Desal 2005 by RVe22xu1

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 23

									       DESALINATION

   “…Water, water, everywhere,
     Nor any drop to drink.”
   The Rime of the Ancient Mariner - Samuel Taylor Coleridge




                  Shane Walker
CE 397 - Transboundary Water Resources
                      20 OCT 05
                 Overview

• Motivation/Introduction

• Current Use

• Processes

• Case Studies
Motivation
         ~0.008%
                                         Motivation
44 % of the world's population live within
150 kilometers of the coast.
In 2001, over half the world's population
lived within 200km of a coastline.
http://www.oceansatlas.org/servlet/CDSServlet?status=ND0xODc3JmN0bl9pbmZvX3ZpZXdfc2l6ZT1jdG5faW5mb192aWV3X2Z1bGwmNj1lbiYzM
z0qJjM3PWtvcw~~
                                   Introduction

  removal efficiency: h = 1 – cinfluent / ceffluent

               Recovery: R = Qeffluent / Qinfluent)


http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/drinkseawater.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brackish_water
                                          Introduction
                     How salty is Salty?
•    Fresh :                     < 1‰
•    Slightly saline :           1 to 3 ‰
•    Brackish :                  5 to 30 ‰
•    Average Sea salinity:        ~ 35 ‰
•    Brine:                       > 35 ‰

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/drinkseawater.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brackish_water
Current Desalination Use

~25%



       ~20%




 50%

          http://www.worldwater.org/waterData.htm
             Current Desalination Use

• More than 12,000 desalination plants in
  the world supply 5 to 7 BGD.
• These desalination facilities will also
  dispose of 2 to 3 BGD.

http://wrri.nmsu.edu/conf/forum/Burnett.pdf
             Current Desalination Use

• > 100 desalination plants in Texas
  providing 40 MGD drinking water + 5~10
  MGD brine.
• In comparison, the oil & gas industry re-
  injects more than 400 MGD of brine in the
  Permian Basin alone.

http://wrri.nmsu.edu/conf/forum/Burnett.pdf
Current Desal Use

• Efficiency > 90%

• Recovery ~ 50-75%

• Distillation ~ Membrane




                            http://www.bv.com/news/brochures/desal/DesalBroch0205.pdf
                 Desalination Processes
• Distillation
   – Multi-Stage Flash (MSF)
   – Multiple Effect Distillation (MED)
• Membrane
   – Reverse Osmosis (RO)
   – Electro-Dialysis Reversal (EDR)
• Energy/Desal Combos
   – Solar
   – Nuclear
   http://www.oas.org/osde/publications/Unit/oea59e/ch20.htm
         Process: MSF




http://www.siwin.org/reviews/swr0004/Images/swi0004b111_32.jpg
                 Process: RO
• Benefits
  – Space Efficient
  – Scaleable


• Challenges
  –   Pretreatment
  –   Membrane fouling
  –   High Pressures
  –   High Energy Use
Process: RO




 http://www.agioabadi.com/ro-info-2.htm
       Process: EDR




http://www.siwin.org/reviews/swr0004/Images/swi0004b111_33.jpg
                                    Process: Solar




http://www.siwin.org/reviews/swr0004/Images/swi0004b111_35.jpg   http://www.aeg-solar.com/desalination.htm
    Environmental Impacts 

• Brine Disposal
  – Offshore
  – Evaporation Pond


• Energy Consumption
   Environmental Impacts 
Reduction in use of
stressed surface/ground
water sources; allow for
environmental flows


Reduce need of
reservoirs for municipal
consumption
Case Study: Jubail, Saudi Arabia
• World’s Largest Desal
  (Construct. By 3 Japanese Co.)


• 800 MGD, 5000 MW
  (Persian Gulf)

• Phase 3: 90 MGD,
  1100 MW, $1.4 B
  (2006-2010)                      http://web.umr.edu/~rogersda/umrcourses/ge342/



     http://www.wec.com.sa/
            Case Study: Yuma, AZ, USA
  • 23.2 BGY Potential
        (World’s Largest RO @ time)

  • $250M Cost
        (17 yr construction)

  • Opened 1992 (60 acres)
        Closed 1993 (Flood)

  • Potential ~$300/acft

  • Ciénega de Santa Clara

http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.11/salt.html?pg=1&topic=salt&topic_set=
         Case Study: Tampa Bay, FL
• 25+10 MGD
    (World’s Largest RO)

• $156M construction
    (’01 – ’03)

• 2250hp pump 
    600 – 1000 psi

• ~$800/ac-ft ( up to 3X)

• 3 companies bankrupt
http://www.water-technology.net/projects/tampa/specs.html
http://www.water-technology.net/projects/tampa/
http://cdg-cm.com/cdg/our_projects/index.html
        Case Study: Ashkelon, Israel
•    70 MGD (Mediterranean)
•    32 RO trains (h>92%)
•    $212M C / $800M R
•    $650/ac-ft (cheapest)
•    Site Covers 18.5 acres
http://www.water-technology.net/projects/israel/
                      Conclusion

“We need a global approach to this from all sides.
 We need to educate people, we need the scientists
 to create new technologies, we need the engineers
 to create the networks, we need every human
 being to be aware of how precious water is and
 save it.”
           - Isabel Allende, Chilean novelist

            http://www.fdu.edu/newspubs/magazine/03su/desalination.html

								
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