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1 2002-2003 Volume VI UNCG SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY www.uncg.edu/~drgould/lab.html -mens sana en corpore sano- Dr. Diane Gill Named Director of: a sound mind in a sound The NEW Center for Women’s Health and Doug Cornish: Editor Wellness (CWHW) at UNCG firstname.lastname@example.org UNCG Sport & Exercise Psychology is an annual publication of the Sport and Exercise Psychology Laboratory at the O n September 13, 2002, the UNC Board of Governors granted approval to establish the Center for Women's Health and Well- ness (CWHW) as an institutional research center at UNCG and our own Dr. Diane Gill has been appointed as the director of the center. Un i v e rs i t y o f No r t h C a r o l i n a According to Dr. Gill, the CWHW will facilitate ongoing research related Greensboro. The two-fold mission of to women's health and wellness within the School of Health and Human Performance, and promote collaborative research across the university, this publication is to: with other institutions, and with community partners. ♦ Summarize current scholarly and Given UNCG’s past, present, and future, the CWHW is a perfect fit. service projects within the From 1891, when it was chartered as the first state-supported school for laboratory. the higher education of women in North Carolina, UNCG has empha- ♦ Promote communication with and sized women’s education and development. The School of Health and among alumni and friends of the Human Performance, with its nationally and internationally recognized laboratory. graduate programs and emphasis on interdisciplinary, collaborative re- search related to women’s health and wellness, is the ideal home for the center. Many other faculty and units on campus also address issues re- INDEX lated to women’s health and wellness and are engaged in collaborative research and educational programs with HHP faculty. The CWHW builds upon our strengths and connections to address issues related to the Dr. Gill Named Director of CWHW 1 health and wellness of all women in our community, the state of North Taking Sport Psychology to the Business Person 2 Carolina, and beyond. Youth Hockey: Aggression Reduction Program 3 CWHW Mission Statement Mexican Olympian Project 4 The mission of the Center for Women's Health and Wellness is to AAASP Alumni Social 5 advance the understanding of the health and wellness of all women through collaborative research and educational programs. The Taking PST to the Court 5 CWHW has a strong emphasis on the promotion of positive health, Where Are They Now? 6 quality of life and sense of well-being for girls and women of all ages, Test Of Performance Strategies (TOPS) 7 from all backgrounds and communities. Parents’ Roles In Tennis Success 8 CWHW GOALS Lab On The Road 9 ♦ To promote and enhance ongoing research within the School of HHP New Athletics Logos 10 related to women's health and wellness, CWHW-Related Research 11 ♦ To foster collaborative research on women's health and wellness Cultural Competence In Physical Activity 11 within the School, within the University, with other institutions, and with community partners, and Physical Activity and Well-being 12 ♦ To disseminate research-based information on women's health and Kate R. Barrett Award Recipient 13 wellness to researchers/scholars, practicing professionals, and the general Graduate Student Projects Supervised by Dr. Gill 13 public. Scholarly Work 14 See Page 11 for CWHW-related research! 2 SPORT PSYCHOLOGY LABORATORY From the Desk of Dr. Gould Taking Sport Psychology to the must deal with these adverse conditions while pursuing peak performance. Because of this similarity, these two groups Businessperson: can benefit from developing similar skills or tools. These Experiences and Lessons Learned include goal setting, developing teamwork, stress manage- An Interview with Dan Gould, PhD ment, building confidence, and dealing with ‘overtraining.’ By Sarah Carson “The similarities between working with athletes G o to any sport psychology conference and you will hear participants discussing the idea of transferring skills and concepts used in sport psychology consultation to areas outside of sport. In and with business people exist not only in the par- allel goals of excelling in one’s performance, but also in the paths that need to be taken to achieve fact, the December 2002 issue of the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology recently highlighted some of the di- these goals.” rections people in our field have been taking their knowledge; applying it to other groups seeking perform- ance excellence in areas beyond sport. The business Of course, differences also exist between the two world has been one of these places where those in- worlds. Some examples include differences in the language, volved have benefited from working with ‘coaches’ greater funding and resources available to the business peo- who have recognized the link between business and ple, and the politics involved. sport and have been able to transfer many of the sport Even with the many similarities that exist, a consultant psychological concepts to the business place. cannot simply bring what he or she knows and does with Recently, Dan Gould has done just this; he has athletes to the business world without preparation and some brought his consulting experiences to several business modification. To prepare himself for working with this new groups. Locally, Gould has presented workshops at population, Dan spent much time familiarizing himself with UNCG’s Bryan School’s Program for Management business through reading texts from the industry, talking to Development. He has also taken his consulting to New those in business, and considering lessons he had learned as York investment bankers and to a workshop for a phar- a coach himself (graduate advisor) and as a coachee. Even maceutical company through work for the England- with years of consulting experience and much preparation, based Lane 4 group. His involvement began with a cer- Dr. Gould admitted, “I felt pretty nervous. I mean I was tain curiosity about the directions in which the field of nervous when I went up [to NY]…I knew I could do my sport psychology was expanding. He explained, “the deal, but I didn’t know if my deal was the deal they needed.” reason why I wanted to try expanding beyond sport was He added, “it’s somebody’s profession and you’re worried to see…from an educational point of view if there is about giving some bad advice. But, as I did two or three transfer [from sport to the business world].” He contin- sessions I saw a lot of the skills that I had developed in one ued, “I wasn’t sure how much would transfer…it was a context seemed to be effective in the other context.” Some- little bit like an experiment.” Through his experiences, thing that helped him further develop his consulting skills in Dan has concluded that there is a useful transfer and that business was his constant attempt to “suck-up knowledge.” many similarities exist in working as a sport psychology You can learn great things from reading about an industry, consultant and as a business performance coach. but you can also learn valuable lessons from operating The similarities between working with athletes and within a context and not being afraid to ask questions from with business people exist not only in the parallel goals those involved. Gould explained that doing this will help of excelling in one’s performance, but also in the paths make you a great consultant with any group. that need to be taken to achieve these goals. For exam- This learning process is just one piece of advice Dan ple, Gould explained that in both areas, the performers shared when talking about pursuing this line of consulting. tend to be working under time pressures. Whether it is Dr. Gould also suggested being on the hunt for information the upcoming championship or the deadline at the end from business that can transfer back to sport. His own inter- of the week, both the athlete and the businessperson (Continued on page 10) 3 An Emotional Control Program to Reduce Aggression in Youth Ice Hockey A grant sponsored by The USA Hockey Foundation Written by: Larry Lauer, M.S. H ockey is a fast-paced, high-intensity sport that involves players skating nearly 20 mph and shooting pucks over 80 mph. Moreover, it is a tough game played in a confined space leading to much physical contact. Due to the nature of the game, many periods: baseline, treatment, and post-treatment, each lasted approximately seven weeks. One team was des- ignated as the “treatment” team and received the emo- tional control program during the treatment phase. The other team served as the control and received the pro- physical-contact injuries and penalties are unavoidable. gram at the end of the season. Thus, changes in aggres- Recently, however, there has been a concern that aggres- sive and emotionally controlled behavior were meas- sive acts of youth hockey players are leading to decreased ured between the two teams and within each team performance, and more importantly, an increase in injuries across time. The research team also obtained self- (Lorentzen, Werden, & Pietila, 1988; Widmeyer & reports from the head coach and players relative to per- McGuire, 1993). Additionally, on-ice aggression in cer- formance, intensity of emotions, aggressive behavior, tain cases has inflamed emotional par- and success using emotional control ents and coaches to off-ice violence “The ultimate goal of this strategies. Currently, we are analyz- (i.e., the Junta case where a youth- ing the data from this project. hockey father killed another father, is USA Hockey Foundation The ultimate goal of this USA a prime example). Finally, players Hockey Foundation study is to teach may be learning aggressive behaviors study is to teach players to players to control their emotions on- that possibly stay with them through- ice and restructure the manner in out their lives. control their emotions which they think about situations that Inappropriate aggression by play- frequently result in aggression. Hence, ers, coaches, and spectators has lim- on-ice…..” the motto for this program is “Playing ited the growth of hockey and com- tough, but clean hockey.” The practi- promised the safety of its participants. USA Hockey has cal implications of this study include a “Playing tough, done an excellent job in educating its members about the but clean hockey” brochure that will be developed and negative consequences of aggression. Nonetheless, a need distributed throughout USA Hockey to youth players, exists to teach players how to play intensely, but not ag- coaches, and parents. Additionally, an emotional control gressively. Therefore, in the summer of 2002, the USA curriculum may be developed and integrated into the Hockey Foundation provided the UNCG Sport and Exer- USA Hockey Coaching Education Program. However, cise Psychology Laboratory with a grant to investigate the the most important outcome will be teaching players effectiveness of an emotional control program to reduce emotional control strategies that they can use in hockey aggression in youth ice hockey. Specifically, the emo- and life. Then, hockey will become an even more excit- tional control program took place over seven weeks; it ing and safe experience for youth hockey players involved seven sessions where members of the research around the country. team met with the players on and off the ice, and included the following objectives: empathy and compassion for opponents, education on the differences between aggres- sive and assertive behaviors, education on emotions and developing emotional toughness, controlled breathing, centering, thought stopping, refocusing cues, and, an on- ice 3 R’s (act, relax, refocus) routine. The design of this emotional control study was to videotape two Bantam (12-14 years old) ice hockey teams over a full season. A member of the research team coded the data into predetermined categories of aggressive be- havior. In addition, opportunities to be aggressive, de- noted as times when a participant is aggressed upon, were inspected. The season was divided into three time- Larry Lauer instructs the participants. 4 in oneself, believing that medaling was a realistic possibil- FACTORS AFFECTING THE PER- ity, having the right equipment, having enough time to ad- FORMANCE OF MEXICAN ATHLE- just to time differences, possessing strong team chemistry, LETES AND COACHES AT THE having a strong coach relationship, trusting the wisdom of one’s coach, perceiving fair coaching decisions, receiving 2000 SYDNEY support from family and friends, practicing at the competi- OLYMPICS tive venue, and participating in previous international com- petitions. Negative performance influences included lack- Written by: Cristina Rolo ing confidence, losing composure, not having the ability to adjust to tactical situations, not having a plan to deal with distractions, having a disrupted pre-performance routine, S experiencing problems with equipment, not having a posi- tarting with the seminal work of Orlick and tive team leader, lacking Partington (1987), several studies have “The knowledge that team chemistry, experiencing examined factors that are associated with athlete-coach conflicts, and the performance success of Olympic athletes and emerged from this family of perceiving coaches’ lack of coaches at the 1996 Atlanta Summer Games, 1998 commitment to success. Re- Nagano Winter Games, and 2000 Sydney Olympic studies may help athletes sults revealed that factors Games. While these results have provided a better better prepare for Olympic perceived by coaches as hav- understanding of the wide variety of factors athletes ing influenced their and their and coaches identify as performance influences, only events…” athletes’ Olympic perform- North American athletes have been examined thus ance included: athletes’ con- far. Therefore, the degree to which these findings gener- fidence and belief that medaling was a realistic possibility, alize to other cultures is unknown. adjusting tactically during competitions, pressure to win, To rectify this state of affairs, we conducted an having plans to deal with distractions, positive family sup- investigation designed to examine factors that Mexican port and team trials disruptions. Many of these factors were Olympians and coaches perceived influenced their per- triangulated across the athlete survey data (Fink, Rolo, Tay- formances at the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympic lor, Jannes, & Gould, 2003). Games. When results were compared and contrasted to that of Cristina Fink, Mexican Olympic Committee sport previous U.S. Olympian research (Gould, Greenleaf, Gui- psychologist and key collaborator on the project, trans- nan, & Chung, 2002; Gould et al, 2002), numerous differ- lated and administered a slightly modified version of a ences were evident in media-related factors influencing “factors influencing performance” survey developed performance, with Mexican coaches noting a more negative and used in our previous studies of U.S. Olympians and impact. This is most likely the case because of Mexican coaches. Twenty-eight out of 70 (33%) Sydney Mexi- lack of training in the area. Relative to coaching perform- can Olympians (14 males, 14 females) representing 11 ance, respondents indicated that being unprepared for crisis different sports returned the surveys. The sample in- situations, transportation difficulties, and keeping things cluded 3 medalists (10.7%) and 25 non-medalists simple and focused were some of the factors perceived as (89.3%). Eleven Olympi- having a great impact. Most noteworthy was the finding ans (39.3%) placed in the “Most noteworthy was the that sport psychological consulting services were per- top 8 positions at the ceived as having a high positive impact on performance. Games and have received finding that sport psycho- Many of the same factors were found to influence per- certificates. Fourteen logical consulting services formance. For example, confidence, trusting one’s Mexican coaches from were perceived as having a coach, and losing composure were found to be similar Sydney Games who rep- high positive impact on per- influences across cultures. However, some differences resented six different did emerge. Mexican athletes were more positively in- sports were also sampled formance.” fluenced by viewing the Olympics as a once-in-a-life- and returned the surveys. time opportunity, believing medaling was a realistic possi- Coaches and athletes indicated whether 108 poten- bility, and having one’s venue near the village. Generally, tial performance influencing factors were experienced, when compared to their U.S. counterparts, Mexican Olym- and rated (0 = not at all an influence, 10 = extreme in- pians perceived similar factors influenced their Sydney fluence) the degree that each factor influenced their Olympic performance. While some differences were evi- Olympic performance. Results revealed that a large dent, these were relatively small. Moreover, as with the number of factors were perceived to influence perform- previous U.S. research, a large number of diverse factors ance. were perceived to influence performance. Factors perceived by athletes to positively influence These cross-cultural findings are encouraging as they performance included such things as having confidence (Continued on page 10) 5 AAASP HAPPENINGS “Tricks and Treats With The Alumni ” “Taking PST to the Court” By Cindra Kamphoff, M.S. (2000) By: Cristina Rolo, M.S. One memorable Halloween evening in Tucson, Arizona, Approximately 30 people participated in the 2002 ghosts were haunting and wearwolves were howling because Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psy- AAASP was in town. Inside the little Mexican restaurant, chology (AAASP) pre-conference workshop: “Taking it Javelina’s Cantina, we were doing some howling of our to the Court: a Hands-On Applied Sport Psychology own. To no surprise, laughing and joking hysterically was Consulting Experience in Tennis.” This workshop took the atmosphere of the UNCG AAASP social. Whether we place in Tucson, Arizona October 30th 2002, and was cheered when Charlie Brown arrived in a gorilla costume conducted by Dan Gould, Cristina Rolo, Larry Lauer, (did that really happen, or was I dreaming?), or when the Yongchul Chung, and Russell Medbery. current students and alumni pitched jokes back and forth, the The idea to conduct this workshop emerged after my AAASP alumni social is always guaranteed to be a good participation at the Mental Skills and Drills workshop time for everyone. This year there were approximately conducted by Gould, Dieffenbach, Chung, Lauer, & thirty current students and alumni all packed into three ta- Damarjian in Nashville, Tennessee in October, 2000. The bles. This provided us a cozy place to get to know each workshop was conceived to teach mental skills and drills other even better. such as developing confidence, concentration/focus, mo- Each time I attend the AAASP social, I am reminded of tivation, group cohesion, and stress management in off- how indebted I am to so many of the alumni. I arrived at field/classroom situations. Experiential learning took UNCG in 1998 and immediately was taken under the wings place using examples from a variety of sports. of several Ph.D. students, including Justine Reel, Christy Although all participants enjoyed the workshop, some Greenleaf, and Kristen Dieffenbach – whom on any given participants shared that they had difficulty imagining Halloween could easily be how to take what they had learned to the mistaken for Charlie’s An- actual field or court. Taking into considera- gels. They taught me so tion the former, and the fact that the USTA many valuable lessons about skills and drills study (Gould et al., 1999) classes, research, consulting, emphasized the importance of integrating and writing while making it mental skills into practice settings, made look so easy. Whenever I me aware of the need to take the next step. had questions, they would That is, to conduct a similar workshop, but drop everything to help me. in an on-court setting, to demonstrate how From the time I was terribly to integrate mental skills and drills in prac- overwhelmed with frustra- tice. tion trying to recruit enough subjects for my thesis (they told Because I am passionate about tennis, and some of the me this happens to everyone – does it really?), to when they graduate students in our program share the same passion, thought it would be a good idea for me to be a jester for Hal- they agreed to provide such an opportunity to sport psy- loween given my lively personality. chologists, coaches and other professionals. Each year I attend the AAASP conference, I am so Most of the on-court drills used in this workshop were proud to represent UNCG. I always meet more friendly developed as part of a grant for the USTA from 1996- alumni (yes, I said friendly) and I am encouraged by how 1999. The workshop provided a stage to demonstrate they are progressing professionally. It is refreshing to see how mental skills training can be integrated into on-court the success of UNCG graduates and relieving to know that practice. The objectives were to teach participants to in- all of this hard work will pay off someday. tegrate, and lead mental skills and drills on the court, to Given UNCG alumni’s success in the field, Halloween develop confidence, motivation, teamwork, and stress may not be the only opportunity for me to be a sport psy- management. Guidelines for developing and integrating chologist. Hopefully I’ll successfully finish my Ph.D. – keep on-court mental skills, as well as guidelines to conduct your fingers crossed for me! effective on-court mental skills training sessions were I am confident that all of you have had similar experi- addressed. ences to mine. In fact, I know several of you have and feel The workshop was a big success even before it started. grateful for the students before you. We had a limit of 15 participants due to the applied na- (Continued on page 8) (Continued on page 6) 6 (AAASP Tennis Workshop: from page 5) ture of this workshop. Because of the numerous requests received from people interested in the subject, we ended Where Are They Now? up conducting the workshop with twice as many partici- Karen Collins, Yongchul Chong, Kristen Dieffenbach pants. Although it went well, the large number of partici- Wrtten By: Doug Cornish pants decreased the actual practice time for each partici- pant in some of the skills and drills. According to the oral and written feedback from par- UNCG’s Sport Psychology program has seen its share of ticipants, the workshop was considered a great success. alumni who were excellent students and colorful charac- The overall quality of the workshop was rated as excellent, ters with unique personalities. These three fit that bill! and participants were satisfied. Additionally, participants Karen KC Collins: considered that the workshop did contribute very much for She is an assistant professor in the Department of their professional effectiveness. Kinesiology at the University of New Hampshire, where The following quotes illustrate some of the concepts she teaches the Sport Studies option, which includes such and skills participants learned during the workshop that courses as Principles of Coaching, Athletic Administra- they considered will benefit them professionally: “The tion, Social Issues in Contemporary Sport and the Sport actual techniques and approaches to use in direct/on-the- Industry and is geared toward students who are interested field interventions with athletes;” and “The idea of incor- in school and college athletics. porating drills rather than doing them in an office.” UNH is a "mid major" Division I university located When asked to list the best aspects of this workshop, near the seacoast with approximately 11, 000 students. participants appreciated the “Practical hands-on approach;” “I am very happy at New Hampshire. Not only am I “Getting the opportunity to see these drills in action;” back in my beloved New England and close to my family, “Different presenters with creative ideas;” “Learning drills but I have the opportunity to balance teaching and re- to incorporate into mental skills training,” and “The con- search.” She also claims that the most exciting part of her cepts were transferable.” new job is the new coaching minor, which she hopes will When asked what things they would change about this grow and produce some quality coaches. workshop, participants answered “More preface of as- Currently for her research agenda she is continuing sumptions regarding knowledge base and previous experi- along the lines of Coaching/Coaching Education, and she ence of players;” “Some comments on how to debrief play- plans on beginning a coaching education assessment pro- ers/coaches after exercises.” ject in the state of New Hampshire with Russ Medbery Relative to possible ways to improve upon this presen- (another UNCG Sport Psych Lab alum). Karen had this tation, participants made four suggestions: (1) More hands- say about her new career experience, “So far, UNH has on workshops should be conducted (2) It would be good to been a good fit for me. I am looking forward to a summer apply these concepts across sports (3) A new sport could full of productivity.” And we will be looking forward to be emphasized every year. (4) It would be helpful in the reading about it. future to address how to change exercises for group and Yongchul Chong: individual sports. It is evident that participants were ex- Yong now works for North Carolina A&T State Univer- cited with the workshop content and the possibilities they sity as an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department create. of Human Performance and Leisure Studies. The next step is to provide to coaches, sport psy- This past year Yong taught both undergraduate and chologists, and other professionals another tool to help graduate sport psychology and measurement courses. them to integrate diverse skills and drills on the tennis This summer, Yong will be teaching summer swimming court. In order to make this happen, a USTA mental skills courses before teaching sport psychology, measurement and drills book is being edited by Dr. Gould and Larry and evaluation courses next fall. Lauer which will be available to the public next year. The new Adjunct Assistant Professor is currently writ- ing several grants. One major program for which Yong is pursuing grant money is HOPE, a program that empha- sizes life-skills development through sport participation. Yong is trying to implement Steve Danish’s SUPER pro- gram in Korea; this could be made possible with money from the Korean Research Foundation. Finally, Yong is writing an Applied Sport Psychology book, which he hopes to fund with part of a recent writing grant received by his father. During the summer, Yong will visit Korea, where he will spend some time at home and present at the Asian South-Pacific Association of Sport Psychology Dan, Larry, Cristina, Russ, and Yong deliver at AAASP (Yongchul Chong and Kristen Dieffenbach, page 10) 7 letes from 28 sports completed surveys. Inspection of the ASSESSING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS OF standardized discriminant function coefficients revealed that ELITE SPORT PERFORMERS: THE TEST OF imagery, emotional control, and automaticity contributed PERFORMANCE STRATEGIES most to the discriminant function. Specifically, while medalists indicated greater emotional control and automatic- Written by, Marc Taylor, M.S. ity than non-medalists, higher imagery scores prevailed for non-medalists than medalists. O Standardized discriminant function coefficients showed ver the past two years, the UNCG Applied Sport that self-talk and emotional control made the most signifi- Psychology Laboratory has been investigating cant contributions to the separation between groups. Medal- the psychological skills and strategies of elite ists reported greater emotional control and demonstrated sport performers, ranging from U.S. Olympic performers greater use of positive self-talk than non-medalists. at the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games to promising young The discriminant analyses, then, successfully distin- figure skaters competing within the U.S. Figure Skating guished between medalists and non-medalists, in both com- Association. Although sport psychology scholars have petition and practice – suggesting that medalists generally developed several instruments in an effort to identify the possess superior psychological skills and strategies, in both fundamental attributes of peak performance (e.g., POMS; practice and competitive environments, than non-medalists. McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1971; PSIS: Mahoney, This finding reflects a recurring theme in the sport psychol- Gabriel, and Perkins, 1987; ASCI-28: Smith, Schutz, ogy literature identifying fundamental psychological differ- Smoll, and Ptacek, 1995), none of these measures account ences between more and less successful performers and for psychological skills and strategies that athletes utilize teams (e.g., Gould and Weiss, 1981; Gould, Guinan, in preparation for as well as engagement in competition. Greenleaf, Medbery, and Peterson, 1999; Greenleaf, Gould, This surprising fact explains and Dieffenbach, 2001). This study provided a clear our interest in the Test of Per- indication of the TOPS psychometric strengths and “The TOPS appears to be a formance Strategies (TOPS: weaknesses, and it appears that its potentials far out- Thomas, Hardy, and Murphy, promising instrument for as- weigh its limitations. However, future research should 1999), which evaluates ath- sessing the use of several im- continue to refine its psychometric properties. With letes’ use of 16 psychological this in mind, we are currently engaged in a second skills, including 8 competition portant psychological skills in major project examining the psychological skills and subscales and 8 practice sub- athletes, both in competition strategies of U.S. junior and novice figure skaters. scales. Performance Strategies of More and Less success- The TOPS appears to be and practice environments.” ful U.S. National Figure Skaters a promising instrument for assessing the use of several A purpose of the current study is to differentiate be- important psychological skills by athletes, both in compe- tween more and less successful junior and novice skaters at tition and practice environments. However, its reliability the US National Championships. A second purpose of the and validity have been shown in only one investigation. project is strictly applied in nature: athletes were provided With further support of its validity, this instrument may with their scores on each subscale of the TOPS, along with emerge as a useful assessment tool for assessing psycho- specific instructions for using the information to develop a logical skills and strategies used during practice and com- psychological skills training program to enhance their skat- petition. With this, our lab has employed the TOPS in ing performance and experience. two major projects: the first of which investigated the psy- The sample consists of 118 figure skaters that partici- chological skills and strategies of more and less successful pated in a recent national competition. Preliminary analyses U.S. athletes at the Sydney Olympic Games, and the sec- suggest several trends identifying possible psychological ond which is currently investigating the psychological differences between more and less successful competitors, as skills and strategies of more and less successful junior and well as several possible differences between novice- and novice U.S. figure skaters. junior-level athletes. Conclusive results await final analysis. Performance Strategies of U.S. Medalists and Non- Continued research with the TOPS and other psycho- medalists at the 2000 Sydney Games logical instruments can be used not only to better illustrate The purpose of the first study (Taylor, Gould & the psychology of elite performance, but can also contribute Rolo, submitted) was to further investigate the internal to the larger challenge of revealing the multitude of factors reliability of the TOPS, as well as its ability to differenti- influencing elite performance. Not only is this a supreme ate medal status in an elite sample of athletes from the challenge for sport science researchers who will undoubtedly 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. It was hypothesized that have to collaborate to achieve this goal, but it will also call medalists would report higher overall scores on the TOPS for multiple methods of investigation, whereas the tradi- than non-medalists. tional reductionistic approach to science, however necessary, The sample consisted of 176 U.S. athletes who par- may alone be an insufficient means to an end. ticipated in the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics. Ath- 8 focus groups were both audiotaped and videotaped, and a The USTA Research Grant Proposal: debriefing was given at the end of each session. The data Understanding the Role Parents Play in was transcribed and coded to text using the videotape and audiotapes of each focus group. Tennis Success Phase 2 involved the collection of 132 surveys out of Written by: Caroline Jannes. a total of 250 coaches that attended the USA Tennis High Performance Competition Training Center Coaches Work- shop in Key Biscayne in January. The purpose of this M phase was to generalize the findings of Phase 1 across a any top American junior tennis players recog- broader, more diverse sample of coaches. A questionnaire, nize the importance their parents played in their based on literature findings and information from Phase 1, tennis experience. Research findings show that was developed to examine parental issues in junior tennis. some of the most successful American Olympic champi- The items focused on identifying the coaches’ perceptions ons had parents who were highly involved in their sport of parent-child interaction problems in junior tennis, posi- experience, provided support, and instilled confidence, tive parental behaviors in junior tennis, problems, or road- discipline and success attitudes (Gould, Dieffenbach, & blocks coaches deal in the relationships with junior tennis Moffet, 2002, in press). They directly or indirectly influ- parents, the importance of junior tennis parents behaviors, enced motivation, a variety of affective states, such as and the usefulness of strategies for working with junior satisfaction and anxiety, and played an important role in tennis parents. Data was analyzed with descriptive statis- athletic development. However, coaches report frequently tics and discriminant analyses. that a group of parents have unintentional, but negative We are currently entering phase 3. Phase 3 is de- effects on player development. Unfortunately, little re- signed to provide an in-depth examination of parental in- search exists examining tennis parenting issues, such as volvement in the development of top-level tennis players effective and ineffective tennis parenting strategies, opti- by retrospectively interviewing eight top-100 American mal parental push, problems coaches perceive relative to junior players, one of their parents, and a coach. The interacting with tennis parents, and strategies for maxi- method used will be semi-structured, in-depth interviews mizing the facilitation of an effective player/ coach/ parent focusing on the role of their parents in their tennis career. partnership. Interview guides, based on literature on talent develop- The US Tennis Association (USTA) has the intention ment and sport parenting, and results from Phase 1 and of educating both coaches and Phase 2, will be used. The player interview will parents on parenting issues, and “There is a further need begin with general questions about the athlete’s has issued a book for appropriate parenting child and adolescent to better understand the career, will further investigate how parents were involved in their career and their parent’s behav- tennis players. There is a further role that parents play in iors toward them, and will focus on how parents need to better understand the role interacted with their child according to Bloom’s that parents play in tennis success. tennis success.” (1985) career phases. Coach and parent interviews Moreover, the USTA wants to will be completed for each case following the cor- create an understanding of the influences of positive pa- responding player interview. In general, the coach and rental behavior and wants to learn from the best possible parent interviews will follow the same interview guide parent-player-coach partnership. The USTA issued a grant format. to the UNCG Sport and Exercise Psychology Lab to in- From this 3-phase investigation into the role of junior vestigate effective and ineffective tennis parenting behav- tennis parents we hope to develop positive parenting iors, problems coaches perceive in interacting with tennis guidelines, and to assist the US Tennis Association in their parents, and making recommendations to maximize suc- mission to develop great and healthy junior tennis players. cess in tennis via effective partnership between player, parent, and coach. The study encompasses three phases, and will be conducted from the Fall of 2002 until the (Tricks and Treats from page 5) Spring of 2004. It is amazing how much the UNCG alumni create a family In November, Phase 1 began; focus groups were con- atmosphere whenever they get together, even when it’s ducted at an USA Tennis High Performance Coaching not Halloween. You instantly feel at home even if you Program in Atlanta. Six focus groups were conducted with only know a few people (or gorillas) in the room. This is a total of 24 top junior tennis coaches. The purpose of this exactly how the alumni social in Tucson was, a family phase was to identify the coaches’ perspectives of the role gathering. The social was a perfect way to spend Hallow- parents have in tennis success. Questions examined posi- een night. We got tricks and treats, like when Kaori Araki tive and negative behaviors of parents toward their child called Larry Lauer “my hairy husband” (I think a few peo- player, optimal parental push, positive and negative paren- ple actually thought they were married)! See you all next tal behaviors toward the coach, and useful strategies that year – I’ll be the one wearing the jester outfit or the sport coaches could use to inform or educate the parents. All psychologist costume! 9 ders and different ethnic groups, and with many useful per- Lab on the Road: spectives on the role of parents in tennis success. All Focus Groups coaches agreed on the necessity of the research, and we had the impression that our interviews were a reason for further Atlanta, 2002 discussion between coaches during their workshop. Both Written by: Caroline Jannes Dan and Larry investigated the positive and negative behav- iors parents have in guiding their tennis playing child, opti- On Wednesday November 13th, Larry Lauer, Cristina mal parental push and strategies to improve the relationship Rolo, and I got into the official UNCG Pontiac and made between player, parent and coach. While Dan was more our way to Atlanta, Georgia, to conduct six focus groups directly guiding the groups, probing for specific and new with 24 junior tennis coaches. Four travel bags, the lab information, Larry carefully involved every interviewee and notebook, and our precious research material were safely dealt diplomatically with opposing ideas between the group hidden in the back of our car. While we were sharing in- members. In the meantime, Cristina and I were avidly scrib- ternational trivia and USA Hockey project anecdotes, we bling all information on our note sheets and checking the smoothly made our way through the Peach State closely taping times. After each interview, there was time for con- following all Mapquest directions. We arrived six hours cluding feedback with the coaches, and a second round of later at the Hilton Hotel in Atlanta, welcomed by Dan who feedback between us. already checked out all facilities for research and daily Along with to the focus groups, Dan also delivered a activities such as the pool and exercise room. two-hour presentation on teaching psychological skills to Before we finally got in the car that drove us to At- junior tennis players at the Racquet Club. While the first lanta, a lot of work was done to prepare the six focus part was an overall presentation on the mental skills in the group interviews. For weeks on end, we had our weekly conference room, the second part was an enjoyable work- Wednesday meeting to finalize the themes and questions shop on the tennis courts. Dan was now explaining some of guide. Our individual tacit knowledge was combined to the skills, getting the coaches involved with some warming come up with the best questions, and each of us had a spe- up exercises, and demonstrating (via energetic Cristina and cific area of literature to scan for additional ideas. All tap- Larry) the use of positive rephrasing. The coaches saw the ing material such as four audio recorders, two video cam- benefits of the use of mental skills as Cristina and Larry eras and a lot of tapes were gathered, and we trained be- both overcame their challenging moments of adversity forehand with Doug to avoid any unwelcome recording through the use of mental skills. As a camerawoman, I tried problems. Larry also trained to lead focus groups and to record the fast tennis movements of guinea pig Cristina probe for in-depth ideas, while Dan was refreshed his in- and every instant joke by Dan. After all the hard work, we terview skills. Sarah Carson, Cristina and I further pre- took some time in the afternoon to try out the tennis courts, pared interview guides, interviewee forms with demo- hotel exercise room and hotel pool. graphic variables, consent forms, and secretary note sheets. After we dropped our personal belongings in our rooms, we went looking for the officials of the US Tennis Association (USTA). We immediately found Paul Lub- bers and his assistant, Lisette, who showed us the two rooms where all the focus groups were to be held. We were all very enthusiastic about the rooms and the way they were set up, and after teaming up, we unpacked the video cameras and audio recorders. While Cristina and I were checking out our recording material and writing name cards, a huge amount of pizza and salads was deliv- Three days later, we departed from Atlanta with a lot of ered by the local pizza man. We rewarded the coaches for material and many good memories. It was time for the their contribution with fresh-made pizzas, salads and so- “supreme moment,” the first Mobile Lab Meeting in the das, following Dan’s motto “Pizza solves everything!” It history of the Sport Psych Lab. We thought Dan was joking has been proven to be a success! when he said we would have a lot to talk about in the car on the way home. Five hours later our group of high-achievers “Pizza solves everything!” were still discussing points of improvement as well as fu- Unofficial Sport Psych Lab Motto: Dr. Gould ture questions and strategies to be addressed aduring later phases of the research. But foremost, we realized that we But more than the success of pizza, the two focus were part of an unique focus group experience, thanks to groups that night and the four following focus groups good preparation, teamwork, the excellent organization were even a bigger success. It turned out to be six interest- provided by the USTA, and multiple moments of sparkling ing and open groups, with tennis coaches from both gen- humor. 10 (Gould: Business Application from page 2) NEW ATHLETICS LOGOS est in developing core values when consulting with ath- letes and teams stemmed from readings he did to prepare for his work in business. Secondly, Gould explained that for consultants to be effective, they need to become con- textually intelligent and adapt to their surroundings. This can mean buying new clothes or learning the terminol- ogy. It’s important to fit in, yet on the other hand, you have to remain true to yourself. Finally, Dan advised that “everybody’s got to start somewhere, and the first time you do it, you’re going to feel uncomfortable. Maybe that (Where are They Now: from page 6) never goes away when you change contexts, but it’s like (ASPASP) Conference, where he no doubt will be looking that “good to great” notion…maybe [how] you go from for more grant opportunities. good to great is you’re not afraid to feel uncomfortable.” Kristen Dieffenbach As he explained, you can learn a lot from this discomfort. Kristen currently completed the requirements to be- It is not something worth fighting; rather, it is something come an Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport to grow from. Psychology certified consultant. On top of that, she has Dan has certainly learned much from this coaching credentials with both the United States Track and ‘experiment’ in the business world, yet still has hopes to Field Association (USATF) and USA Cycling. Currently pursue new avenues like working with junior business- she coaches and consults for Carmichael Training Systems persons. When asked how he sees his involvement in the and does coaching- and parenting-education seminars with future, Gould explained, “I’m still a sport person cause the non-profit group, the Positive Coaching Alliance. Ad- it’s what I truly love and grew up with, but I like learning ditionally, she provides performance excellence consulting new things and I’m getting pretty good at it. I’ll keep for athletes, teams, coaches, and businesses through her doing it in a measured fashion.” company, Mountains, Marathons, & More and teaches un- dergraduate classes as an adjunct at Frostburg State Univer- sity. Kristen currently lives in Frostburg, Maryland and in Sport and Exercise her spare time competes in a wide variety of running and cycling events, with an emphasis on endurance and ultra Psychology Websites! endurance endeavors and adventure racing. www.aaasponline.org/ (Factors Affecting...Mexican Athletes from page 4) www.naspspa.org/ suggest that elite athletes are influenced in similar ways by major performance influencing factors. It is also encourag- www.sportpsychology.co.uk/ ing to note that many of the factors mentioned by these athletes are ones that sport psychologists have studied ex- www.psyc.unt.edu/apadiv47 tensively (e.g., self-confidence, developing performance www.phed.duth.gr/sportpsy/ routines). Thus, for those athletes who identify that certain factors negatively influenced their Olympic performance, www.psychology.lu.se/FEPSAC information exists as to how such factors can be strength- ened or improved. The knowledge that emerged from this www.sbmweb.org/ family of studies may help athletes better prepare for Olym- www.acsm.org/ pic events, as well as help coaches and sport psychologists to work more effectively. This cross-cultural comparison provides some insight about similarities and differences (Courtesy of Amy Karnitz) between two different cultures: the American and the Mexi- can, and may stimulate further cross-cultural research in- volving other countries. AND: Coming Soon In order to disseminate the results of this study to The Sport and Exercise Psychology Mexican Olympians and coaches, as well as sport psychol- ogy professionals, the findings will be presented at the XI Newsletter will be available on UNCG’s European Congress of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC), which Sport Psychology Webpage. will take place July 2003 in Copenhagen, Denmark. A final report will be given to the Mexican Olympic Committee, and a “Solidarity Coaches Workshop” will be conducted to address coaches’ and athlete’s needs. 11 Center For Women’s Health and Wellness (CWHW): Sport and Exercise Psychology Research From The Desk of Dr. Gill diverse youth by focusing on the climate and cultural com- CWHW Relations and Projects petence of professionals in physical activity settings. Spe- Written by Dr. Gill cifically, during the first phase of the project we will focus on assessing the climate in physical activity settings that S serve diverse youth (schools, recreation programs, commu- everal of our continuing research projects are re- nity centers), and the perceived cultural competence of lated to women’s health and wellness, and last professionals who work in those settings, as well as pre- year several specific proposals were developed and professionals in university programs. We will use multiple submitted through the CWHW by Dr. Gill in collabora- methods (surveys, focus groups, observations) in the as- tion with other faculty and community partners of the sessment and analyses. These results will provide the basis CWHW. We developed a proposal for a project on for educational materials and programs that promote cul- Physical Activity for Adolescent Girls in collaboration tural competence and reduce exclusionary practices among with the YWCA of Greensboro. We planned to offer a physical activity professionals. Our goal is to work in physical activity program at the YWCA for girls partici- partnership with schools and leisure service providers to pating in an after-school program, Save our Students develop physical activity programs that enhance the health (SOS). Although we did not receive the final funding for and well-being of all girls and women. that project, we made strong connections and will move This project builds upon our lab research on cultural ahead with several related projects. competence and physical activity and well-being, and will This year Dr. Gill, Dr. Kathy Jamieson, and several carry us in new directions through the CWHW and other of our graduate students worked with representatives collaborations. Look for reports on CWHW projects as from the YWCA and several other community organiza- well as our other lab projects over the coming year and tions to plan and conduct the 9th annual Girls & Women beyond. in Sports Day Festival, held here at UNCG on March 2, 2003. CWHW has strong connections with the Women’s Resource Center (WRC) of Greensboro, and one pro- posal submitted this past year by the YWCA, WRC and Cultural Competence in CWHW involved a fitness and wellness program for Physical Activity. obese women in the community. Written by: Dr. Gill As well as the YWCA and WRC, another key com- munity partner for the CWHW is A Healthy Start, Inc. (AHS), a program for adolescent girls in the community. This project grew from a long-standing interest in gen- In previous years, several ESS faculty and graduate stu- der issues and extensions of that work to broader areas of dents have worked with AHS founding director, cultural diversity. Cultural competence implies a move Ernestine Taylor, to conduct fitness and wellness pro- from that scholarly work to action, with direct professional grams for the girls. This year, AHS received funding for applications. That is, professionals must be culturally com- a proposal to expand their activity program with the petent to work effectively with diverse sport and exercise CWHW as major collaborator. Dr. Gill and several of participants. In the 2000-2001 academic year Dr. Gill, with our graduate students will be working with AHS to de- co-investigator Ron Morrow (a 2000 UNCG EdD gradu- velop a walking program and conduct fitness evaluations ate), received a Wayne F. Placek Grant Award from the over the next year. American Psychological Foundation for the project: This past year Dr. Gill and Dr. Jamieson submitted a "Increasing Understanding and Promoting Inclusive Pro- proposal to the AAUW Scholar-in-Residence program fessional Practice in Exercise and Sport" for the project, Promoting Cultural Competence among The long-term goal of the project is to develop and Physical Activity Professionals through the CWHW. evaluate educational/training programs for exercise and That project has been funded, and over the coming year, sport science professionals aimed at increasing understand- several of our graduate students as well as Dr. Gill and ing and developing skills and strategies that promote a safe, Dr. Jamieson will be working on the project. Following inclusive environment. The immediate goals were to: a) is a brief project summary: This research project aims to assess knowledge and attitudes of pre-professional students, develop more inclusive programs that meet the needs of (Continued on page 12) 12 Physical Activity and Well-being Across the Lifespan: Adolescent Girls and Older Women Written by Dr. Gill (Cultural Competence from page 11) Adolescent Girls as well as the current climate for lesbians/gay men and other minority groups in exercise and sport settings, and, b) to develop and evaluate intervention programs During the 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 years, Dr. Gill for pre-professionals. and several graduate students affiliated with our lab Results from Phase 1 revealed that overall atti- worked on projects with adolescent girls. The Women's tudes toward gay men and lesbians were less positive Studies program kicked off an Initiative for Girls in Feb- than attitudes toward other minority groups ruary 2002. That initiative has continued with several (racial/ethnic minorities, older adults, those with physi- projects including the Girls’ Zine, which can be seen on cal disabilities), and that females held more positive the Women and Gender Studies website. attitudes than did males. In Phase 2 the same survey Dr. Kathy Jamieson, socio-cultural sport scholar in was used with selected samples of ESS student teach- ESS and affiliate of our lab, has been heavily involved in ers and interns, and a student Pride group. Those re- these programs along with Dr. Gill and several of our sults indicated the ESS pre-professionals were more graduate students. Dr. Jamieson is the lead investigator on positive than the general student sample, but still are the project, "Mujeres Activas/Active women: Physical ac- far from culturally competent. Phase 1 results were tivity in the lives of adolescent Latinas in North Carolina", presented at the 2001 AAASP conference, and Phase 2 funded by CSSI Collaborative Grant Initiative, with co- results were presented at the 2002 NASPSPA confer- investigators Dr. Gill and Dr. Tammy Schilling, another ence. These results with more detailed information lab affiliate and ESS faculty member focusing on youth and interpretations will be written for publication in the development. coming year, and we are extending this work into more Dr. Schilling and Dr. Jamieson are both involved with direct cultural competence evaluation and education physical activity/youth development programs in the com- programs with physical activity professionals. Former munity, including service learning programs with Boys UNCG graduate students Karen Collins, Allison Lucey and Girls Clubs and developmental activities for Hispanic and Allison Schultz, and current graduate student, Ka- pre-schoolers. Dr. Gill, as well as several of our sport and ori Araki have contributed to various phases of this exercise psychology graduate students (Cindra Kamphoff, ongoing project. Jeanine Scrogum, Kaori Araki) have been, and will con- Dr. Gill has given several presentations at confer- tinue to be, involved in these programs. ences on cultural competence, and also has conducted workshops with community groups, physical education teachers and other sport and exercise professionals. Adult Women This project and the efforts to promote cultural compe- tence among physical activity professionals continue. Several years ago, Dr. Gill and Dr. Kathy Williams received an AARP Andrus Foundation grant to investigate motor and psychological factors related to falls in older adults. During the project, and related follow-up projects, Check it out!!! we also conducted interviews with older women partici- pants about physical activity and falls. Allison Schultz and Kaori Araki began analyses of those interview data in Read about the CWHW online at: 2002, and with Jeanine Scrogum and Cindra Kamphoff, we continued those analyses this year. Results related to women’s attitudes and values for physical activity will be presented at the 2003 NASPSPA conference. We will http://www.uncg.edu/hhp/cwhw continue analyses of the interview data and prepare further presentations and publications in the coming year. 13 Look for Cristina to present insights and information Kate R. Barret Award Recipient, learned during this conference at a department-wide meet- Cristina Rolo ing. And remember to congratulate her when you see her. Written By: Doug Cornish On April 8th, 2003, Cristina Rolo, a Ph.D candidate in Graduate Student Projects Sport Psychology, was recognized at the School of Health Written By: Dr. Gill and Human Performance honors banquet as co-recipient of the Kate R. Barrett Professional Development award. Several years ago, Dr. Gill and Dr. Kathy Williams The Kate R. Barrett award is given out annually to assist received an AARP Andrus Foundation grant to investigate the professional development of the recipient. Recipients motor and psychological factors related to falls in older receive up to $1500 to make possible the attendance at a adults. During the project, and related follow-up projects, professional development/enrichment experience in line with we also conducted interviews with older women partici- the goals and objectives of the UNCG Department of Exer- pants about physical activity and falls. Allison Schultz and cise and Sport Science and School of HHP. To be eligible Kaori Araki began analyses of those interview data in for the award, candidates must be 2002, and with Jeanine Scrogum and Cindra Kamphoff, we graduate students with at least two continued those analyses this year. Results related to full semesters completed in the women’s attitudes and values for physical activity will be Department of Exercise and Sport presented at the 2003 NASPSPA conference. We will con- Science, have a GPA of at least tinue analyses of the interview data and prepare further 3.5, and demonstrate a desire to presentations and publications in the coming year. continue professional learning in As well as working on the projects described on page their chosen field. 13, the graduate students working with Dr. Gill have devel- Cristina’s 4.0 GPA estab- oped their own research projects. lished her as a good candidate for Two PhD graduates completed their dissertation re- the award, but what set her apart from the other candidates? In response to that question, Dr. search projects this year. Allison Shultz, who received her PhD in May 2003, completed her dissertation research, Gill had this to say: “Like Kate Barrett, who started the “Development and validation of a scale to measure state award, Cristina brings commitment and enthusiasm to every- social physique anxiety.” Allison taught at the University thing she does. And, she does plenty - not only does she do of Northern Iowa last year, and you can look for presenta- excellent work in her graduate program, but she takes on tions and publications based on her dissertation research in extra responsibilities for teaching, research and ser- the coming year. Karen Mustian, who will complete her vice. Most of all, Cristina brings a sense of international dissertation and PhD program in summer 2003, has been celebration to our department, university and the larger com- heavily involved in several projects in Dr. Katula’s lab. munity through her many contributions.” Karen has been a co-investigator on several funded pro- Cristina plans to use the money provided by the award jects, received her own funding, and has several publica- to attend the IX European Congress of Sport Psychology in tions and presentations related to her research on the role Copenhagen, Denmark. At the conference, which is titled of exercise and tai chi on quality of life in breast cancer “New approaches to Exercise and Sport Psychology – Theo- survivors. Karen will be continuing her research and all ries, Methods and Applications,” Cristina will present two her good work at the University of Rochester where she posters: “Factors Affecting the Performance of Mexican recently accepted a faculty position. Athletes at the 2000 Sydney Olympics,” which you read Two of our continuing PhD students, Kaori Araki about on page 4 of this publication, and “Performance and Cindra Kamphoff, have developed research plans, Strategies of Medalists and Non-Medalists at the Sydney and begun collecting data on projects that likely will lead Olympic Games.” into dissertations. Kaori’s research is on perfectionism in She also plans to attend sessions related to coaching, sport. She has collected data with Japanese track and field teambuilding, psychological factors in competitive sport, athletes, and she continues to move forward with develop- counseling athletes in crisis, and children and youth in sport ment of a sport-specific perfectionism measure, and inves- and physical education in an attempt to increase her consult- tigations of perfectionism and its correlates among ath- ing efficacy. Cristina explains, “My participation in the Con- letes. As well as working full-time in the UNCG Advising gress will also allow me to be aware of current research and Center, Cindra is developing research projects combining practice in Europe and in other parts of the globe. Because I her sport psychology and socio-cultural sport studies inter- will return to Portugal after finishing my PhD, it is very im- ests. Cindra’s current projects focus on coaching percep- portant to participate in this European conference to estab- tions as well as gender and cultural barriers in coaching. lish networks and to increase the chances of future collabo- She has developed measures and begun collecting data, rative projects.” Indeed, Cristina displays a professional cu- and will continue with related research in the coming year. riosity, a desire to continue professional learning in her field. 14 2002-2003 Sport and Exercise Psychology Faculty Scholarly Work Books Weinberg, R.S., & Gould, D. (2003). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Scholarly Reviews/Book Chapters Gill, D.L. (2002). Psychological and social aspects. In M.L. Ireland & A. Nattiv (Eds.), The female athlete. (pp. 29-33). Orlando, FL: W.B. Saunders. Gill, D.L. (2002). Gender and sport behavior. In T.S. Horn (Ed.). Advances in sport psychology (2nd ed.). (pp. 355-375). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Gould, D. (2002). Sport psychology: Future directions in youth sport research. In F. Smoll, & R. Smith (Eds.), Children in sports (2nd Edition) (pp. 565-589). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing. Gould, D., & Dieffenbach, K. (2002). Overtraining, under recovery, and burnout in sport. In M. Kellman (Ed.). Enhanc- ing recovery: Preventing underperformance in athletes (pp. 25-35). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Gould, D. (2002). Sport psychology in the new millennium: The psychology of athletic excellence and beyond. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 141-143. Gould, D. (2002). Moving beyond the psychology of excellence. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 249-250. Gould, D. (2002). The psychology of Olympic excellence and its development. Psychology, 9, 531-546. Gould, D., & Chung, Y. (2003, in press). Self-regulation in young, middle and older adults. In M.R. Weiss (Ed.), Developmental sport psychology and exercise psychology: A lifespan perspective (pp. 387-406). Mor- ganton, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc. Articles in Refereed Journals Jamieson, K.M., Reel, J.J. & Gill, D.L. (2002). Beyond the racial binary: Stacking in women's collegiate softball. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 11, 89-106. Research to Practice Service Articles Applied services (together with above)Dieffenbach, K., Gould, D., & Moffett, A. (2002). The coach's role in developing champions. High Performance Coaching, 4 (3), 1, 4, 9. Gould, D. (2002). The coach’s role in developing champions. Olympic Coach, 12(2),2-4. Scholarly Papers/ Presentations Gabriele, J.M., Gill, D.L., Katula, J.A. & Davis, P.G. (2003, Mar.). Exercise commitment across stages of behavior change. Paper presented at the Society for Behavioral Medicine Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions, Salt Lake City, UT. Gill, D.L., Morrow, R.O., Collins, K.E., Lucey, A.B. & Schultz, A.M. (2002, June.). Attitudes of selected groups toward minorities in exercise and sport. Paper presented at the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity Conference, Baltimore, MD. Gill, D.L., Williams, K., Williams, L., Kim, B.J., Schultz, A.M., Araki, K., Kamphoff, C. & Scrogum, J. (2003, June). Physical activity behaviors and values of older women. Paper presented at the North American Society for the Psychol- ogy of Sport and Physical Activity Conference, Savannah, GA. Gould, D. (2002, June 27). Psychological talent in Olympic champions and its development. Presentation made at the University of Southern Maine Sport Psychology Institute, Portland, Maine. 15 Gould, D. (2002, June 28). Teaching life skills through sport. Presentation made at the University of Southern Maine Sport Psychology Institute, Portland, Maine. Gould, D., Chung, Y., Collins, K., Lauer, L. (2002, October 31). Data based approaches to understanding life skill de- velopment through sport. Symposium presentation made at the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psy- chology Conference, Tucson, Arizona. Gould, D., & Sie Pennisi, N. (2002, August 23). Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism in the dancer-athlete. Presenta- tion made American Psychological Association Conference, Chicago, Illinois. Gould, D. (2002, October 4). What sport psychology can teach the business manager: From the playing field to the work- place. Presentation made at the Program for Management Development, Bryan School of Business and Economics, Uni- versity of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina. Gould, D. (2002, November 1). The NFL/NFF Coaching Academy Program: Teaching life skills through sport. Presenta- tion made at the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology Conference symposium on the “changing needs of youth: Implications for coaches’ education programs”, Tucson, Arizona. Gould, D. (2002, November 2). Contextual intelligence: The key to successful sport psychology consulting. Presentation made at the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology Conference symposium “contextual intelli- gence: the key to successful consulting”, Tucson, Arizona. Gould, D. (2003, March 9). Elite coaching from an applied perspective: Lessons learned from the Olympic environment. Presentation made to the joint meeting of the Swedish Psychological Society and Sport Education Association, National Sport Training Center, Benson, Sweden. Gould, D. (2003, March 10). Interventions in sport: The psychology of Olympic Excellence. Presentation made at the Physical School of Sports Education, Stockholm, Sweden Gould, D. (2003, March 11). Sport psychology: The research to practice link. Presentation made to the students and fac- ulty, Department of Physical Education and Sport Studies, University of Orebro, Orebro, Sweden. Gould, D. (2003, April 7). Talent development in young athletes: Psychological issues and guidelines. Presentation made at the Athletics and Exercise and Sport Science Symposium, Colby-Sawyer College, New London, New Hampshire. Kamphoff, C.S. & Gill, D.L. (2002, Nov.). Jealousy in Sport: Exploring jealousy’s relationship to cohesion. Paper pre- sented at the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology Conference, Tucson, AZ. Taylor, M., Katula, J.A., Gould, D., & Gill, D.L. (2002, June). Dispositional correlates of flow. Paper presented at the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity Conference, Baltimore, MD. Taylor, M., Katula, J.A., Gould, D., & Gill, D.L. (2002, Oct.). The relationships of anxiety intensity and direction to flow in collegiate athletes. Paper presented at the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology Conference, Tucson, AZ. Grants and Proposals Funded Gould, D., Lauer, L., Rolo, C., & Sie Pennisi, N. (2001). Understanding the role parents play in tennis success. USA Tennis Sport Science and Technology Research Grant ($19,985 funded) Lauer, L., Gould, D., & Carson, S. (2002). An emotional control program to reduce aggression in youth ice hockey. U.S. A Hockey Foundation ($3,060 funded) 16
"UNCG SPORT _ EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY INDEX"