Court Cases Land Mark Supreme Court Cases Marbury vs. Madison (1803): Established the Supreme Court's power of judicial review. McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819): Ruled that in a conflict between national and state power, that national government is supreme. This was declared unconstitutional for the states to tax the federal government. Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824): Established the federal government’s right to regulate commerce between states (interstate commerce). The Supreme Court and Race Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896): Established the principle of “separate but equal” applications of the law regarding race. Brown vs. Board of Education (1954): Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson case. The court ruled separate educational facilities IS NOT equal. The Heart of Atlanta Motes, Inc. vs. United States (1964): Tested the 1964 Civil Rights Act. The court held that commerce clause allowed Congress to regulate local commerce and that the civil rights act was constitutional. Swann vs. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971): The court ruled that North Carolina school districts had the duty to dismantle school segregation. The Supreme Court Protects Freedom of Expression and Religion Texas vs. Johnson (1989): The court decided that flag burning falls under freedom of speech and is protected by the First Amendment Engle vs. Vitale (1962): Prayer not allowed in Public Schools (unconstitutional) Legal Rights Mapp vs. Ohio (1961): The court ruled that evidence obtained without a search warrant was obtained illegally and was not admissible in court. Gideon vs. Wainwright (1963): Right to adequate defense, a lawyer Miranda vs. Arizona (1966): Court ruled that law enforcement officials have to inform suspects of their legal rights (You have the right to remain silent). It upheld the 5th amendment against self incrimination. Capital Punishment Furman vs. Georgia (1972): Ruled that capital punishment was “cruel and unusual punishment” Gregg v. Georgia (1976): The court ruled that in extreme cases, such as intentional murder, the death penalty is not cruel and unusual punishment. Students Rights Tinker vs. Des Moines (1969): Students wearing black armbands to protest the Vietnam War had the right to freely express their opinions. The 1st amendment is guaranteed New Jersey vs. TLO (1985): The Supreme Court ruled that a Principal’s search of a student’s purse after she was caught smoking did not violate the 4th Amendment because the state’s interest in educating minors permitted such searches. Bethel School District No. 403 vs. Fraiser (1986): The court found that a school district in Washington State had the constitutional right authority to limit student’s freedom of speech. Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier (1988): The Supreme Court upheld the school’s right to place restrictions on a student newspaper. Affirmative Action Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke (1978): The court upheld the principle of affirmative action when a white man protested that he was not admitted to medical school because his spot went to a black applicant. This is protected by the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause. Other Landmark Decisions U.S. vs. Nixon: President is not guaranteed executive privilege in a criminal investigation. Roe vs. Wade: Legalized a woman’s right to an abortion under certain circumstances. Dred Scott vs. Sanford: Ruled that congress could not prohibit slavery in the United States territories and that enslaved African Americans and their descendants were not United States citizens. Schneck vs. United States: Held that free speech could be limited if there was "clear and present danger" that illegal action might result from the speech. NY Times vs. U.S.: Held that prior restraint or censorship was unconstitutional unless the government could prove serious and immediate harm to the nation. Muller vs. Oregon: Ruled that states could protect women workers if the states had a reasonable justification. Reynolds vs. Sims: Held that unequal representation violated the Fourteenth Amendment and established the principle of “one person, one vote." Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services: Ruled against the use of public funds and buildings for counseling about the performing abortions.
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