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Laboratory Title: Edible Planets!
Your Name: Ashley Moore-Rivera
Concepts Addressed:
      Solar System
      Terrestrial Planets and their physical characteristics
      Gaseous Planets and their physical characteristics
      Fractions, decimals, and pie graphs
Lab Goals:
      For the students to be able to understand the difference between terrestrial and
       gaseous planets in the Solar System. Also for students to be able to identify
       physical differences between the four planets within each category: terrestrial and
       gaseous.
      The Solar System has eight known planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter,
       Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Lab Objectives:
      For the students to become familiar that there are other planets in our Solar
       System besides Earth and by making the other planets in a hand-on activity will
       only benefit their recollection. Also to be able to use measuring cups to better
       understand fractions when making the batter.
Benchmark(s) Addressed: 4th and 5th
Math
    4.1.2 Use models to connect and compare equivalent fractions and decimals.
      4.1.3 Determine decimal equivalents or approximations of common fractions.
      4.1.4 Compare and order fractions and decimals.
      4.1.5 Estimate decimal or fractional amounts in problem solving.
      5.1.4 Develop fluency with efficient procedures for adding and subtracting
       fractions and decimals and justify why the procedures work.
      5.1.7 Construct and analyze double bar, line, and circle graphs to solve problems
       involving fractions and decimals.
      5.3.7 Determine the appropriate units, strategies, and tools for solving problems
       that involve estimating or measuring volume.
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Science
      4.1 Structure and Function: Living and non-living things can be classified by their
       characteristics and properties.
      4.2P.1 Describe physical changes in matter and explain how they occur.
      4.2L.1 Describe the interactions of organisms and the environment where they
       live.
      4.3S.3 Explain that scientific claims about the natural world use evidence that can
       be confirmed and support a logical argument.
      5.1 Structure and Function: Living and non-living things are composed of related
       parts that function together to form systems.
      5.2P.1 Describe how friction, gravity, and magnetic forces affect objects on or
       near Earth.
Materials and Costs:
   List the equipment and non-consumable material and estimated cost of each
       Item ..........................................................................................................................$
       Measuring cups ......................................................................................................$4
       Dollar Tree $1 per set of four
       Mixing bowl ...........................................................................................................$4
       Dollar Tree $1 per bowl
       Rubber spatula .......................................................................................................$4
       Dollar Tree $1 per spatula
       Sifters .....................................................................................................................$7.88
       Winco $1.97 per sifter
       Plastic spoons ...........................................................................................................$.50
       Winco $.50 per 24 pack
       Kinko printing ........................................................................................................$4.00
       ~$.11 per colored print per page
       ....................................................................................................................................
       Estimated total, one-time, start-up cost: ..............................................................$24.38
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List the consumable supplies and estimated cost for presenting to a class of 30
students
   Item ..........................................................................................................................$
   Peanut butter ..........................................................................................................$5.96
   Winco $2.98 per jar
   Optional: Soy nut butter (Substitute for Peanut butter) .......................................$15.00
   http://www.soynutbutter.com/Section/Shop/Peanut_Butter_Substitute/index.html
   2 pack for $15.00
   Honey ...................................................................................................................$18.10
   Winco $9.05 per 32oz bottle
   Wheat germ ..........................................................................................................$13.74
   Winco $4.58 per 12 oz jar
   Graham crackers ....................................................................................................$2.96
   Winco $1.48 per box (4 packs)
   Powdered milk .......................................................................................................$5.16
   Winco $2.58 per box 25.6 oz
   Optional: Powdered soy (Substitute for milk) .......................................................$5.16
   Trader Joes $5.16 per pack 24 oz
   Powdered sugar ......................................................................................................$1.78
   Winco $.89 per box 1lb
   Cocoa Powder ........................................................................................................$2.44
   Winco $2.44 per box 10 oz
   Cake decorations-Icing ..........................................................................................$7.68
   Winco $1.28 per tube
   Cake decoration-gel ...............................................................................................$3.92
   Winco $.98 per tube
   Sprinkles ..............................................................................................................$13.32
   Winco Large container $3.24 and small shakers $1.08
   Variety of candies ................................................................................................$14.81
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        Winco Butterfinger bars $.58 per bar, Crunch bars $.58 per bar, Chocolate chip
        bag $2.56 per bag, Heath Morsels $2.64 per bag, and Sour worms $.91 per bag
        Paper plates ............................................................................................................$3.00
        Dollar Tree $1 per 22 pack
        ....................................................................................................................................
        Estimated total, one-time, start-up cost: ..............................................................$92.87
Time:
    Preparation time:
    Appx one and a half hours to purchase all the ingredients and materials from the store.
    Appx one hour to separate decorations in 4 sets for the 4 groups. Appx 30 mins to
    print off colored pictures and staple at Kinkos.
    Instruction time:
    Appx 10-15 to go over ppt and to explain the activity
    Clean-up time:
    Appx 10-13 minutes to clean up activity and eat their planet.

Lesson Activity: http://www.amnh.org/ology/astronomy#channel

Background Information
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_System
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_kids/AskKids/index.shtml

The Solar System, or solar
system, consists of the Sun and
the other celestial objects
gravitationally bound to it: the
eight planets, their 166 known
moons, three dwarf planets
(Ceres, Pluto, and Eris and their
four known moons), and billions
of small bodies. This last
category includes asteroids,
Kuiper belt objects, comets,
meteoroids, and interplanetary
dust.

In broad terms, the charted regions of the Solar System consist of the Sun, four terrestrial
inner planets, an asteroid belt composed of small rocky bodies, four gas giant outer
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planets, and a second belt, the Kuiper belt, composed of icy objects. Beyond the Kuiper
belt is the scattered disc, the heliopause, and ultimately the hypothetical Oort cloud.
In order of their distances from the Sun, the terrestrial planets are:
     Mercury
     Venus
     Earth
     Mars
The outer gas giants (or jovians) are:
     Jupiter
     Saturn
     Uranus
     Neptune
The three dwarf planets are
     Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt;
     Pluto, the largest known object in the Kuiper belt;
     Eris, the largest known object in the scattered disc.

Six of the eight planets and two of the dwarf planets are in turn orbited by natural
satellites, usually termed "moons" after Earth's Moon, and each of the outer planets is
encircled by planetary rings of dust and other particles. All the planets except Earth are
named after deities from Greco-Roman mythology.

Objects orbiting the Sun are divided into three classes: planets, dwarf planets, and small
Solar System bodies.


The 4 Inner Terrestrial Planets

The four inner or terrestrial planets have dense, rocky compositions, few or no moons,
and no ring systems. They are composed largely of minerals with high melting points,
such as the silicates which form their crusts and mantles, and metals such as iron and
nickel, which form their cores. Three of the four inner planets (Venus, Earth and Mars)
have substantial atmospheres; all have impact craters and tectonic surface features such
as rift valleys and volcanoes

The inner planets. From left to right: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (sizes to scale)
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Mercury
Mercury (0.4 AU) is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest planet (0.055 Earth
masses). Mercury has no natural satellites, and its only known geological features besides
impact craters are "wrinkle-ridges", probably produced by a period of contraction early in
its history. Mercury's almost negligible atmosphere consists of atoms blasted off its
surface by the solar wind. Its relatively large iron core and thin mantle have not yet been
adequately explained. Hypotheses include that its outer layers were stripped off by a giant
impact, and that it was prevented from fully accreting by the young Sun's
energy




http://adams.dm.unipi.it/~mercury/img/mercury.gif

Description for Lab:
Mercury looks a lot like the Moon, except that it is an orange-red color. It has a dry and
rocky surface and is covered with craters and ridges.
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Venus
        Venus (0.7 AU) is close in size to Earth, (0.815 Earth masses) and like Earth, has
        a thick silicate mantle around an iron core, a substantial atmosphere and evidence
        of internal geological activity. However, it is much drier than Earth and its
        atmosphere is ninety times as dense. Venus has no natural satellites. It is the
        hottest planet, with surface temperatures over 400 °C, most likely due to the
        amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. No definitive evidence of current
        geological activity has been detected on Venus, but it has no magnetic field that
        would prevent depletion of its substantial atmosphere, which suggests that its
        atmosphere is regularly replenished by volcanic eruptions.




http://martianchronicles.files.wordpress.com/2008/12/venus_magellan.jpg

Description for Lab:
Venus is covered with thick yellow clouds that trap heat from the sun, which makes
Venus a huge desert. Its rocky surface is covered with volcanoes.
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Earth
        Earth (1 AU) is the largest and densest of the inner planets, the only one known to
        have current geological activity, and the only planet known to have life. Its liquid
        hydrosphere is unique among the terrestrial planets, and it is also the only planet
        where plate tectonics has been observed. Earth's atmosphere is radically different
        from those of the other planets, having been altered by the presence of life to
        contain 21% free oxygen. It has one natural satellite, the Moon, the only large
        satellite of a terrestrial planet in the Solar System.




http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/earth_1_apollo17.gif

Description for Lab:
Earth’s surface is covered mostly with dark blue water. It has polar ice caps and its
continents are marked by tall mountains and have swirling white clouds.
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Mars
       Mars (1.5 AU) is smaller than Earth and Venus (0.107 Earth masses). It possesses
       a tenuous atmosphere of mostly carbon dioxide. Its surface, peppered with vast
       volcanoes such as Olympus Mons and rift valleys such as Valles Marineris, shows
       geological activity that may have persisted until very recently. Its red color comes
       from rust in its iron-rich soil. Mars has two tiny natural satellites (Deimos and
       Phobos) thought to be captured asteroids.




http://www.windows.ucar.edu/mars/images/mars1.gif

Description for Lab
Mars looks red because its soil is full of iron that has rusted. It has polar ice caps, deep
canyons, and huge extinct volcanoes.
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The 4 Outer Gaseous Planets

The four outer planets, or gas giants (sometimes called Jovian planets), collectively make
up 99 percent of the mass known to orbit the Sun. Jupiter and Saturn consist
overwhelmingly of hydrogen and helium; Uranus and Neptune possess a greater
proportion of ices in their makeup. Some astronomers suggest they belong in their own
category, “ice giants.” All four gas giants have rings, although only Saturn's ring system
is easily observed from Earth.

The outer planets from top to bottom: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (not to scale)




http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Gas_planet_size_comparisons.jpg
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Jupiter

       Jupiter (5.2 AU), at 318 Earth masses, is 2.5 times all the mass of all the other
       planets put together. It is composed largely of hydrogen and helium. Jupiter's
       strong internal heat creates a number of semi-permanent features in its
       atmosphere, such as cloud bands and the Great Red Spot. Jupiter has sixty-three
       known satellites. The four largest, Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa, show
       similarities to the terrestrial planets, such as volcanism and internal heating.[40]
       Ganymede, the largest satellite in the Solar System, is larger than Mercury.




http://www.solstation.com/stars/jupiter.jpg

Description for Lab
Jupiter is a giant ball of yellow, orange, and red gas arranged in strips. It is much larger
than any other planet. Jupiter’s giant red spot is actually a 300 year old hurricane.
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Saturn

         Saturn (9.5 AU), distinguished by its extensive ring system, has several
         similarities to Jupiter, such as its atmospheric composition and magnetosphere.
         Although Saturn has 60% of Jupiter's volume, it is less than a third as massive, at
         95 Earth masses, making it the least dense planet in the Solar System. Saturn has
         sixty known satellites (and three unconfirmed); two of which, Titan and
         Enceladus, show signs of geological activity, though they are largely made of
         ice.[41] Titan is larger than Mercury and the only satellite in the Solar System with
         a substantial atmosphere.




              http://homepages.wmich.edu/~johnsorh/Myth/images/saturn.jpg

Description for Lab
Saturn has spectacular rings. Saturn is a big striped ball of gas like Jupiter but it looks
yellow because of its foggy atmosphere.
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Uranus

       Uranus (19.6 AU), at 14 Earth masses, is the lightest of the outer planets.
       Uniquely among the planets, it orbits the Sun on its side; its axial tilt is over
       ninety degrees to the ecliptic. It has a much colder core than the other gas giants,
       and radiates very little heat into space.[42] Uranus has twenty-seven known
       satellites, the largest ones being Titania, Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel and Miranda.




                 http://starryskies.com/solar_system/uranus/uranus1.jpg

Description for Lab
The ice crystals in the atmosphere of Uranus make this gas planet appear pale blue-green.
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Neptune

       Neptune (30 AU), though slightly smaller than Uranus, is more massive
       (equivalent to 17 Earths) and therefore more dense. It radiates more internal heat,
       but not as much as Jupiter or Saturn.[43] Neptune has thirteen known satellites.
       The largest, Triton, is geologically active, with geysers of liquid nitrogen.[44]
       Triton is the only large satellite with a retrograde orbit. Neptune is accompanied
       in its orbit by a number of minor planets, termed Neptune Trojans, that are in 1:1
       resonance with it.




    http://www.utahskies.org/image_library/shallowsky/planets/neptune/neptunes.gif

Description for Lab
Neptune looks blue with faint white strips. It is made of gas and its hot center stirs huge
hurricanes in its clouds.
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Procedure Activity 1:
 Today the students will be learned the physical characteristics of the planets by creating
their own cookies. Along with creating the planets they will also be using their math
skills to measure each item with measuring cups.

   1. Copy large colored pictures of the planets. Depending on the class size (30-32),
      give each group of 8 (appx 4 groups) a copy of the planet pictures.
             Gather Ingredients:
           1 ¼ cup of peanut butter
           1 ¼ cup of honey
           ½ cup of wheat germ
           ¾ cup of plain or cinnamon graham crackers
           2 ½ cups of powdered milk

               Gather Materials: (4 of everything for each group)
                   Measuring cups ( ¼ , ½ , and 1 cup)
                   Large mixing bowl
                   Large spoon
                   Powdered sugar/cocoa, cake decorations/colored sprinkles
                   Rubber spatula (optional)
                   Food coloring (optional)
                   Paper plates

Peanut butter substitute
   Soy nut butter
   http://www.soynutbutter.com/Section/Shop/Peanut_Butter_Substitute/index.html
Powdered milk substitute
   Powered soy milk
   Trader Joes

   2. Have students go wash their hands because they will be sticking them in the batter.

   3. Ask the students to break up into their groups as you pass out the packet of eight
      colored prints of the planets. In their groups, have them look them over for detail
      and have each person pick a planet they want to make into their edible planet.

   4. Have each group designate three group leaders to grab the ingredients and all
      materials except powdered sugar/cocoa, cake decoration/colored sprinkles, paper
      plates and food coloring this will be given after batter is made.(total batter will
      make all 8 planets)

   5. Once batter is mixed have the students divide the batter appropriately to what they
      learned earlier from the scale lab. No need to be exact but for example their
      Venus and Earth should be approximately the same size.
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   6. After batter is divided have the group leaders bring the ingredients back up and
      grab the decorating materials. Have the students roll their planets into balls and
      start decorating. Remind the students to try and make their edible planet look like
      the real thing. Which planets are rocky? Which have clouds? Which have craters
      or volcanoes? Which are particular colors? (remind them that it only takes a drop
      or two of food coloring)

   7. After all groups are done have them place the planets on the clean paper plates in
      order and observe each others wonderful work. Have students get into a
      discussion of what they used for a volcano or to make clouds ect…this will help
      them remember and reinforce what they have been learning with the Solar System.

Assessment:
      Have students write a descriptive science fiction story about the planet they made.
       Approximately ½ to one full page. Pertaining to the science portion of the lesson.


      Have students do the Edible Planet Ingredients worksheet pertaining to the math
       portion of the lesson. (on page 17 and 18)
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                 Edible Planet Ingredients
               Fraction → Decimal → Percentage → Pie graph

In the Activity: Edible Planets, we used different ingredients to make our
Planets. Can you use the measurements of the ingredients (fractions) and
change them into a percentage %. Once you have found the percentage for
each ingredient make a pie graph to represent the ingredients. Be sure to
show all your work.

Example: Fraction: ¼ of ingredient
Step 1: Change fraction into a decimal     ¼ = 1 ÷ 4 = 0.25
Step 2: Change decimal into a percentage   0.25 × 100 = 25%


Table

Ingredients              Fraction           Decimal           Percentage
Peanut Butter
Honey
Wheat Germ
Graham
Crackers
Powdered Milk

Show work below (use back of page if needed):
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Pie Graph
Draw a circle and create your pie graph with the data from your table. Be
sure to label each slice.

				
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