Emotional 20Intelligence by CuiBcw3


									Emotional States and Health
Mind and Body

                   Can the body affect the
                   Example?
                   How about the mind
                    affecting the body?
                   Example?
                   Two-way communication
                    between mind and body
Psychosomatic Medicine
                  Psyche (mind)
                  Soma (body)
                  Butterflies in the
                  Anxious before giving
                  Indigestion, nausea
                  Stress may contribute
                   to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress

  Stress is less harmful if
  Have some control (even if just belief).
  Predictable (“going to feel a little pinch”).
  Know the duration.
  Coping mechanism.
  Some way to relieve stress.
  Positive attitude.
  Active participant in process.
Relieve stress

                    Meditation
                    Listening to soothing
                    Taking a quiet walk
                    Reduce stress
                    Eliminate butterflies
Affects on long-term health

  Attitude towards illness
   can affect healing.
  Thought, beliefs and
   emotions have major
   impact on physical
  Link between mind and
   body is the immune
The Immune System

 Cells that protect the body against
  intruders such as viruses and bacteria.
  Like a police force
        Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.) run wild
                Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS
        Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:
           The body’s own cells (Autoimmune disease)
                Ex. Rheumatoid arthritis
What is Emotion?
        Internal conscious states that we infer
                 in ourselves and others.
        Emotions are private experiences.
        We use operational definitions
          because we cannot actually see
        We infer observable behavior
          associated with emotion.
Emotions are
Four components of Emotion


                     Social-               Bodily

                                Sense of
  Significant life event        Purpose
Feeling component

  Emotions are subjective feelings
  Make us feel in a particular way.
  Anger or joy.
  Meaning and personal significance.
  Vary in intensity and quality.
  Rooted in mental processes
Bodily Arousal

  Biological activation.
  Autonomic and hormonal systems.
  Prepare and activate adaptive
   coping behavior during emotion.
  Body prepared for action.
  Alert posture, clenched fists.
Purposive component

   Give emotion its goal-directed force.
   Motivation to take action.
   Cope with emotion-causing
   Why people benefit from emotions.
   Social and evolutionary advantage.
Social-Expressive component
    Emotion’s communicative aspect.
    Postures, gestures, vocalizations,
     facial expressions make our
     emotions public.
    Verbal and nonverbal
    Helps us interpret the situation.
    How person reacts to event.
Emotions read in the face

   The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence

    Peter Salovey (Yale)
    John Mayer (U of NH)
    Four branch ability model of
     emotional intelligence
    Mayer-Salovey-Caruso
     Emotional Intelligence Test
Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)

  Skills needed to perceive and express
  Recognizing facial expressions.
  Non-verbal communication.
  Tell when someone is being authentic.
  Express accurate emotions for situation.
  Foundation for other branches.
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT)
Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)

  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.
  Improve problem solving and boost
  Emotional component to motivation.
  “Care enough to send the very best.”
  Using emotion to help make decisions.
Facilitation (MSCEIT)

   What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when
   meeting in-laws for the very first time?
                     Not Useful          Useful
   a) Tension              1    2     3   4   5
  b) Surprise             1    2     3   4   5
  c) Joy                   1    2     3   4  5
Understanding emotions (Branch 3)

  Understanding complex and conflicting
  Emotions and behavioral consequences.
  Read a situation and respond correctly.
  Some emotional responses are
  Jealousy and envy are destructive.
Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT)

     Tom felt anxious, and became a bit
     stressed when he thought about all the
     work he needed to do. When his supervisor
     brought him an additional project, he felt
     ____. (Select the best choice.)

     a) Overwhelmed
    b) Depressed
    c) Ashamed
    d) Self Conscious
    e) Jittery
Managing emotions (Branch 4)

  Developing mood regulation skills.
  Productive ways to change mood.
  Avoid over and under regulation.
  Seek natural means rather than alcohol,
   tobacco or other drugs.
  Stress coping strategies.
  Use optimistic explanatory style.
Managing Emotions (Branch 4)
 1.   Debbie just came back from vacation. She was feeling
      peaceful and content. How well would each action
      preserve her mood?

     Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that
      she needed to do.
     Very Ineffective..1.....2.....3.....4.....5..Very Effective

     Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she
      would go on her next vacation.
     Very Ineffective..1.....2.....3.....4.....5..Very Effective

     Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling
      since it wouldn't last anyway.
     Very Ineffective..1.....2.....3.....4.....5..Very Effective
Emotional States and
Physical Health
   Salovey et at
   American Psychologist (1/2000)
Healing through laughter
 Norman Cousins
 Anatomy of an Illness (1979)
 Life-threatening inflammatory
 Cartoons and Marx Brothers
 10 mins of laughing gave him 2
  hrs of pain-free sleep
 Laughter reduced inflammation
 Healing power of positive mood
Emotional states and immunity

  Negative emotional states associated
   with unhealthy physical states.
  Positive emotional states associated with
   healthier states.
  Cardiovascular and immune systems.
  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A
  First line of defense in the immune
S-IgA levels and emotion
                 Increased occurrence of
                  desirable events predicts
                  higher S-IgA.
                 Positive moods boost the
                  immune system.
                 Negative moods lower S-
                  IgA levels.
                 Undesirable events
                  suppress immune system.
                 Negative moods increase
                  susceptibility to illness.
Manipulating Emotion
    Healthy college students
     watching videos.
    Humorous video
     enhanced immune
     function ( S-IgA)
    Sad video suppressed
     immune function ( S-IgA)
    Not clear how long these
     changes persist.
    Contribute to illness.
Coping styles and illness

    People dealing with severe stressors more
     susceptible to illness.
    Negative emotional states reduce immune
    Coping styles could aid healing.
    Pennebaker: helping people process and
     confront traumatic life events improves health.
    Talk about illness, release pent-up negative
Emotion and environment

              Positive emotional states
               signal a safe environment.
              Negative states signal an alert.
              Something is wrong and must
               be corrected.
              Function of pain.
              It hurts; get help.
Role in seeking help

                Some believe that:
                Happy people less likely
                 to recognize signs of
                 distress and less likely to
                 get help.
                Unhappy people more
                 vigilant and seek help.
                Better to be pessimistic?
Processing health information
    Other evidence that:
    Positive outlook may make it
     easier to process threatening
     information (diagnosis).
    Seek help.
    Negative outlook may cause a
     person not recognize new
     symptoms as threatening.
    Not seek help.
Optimistic outlook

  Positive emotional states provide
  Strength to confront illness.
  Personal resources to seek solutions.
  Creativity in thought and action.
  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.
  Belief that you will get well.
  Do what you can to support recovery.
Healthy heart surgery
    Men undergoing cardiac
     bypass surgery.
    Optimistic men better able to
     focus on postoperative goals.
    5 years post surgery, optimists
     had healthier habits.
    Diet and exercise programs
    Scheier et al. (1989)
Role of health care worker

           One who inspires hope in others.
           Freud: patient’s expectations
            “colored by hope and faith and
            an effective force in all our
            attempts at treatment and cure.”
           Positive mood comes from a
            renewal of hope.
Social Support

    With social support, observe:
    Lower mortality
    More resistant to disease.
    Lower incidence of heart
    Faster recovery from surgery.
    Decreased levels of stress.
    Improved coping with illness.
Affect on Health

  1. Buffering hypothesis:
  Social support buffers individual from
   stressful life event. Only when needed.
  2. Direct effect:
  Social support promotes well-being at all
   times. Not just under stress.
  Both are possible, depending on the
   nature of the stressor.
Role of Social Support

             Mediated by emotional experience.
             Know that help will be provided if
             Less likely to feel lonely and
             Positive outlook on life more likely
              to get social support.
             Develop and maintain social

   Also plays a role in
    wellness and
    recovery from illness.
   A topic for later

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