Aquaculture Overview by pengxiang


									             United States

                          of Agriculture

             State Research

             Extension Service
             and Land-Grant University     by George Lewis, Aquaculture Coordinator, Cooperative Extension Service
             Cooperating Extension
                                           and James L. Shelton, Assistant Professor, Wamell School of Forest Resources

                                           edited by George W, Lewis and Ronnie J. Gilbert, Cooperative Extension
                                           Service, The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental

Cooperative Extension Service, The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Athens
                              Aquaculture Overview
   Aquaculture in the United States represents a rela-      Increasing demand has stimulated the development of
tively small segment of agricultural production, but        aquaculture.
this industry is relatively young and growing rapidly.         Early development of aquaculture in the United
Per capita consumption of fish and fish products in         States was stimulated by interest in recreational fish-
the United States has increased more than 50 percent        ing. In the late 1800s, federal and state hatcheries
since 1970. During this same period, world catches of       were built to propagate various gamefish species for
wild fishes have not increased and in some cases have       stocking public and private waters. Commercial fish
declined, while cost per unit catch has increased.          farming began in the United States in 1853 with the
Americans consumed over 5 billion pounds of fish-           production of rainbow trout. Early efforts in the pri-
eries products in 1980 and almost 9 billion pounds in       vate sector were directed at raising fishes for recre-
199 1. Consumer awareness of the nutritional value of       ational purposes. Large scale commercial trout
fish products, greater acceptance in expanded mar-          production began in western United States during the
kets, and increased availability at competitive prices      early 1950s.
are expected to increase per capita consumption dra-           In the 1970s, production of Pacific salmon finger-
matically in the next 10 to 20 years. As United States      lings was attempted for release into streams in an
and world seafood demand increases, aquaculture is          effort to supplement natural reproduction. However,
becoming more important. The aquaculture industry           commercial salmon production met with little success
is the fastest growing sector in United States agricul-     until the early 1970s.
ture, increasing over 20 percent annually in the 1980s         The baitfish industry began in the early 1900s to
and early 1990s.                                            satisfy the demand by sport fishermen. It did not
   Aquaculture is the rearing of aquatic organisms          expand until the late 1940s when there was increased
under controlled conditions. Species presently farmed       interest in recreational fishing. Baitfish are now an
in the United States include channel catfish, salmon,       important crop with production centered in the
trout, bait and ornamental fish, crawfish, shrimp, oys-     Southeast and are raised throughout the United States.
ters and clams. Other species such as tilapia, hybrid          Channel catfish farming began about 1955. For the
striped bass, red drum, alligators, white sturgeon and      first 10 years, growth was limited to several
aquatic plants are also being farmed on a smaller           Southeastern states. Catfish are now produced in
scale. All have considerable commercial potential.          numerous states, including Idaho, California, Kansas,
There are other aquatic species with possible com-          Missouri and most Southern states.
mercial potential.                                             Crawfish farming is another recent aquacultural
                                                            enterprise. Traditionally, natural stocks of crawfish
                      HISTORY                               were harvested from the wild in Louisiana. Most of
                                                            the catch was sold to local markets. The culture of
   Fish farming has been practiced for many centuries.      crawfish in managed production units began in the
The ancient Chinese left records indicating that they       1950s. Louisiana and Texas are the primary crawfish-
were raising common carp more than 4,000 years ago.         producing states. Other states with some crawfish
Hieroglyphics in the tombs of the Pharaohs describe         production are Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Maryland,
the farming of tilapia in ancient Egypt. The Romans         Mississippi and South Carolina.
built small ponds for raising fish. Although the prac-         The production of ornamental fishes is centered in
tice of aquaculture has a long history, only in this cen-   Florida but occurs in several other states, including
tury has this form of agriculture become an important       Maryland and Texas. Oyster and clam production is
supplier of fishes and other aquatic products. Until        increasing in many coastal states due to recent
recently there was no reason for intensive develop-         advances in the production of domestic seed stock.
ment of fish farming techniques. There were abundant
supplies of fishes and shellfishes from natural                   PROSPECTIVE AQUACULTURIST
sources. World population growth and increasing per
capita consumption of fishes and shellfishes have              Aquacultural enterprises can be described as capi-
resulted in over-exploitation of some species.              tal, management and labor intensive. There is no sim-
ple formula whereby “fish + water = profits.” Many                            Production Systems
factors must be considered before a profit-producing
                                                               Prospective producers considering alternative pro-
equation for aquaculture can be developed. The fol-
                                                            duction systems should be cautious. Aquaculture
lowing is a general discussion and guide to help the
                                                            technology is changing, and there are a number of
prospective producer determine the feasibility of an
                                                            unproven production systems and equipment types
aquacultural enterprise.
                                                            being marketed. Many have not been adequately eval-
                                                            uated relative to profitability and suitability for differ-
                    Species Cultured
                                                            ent cultured species. For example, cage culture of
  There are a number of aquatic species that have           channel catfish has advantages and disadvantages
commercial production potential. However, not all           when compared to open water culture. Cages increase
aquatic species with economic value are candidates          the possibility of disease problems. Caged fish require
for commercial culture. Ideally, species with the best      a more complete and expensive diet. Cages require
potential have the following characteristics:               more management. The advantages of cage produc-
                                                            tion include ease of harvest and adaptability to many
   1. Techniques for producing large numbers of seed
                                                            ponds where open water culture is not feasible. When
     stock in a hatchery or other controlled area have
                                                            considering a culture system and its design, remember
     been developed.
                                                            initial costs are generally high, design mistakes are
   2. The species is adaptable to high density culture      costly and initial start-up costs affect overall prof-
      practices.                                            itability.

   3. The species grows efficiently on nutrients or feed                           Marketing
     provided by the manager.
                                                               Although the demand for aquaculture products is
   4. There is an accessible market where selling price     increasing, there is no guarantee that a new producer
      exceeds cost of production.                           will have an accessible or profitable market. Pro-
    Many aquatic species have specific environmental        spective producers should research market options
requirements for life and optimal growth. For exam-         thoroughly. Not only should the producer have a good
ple, rainbow trout die at water temperatures above          estimate of the price he will receive, he should also
70°F and grow at optimum efficiency at 55°F.                understand other aspects of the particular market.
Channel catfish, on the other hand, die at water tem-       Other factors to consider include: the margin between
peratures above 95°F, and optimum growth efficiency         market price and individual production cost; seasonal
is achieved at 83°F. Channel catfish stop growing at        fluctuations in price and demand; the producer’s abili-
60°F or colder.                                             ty to consistently supply quality and quantity
    With the success, growth and visibility of aquacul-     demanded by the market; market competition; avail-
                                                            able transportation; and local, state, and federal laws
ture, there are a number of species being promoted
                                                            or regulations including permits, inspection require-
that should be considered high risk. These species
                                                            ments, etc.
may have potential but should be considered cautious-
ly.                                                                         Laws and Regulations
    Another concern in selection of a species is relative
economic advantage of one production location over             Aquaculture is regulated by local, state and federal
another. For example, Southern states have an eco-          agencies. Regulations affecting site development,
nomic advantage over Northern states in raising chan-       water use and discharge, species permits, marketing
nel catfish. Catfish can be grown in colder climates,       regulations, etc., differ from state to state. Depending
but it may take twice as long to produce a marketable       on species cultured and production/marketing loca-
fish. Coldwater species such as rainbow trout and           tion, permits may be required or production and/or
salmon have a relative economic advantage in colder         marketing may even be prohibited. Prospective aqua-
climates. This relative advantage may be overcome if        culturists should contact state Cooperative Extension
producers in marginal areas can retail their products       Service and wildlife and fisheries agencies to deter-
locally or enhance product value to receive premium         mine if permits or licenses are required for a propose d
prices.                                                     aquacultural project.
                                                               Federal agencies also regulate aquaculture. In
                                                            coastal areas and around wetland sites, permits may

be required by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.            draw upon the experience and training of a university
  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)               expert or refer you to some other state or federal
regulates therapeutic chemicals used in aquaculture         agency who can provide you with the information or
production. For most aquaculture species, there are         service you need.
few and sometimes no chemicals registered for treat-
                                                            2. In the coastal and Great Lakes states, land grant
ment of diseases and parasites and for use in water
                                                            universities also have Sea Grant programs. In many of
quality management.                                         these states, marine advisory service specialists can
  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)            provide needed information.
regulates the use of pesticides in aquaculture.
Producers must be knowledgeable and comply with             3. State game and fish agencies may also be a source
regulations and restrictions concerning the use of          of information on laws and regulations, production
chemicals in aquatic systems. For more information,         technology and diseases.
prospective aquaculturists should contact state
Cooperative Extension Service, FDA and EPA.                 4. The United States Department of Agriculture Soil
                                                            Conservation Service can assist in site selection and
                      Financing                             facility development. This agency is usually listed in
                                                            the telephone directory under “federal or United
   Although the aquaculture industry is growing and         States Government.”
there are many examples of profitable operations,
obtaining financing for a new operation can be diffi-       5. The United States Department of Agriculture’s live
cult. A few states offer low interest rate loans or other   Regional Aquaculture Centers can also refer you to
financial incentives to attract new aquaculture opera-      state specialists or other resources specific to your
tions. Presently, there are no special federal financial    needs. The Aquaculture Centers are:
programs for prospective or established aquaculture
producers. The federal government does recognize            Center for Tropical and        Northeast Regional
most aquacultural enterprises as farming. Thus, most        Subtropical Aquaculture        Aquaculture Center
new or established farmers may qualify for traditional      The Oceanic Institute          Univ. of Massachusetts-
United States Department of Agriculture loans and           Makapu’u Point                   Dartmouth
other programs offered by the department.                   Waimanalo, HI 96795            Research 20 1
   Commercial or farm loan institutions can be a                                           North Dartmouth, MA
source of financing for aquaculture operations.                                              02747
Obtaining financing from these institutions can be dif-
                                                            North Central Regional         Southern Regional
ficult. In many areas, loan officers are unfamiliar with                                   Aquaculture Center
                                                            Aquaculture Center
aquaculture enterprises and are hesitant to approve         Room 13 Nat. Res. Bldg.        Delta Branch Exp. Stn.
loans. To help overcome this problem, prospective           Michigan State University      P.O. Box 197
producers should have a complete and detailed finan-        East Lansing, MI               Stoneville, MS 38776
cial prospectus for the proposed operation based on              48824-1222
realistic projections.
                                                            Western Regional
        Technical and Educational Services                  Aquaculture Consortium
                                                            School of Fisheries WH- 10
   If you are a new or prospective aquaculturist, not       University of Washington
only will you need information concerning production        Seattle, WA 98 195
management techniques, you may also need informa-
tion concerning processing, marketing, economics,           6. The United States Department of Agriculture
financial assistance, disease diagnostic services, water    National Agriculture Library is the national
quality analyses, aquatic weed control, local and state     Aquaculture Information Center. It provides informa-
laws and regulations, site selection and development,       tional services on aquaculture topics both practical
etc. In some areas, locating this information can be        and technical. The address is:
difficult. The following are possible sources of infor-
mation or assistance.                                                U.S. Department of Agriculture
                                                                     Aquaculture Information Center
1. The county Cooperative Extension Service office,                  Room 384, National Agricultural Library
usually listed under “County Government” in the tele-                10301 Baltimore Boulevard
phone directory, can provide assistance. County                      Beltsville, MD 20705
Extension agents are employees of land-grant univer-
sities. The county agent may assist you directly or
                   THE FUTURE                             Aquaculture Today. For owners and operators of fish
                                                          farms. 31 Helmcken St., Vancouver, B.C. V6Z 1B1
   The future for aquaculture development in the          Canada.
United States looks good. Foreign and domestic
demand for seafood and aquacultural products should       The Aquaculture News. Covers the farm raised cat-
continue to increase.                                     fish industry plus some information on general aqua-
   Aquaculture is in the pioneering phase of develop-     culture. Monthly. PO Box 416, Jonesville, LA 7 1343.
ment. As other countries develop aquaculture indus-
tries, many United States aquaculture commodities         Farm Pond Harvest. General aquaculture in recre-
will compete with foreign products for both domestic      ational ponds. Quarterly. PO Box 736, M O, IL 60954.
and export markets. Regulatory and economic con-
straints will also impact future aquaculture growth in    Feed Management. Feed industry information.
the United States. Compared to traditional livestock      Monthly. 122 S. Wesley Ave., Mt. Morris, IL
production, aquaculture is decades behind in research     61054-1497.
and development. In the 1980s there was growth in
state and federal research, educational and service       Fish Farming International. Monthly. Audit House,
programs to aid development. There is an important        260 Field End Road, Middlesex, HA4 9LT, England.
need for even more support from federal and state
governments and universities in the areas of research,    Mollusk Farming USA. Bimonthly. Aquaculture
development and marketing.                                Digest, 9434 Keamy Mesa Road, San Diego, CA
   It appears that global catches of wild fishes have     92126.
stabilized, and per capita consumption of fish and
shellfish products will likely continue growing. Other    Naga, the ICLARM. Quarterly. International Center
factors will probably contribute to an expansion of the   for Living Aquatic Resources, MC, PO Box 1501,
aquaculture industry. Growing public concern about        Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines.
possible environmental contamination of some wild
fish species may increase demand for aquaculture          Practical Aquaculture & Lake Management. Fish
products produced in controlled environments.             and shellfish farming and pond management tips.
Increasing public demand for recreational fishing will    Bimonthly. PO Box 1294, Gamer, NC 27529- 1294.
also contribute to the growth of aquaculture markets.
Aquaculture can be used to help protect or enhance        Salmonid. Focus on trout and salmon farming. U. S.
certain fish species in the wild that are overexploited   Trout Farmers Assn., 506 Ferry St., Little Rock, AR
due to recreational or commercial fishing. All these      72202.
factors suggest that opportunities for growth of the
aquaculture industry will likely continue.                Seafood Business Magazine. Seafood industry.
                                                          Bimonthly. PO Box 905, Rockland, ME 04841.
                                                          Seafood International. General seafood. Monthly.
                                                          AGB Heighway Ltd., Cloister Court, 22-26
   This publication provides general guidelines for the
                                                          Farringdon Lane, London EC1 R 3AU, England.
prospective aquaculturist. Detailed aquaculture infor-
mation is available from a variety of sources. The fol-
                                                          Seafood Leader. Seafood industry marketing infor-
lowing is a partial listing of assistance resources for
                                                          mation. Five times per year. Waterfront Press Co.,
informational purposes only. The United States
                                                          1115 N.W. 46th St., Seattle, WA 98107.
Department of Agriculture does not endorse or rec-
ommend any business or private agency listed.
                                                          The Catfish Journal. Publishes catfish industry
                                                          information. PO Box 34, Jackson, MS 39202.
                                                          Water Farming Journal. Emphasis on U. S.
Aquaculture Magazine. General trade magazine for          Aquaculture. Monthly. 3400 Neyrey Dr., Metairie, LA
United States aquaculture. Bimonthly. PO Box 2329,        70002.
Asheville, NC 28802.
World Aquaculture. Aquaculture information of            industry trends. United States Department of
world interest. Quarterly. World Aquaculture Society,    Agriculture, ERS-NASS, 341 Victory Drive,
16 East Fraternity Lane, Louisiana State University,     Herndon, Virginia 22070.
Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
                                                         Current Fisheries Statistics, Fisheries of the
World Shrimp Farming. Bimonthly. Report on               United States. Published by the National Marine
shrimp and prawn farming. Aquaculture Digest, 9434       Fisheries Service. Gives statistics for previous year.
Keamy Mesa Road, San Diego, CA 92126.                    U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
                                                         Catfish and Trout Crop Reports. Both are USDA
                                                         publications. Agricultural Statistics Service
Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information
                                                         Publications, 341 Victory Drive, Herndon, Virginia
System (ASFIS). An international bibliographic ser-
vice covering the world’s literature on aquatic sci-     22070.
ences and fisheries, including aquaculture. FAO,
                                                         FAO Yearbook of Fisheries Statistics. Gives world
Rome. Contact: Aquaculture Development and
                                                         statistics on catches and landings. Aquaculture is
Coordination Programme (ADCP), FAO, Via delle
                                                         included. Publication runs about 18 months after end
Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
                                                         of year reported. This and other FAO publications are
                                                         available from: Aquaculture Development and
Aquaculture Information System, AQUIS. AQUIS
                                                         Coordination Programme (ADCP), FAO, Via delle
is connected to FAO's Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries
                                                         Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
Information System (ASFIS). Both conventional (bib-
liographic) and unconventional information are acces-
sible.                                                   LIBRARIES

Selective Fisheries Information Service. Smaller         Aquaculture Information Center. Room 111,
system containing tropical finfish information.          National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705.
ICLARM MC, PO Box 1501, Makati, Metro Manila,            This is the national library that services aquaculture.

                                                         MEETINGS AND TRADE SHOWS
                                                           Regional, national and international meetings are
Fisheries Review. Covers broad fisheries field but       excellent opportunities for exchanging aquaculture
includes aquaculture. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service.   information. Much information is obtained outside of
For current subscription price contact: Superintendent   formal meetings. It is wise to have a good idea of who
of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office,          will be attending.
Washington, D.C. 20402.                                    Trade shows offer the chance to discuss new tech-
                                                         nological advances with vendors and provide an
ASFA Aquaculture Abstracts. Published five times         important opportunity to gain a broad variety of tech-
per year. Compilation of aquaculture-raised refer-       nical information. Meetings and trade shows are
ences. Developed from ASFIS (see above).                 advertised in aquaculture printed media months in
Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, 7200 Wisconsin           advance.
Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814. Sea Grant Abstracts.
Publications from the nation’s Sea Grant Program.
Quarterly. Free. PO Box 125, Woods Hole, MA              JOURNALS AND BOOKS
                                                           Aquaculture-related scientific/technical journals
                                                         have proliferated in recent years. The typical reader
STATISTICAL REFERENCES                                   might be better served by making an occasional visit
                                                         to a major library to review these journals. Books
Aquaculture Situation and Outlook. Provides              have become abundant also. Many are quite expen-
United States aquaculture statistics and explores

sive and should be examined before purchase. Titles        Catfish Farmers of America. 1100 Hwy. 82 East,
often misrepresent content. Book reviews found in          Ste. 202, Indianola, MS 3875 1. Monthly Catfish
journals, magazines and newsletters are helpful.           Journal, monthly newsletter.

                                                           European Aquaculture Society. Coupure Rechts
                                                           168, B-9000, Gent, BELGIUM.
   Extension publications and other educational mate-      International Association of Astacology. PO Box
rials are available in many county Extension agent         44650, Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette,
offices.                                                   LA 70504-4650. Purpose: To promote scientific study
                                                           and cultivation of crawfish.
                                                           National Aquaculture Association, PO Drawer
   Certain state agencies and institutes produce reports   1569, Shepherdstown, WV 25443.
that include information which is important to aqua-
culture. A limited number of copies are produced, but      National Aquaculture Council, 1525 Wilson
one can usually find a particular issue in major           Boulevard, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22209.
libraries. When focused on local topics, the reports
are normally available for examination at county           National Fish and Seafood Promotional Council,
offices. Reports of national agencies are usually          1825 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 620, Washington,
deposited in the governmental section of larger            DC 20235.
libraries or are available from the National
Agricultural Library.                                      National Fisheries Institute, 1525 Wilson Blvd.,
                                                           Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22209.

NATIONAL AQUACULTURE ASSOCIATIONS                          National Shell Fisheries Association, Natural
                                                           Science Division, Long Island University,
American Alligator Farmers Association, 5 145              Southampton, NY 11968.
Harvey Tew Rd., Plant City, FL 33565.
                                                           Striped Bass Growers Association. PO Box 5452,
American Fish Farmers Federation, PO Box 16 1,             Raleigh, NC 27650-5452. Promotes advancement of
Lonoke, AR 72086.                                          the commercial cultivation of striped bass and its
American Fisheries Society. 5410 Grosvenor Lane,
Suite 110, Bethesda, MD 20814. Scientific organiza-        United States Trout Farmers Association. PO Box
tion of fisheries and aquatic science professionals.       220, Harper’s Ferry, WV 25425. Promotes trout
Has 15 sections including a fish culture section.          industry in the United States. Annual meeting, quar-
                                                           terly magazine, monthly newsletter.
American Tilapia Association. Midwest
Aquaculture Learning Center, 1375 Baxter Ave. NW,          World Aquaculture Society. 143 J.M. Parker
Amana, IA 52203.                                           Coliseum, L.S.U., Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

Aquaculture Association of Canada. Box 1987, St.
Andrews, NB EOG 2XO, CANADA. Purpose:
Aquaculture promotion and information exchange in
Canada. Quarterly newsletter.

Associated Koi Clubs of America, Inc. 340
Mariposa Drive, Camarillo, CA 93010. Annual

Canadian Aquaculture Producers Council, PO
Box 1058, Shediac, N.B. EOA 3G0. CANADA

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                                              of The University of Georgia’s
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This material is based upon work supported by the Cooperative State Research Service and Extension Service, U.S. Department
of Agriculture, under Special Project No. 87-EXCA-3-0836.

The Cooperative Extension Service, The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, offers edu-
cational programs, assistance and materials to all people without regard to race, color, national origin, age, sex or handicap status.

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Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating.
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