Weather by pengxiang


									35.1 THE AMOSPHERE

Atmosphere      The thin envelope of gases surrounding our planet
Climate         The general weather pattern that occurs over time
 1. What are the two primary gases that make up the
     atmosphere, and what are their percentages?
     Oxygen, 21% and Nitrogen, 78%
 2. TRUE or FALSE; Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of gases
     and tiny particles called aerosols that included dust, ash,
     and air pollution.
 3. What re the six factors in the atmosphere that can change?
     Cloudiness, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation,
     humidity and temperature
  Physics: Atmospheric Pressure
4. What causes air pressure?
    The weight of air molecules pressing
    down on the earth
5. Why don’t we feel this pressure?
    The pressure inside our bodies is equal
    to the pressure being exerted on it.
6. Why does the density of the air decrease
    as altitude increases?
    Air is a compressed gas. As altitude
    increases there is less gravity acting on
    the molecules and they spread out,
    making the air less dense.

7. What are the three common units of
    measurement for atmospheric pressure
    and what are their values at sea level?
 Millibars: 1013.25, mmHg: 760, psi: 14.7
   35.2 The structure of the atmosphere
TOPIC                             MAIN IDEA
The structure of the Atmosphere   Four, distinct layers, Troposphere, Stratosphere,
                                  Mesosphere, Thermosphere
8. TRUE OR FALSE: The Troposphere
contains about 70% of the atmosphere’s
total mass and has an average thickness
of about 6km
9. The         is a layer where weather
10.          A molecule made up of three
    oxygen atoms, accumulates in the
    stratosphere and absorbs solar
11. Match the zone to the temperature
a    Mesosphere       c   20’C to-50’C
b    Stratosphere    b    -60’C to 0’C
c    Troposphere      a   0c to -90’C
d    Thermosphere d       500’C to 1500’C
   12. What causes the Aurora borealis?
   Charged particles in the ionosphere that are
    excited by solar radiation

   13. Match the atmospheric zones to their location
    a    Mesosphere     d   1 to 12 km above Earth’s surface
    b    Ionosphere     c   12 to 50 km above Earth’s surface
    c    Stratosphere   a   50 to 80 km above Earth’s surface
    d    Troposphere    e   80 km and higher above Earth’s surface
    e    Thermosphere b     Includes the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

14. What is solar radiation?
Electromagnetic energy given off by the Sun
15. TRUE or FALSE: Energy and wavelength are related proportionately
16. Almost all the solar radiation that is directed toward earth is high
energy, short wave length radiation that passes through the atmosphere.
How is the atmosphere heated?
       By the heat given off by the Earth’s surface
   17. How is energy returned to space?
   Long wave radiation given off by the Earth’s surface
   18. ____________ radiation is the source of most of the atmosphere’s
   19. How do Greenhouse gases warm the atmosphere?
   By absorbing the long-wavelength radiation instead of reflecting it
   20. List 3 greenhouse gases?
   Water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane
   21. If there where no greenhouse gases in the upper atmosphere,
    causing the greenhouse effect, what would be the Earth’s temperature?
   -18’C
   22. Why is it called the green house effect?
   Because it acts just like a floral
   Greenhouse. Visible energy is allowed in
   But the infra-red heating energy waves
   Are trapped inside and reflected back to
   The surface
    TOPIC                      MAIN IDEA
    Temperature and Latitude   Latitude affects temperature as the Sun strikes
                               these different latitudes at different angles which
                               affects the solar intensity

23. How do the lines of longitude run?
They circle the Earth running North to South
24. The Prime Meridian     is the line of longitude that runs through
Greenwich England and, by international agreement is 0’ longitude

25. The equator is an imaginary line that circles Earth dividing it into
the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
                                                                 Greenwich, England
26. How are the lines of latitude drawn?
Parallel to the equator
27. TRUE OR FALSE: Lines of latitude
Are drawn perpendicular to the lines of
  28. If you where to draw a line from the
   center of the Earth so that it would
   intersect one of the lines of latitude,
   what angle would make it with the
 An angle equal to the latitude it
29. Climate zones are defined based on
   their average sea level temperatures.
   What are these five zones?
 North Polar, North Temperate, Tropical

 South Temperate, South Polar

30. Why is high noon over the equatorial
   areas warmer than high noon over
   higher latitudes?
The light at noon is most perpendicular to
   the equatorial area and therefore more
   concentrated. The light striking at an
   angle would be spread out over a larger
   area so it would be less concentrated
   making the area cooler
35.4 WHY ARE THERE SEASONS?                                Idaho Winter

31. How does the tilt of the Earth’s axis affect the
When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the
sun those rays are more concentrated, which warms
that area more than the Southern Hemisphere that is
tilted away from the Sun
32. What does equinox mean? What language is it?
Equal Night, from the Latin language
33. Match the term with its definition                   Idaho Summer
   a    Summer Solstice   b   Shortest day of the year

   b    Winter Solstice   a   Longest day of the year
WIND    Air flowing horizontally from a region of high pressure to a region of
        lower pressure

34. What causes wind?
Differences in air pressure. The larger the
difference the stronger the winds
35. How are winds named?
According to their strength and their direction
36. TRUE OR FALSE: Warm air that transfers away from our bodies is
held in place by our hair and clothes.
37. Extreme cold and bring on frostbit and Hypothermia
38. Death from freezing occurs when the body does not have enough
heat to perform Chemical reactions that sustain life
    Vocabulary Term   After Your Reading

    Trade Winds       Global winds between 0’ and 30’ latitude
    Westerlies        Winds that travel west to east between 30’ and 60’ latitude
    Easterlies        Winds that travel from east to west at the polar latitudes
                      between 60’ and 90’
   39. Match each type of wind with its description

     a   Local Winds    b   Produced by planet scale pressure differences
     b   Global Winds   a   Produced by geographical temperature differences
40. Regarding local winds, why is it that during the day the wind usually
blows from the ocean over the land?
The land has a lower specific heat capacity
so the air over the land heats up faster, rises
and creates a low pressure area. The ocean air
has a higher pressure and so moves towards
the lower pressure, the land

41. Why is it that during the night the local winds usually blow from the
mountains to the valleys?
The air at higher elevations quickly cools, at night, and becomes
heavier so it flows downhill into the valleys
 42. All winds are caused by air flowing from the area of higher pressure
  to an area of lower pressure. What causes Global winds?
 The uneven heating of the equatorial regions compared to the polar
 43. At equatorial latitudes, what happens to the air when the Sun heats
The air rises and flows towards the cooler regions
 44. The six circulating wind belts are called

 Convection cells

 45. Where are the wind belts located?

 Two are between 0’ and 30’

 Two are between 30’ and 60’

 Two are between 60’ and 90’

 46. What are the doldrums?

 Areas of little or no wind near the equator

 47. Where are the Horse latitudes?

 At the 30’ north and south latitudes

 48. What are the Jet Streams?

 High Speed, high altitude winds that can effect weather patterns
   It is better to communicate good information than to offer
    misinformation in the name of good communication.
    Why do teachers claim that a draining sink reflects the rotation of the

    A surprisingly large number of undergraduate students tell their
    college instructors that their high-school teachers told them that sinks
    drain in opposite directions in the two hemispheres owing to the
    rotation of the Earth. Why would a teacher offer such nonsense to
    students when it is so easy to check. A trip to the school washroom (let
    alone the ones at home) will reveal drainage in both directions (which
    would certainly require the equator to assume a tortuous track through
    the countryside).

   “Is knowledge just a bunch of abstractions to be memorized with no recourse
    to the relevance of everyday experience?
    Sigh... I don’t know why teachers do this. I can but assume that those who do
    so just never feel any need to wash their hands --- or their minds.”
   Alistar B. Fraiser, Physics Department Penn State University
   So what should teachers tell their students?

   The direction of rotation in draining sinks and toilets is NOT
    determined by the rotation of the Earth, but by rotation that was
    introduced earlier when it was being filled or subsequently being
    disturbed (say by washing).

   The rotation of the Earth does influence the direction of rotation of
    large weather systems and large vortices in the oceans, for these are
    very long-lived phenomena and so allow the very weak Coriolis force to
    produce a significant effect, with time.

   The fact that the Coriolis force is zero at the equator and very weak
    near the equator explains why tropical cyclones such as hurricanes
    and typhoons won't form on the equator, nor will they cross the
    equator. As they approach the equator they lose their energy. Tropical
    storms develop in their hemisphere and stay in their hemisphere

The Coriolis force is noticeable only for large-scale motions such as winds
  and the affect those winds have on other, large bodies.
   49. What is the Coriolis Effect?
   The tendency of large moving bodies not attached to the Earth (such
    as air) to move to clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and
    counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Earth’s
    35.7 Ocean Currents

    Vocabulary Term                      After You Read
    Currents                              Streams of water that move
                                          relative to the larger ocean

    Cyres                                Surface water currents in that form
                                         giant circular flow patterns caused
                                         by the Coriolis Effect as well as
                                         other factors

    50. What causes surface currents?
    Global winds pushing water in the same direction as the wind
    51. How do surface currents redistribute heat?
    By carrying warm waters to cooler areas where warm those waters
    52. Where does the Gulf Stream flow, and what area is warmed by it?
    Up the eastern coast of North America, across the North Atlantic to Great
    Britain and Norway and then warming Europe

      Cirrus Clouds            Cumulus Clouds            Stratus Clouds
    Thin and wispy in          Puffy with flat         Flat smooth layers
    appearance                 bottoms                 that cover the sky

Formed above 25,000ft         Forms at 14,000ft        Forms below 6500ft
and made of ice crystals

    Indicate that snow        Produces                 May produce
    or rain is coming         thunderstorms            drizzles

     All are visible collections of billions of tiny water droplets or ice
     All form as warm, moist air rises and then cools to the dew point
     which is when water condenses
   53. What is meant by the term relative humidity?
   The ratio of water vapor actually in the air to the maximum saturation
   54. The dew point is temperature at which the air becomes saturated

   55. How do clouds form?
   Moist, warm air rises, cools to the dew point & water vapor condenses
   56. What is precipitation?
   Water in liquid form that returns to Earth from the atmosphere
   57. List the three kinds of precipitation
   Rain, Snow and Hail

    Vocabulary       After You Read
    Cyclone          A System of low pressure that is associated with
                     severe weather
                    An Area of high pressure that produces clear skies
                    and no precipitation
58. An air mass is a large pool of air that has similar temperature and
moisture characteristics throughout.
59. How do air masses form?
A large body of air stays in one place long enough to take on the
properties of the region
60. In North America, air masses are classified by the weather service
according to two characteristics. What are they?
Their Latitude and if they form over water or land
61. According to this classification, what does cP mean?
Continental Polar
62. What is it called when two air masses collide?
A Weather Front
63. When a cold air mass and a warm air mass collide, what happens to
the warm air mass.
It always rises above the cold air mass
   64. When a warm air mass is moving and displaces cold air the front is
    called a warm front

   65. What is the front called when the two colliding air masses are not
   A Stationary Front
   66. When a cold air mass moves in underneath a moist, warm air mass
    it is called a cold front. What is the developing weather like?
   Moist air rises, cools, clouds form and it becomes windy and rains
   67. When cirrus clouds become thicker and turn the sky into an
    overcast gray, what is happening?
   A warm front is approaching the area
    68. Air masses belong to gigantic weather systems organized around
    what kind of center?
   A center of high pressure or a center of low pressure
   69. In the Northern Hemisphere, which way does the air move around a
   Counterclockwise
   70. Meteorologists use the letters H and L to denote high and low
    pressure systems, and they use lines to show the positions of the cold
    and warm fronts. What do the triangles and semicircles on the lines of
    the fronts mean?
   The semicircles indicate the warm air extending into the cooler air. The
    triangles indicate the cold air extending into the warmer air.

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