learners acquire vocabulary and
grammar, improve spelling and develop the linguistic skills of reading,
writing, speaking and listening"(Medina,2002, para.1).For this spelling
program, students will use both musical spelling lists and traditional
spelling lists as well as online and traditional practice activities to learn
their spelling words.


2. My overall approach to this instruction is a generative approach.
Students are motivated when teachers give them choices regarding


                                                                            6
their learning (Fay & Funk, 1995). Throughout the learning process:
Students will be able to chose the word list they want to learn, the
pace at which they work, the spelling practice activities that will assist
them in learning their words and their mode of testing. Students'
spelling capabilities vary so this program provides students with
differentiated spelling lists. There are three levels of word family
spelling lists which get progressively harder. This program allows
students to choose the spelling list they want to work on each week.
Since different students are motivated by different learning activities,
this program allows students to choose the specific spelling learning
activities they want to participate in. To relieve test anxiety and to
accomodate ELL students and students with special needs, this
program provides students with several testing options. Students get
to choose how they want to be tested. However, this program does
expect all students to master all the level one spelling lists before
moving on to level two. Students must master all level two spelling
lists before moving on to level three. Students are also expected to
master spelling words with 100% accuracy. Words that are misspelled
will be continuously worked on until the word(s) are spelled without
mistakes.

3. The main strategy employed in the Cullen Spelling Method is
Declarative Knowledge Instruction.

4.Declarative Knowledge Instruction: This type of instruction involves
teaching learners the basics behind a topic so it can be studied further.
Learners participating in this program will use learning activities to
help them memorize spelling words. After the words are memorized,
students will be expected to list spelling words on a final test from
memory.

Part 2. Analysis Report

Part 2a. Description of the Learning Context

Part 2a. 1: Learning Context

Students will be learning the materials in their classroom and at home.
This particular classroom is equipped with an interactive white board
(SmartBoard) and all students have access to laptop computers
because of a nationally funded grant that allowed for ubiquitous
computing implementation in their school. In the classroom during
spelling time students will: 1. Choose a spelling list. 2.Choose a
spelling activity from the list of teacher approved spelling activities. 3.


                                                                             7
Pick up neccessary work supplies for the spelling activity. 4. Get to
work! Students can work anywhere in the classroom as long as they
are staying on task and not bothering other students. Students may
work at their desks, on the floor, in the bean bag chair in the back of
the classroom, wherever they feel comfortable. The teacher may give
whole class instruction on the SmartBoard as needed. Students may
work individually, in pairs, or in small groups. Students may use the
classroom laptop computers or they may use paper/pencil materials to
study. Students must complete at least three of the learning activities
before they can test on their words. Students may take spelling
activities home.

Part 2a. 2: Transfer Context

Although spelling is mainly a memorization of letter patterns skill, this
skill will assist learners in other learning domains such as reading and
writing. Once learners have spelling words stored in their long term
memory, the words can easily be retrieved during reading and writing
activities. Memorizing spelling words helps learners read more fluently
because words no longer have to be sounded out, they are recognized
automatically. Spelling also helps students writing abilities because
students do not waste time trying to phonetically spell words during
writing activities. Students will also use their spelling knowledge for
reading and writing activities they do at home and places other than
school (i.e. the supermarket).

Part 2b. Description of the Learners

The learners comprise students attending second grade at Sweet
Elementary School in the Big Rock Candy Mountains located in
CoolWhip County, California. These classes have near equal amounts
of female and male students (43% Female and 57% Male). 70% of
students are Hispanic. 25% of students are caucasion. 5% of the
students are from other nations including: Africa, Korea, Iraq, Bosnia,
Turkey and Russia. Most of the students (98%) are bilingual and can
speak, write, and understand the English language. 85% of the
students qualify for free or reduced lunch. 56% of the students live in
a home with only one parent as the head of household.

Part 3. Planning

Part 3a. Learning Objectives.

Learning Objectives for Word Family List One:



                                                                          8
1a. Using the spelling songs found at:
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html
students will memorize thirty-seven word family sounds: ack, ain, ake,
ale, all, ame, an, ank, ap, ash, at, ate, aw, ay, eat, ell, est, ice, ick,
ide, ight, ill, in, ine, ing, ink, ip, it, ock, oke, op, ore, ot, uck, ug, ump,
unk.

1b. Students will chose three spelling activities from a list of approved
spelling activities provided by the teacher. During these spelling
activities students will see, hear, and interact with the onsets (single
beginning consonant sounds) and rimes (ending word family sounds)
that make up their spelling words.

1c. As students participate in the spelling activities of their choice,
they will memorize the onsets (single beginning consonant sounds)
and rimes (ending word family sounds) that make up their spelling
words.

1d. After using the spelling songs at
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html and
participating in three spelling learning activities, students will be able
to spell words from their list with 100% accuracy from memory on a
spelling test.

1e. If words are misspelled on a spelling list, students will be expected
to practice these words until the student can spell the words with
100% accuracy.

1e.1: Using the spelling songs found at:
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html
students will memorize thirty-seven word family sounds: ack, ain, ake,
ale, all, ame, an, ank, ap, ash, at, ate, aw, ay, eat, ell, est, ice, ick,
ide, ight, ill, in, ine, ing, ink, ip, it, ock, oke, op, ore, ot, uck, ug, ump,
unk.

1e.2: Students will choose three new spelling activities to assist them
in practicing the misspelled words. During these spelling activities
students will see, hear, and interact with the onsets (single beginning
consonant sounds) and rimes (ending word family sounds) that make
up their spelling words.

1e.3:As students participate in the spelling activities of their choice,
they will memorize the onsets (single beginning consonant sounds)



                                                                              9
and rimes (ending word family sounds) that make up their spelling
words.


1e.4:After using the spelling songs at
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html and
participating in three new spelling learning activities, students will re-
test on the misspelled words. Students should be able to spell the
misspelled words with 100% accuracy from memory on a spelling test.

1f: After the second re-test, if students are still misspelling words, the
teacher should look for patterns in the student's misspelled words to
see if students are missing the onsets (single beginning consonant
sounds), the rimes (ending word family sounds) or both. This will help
the teacher pinpoint where the student needs remediation.



Learning Objectives for Word Family List Two:

As soon as learners have tested on all the words on the Word Family
List One with 100% accuracy, they may move onto the Second Word
Family lists. These words are harder because they have initial
consonant blends or beginning blends attached to the word family
combinations to form the words.

2a.Students will use the spelling songs at:
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html to help them
memorize words with the following beginning consonant blends: bl, br,
cl, cr, dr, fl, fr, gl, gr, pl, pr, sc, sk, sl, sm, sn, sp, sq, st, sw, tr
accompanied by a word family combination.

2b. Students will chose three spelling activities from a list of approved
spelling activities provided by the teacher. During these spelling
activities students will see, hear, and interact with the onsets (blended
beginning consonant sounds) and rimes (ending word family sounds)
that make up their spelling words.

2c. As students participate in the spelling activities of their choice,
they will memorize the onsets (blended beginning consonant sounds)
and rimes (ending word family sounds) that make up their spelling
words.

2d. After using the spelling songs at


                                                                        10
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html and
participating in three spelling learning activities, students will be able
to spell words from their list with 100% accuracy from memory on a
spelling test.

2e. If words are misspelled on a spelling list, students will be expected
to practice these words until the student can spell the words with
100% accuracy.

2e.1: Using the spelling songs found at:
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html
students will memorize thirty-seven word family sounds: ack, ain, ake,
ale, all, ame, an, ank, ap, ash, at, ate, aw, ay, eat, ell, est, ice, ick,
ide, ight, ill, in, ine, ing, ink, ip, it, ock, oke, op, ore, ot, uck, ug, ump,
unk.

2e.2: Students will choose three new spelling activities to assist them
in practicing the misspelled words. During these spelling activities
students will see, hear, and interact with the onsets (blended
beginning consonant sounds) and rimes (ending word family sounds)
that make up their spelling words.

2e.3:As students participate in the spelling activities of their choice,
they will memorize the onsets (blended beginning consonant sounds)
and rimes (ending word family sounds) that make up their spelling
words.

2e.4:After using the spelling songs at
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html and
participating in three new spelling learning activities, students will re-
test on the misspelled words. Students should be able to spell the
misspelled words with 100% accuracy from memory on a spelling test.

2f: After the second re-test, if students are still misspelling words, the
teacher should look for patterns in the student's misspelled words to
see if students are missing the onsets (blended beginning consonant
sounds), the rimes (ending word family sounds) or both. This will help
the teacher pinpoint where the student needs remediation.



Learning Objectives for Word Family List Three:




                                                                             11
 As soon as learners have passed all of the words on the Word Family
List Two with 100% accuracy, they may choose from the Word Family
List Three. These words are harder to spell than words on the Second
Word Family lists because these words have beginning consonant
blends with silent letters or consonant diagraphs attatched to the word
family combinations.

3a. Students will use the spelling songs at:
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html

to help them memorize consonant diagraphs: sh,shr, str, ch, th, wh,
ph as well as other tricky beginning blends: kn, wr, gn, and qu that
are combined with the word family sounds.

3b.Students will chose three spelling activities from a list of approved
spelling activities provided by the teacher. During these spelling
activities students will see, hear, and interact with the onsets
(beginning sounds: consonant diagraphs or other tricky consonant
blends) and rimes (ending word family sounds) that make up their
spelling words.


3c. As students participate in the spelling activities of their choice,
they will memorize the onsets (beginning sounds: consonant diagraphs
or other tricky consonant blends) and rimes (ending word family
sounds) that make up their spelling words.


3d. After using the spelling songs at
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html and
participating in three spelling learning activities, students will be able
to spell words from their list with 100% accuracy from memory on a
spelling test.

3e. If words are misspelled on a spelling list, students will be expected
to practice these words until the student can spell the words with
100% accuracy.

3e.1: Using the spelling songs found at:
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html
students will memorize thirty-seven word family sounds: ack, ain, ake,
ale, all, ame, an, ank, ap, ash, at, ate, aw, ay, eat, ell, est, ice, ick,
ide, ight, ill, in, ine, ing, ink, ip, it, ock, oke, op, ore, ot, uck, ug, ump,
unk.


                                                                             12
3e.2: Students will choose three new spelling activities to assist them
in practicing the misspelled words. During these spelling activities
students will see, hear, and interact with the onsets (beginning
sounds: consonant diagraphs or other tricky consonant blends) and
rimes (ending word family sounds) that make up their spelling words.

3e.3:As students participate in the spelling activities of their choice,
they will memorize the onsets (beginning sounds: consonant diagraphs
or other tricky consonant blends) and rimes (ending word family
sounds) that make up their spelling words.

3e.4:After using the spelling songs at
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html and
participating in three new spelling learning activities, students will re-
test on the misspelled words. Students should be able to spell the
misspelled words with 100% accuracy from memory on a spelling test.

3f: After the second re-test, if students are still misspelling words, the
teacher should look for patterns in the student's misspelled words to
see if students are missing the onsets (beginning sounds: consonant
diagraphs or other tricky consonant blends), the rimes (ending word
family sounds) or both. This will help the teacher pinpoint where the
student needs remediation.


Matrix of Objectives, Bloom's Taxonomy, Instructional Strategies, and Types of
Learning

Objective Number     Bloom’s Taxonomy Strategy to be           Type of Learning
(1)
                     Classification (2) employed to teach      (4)

                                        the objective (3)
1a                   Knowledge          S                      Declarative

1b                   Application          G                    Declarative
1c                   Knowledge            S                    Declarative
1d                   Evaluation           G                    Declarative
1e                   Application          G                    Declarative
1e.1                 Knowledge            S                    Declarative
1e.2                 Application          G                    Declarative
1e.3                 Application          G                    Declarative
1e.4                 Evaluation           G                    Declarative
1f                   Evaluation           S                    Declarative
2a                   Knowledge            S                    Declarative
2b                   Application          G                    Declarative


                                                                                 13
2c                    Knowledge             S                    Declarative
2d                    Evaluation            G                    Declarative
2e                    Application          G                     Declarative
2e.1                  Knowledge            S                     Declarative
2e.2                  Application          G                     Declarative
2e.3                  Application          G                     Declarative
2e.4                  Evaluation           G                     Declarative
2f                    Evaluation           S                     Declarative
3a                    Knowledge            S                     Declarative
3b                    Application          G                     Declarative
3c                    Knowledge            S                     Declarative
3d                    Evalutation          G                     Declarative
3e                    Application          G                     Declarative
3e.1                  Knowledge            S                     Declarative
3e.2                  Application          G                     Declarative
3e.3                  Application          G                     Declarative
3e.4                  Evaluation           G                     Declarative
3f                    Evaluation           S                     Declarative




                   ARCS Motivational Strategies Plan

  Project Goal Statement: Over the course of a school year,
students who participate in the Cullen Spelling Method will engage in
traditional and technology-based learning activities that will teach
them how to correctly spell hundreds of words based on 37 of the
most common word families (Wylie and Durrell, 1970).

ATTENTION
A.1 Perceptual Arousal
>Go to http://www.enchantedlearning.com/rhymes/wordfamilies/. Bring this web
page up on the interactive white board. Call on a student to pick their favorite
nursery rhyme from the list provided. All students can sing/speak along with you as
you sing/read the nursery rhyme. This website provides both words and pictures for
a wide variety of nursery rhymes.
A2. Inquiry Arousal
>Ask students "What rhyming sounds did you hear in the nursery rhyme?" Help
students make a connection between the rhyming sounds and spellings. The teacher
should discuss the specific word families that are found inside each nursery rhyme.
A3. Variability
> Online nursery rhymes are available @ http://www.youtube.com. Students can
view the nursery rhymes at this website, sing along, and then the teacher can lead a
word family discussion as indicated above.
 RELEVANCE


                                                                                  14
R1. Goal orientation
>Learners will be given the word family pre-assessment so the teacher will know
which spelling lists students should start on.
R2. Motive matching
>Students always have a choice about which spelling list they want to work on,
which spelling practice activities they want to participate in, and their mode of
testing.
R3. Familiarity
>Learners will use the words in activities such as rhyming games and writing
activities that relate to their world view.
 CONFIDENCE
C1. Learning requirements
>Since the students have to work at words until they spell them with 100%
accuracy, they will learn to work hard at something until they get it right.
C2. Success opportunities
>After participating in the Cullen spelling method students will feel confident in their
spelling abilities because they will learn how word families relate to each other. This
new knowledge will give them confidence in spelling other difficult words in the
future. Hopefully as students work through the program and become better spellers,
readers and writers they will become intrinsically motivated to learn.
C3. Personal control
> Throughout this spelling program, students may choose which spelling list they
want to study and learn. Students will have access to two types of spelling lists. A
traditional paper list and an online musical list. Students may use one or both lists to
study their words. After students chose a spelling list, they may chose three online
and/or traditional spelling activities to practice their words. After completing each
spelling activity they must show their work to their teacher for approval. Once
students have completed three spelling activities they may choose a method of
testing. Testing may be done online at http://www.spellingcity.com/ or traditionally
in the classroom where the teacher reads the words to the student orally and then
the student spells the word in written or oral form.
 SATISFACTION
S1. Natural consequences
>As the students' spelling abilities increase, their reading and writing skills will
increase exponentially.
S2. Positive consequences
>Students will recieve external rewards in the form of verbal praise, stickers, and
prizes as they participate in the Cullen Spelling Program. Students will also recieve a
sticker every time they successfully complete a spelling activity of their choice and
when they get 100% on a spelling test. When students recieve four test stickers they
recieve a super speller coupon that they can use to buy goods at the super speller
store.
S3. Equity
>The focus of the Cullen Spelling method is to make learning fun and engaging.
Since students are allowed to choose from a wide variety of spelling activities they
are in control of which activities motivate them and help them learn best.




                                                                                       15
Keller, J. M. (1987). The systematic process of motivational design. Performance &
Instruction, 26 (9/10), 1-8.



Part 4. Instructor's Guide

Introduction:

1. To introduce students to the concept of word families go to:
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/rhymes/wordfamilies/.

Bring this web page up on the interactive white board.

Call on a student to pick their favorite nursery rhyme from the list
provided.

All students can sing/speak along with you as you sing/read the
nursery rhyme. This website provides both words and pictures for a
wide variety of nursery rhymes.

To provide a little bit of variety to your instruction nursery rhyme
videos are available online @ http://www.youtube.com.

Go to http://www.youtube.com and search for nursery rhymes.

Bring these videos up on the interactive white board.

Students can view the nursery rhymes at this website, sing along, and
then the teacher can lead a word family discussion as indicated above.

2. After students have experienced a variety of examples of nusery
rhymes that contain word family sounds. Ask students "What rhyming
sounds did you hear in the nursery rhymes?"

After discussing rhyming sounds with students ask,"How are these
rhyming sounds spelled?"

 Help students make a connection between the rhyming sounds and
spellings.Write word family spellings on the board.

 Explain to students that these rhyming sounds are called word
families because they are always spelled the same way. Tell the
students that their are 37 common word families. Tell them that for
spelling during the year they will be learning these word families and


                                                                                     16
as a result learn how to spell hundreds of new words during the school
year.

Body:

Before students begin the Cullen Word Family Spelling program they
should be given the Word Family Pre-Assessment.

  1. Make enough copies of the Word Family Pre-assessment located
     in the Learner Content portion of this instructor's guide for each
     student. Equip each student with a pre-assement paper and
     pencil.

  2. Ask students to spell the words found on the Word Family Pre-
     Assessment word list (located in the Learner Content portion of
     this instructor's guide).This pre-assessment is meant to be given
     orally by the teacher to the whole class but the method of
     delivery can be adapted for students who may have special
     needs. As the teacher reads the word list students write their
     answers down on the pre-assessment paper.


  3. After students finish the pre-assessment they hand in their
     papers for grading.

  4. Students' pre-assessments will be graded on the following
     criteria:


If students scored 90-100% on the pre-assessment they may chose
any spelling list they want from the Word Family List One.

If students scored 75-89% on the pre-assessment they may chose any
of the two letter word family lists (an,ap,at,aw,ay,etc.) from the Word
Family List One.

If students scored below a 75% on the pre-assessment they need
remedial word family practice. Students should participate in the Word
Family Practice Activities found in the Learner Content section of this
Instructor's Guide. Please let students choose the Word Family
Activities they want to engage in.




                                                                      17
After students have participated in at least six Word Family Practice
Activities they may take the Word Family Pre-assessment again.
If they pass with 75% or higher they may begin the spelling activities
as indicated below.


2. This spelling program comes equipped with five copies of each
individual word family list so multiple students may study the same list
at the same time if they choose. All word lists are organized in the
appropriate wooden file box provided under the correct "word family"
tabs.To begin the Cullen Spelling Program, allow students to chose one
list from the Word Family List One word box.


Students also have access to musical spelling lists at:
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html

The musical spelling lists are meant to be used in conjunction with the
traditional spelling lists. The musical spelling lists may be used as a
whole class on the interactive white board or individual students can
use the lists on the classroom laptops with headphones. Lists can also
be printed out and taken home.

3. Throughout the week during spelling time (30 minutes every day),
students may choose from a variety of online and traditional spelling
learning activities to help them learn the words on their spelling list.

4. After completion of each spelling learning activity students must
show the teacher their work. If the work is satisfactory the teacher will
reward the student with a sticker on their Spelling Activity Checklist.
Students may move on to a new activity.

5. Once students have satisfactorily completed three spelling learning
activities. They can take a test on their words.

Conclusion:

Students can test on their words in one of three ways:

1. Students may test at spellingcity.com (Detailed instructions on how
to do this are located in the Learner content portion of this document).

2. Students may test where the teacher says the word orally and the
student writes the word down with a pencil on a peice of paper.



                                                                       18
3. Students may test where the teacher says the word orally and the
student spells the word orally.

*Testing may also be done by para-professionals such as tutors that
work in the classroom.

After the teacher has proof that a student has passed a test with
100% accuracy. The student may choose a new list and begin the
spelling practice and testing process again.

If students have missed words on their list they need to study those
words until they can spell them 100% correctly.The missed words
become the students new spelling list and they must choose and carry
out three spelling practice activities before they can re-test on their
words. This process happens over and over until students spell all
words with 100% accuracy.

Part 5. Learner Content

Part 5a. Learning Materials



File box picture provided by:http://www.inthenorthwoods.com/Images/Product/RecipeCardBox.jpg




                                                                                               19
List One Spelling Lists:

ack    ain    ake    ale    all    ame    an     ank    ap     ash      at
back   gain   bake   bale   ball   came   can    bank   cap    cash     bat
hack   main   cake   pale   call   dame   Dan    rank   lap    bash     cat
pack   pain   fake   sale   fall   fame   fan    sank   nap    dash     fat
rack   rain   lake   tale   mall   lame   man    tank   map    hash     hat
sack          make          tall   name   ran    yank   pap    mash     mat
tack          rake          wall   same   tan           rap    rash     pat
              sake                 tame                 sap             rat
              take                                      tap             sat
                                                        zap


ate     aw    ay     eat    ell    est    ice    ick    ide     ight     ill
date    paw   bay    beat   bell   best   bice   hick   hide    fight    bill
fate    saw   day    feat   cell   jest   dice   kick   ride    night    dill
hate    raw   Fay    heat   dell   nest   nice   Mick   side    right    fill
Kate          hay    neat   fell   pest   mice   sick   tide    sight    hill
mate          Kay    meat   sell   test   rice   tick   wide    tight    kill
Nate          nay    peat   tell   vest          wick                    mill
rate          pay    seat   well   west                                  sill
Tate          ray                  zest                                  till
              say                                                        will




                                                                          20
in     ine  ing  ink  ip           it     ock    oke op     ore    ot
bin    dine bing dink dip          bit    cock   coke bop   core   bot

fin    fine   king    fink   lip   fit    lock poke cop     core   cot
kin    line   ding    kink   nip   lit    mock joke dop     fore   dot
gin    kine   ping    link   Pip   nit    rock yoke hop     gore   lot
pin    mine   ring    mink   rip   sit    sock      lop     more   jot
sin    nine   sing    pink   sip   wit              mop     sore   not
tin    pine   wing    rink   tip                    pop     tore   rot
win    wine   zing    sink   zip                    sop


uck                  ug                  ump           unk
buck                 bug                 bump          bunk

duck                 dug                 dump          dunk
huck                 hug                 hump          funk
luck                 lug                 lump          gunk
muck                 mug                 pump          punk
puck                 rug                 rump          sunk
suck                 tug
tuck




                                                                    21
File box picture provided by:http://www.inthenorthwoods.com/Images/Product/RecipeCardBox.jpg

LIST TWO SPELLING LISTS:


ack         ain        ake   ale   all   ame                         an        ank        ap
black       brain      Blake scale small blame                       bran      blank      clap
clack       drain      brake stale stall frame                       clan      clank      flap
crack       grain      Drake                                         cran      crank      slap
flack       plain      flake                                         Fran      drank      snap
slack       slain      snake                                         plan      flank      trap
smack       stain      spake                                         scan      Frank
snack       train      stake                                         span      Plank
stack                                                                Stan      prank
track                                                                          spank      zap



ash          at   ate   aw                    ay   eat              ell   est   ice
brash        brat crate blaw                  bray bleat            smell crest Brice


                                                                                                 22
clash     drat   grate    claw    clay cleat spell                   price
crash     flat   plate    craw    fray pleat swell                   slice
flash     scat   skate    draw    gray treat                         spice
slash     skat   slate    flaw    play                               trice
smash     slat   state    slaw    pray
stash     spat                    slay
trash     stat                    spay
                                  stay



ick   ide   ight   ill   in             ine   ing       ink     ip
brick bride blight brill grin           brine bling
                                                        blink   blip

click    glide   bright   drill skin    cline   bring   brink   clip
crick    pride   flight   frill spin    spine   cling   clink   drip
flick    slide   plight   grill         swine   fling   drink   flip
prick    snide   slight   prill         trine   sling   plink   grip
slick                     skill                 sting   skink   skip
spick                     spill                 swing   slink   slip
stick                     still                         stink   snip
trick                     trill                                 trip




it      ock   oke    op     ore    ot    uck    ug      ump     unk


slit block bloke clop score blot cluck drug clump clunk
spit Brock broke crop smore plot pluck plug frump drunk
split clock smoke drop snore slot snuck slug grump plunk
        crock spoke flop spore snot stuck smug slump skunk



                                                                             23
        flock stoke glop store spot truck snug trump slunk
        smock                plop swore trot                                          spunk
        Spock                slop                                                     stunk
        stock                stop                                                     trunk




File box picture provided by:http://www.inthenorthwoods.com/Images/Product/RecipeCardBox.jpg




                                                                                               24
LIST THREE SPELLING LISTS:


ack   ain    ake  ale   all   ame   an                      ank        ap
shack chain shake shale shall shame Chan                    shank      shap
knack strain      whale             than                    chank      chap
whack                                                       thank      wrap
                                                                       strap

ash    at     aw    ay   eat   ell  est   ice                          ick
gnash chat    shaw Shay cheat shell chest splice                       chick
splash that   chaw stray wheat      wrest thrice                       thick
       phat   thaw                                                     quick
              straw




ide     ight   ill   in   ine   ing             ink         ip          it
chide   knight shill chin shine ching
                                                chink       chip        whit

stride wright chill shin thine thing            think ship              knit
              quill thin whine wring            shrink strip            quit




ock     oke   op     ore     ot   uck      ug         ump        unk


chock choke chop chore knot chuck chug chump chunk
knock stroke knop shore shot knuck thug thump thunk
shock         shop                shuck               whump shrunk
              whop                struck




                                                                               25
Traditional Spelling Activities:

For seventy-two traditional, yet creative spelling activities teachers can
download and print the Spelling Task Cards by going to:

http://www.busyteacherscafe.com/teacher_resources/literacy_pages/s
pelling.htm

Then clicking on the Spelling Task Cards (72 cards) link.

These cards may be laminated and stored in the box provided in this
kit as shown below.




                                                                       26
Part 5b. Formative and/or Summative Assessment Materials

Word Family Pre-Assessment

Name:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37


                                                           27
Word Family Pre-Assessment word list:

1. ack as in rack
2. ain as in rain
3.ake as in rake
4.ale as in tale
5.all as in tall
6. ame as in lame
7. an as in pan
8. ank as in tank
9. ap as in rap
10. ash as in rash
11. at as in rat
12. ate as in rate
13. aw as in raw
14. ay as in ray
15. eat as in seat
16. ell as in tell
17. est as in best
18. ice as in nice
19. ick as in sick
20. ide as in hide
21. ight as in fight
22. ill as in hill
23. in as in pin
24. ine as in mine
25.ing as in sing
26. ink as in rink
27. ip as in dip
28. it as in sit
29. ock as in rock
30. oke as in coke
31.op as in mop
32.ore as in sore
33. ot as in hot
34. uck as in tuck
35. ug as in hug
36. ump as in bump
37. unk as in bunk




                                        28
Instructions for student testing at spellingcity.com

   To log students into this testing site go to :
http://www.spellingcity.com




  Once you are at the site make sure the teacher/parent
radio button is checked at the top right hand corner of the
page.


 To log in put: JennCullen75@gmail.com into the
email(username) box and the password is: 503project.




                                                              29
Once you are logged into the site you will see all the word
family spelling lists available. Click on the students
appropriate word list link.




                                                              30
Once the word list appears on the screen click the big red
test me button at the bottom of the screen.




                                                             31
Students take the test by clicking on the Say it or Sentence
buttons on the right.

A human voice comes on and tells the student the word to
spell or uses it in a sentence depending on which button the
student selects.

Students type the correct word into the empty box on the
left.




When students are finished typing in their answers they
must click the «check me» button to get their test results.




                                                              32
After students press the «check me» button a screen will
come up with the student results.




Students need to type their name into the name box at the
top right of the screen. Then print out their results page
and bring the the results page to the teacher.




                                                             33
TRADITIONAL SPELLING TESTS:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.


The teacher or classroom tutor asks students to spell words from their
particular word list. Students write the words down on a paper as
shown above or they may verbally spell their words.




                                                                    34
       Student Spelling Progress Charts for Tests and Activities:




                         Joe Smith's Super Speller List One Test Sticker Chart
ACK    AIN   AKE   ALE    ALL   AME   AN   ANK   AP    ASH   AT   ATE   AW   AY    EAT   ELL   EST    ICE   ICK   IDE


ight   ILL   IN    INE    ING   INK   IP   IT    OCK   OKE   OP   ORE   OT   UCK   UG    UMP   UNK




                         Joe Smith's Super Speller List Two Test Sticker Chart
ACK    AIN   AKE   ALE    ALL   AME   AN   ANK   AP    ASH   AT   ATE   AW   AY    EAT   ELL   EST    ICE   ICK   IDE


ight   ILL   IN    INE    ING   INK   IP   IT    OCK   OKE   OP   ORE   OT   UCK   UG    UMP   UNK




                                                                                                     35
                    Joe Smith's Super Speller List Three Test Sticker Chart
ACK    AIN   AKE   ALE   ALL   AME   AN   ANK   AP    ASH   AT   ATE   AW   AY    EAT   ELL   EST    ICE   ICK   IDE


ight   ILL   IN    INE   ING   INK   IP   IT    OCK   OKE   OP   ORE   OT   UCK   UG    UMP   UNK




       SUPER SPELLER REWARDS STORE




       Image provided by:http://www.teacher2treasures.com/TreasureChestMainPage.jpg




       Part 5c. Technology Tool Justification


                                                                                                    36
Word Family Practice Activities:

*http://www.wordway.us.com/

I chose this website because it provides students with a variety of
hands on activities relating to word families. There are several
activities that I would recommend from this site.

   1. The Mini-Book activity. For this activity students make a mini-
      book using word family words. The site provides the student with
      printable book covers with word family themes ( ack, ain, ake,
      ale, all, ame, an, ank, ap, ash, at, ate, aw, ay, eat, ell, est, ice,
      ick, ide, ight, ill, in, ine, ing, ink, ip, it, ock, oke, op, ore, ot, uck,
      ug, ump, unk) for their book but students have to generate the
      words for the pages of their book. This gives students practice in
      writing and hearing different word family sound combinations.

   2. The Partner Puzzle Set activity. For this activity students work
      with a partner to put word cards together to make words. Each
      student is given a set of cards that are cut in half. One set of
      cards has the beginning sounds of a word printed on them. The
      other set of cards has the word family sounds printed on them.
      Students must figure out which word cards go together. During
      this game students read the word parts and see how they are
      spelled. This helps students hear how beginning blends and
      ending word families sound and see how they are spelled.

   3. The Crossword Set activity. This activity works just like a normal
      crossword puzzle. Students use clues to figure out which word to
      write in the boxes either down or across in the crossword puzzle.
      This activity helps students learn the meanings of words while
      practicing writing them as well.


*http://wendyzshandsonlearning.blogspot.com/2009/04/5-hands-on-
word-families-activities.html


I chose this website because it was designed by a teacher who
professes that teaching word families to English Language Learners
and students with special needs is beneficial. This website suggests
five active, hands-on games/activities for teaching word families to
students that would be highly motivating and engage student learning.




                                                                              37
*http://www.starfall.com: Make a word activity


I chose this website because it is highly recommended by teachers
nationwide. The site is primarily designed to improve reading skills but
has activities that relate to spelling and word families in particular. The
make a word activity shows children the ending sounds of a word such
as: an and says the sound. Then a picture appears on the screen such
as a picture of a can. A human voiced promt asks the child to choose
the correct letter from a list of beginning letters on the left side of the
screen that will be needed to spell the word can. When students select
the right letter the human voice comes on and reads the words.
Students can see how the word is correctly spelled and hear how
beginning and ending sounds work together to spell words correctly. I
also like this activity because it is interactive which makes learning
motivating and engaging for students.



*http://pbskids.org/lions/games/blending.html

I chose this site because it is highly recommended both by both
educators and parents. Similar to starfall.com, Between the Lions has
been implemented into school reading programs and has been shown
to improve student reading abilities (Linebarger,2009). I chose this
particular Between the Lions online reading activity because it focuses
on word families. Students can see and hear how beginning and
ending word family sounds work together to spell words. This
particular online activity has a sports theme (football) which I feel
would appeal to several groups of students, especially male students.


*http://www.marcias-lesson-links.com/ice%20cream%20cones.pdf

I chose this web page because it provides students with an activity
that is similar to a word sort. Word sorts help students classify similar
word sounds into similar categories. Students must read and interact
with the words as they sort them. Thus giving them practice at
recognizing similar word family patterns.


*http://www.readwritethink.org/materials/wordfamily/


                                                                         38
I chose this web page because it provides students with a word sort
activity. Word sorts have been proven to improve student spelling
abilities because it helps them see similarities in word patterns (Joseph
& Orlins, 2005). I also liked this site because it lets the student control
which word patterns they want to learn.




Online Spelling Activities:

*http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/cullenj/singandspell.html

I designed this web page to help students recognize and memorize
word family patterns through music. Students will learn that words
depending on their length (three-words, four-words, five-words, or six-
words) always go with a particular, predictable, and familiar tune.

I designed this webpage by adapting songs found at:

http://www.mrsjonesroom.com/songs/alphlist.html



*http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Games/mag/spelling.html

I chose this website because it lets students manipulate various
beginning sounds and ending word family sound cards around on the
screen to make words. Students can see how beginning and ending
sounds work together to make complete words.



*http://www.readwritethink.org/materials/construct/index.html

I chose this website because it contains elements of problem solving.
Students have to decipher which beginning sounds go with the
appropriate word family sounds to make real words.



*http://www.starfall.com/n/level-a/learn-to-read/load.htm?f

I chose this website because it is highly recommended by educators
nationwide. In the learn-to-read section of this website students may


                                                                        39
choose from a variety of word family sounds. Students recieve
multimedia instruction for each word family sound they investigate.
This site also provides multimedia instruction on consonant diagraph
sounds such as wh, sh, ch, and th. These sounds are often difficult for
English Language Learners to learn. This site is easy for students to
use and provides opportunities for student-centered instruction.


*http://www.spellingcity.com (Teacher Login Required)

I chose this website because it is highly recommended by educators
nationwide. This site is easy to use, reliable, and makes teaching
spelling convienent for teachers. Teachers can customize their spelling
curriculum at this site. For example, a teacher can put particular
spelling lists into this program and it will automatically generate
learning games using these particular spelling words. All the learning
games provide students with multimedia learning experiences that will
enrich their understanding of their spelling words. Students may also
take their spelling tests at this site. The site saves and tracks student
progress so the teacher doesn't have to worry about it.

To view a word family customized version of this site use:

the username: JennCullen75@gmail.com Password:503project




Part 6. Formative Evaluation Plan

Part 6a. Expert Review



                                                                       40
My SME is Sharon Tennent a second grade teacher at Owyhee
Elementary in the Boise School District. I submitted my materials to
Sharon on December 2,2009 and recieved feedback on December 5,
2009.

Part 6b. One-to-One Evaluation

I would use the 'read-think-aloud' technique (Smith & Wedman,1998)
during this phase of evaluation. I would probably tape-record student
responses to the materials so I could go back and study the responses
more than once. I would expect to have one average student, one
above average student and a special needs student that I could
observe as they used the materials. As the student used the traditional
and online spelling activities I would want to know if the materials
were easy for the student to use. Can the student get onto the
computer and find the websites with the spelling activities? If not,
what things hindered their progress? What would make this process
easier for them in the future? As the student reads through the
Spelling Task Cards, do the directions make sense or does the student
need further explanation?

Part 6c. Small Group Evaluation

For this phase of evaluation I would expect to have students from each
representational group in the classroom (three hispanic students,
three caucasion students and three students from another nationality).
It would be ideal if this group of students had varying academic
ablities as well. I would give students the Word Family Pre-Assessment
on one day and evaluate the results that night. I would want to find
out if the pre-assement was an accurate measure of pre-spelling skills
among these students. When students returned the following day, I
would let them choose a spelling list according to their pre-assement
results. Then I would introduce them to the online musical spelling lists
and let them interact with those. Then I would allow students to
choose three of the online and/or traditional spelling activities. I would
video tape and take notes about student responses to materials. I
would have students come back the next day to take their spelling
tests. Things I would want to know at this stage would be: Are
students motivated by their ability to choose activities or do they feel
overwhelmed by too many choices? Are ELL students having any
language barrier issues? Are students having any technical difficulties
with the online materials? Is the spelling program flexible enough to
accomdate the different speeds at which different students work?



                                                                       41
Part 6d. Field Trial

For this phase of evalution I would need at least thirty students to try
the learning materials on. I would want this group of students to be
representational of the student population that I had in mind when I
designed the instruction. I would want to personally observe the field
trial to ensure that materials were implemented the way I intended
them to be implemented. If a teacher had trouble with implementation
I would want to know why. I would also want to find out if the learning
materials were appropriately designed for this age-level. Were learning
tasks too easy or too hard for students? After the revisions made at
the small-group level, were the learners motivated by the choice of
learning materials or overwhelmed? Did the learning materials assist
students in reaching learning goals as outlined in the design? How
should the learning materials be adapted to be more effective for the
teacher?


Part 7. Formative Evaluation Report


Part 7a. Evaluation Survey or Rubric

http://www.surveymonkey.com/sr.aspx?sm=ASChuIOGCAsdXGGvoWZ
46TJ0pC9HRoJKPa7ajATWM3c_3d




Part 7b. Expert Review Report




                                                                      42
Part 7c. Comments on Change




                              43
Originally I had written in the instruction that only the classroom
teacher would administer spelling tests to students. My SME suggested
that in a real classroom setting this may be too time consuming for the
teacher. I ammended the testing section allowing para-professionals
such as tutors in the classroom to aid in the testing of students.

My SME felt that too many traditional activities (the 72 Spelling Task
Cards) and online activities were offered at once. She would limit the
number of activities to two or three traditional activities and one of the
online activities during a particular spelling time.

I know all the choices may seem overwhelming but that is one key
aspect of my design, to motivate students by allowing plenty of
choices. I know it would take a teacher some time intially to
implement this program but my hopes would be that students could be
trained to be self-sufficient on many of the online and traditional
activities. Also in my classroom context all students have access to a
computer making it reasonable that more online activities could be
implemented at once in this particular case. I wouldn't cut down the
amount of online or traditional activities because I feel that teachers
need a lot of activities to choose from. Also the program is flexible so
teachers can eliminate or add their own activities into the program
depending on their classroom environment.




                                                                        44
Part 8. AECT Standards Grid

                                             Assignments meeting standard in whole or part
Standard 1: DESIGN
1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD)   X   ID Projects 1 & 2
1.1.1 Analyzing                          X   ID Projects 1
1.1.2 Designing                          X   ID Projects 1 & 2
1.1.3 Developing                         X   ID Projects 1 & 2
1.1.4 Implementing                       X   ID Project 2
1.1.5 Evaluating                         X   Selected Discussion Forums; ID Project 2
1.2 Message Design
1.3 Instructional Strategies             X   ID Project 2
1.4 Learner Characteristics              X   ID Project 1

Standard 2: DEVELOPMENT
2.0 (includes 2.0.1 to 2.0.8)            X   ID Project 02
2.1 Print Technologies                   X   Reading Quiz; ID Projects 1 & 2
2.2 Audiovisual Technologies
2.3 Computer-Based Technologies          X   (all assignments)
2.4 Integrated Technologies

Standard 3: UTILIZATION
3.0 (includes 3.0.1 & 3.0.2)
3.1 Media Utilization                    X   (all assignments)
3.2 Diffusion of Innovations
3.3 Implementation and                       ID Project 2
Institutionalization                     X
3.4 Policies and Regulations

Standard 4: MANAGEMENT
4.0 (includes 4.0.1 & 4.0.3)
4.1 Project Management
4.2 Resource Management
4.3 Delivery System Management
4.4 Information Management

Standard 5: EVALUATION
5.1 Problem Analysis                     X
5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement     X   ID Project 2
5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation   X   ID Project 2
5.4 Long-Range Planning




                                                                                        45
                                 APPENDIX
Resources:

Fay, J. & Funk, D.(1995). Teaching with love and logic:Taking control of the
   classroom.(1st ed.).Golden,Colorado.The love and logic press,inc.

Joseph,L.M. & Orlins,A.(2005) Multiple uses of a word study technique.
   Reading Improvement. Retrived from
   http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6516/is_2_42/ai_n29195667/

Linebarger, D.L. (2009) New study reveals between the lions preschool
    literacy initiative significantly improves at-risk preschoolers' reading
   skills.Retrived from http://mpbonline.org/about_us/pr-
contribute/090217-BTL_Improves_Reading.htm

Medina, S.L. (2002) Using music to enhance second language acquisition:
     From theory to practice. Retrieved from
http://74.125.155.132/scholar?q=cache:rCaKcK4fSG4J:scholar.google.com/
+teaching+spelling+with+music&hl=en&as_sdt=2000

Traditional Spelling Activities found at:
http://www.busyteacherscafe.com/teacher_resources/literacy_pages/spelling
.htm and click on the Spelling Task Cards (72 cards) link.

To make my sing and spell web page I adapted songs I found at:
http://www.mrsjonesroom.com/songs/alphlist.html

The 37 word Families were found at:
http://www.english-for-students.com/ell.html




                                                                               46

				
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