Community media citizens debate

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					                                  PRACTICAL HANDBOOK

Community media
citizen’s debate

AND CIVIL SOCIETY INSTITUTIONS                                                                                                                      
Published by:
                                                                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS
European Youth4Media Network e.V.
pan-European network association
registered in Germany
48155 Münster
Bennostr. 5
Tel. +49 251 60 96 73                                                                       Introduction                                                             4
Fax +49 251 60 96 777
E-Mail:                                                                                                                                        6
                                                                                            How to organize and conduct a citizens’ debate?                                                                          How to promote citizen’s debate on-line?                                 16
                                                                                            How can one effectively research topics for a citizens’ debate?          21
Mathew Davies                                                                               Community media
Malte Koppe                                                                                                                                                          28
                                                                                            Community media in the 21st century
Dr. Joachim Musholt
                                                                                            MediaTrainer - vocational training course for the community media sec-   36
Michał Wójcik
                                                                                            tor in Europe
Edited by:                                                                                  European web - TV                                                        40
Michał Wójcik
                                                                                            We give young people the voice through digital media                     43
Źmicier Hryškievič                                                                          The virtue of Youth4Media                                                45

This handbook is published in the framework of ‘The Voice of Europe’ project with the
support of the Europe for citizens programme of the European Union.

“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publica-
tion reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible
for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.”

  2                                                                                                                                                                   3                                                                                                               

I  t’s been five years since we founded our association - European Youth4Media
   Network. The idea that guided us in April 2005, however, is much older. For
many years we’ve been working so that media education encouraged young peo-
                                                                                       The idea, which will accompany us in the coming years will be to support local
ple to be active, learn about themselves, their culture and the cultures of other    actions of our partners. Only in this way we can reach new goals. Therefore, the
nations, engage themselves in the public life and overcome the divisions that        organization of training courses in three areas: video journalism, online journal-
still exist in our continent.                                                        ism, coaching skills on the one hand, and the support for local community media
                                                                                     centers in various European countries and building up the potential of our mem-
  Our association is already five years old. During those five years we’ve managed
                                                                                     ber organizations on the other hand will be our objectives.
to achieve a lot. Above all, we’ve built a structure which allows us to develop
futher. In addition, we’ve managed to transfer our mission and common goals           We are excited that our partner network is diverse and very rich. This gives us
onto concrete actions and programs. For five years we’ve been organizing work-       the conviction that we can cooperate even more and create joint projects. For
shops on journalism and media training, seminars, debates and conferences. We        the past two years we’ve been working on tools and procedures that will help us
educate multipliers from all over Europe. At the same time we learn a lot from       in this cooperation. Today we want to pass these tools on to you and encourage
them. We produce films and reports which have not only the dimension of train-       their use.
ing, but also allow us to communicate information about the thoughts and prob-
                                                                                      We want to give thanks from the bottom of our hearts to all those who over the
lems of the contemporary generation of youth.
                                                                                     past five years engaged in the work of our association.
 The first five years are behind us. Today we finish the stage of building grounds
                                                                                                                                                      Benedikt Althoff
of our association and make a step forward to take up an action in the new areas.
On the one hand we are facing the construction of the European web-TV on the                                                                            Michał Wójcik
other hand – creating a better quality of media education.

    4                                                                                                                                                              5                                                                                                                                              

How to organize and conduct a
                                                                                                         Another simple and effective set for debate is the ICD “Big Debate”. Three groups are formed in
                                                                                                       3-3-2 proportion (works perfect for groups of 8, 12 or 16 participants). The two largest groups will
                                                                                                       argue in opposition to one another, one group being designated to argue in favor of the question
                                                                                                       being debated and one group in opposition. The smallest group is designated to act as the debate

     citizens’ debate
                                                                                                       judge. Once the participants have been divided into 3-3-2 proportion they are all given preparation
                                                                                                       time. During this time the proponent and opposition groups meet separately in order to discuss
                                                                                                       the topic, and the judges establish criteria as to how the performance of each group will later be
                                                                                                       evaluated. The preparation time is also used for the proponent and opposition groups to select their
                                                                                                       speakers for the debate. Not all 12 members of each group will be debating, but rather four members
Malte Koppe, Germany                                                                                   from each group, who are selected from their group, will be doing the debating while the others
                                                                                                       form the audience.

Every professional group has its tool of the trade - for doc-                                            The debate is comprised of two rounds: The debate begins with the first round, the proponent and
                                                                                                       opposition groups exchange their arguments in a 2-4 minute speech according to the ping-pong
tors it is the endoscope, for bricklayers it is the trowel and for                                     system (one speaker argueing in favor of the notion starts followed by the first member from the op-
politicians it is oratory.                                                                             position team followed by the second proposition speaker ...). After this, the second round begins
                                                                                                       with the audience (not including the judges) being given the opportunity to ask direct questions
                                                                                                       towards the speakers. The audience may stick to their initial groups and “harass” the other team

I n parliament and during interviews               the perfect speaker. Given these basic              with questions that challenge their arguments. The judges are to stay neutral during the debate.
                                                                                                       After up to 10 minutes of question time, the proponent and opposition groups are given two min-
  it is in the deputies’ interest to con-          truths, it strikes as odd that schools in           utes each for a final statement. The judges then take time to evaluate the speakers’ performance and
vince the electorate with arguments                Europe are not educating pupils with                announce the winner of the debate based on who satisfied their criteria to the fullest.
displayed in a logical order. But as               rhetoric skills to the best of their abil-
there are skilled and lousy doctors,               ity. The English-speaking world is two               A simple and down-to-earth method                 political elite hardly ever wait for the
democracy is blessed and cursed with                                                                   to train rhetoric skills, with the “side           moderator to give them the floor. That
                                                   steps ahead when it comes to public
gifted speakers as well as speakers                                                                    effect” that one may learn a lot about             is not what we understand by play-
                                                   speaking and debate.2 Be the reasons
that put their audience to sleep mum-                                                                  politics, is the pro/con-debate. Peter             ing according to the rules! Debating
bling into their beards.1                          for this development as they are (the
                                                   long history of democracy in Great                  Massing, a German political scientist,             means to agree on who speaks first and
  Public speaking and the ability to                                                                   helps us define what such a debate is:             for how long.
                                                   Britain and the US may explain part of
identify and defend one’s own posi-                                                                    “The pro/con-debate is a highly for-
                                                   it), society should not wait for school
tion are skills of high value not only in                                                              malized, rule-based method for civic               Talk is cheap? Why we should
                                                   curricula to be reformed. Pupils in con-
politics, but equally in modern busi-                                                                  education that first of all aims at shap-          debate …
                                                   tinental and Central Europe may learn
ness life and academics. Public speak-                                                                 ing rational political judgment.”3 As
                                                   how to debate from and with NGOs in
ing skills come in useful for many pro-                                                                this is a quite serious definition, we              In this article, we try to outline briefly
                                                   the non-formal education sector.
fessions. Just as an endoscope and a                                                                   should not forget that preparing and               how a pro/con-debate works and -
trowel may be manufactured, rhetoric                  2 Massing, Peter: Pro-Contra-Debatte, in:        holding a debate can be fun for all                taken to an international level - how it
skills can be trained - no one is born             Handbuch zur politischen Bildung (ed. Wolfgang      participants involved. Still, Massing              might add to political and intercultural
                                                   W. Mickel), Bonn 1999, p. 403 - 407. (Massing,                                                         education trainings. The article will
   1 The author can speak here from his own        1999). The reader might want to consider http://
                                                                                                       has a point in saying that debating, in
experience as a college student and guest at nu- as a perfect example re-      the strict sense of the word, is based             conclude with a presentation of what
merous political panel discussions. He refuses     flecting the extensity and professionalism debat-   on rules. This is what distinguishes a             the European Youth4Media (Y4M) has
decidedly to put all the blame for slumbering      ing has reached in Great Britain (and Ireland).
                                                                                                       debate from an open discussion. The                experienced in debating and considers
away during discussions just on himself and the    The website serves as a source for debating un-
lack of coffee.                                    ions and informs about ongoing tournaments.           3   Ibidem

    6                                                                                                                                                                                                 7                                                                                                                                         
worth sharing.     4                                 know who was right and who was not.          With its emphasis on critical thinking,             involved. The purpose and goals of
                                                     Debating does not always bring about         effective       communication, independ-
                                                                                                  ent       research, and teamwork, debate            debating as a method for intercultur-
  The important question on how to
                                                     simple solutions. However, discussing        teaches skills that serve individuals well in       al12 and political education are multi-
choose research for and phrase the de-                                                            school, in the workplace, in political life,
                                                     issues in such a form has the benefit                                                            layered. Well prepared, a debate has
bate’s motion5 is dealt with in another                                                           […]. Once students have learned how to de-
                                                     of bringing the issues out on the table      bate, they are better able to critically exam-      the potential to add considerably to a
article in this publication. We attempt                                                           ine the pronouncements        of their politi-
                                                     and in the clear. A successful debate                                                            training course or can serve as its only
to keep this article down-to-earth and                                                            cal representatives and to make informed
                                                     may help to stimulate the audience’s         judgments about crucial               issues.”9     theme. Participants can simultaneous-
suitable for everyone. It is directed
                                                     sound judgment as MASSING states.7                                                               ly experience themselves in:
first and foremost to practitioners in                                                             In reference to debates in schools,
                                                     We do not agree that every debate - as
non-formal, intercultural and political                                                           MASSING mentions the following aims                 ƒ rhetoric and public speaking
                                                     MASSING claims - “aims at reaching a
education. Those who are looking for a                                                            of debating:
                                                     formal decision by a vote”.8 As far as                                                           ƒ the active use of a foreign language
scientific introduction to debating are                                                           „[...] pupils may learn to listen and wait care-
                                                     debating as a method in political edu-       fully, to depict precisely the statements of oth-     in public
encouraged to discover              the
                                                     cation is concerned, a final vote can        ers, to comment on them, to phrase antith-
                                                                                                                                                      ƒ acting in a half-professional public
extensive literature                                                                              eses and to find supporting arguments.”10
                                                     b    e                     an optional                                                             setup
in the publication                                                                                  But, even if we accept all pro-argu-
section on the IDEA                                                                               ments - is debating still not something              and learn about:
website6 - an inter-                                                                              old-fashioned and boring? Recent
national debating as-                                                                                                                                 ƒ ideas and views shared by mem-
                                                                                                  trends prove otherwise: The increasing                bers of other cultures
sociation that started                                                                            popularity of UN simulations known as
as a spin-off from                                                                                MUNs (Model United Nations) among                   ƒ democratic decision-making proc-
the renowned                                                                                      students and pupils in Germany and                    esses (during motion and argument
US-based                                                                                          Europe11 demonstrates that profession-                finding)
Open Society                                                                                      al debating in an international setting
Institute.                                                                                                                                            ƒ controversial (political) issues13
                                                                                          tion.   is flourishing. And this recent develop-
 One may                                                                                          ment shows that debating in a group                 ƒ the important difference between
argue - why                                                                                       with mixed nationalities is more fas-                 persuasive speech and rational
debating?                                                                                         cinating and rewarding for everyone
At the end of                                                                                                                                            12 By using the term intercultural educa-
                                                                               do not only           9             tion, the author refers to the summary of some
a debate, you
                                                                             benefit the audi-    php, consulted March 11th 2010, 1 pm.               concepts of intercultural learning by Arne
do not always                                                                                        10 Massing, 1999, p. 403 - 407.                  Gillert: Concepts of intercultural learning,
                                                                          ence: IDEA helps us
  4 The author and Y4M are interested in shar-                                                       11 One of the largest simulations in Europe,     in: Intercultural Learning T-kit 4, Council of
ing experience and feedback. Feel free to contact
                                                     explain how debate has the potential         The Hague International Model United Nations        Europe and European Commission, Strasbourg
the author via mail:        to benefit its participants:                 (THIMUN), for example, gathers some thou-           2000, p. 17 - 34. The publication is available on
  5 For more details on what a motion is and         “The process of debate offers profound       sand participants annually. As we can learn         the internet in several languages under http://
how it is developed, see the author article by the   and lasting benefits for individuals, […].   from, the THIMUN-  
author in this publication.                                                                       Foundation has even been granted Roster             publications/T-kits/4/Tkit_4_EN,       consulted
  6            7   Massing, 1999, p. 403 - 407.           Consultative Status with the United Nations         April 9th 2010, 1 pm.
php, consulted March 11th 2010, 10 am.                 8   Ibidem                                 Economic and Social Council.                           13 No hierarchy intended by the numbers.

   8                                                                                                                                                                                             9                                                                                                                                    
   argumentation     14
                                                 and democratic process in which the                  forget that some topics – take the dis-
  Such an ambitious multidimension-
                                                 coach acts as a moderator (not to be                 cussion whether or not Muslim head-               Debating ought to be
al set of goals does not come without
                                                 confused with the moderator during                   scarves should be banned in school –              speaking off the cuff.
challenges. However, a well prepared
                                                 the actual debate). If methodology                   might be difficult to talk about if they           However, depending
                                                 and topic (motion) are agreed upon in                directly affect one of the debaters. In
coach will avoid some problems be-                                                                                                                        on the participants’
                                                 a structured and transparent process,                certain cultures some issues are hardly
fore they arise. When a group of young
                                                 the participants are confronted with                 negotiable and raising them might pro-
                                                                                                                                                           level of proficiency
people from different cultural back-
                                                 different opinions, political convic-                voke resentment. Of course, debating                    in the debating
grounds come together, it should be
                                                 tions and value systems they have to                 is about salient and controversial is-             language (probably
encouraged to establish (within limits)
rules for the debate. If topic and meth-
                                                 find a consensus on. This process is a               sues, but a training course has to aim             English), participants
odology are imposed on the partici-
                                                 subsidiary political education goal of               at integrating all participants first and         might try to prepare a
                                                 the training.                                        foremost.                                           speech to read out.
pants by the coach, commitment to the
final debate will be weak. The debate              Before presenting the Youth4Media                    Debating ought to be speaking off
and its prepa-        ration ought to            approach to debating, we want to draw                the cuff. However, depending on the         ideas prior and during the debate, it is
be the out-                                      the reader’s attention to some classic               participants’ level of proficiency in the   much more likely to reach a consensus
come of a                                        problems arising from such a diverse                 debating language (probably English),       that satisfies everyone involved.
creative,                                        set of goals. An overly motivated coach              participants might try to prepare a
empow-                                           might ruin the project by trying to take             speech to read out. Different attitudes     The Y4M approach
ering                                            it to a professional level. Although pur-            towards public speaking with debaters
                                                 suing ambitious goals with the train-                from more authoritarian cultures and          Youth4Media and its member organi-
                                                 ing, one should not forget that it is a              young democracies, might lead to sim-       zations have been including pro/con-
                                                 training which people attend to learn                ilar results. It is the coach’s task here   debates both as a method and subject
                                                 and not in order to produce a TV qual-               to support the debaters and encourage       in its training courses for the last four
                                                 ity result or win upcoming elections.15              them to speak with bullet point notes.      years. Y4M organized debates in dif-
                                                                                                      Reading a monotonous sermon con-            ferent European cities such as Berlin,
                                                  Another common mistake is a lack
                                                                                                      siderably slows down the dynamics of        Brussels and Muenster in Germany,
                                                 of sensitivity for questions relating to
                                                                                                      every debate.                               Lublin, Nowy Sacz (both Poland) and
                                                 culture and religion. One should not
                                                                                                                                                  Lutsk (Ukraine). The methodology ap-
                                                                                                       All this is not to say that being aware
                                                    15 A step into the wrong direction might be                                                   plied has been constantly evaluated,
                                                                                                      of the different attitudes towards what
                                                 to invite a large audience from outside to attend                                                modified and improved by the team.
                                                 the live debate. Experience in group dynamics        seems to be appropriate or not while
                                                 tells us that when a newly formed group (the         speaking in front of others will guar-        However, recordings of debates for
                                                 debate participants and the media team) estab-                                                   later internet broadcasting16 have
                                                                                                      antee to avoid misunderstanding.
  14 If the dear reader is not convinced, more   lishes itself and members start to trust each oth-
supporting arguments in favor of the motion      er, outsiders might be treated as intruders. For     Nevertheless, if the coach creates an         16 Youth4Media broadcasts its final results
“Debating improves your skills” can be found     further reference to group dynamics see: Badry/      atmosphere in which everyone has the        on, the English
under     Buchka/Knapp (ed.): Pädagogik - Grundlagen           opportunity and courage to express his      language portal for all productions by the net-
debate.asp, consulted March 24th 2010, 1 pm.     und Arbeitsfelder, 2nd edition, Berlin 1994.                                                     work and its members. In the Let’s Debate

  10                                                                                                                                                                                       11                                                                                                                                              
always been the backbone of the struc-          everyone involved to take the discus-
                                                                                                      Scenario for a political talk show debate
ture. First of all, the material might          sion seriously.19 The technical details
                                                                                                      1.    Screening a trailer introducing the debate’s topic (30 sec)
serve the debaters for later evaluation.        of the recording are described in an-                 2.    Moderator welcoming audience, speakers and the public (30 sec)
                                                other article in this publication.                    3.    Screening a trailer introducing the topic with background info (1:30 min)
                                                  A fix point during Y4M trainings in                 4.    Moderator introducing the proposition and opposition teams and explaining the rules (45 sec)
 Y4M believes that                              the course of the last years have been                5.    Debate set 1, exchange of arguments (two speakers for each team, ~ 5 min)
 a semi-professional                            truly “European” motions that center                  6.    Screening pre-recorded street interviews (2 min)

 debate is the                                  on the Treaty of Lisbon, EU enlarge-                  7.    Debate set 2, response to the street interviews by debaters (~ 8 min)
                                                                                                      8.    Questions to the speakers from the audience (2 min)
 perfect inducement                             ment and the newly introduced EU
                                                                                                      9.    One speaker of each team summing up the case (1:30 min)
 to practice a live                             presidency. This choice is due to the
                                                                                                      10.   Moderator summing up the debate (45 sec)
                                                fact that Y4M wants to ignite a dialogue
 broadcast with on-
                                                amongst young people on European
 the-fly editing in a                           and EU subjects. It is here where the
                                                                                                     the Y4M trainings. It is reasonable to               in intercultural education. The coach
 mobile studio.                                 political education component comes
                                                                                                     invite interested young people of dif-               might take the role of the debate’s
                                                                                                     ferent ages (16-30) and backgrounds                  moderator although ambitious partici-
                                                in. Furthermore, for an international
                                                                                                     (students, NGO activists, employees in               pants might rise to that challenge.
                                                meeting with the aim to discuss poli-
Of course, Y4M wants its multimedia                                                                  the private sector) to debate trainings
                                                tics, the European level practically                                                                       Over the course of the last years, de-
products as well to be disseminated to                                                               in order to guarantee a wide range of
                                                is the only frame of reference if one                                                                     bate trainings conducted by the Y4M
a public as large as possible. However,                                                              opinions. It is because of this diversity
                                                wants to avoid debating abstract glo-                                                                     network followed the general scheme
the symbiotic relation camera-debate                                                                 that Y4M refers to its own debates as
                                                bal political developments.                                                                               below:
allows another educational dimension                                                                 citizens’ debates (Bürgerdebatten in
to come in - community media train-              As mentioned above, the free ex-                    German). Needless to say that having a                ƒ agreeing on the debate’s motion,
ings. Y4M believes that a semi-profes-          change of ideas is one of the goals of               diverse group of people of different na-                preferably by voting20
sional debate is the perfect inducement         every debate and the focus point in                  tionalities from EU and non-EU coun-                  ƒ agreeing on the debate’s structure
to practice a live broadcast with on-the-                                                            tries is another goal of every debate                   (judges?, allow questions from the
                                                teams - a media team and the debating group -
fly editing in a mobile studio. It is the                                                            training session.                                       audience?, final voting?)
                                                have to work on the same project without getting
declared goal of Y4M to merge media             into conflicts of interest. It is the project man-    When it comes to the duties of the
and political education.17 As far as the        ager’s task to assure smooth cooperation here.                                                             ƒ dividing into pro and con group
                                                We want to encourage practitioners to bear the       Y4M staff, it proved useful to agree                    (and judges), choosing group
debating performance is concerned,                                                                   on a division of tasks during the train-
                                                challenge of a recorded debate as the camera’s                                                               leaders
the TV-team’s18 presence encourages             presence adds to the project.                        ing. The media team, with its director,
section, the reader may watch recordings from      19 A challenge arising here is that the cam-                                                              20 In order to save time during the training,
past trainings.                                 era may intimidate the debaters. Taking the
                                                                                                     should operate at arm’s length from                  participants may engage in an online vote prior
   17 The Citizens’ Media Centre Bennohaus,     participants’ concerns serious and dealing sen-      the rest of the team, possibly super-                to meeting their colleagues for the debate. With
a German NGO from Muenster and the Polish       sitively with them is the coach’s responsibility.    vised by the project manager.The team                its recently developed e-learning tool on http://
European Meeting Centre - Nowy Staw             Having the participants of the debate rehearse                                                  , Youth4Media offers
                                                                                                     of debaters ought to be instructed and
Foundation, both Y4M members, play a key role   without a camera and an audience first, and then                                                          participants the possibility to vote for a topic
in this process.                                later with a camera and/or audience for the real     assisted by a debate coach experienced               online and study preparation material regarding
   18 Needless to say that two independent      debate, might help to disperse fear.                                                                      the topic even before the training starts.

  12                                                                                                                                                                                                 13                                                                                                                                         
ƒ preparing the arguments in groups               participants interested in the mat-                  add prepared multimedia material to a             project manager, debate coach and the
  (material eg.: newspapers, basic                ter at stake. Common brainstorming,                  live broadcast.                                   moderator should bear in mind that for
  Academic literature)                            text presentations, video analysis of                                                                  the internet audience a recording so
                                                                                                         One element of the new approach is to
                                                  famous debates or even a mini street                                                                   long might not be appealing.
ƒ rehearsing without camera and                                                                        have a short teaser recorded and even-
                                                  survey may be some useful examples.
  audience                                                                                             tually screened just before the debate             Although this format proved success-
                                                  Swopping steps three and four might
                                                                                                       begins. The idea is to give the audience,         ful when applied for the first time in
ƒ debate (20 - 30 minutes)                        prove useful if the coach wants to make
                                                                                                       including viewers on the internet, a              Berlin in December 2009, it is obvious
   This is a very loose structure. Debate         the debaters reflect on more than just
                                                                                                       two-minute introduction to the topic.             that its complexity demands a skilled
coaches have to adopt the debate to               one aspect of the motion.
                                                                                                       Another element that adds to the vital-           coach, a moderator and experienced
its individual target audience and mo-             The coach should not miss to point                  ity of the debate are street interviews           participants. It seems necessary to ask
tion according to their own experience.           out that debaters might use at least two             conducted prior to the debate. They               whether such a talk show format still
  However, we would strongly advice               kinds of arguments - those appealing                 may be shown after the first arguments            goes along well with the inclusive-
planning debates for no longer than 20            to the hearts (persuasive) and those                 have been exchanged. Both teaser and              ness a training course in political and
minutes. A discussion exceeding this              appealing to the minds (rational). In                interviews can be prepared by a media             intercultural education ought to offer.
time limit might be exhausting for the            Germany, an aversion to persuasive                   team while debaters are planning their            Each debating coach has to decide for
participants, especially if the debate is         speech for historical reasons still pre-             strategy and arguments. Of course,                himself whether he aims at educating
being held in a foreign language. Plus,           vails, but other cultures might embrace              the questions should relate to the de-            a broader public (Breitenförderung in
experience tells that after 20 minutes,           the use of arguments aiming at creating              bate’s motion and allow the debaters              German) or the mere promotion of an
the main arguments have been ex-                  an emotional feedback in the audience.               to react to them.24 Given this particular         elite (Elitenförderung).
changed among both sides and bore-                                                                     format, questions from the audience
dom might arise.                                  Recent innovations                                   facilitated by the moderator wouldn’t
  Participants will be more relaxed                                                                    come as a surprise to the debaters but
                                                   The latest development in Y4M is to
about a professional debate setting                                                                    only reflect the professional character
                                                  take the recorded debate to the level
(including audience and camera)                                                                        of the debate-talk show. Such a debate
                                                  of a political talk show.23 As webTV
if they feel well prepared, because                                                                                     might last longer than
                                                  demands a broad variety in shots and
“Discussion, however, builds upon fa-                                                                                   the above mentioned
                                                  content, Y4M took up the challenge to
miliarity [with the subject, note from                                                                                              “magic 20
the author], because it is the dispute               23 The relationship debate - TV is highly                                       minutes”.
that takes center stage here. […]22 The           interesting, but cannot be dealt with in detail                                    However,
                                                  here. MASSING states that the TV had consider-
tool box of intercultural pedagogy of-
                                                  able influence on the way professional debating
fers a lot of methods for getting the             has been shaped (Massing, 1999, p. 403 - 407).
   21 For more detailed suggestions on how        It is true that Political TV debates gained in im-
to organize the preparation process and the de-   portance in the last years. And it is more than
bate check (in German)        just a legend that former US-president Richard
methodik/9EAB4S,0,0,5_ProContraDebatte.           Nixon lost the first TV debate ever in 1960 just        24 It goes without saying that the debaters
html, consulted March 23rd 2010, 11 am.           because in the visual medium he looked wan and       should know questions and answers of the street
   22 Massing, 1999, p. 403 - 407.                uncomfortable.                                       interviews beforehand.

  14                                                                                                                                                                                       15                                                                                                                
                                                                                   the technical aspects and than formed        Recorded interviews can be embed-

                                                                                   mixed international groups who went         ded into the broadcast of the citizen’s
How to
        citizen’s debate on-line
                                                                                   to the city to record interviews with       debate. Sometimes it is good to use
                                                                                   local citizens on the same questions.       them as a promotional trailer before
                                                                                   During the seminar every participant        the real debate is live streamed on-line.
                                                                                   had an opportunity to work as a cam-
                                                                                   era operator and as a journalist.           Video streaming in the internet
Michał Wójcik, Poland
                                                                                     Recorded interviews were edited and         New technologies help to make at-
                                                                                   used as the material for the discus-        tractive even boring public debates. It
To organize a citizen’s debate is not a goal of its own. It’s im-                  sion. At first participants evaluated       is very easy to spark up the debates by
portant to reach out for as many viewers as it is possible. It                     purely the method of work and shared        means of streaming video in the inter-
is not always possible to boadcast our debate on the local TV                      their feelings of being a camera opera-
channel. That’s why it is vital to be able to use new media and                                                                net or broadcasting the picture imme-
                                                                                   tor and a journalist. This evaluation       diately to the place of the debate. These
internet to promote our debate and speak the message, which                        was followed by the content analysis.
it brings on.                                                                                                                  methods were used by young Poles and
                                                                                   Participants got to know what peo-          Germans during the discussion about
                                                                                   ple in different cities in Europe think     the renewable energy sources which
 During ‘The Voice of Europe’ semi-      Interviews with citizens                  about the same problems. The method         took place in April 2008 in Lublin or
nars and generally during other semi-                                              of the interview helps to quickly collect
                                          Before the seminar we requested that                                                 during the Economic Forum of Young
nars organized by Y4M network asso-                                                opinions, brings new and original ar-
                                         the participants prepare in their home                                                Leaders in 2009 in Nowy Sacz. The de-
ciation we are using digital media and                                             guments and stimulate the discussion.
                                         cities several interviews on the chosen                                               bates were live                  trans-
diverse methods of work with media.                                                Obviously the method is not intended
                                         questions. The questions concerned                                                    mitted to the                       i n -
 Our methods are:                                                                  to provide statistically correct data as    ternet where                          i t
                                         the general social and political is-
                                                                                   it is not based on the representative       could       be
ƒ interviews with citizens               sues. For example before the debate in
                                                                                   selection of responders. It presents        watched                                b y
                                         Berlin about the new President of the
ƒ internet video streaming                                                         subjective single opinions which,           the wider
                                         European Council we asked people if
                                                                                   however,           can be an excellent      public.
ƒ vidcasts                               Europe needed a charismatic leader or
                                                                                                        starting point for
                                         only loyal coordinator?
ƒ broadcast of the televised citizen’s                                                                   the     discussion
  debates                                  The interviews were recorded by the                            especially in the
                                         teams of a camera operator and a jour-                            international
ƒ production of the documentary
                                         nalist. All the questions were asked in                            environment.
                                         the national languages. After that the
ƒ report ‘big picture’                   reporters translated the collected an-
                                         swers. During the seminar the partici-
                                         pants watched the materials, evaluated

 16                                                                                                                                                                 17                                                                                                                  
Participants of the debate were also        politicians and Forum participants.          important European event - Economic       competences. The recordings of the
launched with the live-streams (ex-                                                      Forum of Young Leaders. A number          debates were immediately uploaded to
                                              Similar method has been used during
perts or politicians). The streaming                                                     of panel discussions involving poli-      the
                                            the Night of Culture in Lublin in June
in the internet was carried out in the                                                   ticians,   enterpreneurs,     scholars,
                                            2010. Four teams of web-TV report-                                            
.flv format. Picture and sound were                                                      European Commission representa-
                                            ers did media coverage from different
transmitted in both cities. During the                                                   tives, country leaders and CEOs from
                                            events (concerts, performances, theat-                                                 Report ‘big picture’
video conference participant did not                                                     all over Europe were hosted within
                                            ers, street art) in the form of short vid-
only have opportunity to listen to each                                                  the Forum programme. The main task         Another method which we use dur-
                                            casts. They decided to use this method,
other but ask questions, talk and ex-                                                    of the web-TV team was to organize        ing our work is report „big picture”.
                                            because of the special format of the
change their opinons concerning the                                                      the broadcast for the public who were     This is a presentation of a theme or
                                            event. Night of Culture is a cultural
renewable energy.                                                                        not able to attend the Forum. To run      an event with the help of different
                                            manifestation of Lublin city. For two
                                                                                         the broadcast we used four cameras,       multimedia methods. We can use this
                                            days the city lives in the rhythm of art
Vidcasts                                                                                 projectors, tripods and portable edit-    method to present the problem, which
                                            and artists. Not only the city centre is
                                                                                         ing table at which the editor could re-   concerns our citizen’s debate more
  Vidcasts or video podcasts is the         involved, but also its districts, places
                                                                                         ceive signal and mix images from all      widely. Usually debate concerns some
broadcast technology based on creat-        known and unknown. Cultural institu-
                                                                                         four cameras. Working in such group       kind of a fragment of the   problem
ing small video files available in inter-   tions stays open for everyone until the
                                                                                         required     patience,                    discussed.
net and categorized in the RSS tech-        morning hours. Theatres, museums,
                                                                                         prompt      reac-                          So how
nology. The files are small in size and     galleries, philharmonies, libraries,
                                                                                         tion, commu-
are sorted in different theme sections.     garisson club, concert halls, streets
                                                                                         nication skills
During the Economic Forum of Young          and squares of the city, as well as pro-
                                                                                         as well as me-
Leaders in Nowy Sacz this method was        fessional and independent artists, mu-
                                                                                         d i a
used to collect short opinions from the     sicians, actors, painters and poets are
politicians about their vision of the fu-   expecting visitors. There are about 250
ture of Europe. Young people united in      cultural events at that night in different
groups of 3 and collected 30- and 40        parts of the Old Town in Lublin. That is
second answers of the politicians and       why, in order to give impression of the
Forum participants on the single ques-      whole event, young Poles decided to
tion: “What is your practical idea for      make short vidcasts and stream them
the future of Europe?”. Recorded vid-       immediatelly on-line.
casts were quickly cut and posted on-
line. The principle aim was to deliver      Broadcasting of the public
a short video material from ever panel      debates
discussion as soon as possible. The
                                             Young people worked in the European
vidcast content was later on used by
                                            web-TV team the task of which was
other media which cited answers from
                                            to provide the media coverage of the

 18                                                                                                                                                                19                                                                                                                         
will the report „big picture” look like      (something for ear) from the perform-
in our case? First of all, one has to        ances and exhibitions (something for
gather the background information on         eye).
                                                                                        How can one
                                                                                                effectively research
the topic discussed (statistics, analy-
                                               Report „big picture” most oftenly

sis, definitions, esseys). The form of
                                             doesn’t have a dynamic navigation.
presentation of the material can be a

                                                                                                   topics for a citizens’ debate
                                             In this case the posts are put on the
web-site or a blog. While working on
                                             page according to the date and hour.
Youth4Media projects we use an easy
                                             The posts are short (2-3 sentences). The
but rich in form tool called Wordpress.
                                             most important thing is that the theme
With its help we create a blog which                                                    Malte Koppe, Germany
                                             is presented with the help of different
is edited by all the participants of the
                                             media: video and audio podcasts, vid-
seminar or citizen’s debate. After hav-
                                             eo reports, interviews, pictures, graph-   European media does not exist. The people in Europe read the
ing created the technical side of a blog
                                             ic elements, flash banners, short text     papers in their languages, watch their national TV and do not
we get down to creating its navigation.
                                             messages. Report ‘big picture’ consists    care for the European dimension of politics unless a scandal
In the statistical navigation (About us,                                                – as the 2010 budgetary crisis in Greece – attracts everyone’s
                                             of many different media, which create
Idea, Contact, Programme) we put all                                                    attention for a short while.
                                             one picture of one topic. That’s why
the important information, which will
accessible to all those visiting the site.
Most often we put in the information
                                             it’s important to use this method with
                                             the help of which we can not only re-      T   his statement is right and wrong.
                                                                                            Europe does not have large-scale
                                                                                        broadcasting stations reaching out to
                                                                                                                                          es forward new media initiatives.
                                                                                                                                          Thinking European – for students
                                             port on-line citizen’s debate but also                                                       and young professionals this means
concerning the message that our blog                                                    more than 200 million persons as in
                                             present the theme which is discussed                                                         to compare their personal situation
has to render as well as the debating                                                   the USA.1 But, on the other hand, thou-
                                             during the debate.                                                                           and the state of society with European
themes and most of the background                                                       sands of grass root initiatives, cover-           peers and the living conditions they
information. We can also leave the             Citizen’s debates during all seminars    ing European issues, have been arising
links to other web-pages. In the dy-         within ‘The Voice of Europe’ project       over the last few years.
namic navigation we put the themati-         gained importance thanks to the en-         It is today’s young “eurogeneration” -             Trying to answer this development,
cal categories according to which the        gagement and work of the European          an expression shaped by the European              the European Youth4Media network
posts or mesagges in our blog will be        web-TV team of young people who            Magazine CaféBabel.com2 - that push-              (Y4M) takes its youth discussions and
themed. They are connected with the          can not only acquire new experience                                                          debates to a comparative European
debate or an event. Not every blog of a      themselves but also broadcast the con-        1 The only major TV news channel bearing       level. There are countless examples
                                                                                        “Europe” in its name, Euronews, is a service by
„big picture” type has to have the dy-       tent of the debates to the wider public    the European Broadcasting Union consisting
                                                                                                                                          of issues with European dimensions
namic navigation, because it’s most of-      in Europe. All debates, vidcasts and       of national public broadcasting services. Being   that are highly relevant to young peo-
tenly connected with only one theme.         reports are available for watching on      available in nine languages including Arabic      ple. The Bologna Process, aiming at
                                                                                        and Russian, Euronews is a neglected alterna-
On the other hand, broadcasting the in the Citizen’s                                                          creating a common European higher
                                                                                        tive to national television when it comes to
Night of Culture in Lublin a group of        debate channel.                            European news and debate preparation for top-     education area and access to the labor
reporters created a blog in which the                                                   ics in international politics.                    market are some of the problems youth
                                                                                           2            is concerned about. As politics and
dynamic navigation devided concerts
                                                                                        cafebabel/, accessed on March 19th 2010, 1 pm.

 20                                                                                                                                                                        21                                                                                                                        
public debate changes with speed of         American media could potentially bias         Europe, Y4M is organizing the bulk of      to contrast national news reports with
light, we will not suggest topics for the   the participants. A convenient alter-         its trainings in this part of the conti-   a foreign press review. However, reli-
reader’s next debate. We are convinced      native to resolve this deadlock is the        nent. This particular focus is often re-   able multilingual information can be
that this decision should be taken by       above cited online magazine cafeba-           flected in the issues Y4M debates and      found on European Union websites as
the group of debaters itself. However, Launched in 2001, the maga-          in the individual contributions from       well.
this article will suggest resources for     zine offers articles written by profes-       participants. In order to learn more
brainstorming.                              sionals and community journalists in          about the Central European countries’      EU agencies
                                            six languages. Published by the Paris-        perspectives, one might turn to the
 This article aims at giving a brief                                                                                                   Debating European topics does not
                                            based association Babel International,        news service
overview on sources Y4M would like                                                                                                   mean that one should limit himself
                                            CaféBabel relies on voluntary work
to recommend. We conclude with sug-                                                         N-ost3 is a Berlin-based NGO with        exclusively to EU issues. However,
                                            mostly, e.g. for translation services.
gestions on how to make the topic                                                         a twofold focus. The German Verein         the numerous online information
                                            The website features blogs and forums
(“motion”) suitable for the debate and                                                    (association) offers an article service    sources provided by the European in-
                                            in several languages as well. Although
on how to involve the debate’s partici-                                                   featuring contributions provided by        stitutions and its agencies offer valu-
                                            more and more websites are becoming
pants in this process.                                                                    correspondents of well-known news-         able information for every debate.
                                            multilingual, CaféBabel is still a highly
                                                                                          papers and agencies based in Central       Inexperienced participants should,
                                            relevant source of “European” infor-
International online magazines                                                            and Eastern Europe. Furthermore, it        nevertheless, be made aware of the
                                            mation with a focus on recent politi-
                                            cal, cultural and social trends. Despite                                                 fact that information on the EU web-
  The traditional, national media out-
lets are typically the first choice of      being a volunteer-based organization,         Given that most of                         sites represent almost exclusively the
                                                                                                                                     political perspective of the given in-
researchers when it comes to debate         CafeBabel is able to keep up-to-date on       Y4Ms partners are
                                            current events astonishingly well. It is                                                 stitution and therefore are not neutral.
preparation. All major national broad-                                                    found in Central and                       An exception is the Eurobarometer5,
                                            an advantage for Y4M that the maga-
casting services feature a foreign and
                                            zine is available in Polish, as this is the
                                                                                          Eastern Europe, Y4M                        the website for public opinion analysis
European politics section. However,
                                            native language of one of our most ac-        is organizing the bulk                     by and for the European Commission.
due to the language restrictions, not all
international news material will fit a      tive           project partners.              of its trainings in this                   This service helps the Commission to
multinational group. On the                                                               part of the continent.                     plan decision-making and evaluates
                                                                International                                                        its work. The authors follow the rules
assumption that English
                                                                 news services                                                       and guidelines for empirical research
would be the most widely                                                                  lobbies for freedom of the press in the
                                                                   and agencies                                                      and only the choice of questions re-
shared language within                                                                    Eastern part of the continent. Within      flects the Commission’s interest.6
a potential debate group,                                                                 its project platform euro|topics, n-ost
                                                                         Given that                                                    5
the convenient s o l u t i o n                                                            offers commentaries and articles from
                                                                        most of Y4Ms                                                 index_en.htm
would be to           study                                                               the leading European media translated        6 Eurobarometer offers lots of material rang-
E n g l i s h                                                                             into five European languages.4 The eu-     ing from the EU Common Agricultural Policy to
                                                                        are    found
news material,                                                                            rotopics website is the perfect means      oral health in the EU. The authors do examine
                                                                        in    Central                                                questions about European identity and attitude
However,      study-
                                                                       and Eastern          3              towards the EU institutions among citizens as
ing only British or                                                                         4            well, but regarding the interesting question “Do

 22                                                                                                                                                                            23                                                                                                                                          
 Another interesting virtual                                                                          financed, but neutral information                word “motion” itself repeatedly used
space to learn about                                                                                  agency, it is a pity that its publications       in this article stems from parliamentary
people’s attitude to-                                                                  ation8,        are almost exclusively available in the
wards Europe is the                                                                  for ex-          German language. However, the BPB
“Debate Europe”                                                                                       publications deal with a wide range
                                                                                                                                                               The motion in every
website which con-                                                                provides            of international topics from climate                     debate determines
tains several online                                                             a    debata-         change to modern terrorism.                                in which direction
forums where interest-                                                           base® - an             The agency’s constantly updated
                                                                                                                                                           discussion will develop.
ed individuals can en-                                                          argument              country factbooks have become clas-
gage in discussions on                                                         database for           sics already. It is due to its publica-
European issues.7                                                            topics ranging                                                            procedure. It describes briefly what the
                                                                                                      tions which are used in school that
However, the web-                                                                                                                                      debate will be about. Wikipedia helps
                                                                                                      the Bundeszentrale is recognized by
                                                                                                                                                       us to go into more detail: “[…] A motion
                                                                                                      most German pupils and students. Its
                                                                                                                                                       is a formal proposal by a member of a
                                                                                                      authors, scientist and practitioners,
                                                                                                                                                       deliberative assembly that the assem-
                                                                                                      always find the right mix between aca-
                                                                                                                                                       bly take certain action.”11 Although not
                                                                                                      demic and popular writing.
site tends to suffer from                          from abortion to Zimbabwe.9 For each                                                                every debate outside parliament aims
misbehavior and spam. The name is                  issue you can search by keyword, IDEA                The Bundeszentrale offers an edition           at taking direct (legal) consequences,
misleading as “Debate Europe” is not               offers a set of pro and con arguments,             including guidelines on how to or-               this definition helps us understand
a website on professional debating but             suggestions on how to phrase the de-               ganize a pro/con-debate.10 For further           that motions focus on ends.12
more of an online forum.                           bate topic, links and a bibliography.              information on how Y4M structures
                                                                                                                                                         The motion in every debate deter-
                                                                                                      its debates and the preparation, the
                                                     A German source for informa-                                                                      mines in which direction discussion
Debating resources                                                                                    reader may consult the second article
                                                   tion on debating is the governmen-                                                                  will develop. Having selected an in-
                                                                                                      by the author in this publication. In the
  The internet does not lack debate re-            tal Bundeszentrale für Politische                                                                   teresting topic for the debate does not
                                                                                                      last part of this article, we want to share
sources and many of those websites                 Bildung BPB (Federal Agency for Civic                                                               mean to have a clear-cut motion at
                                                                                                      some experience on how to phrase the
are British or American. Even if English           Education) which operates as an NGO-                                                                hand. “The future of European inte-
                                                                                                      debate’s topic as a “motion”.
is not the debating language, some of              like public education organization                                                                  gration” is something we may elabo-
these websites give inspiration and in-            and, simultaneously, as a publishing                                                                rate, but not debate on. A good motion
                                                                                                      On how not to phrase the
                                                   house. Given the BPB’s excellent repu-                                                                 11
sights on how professional debate is or-                                                              motion and what a motion is …                    Motion_%28parliamentary_procedure%29, ac-
ganized. The website of the IDEA associ-           tation as a well-working, government                                                                cessed on April 20th 2010, 1 pm.
                                                                                                        When it comes to the topic we may                 12 Interesting enough, the English word
you feel European?” data could only be found          8 IDEA is an in-        learn a lot from British debating. The           “motion” transfers this idea of concrete action.
for the early Nineties:   ternational debating association that started as                                                    This vocabulary implies much more dynamics
lic_opinion/cf/index_en.cfm, accesed on April      a spin-off from the renowned US-based Open            10 Massing 1999, Peter: Pro-Contra-Debatte,   than the German equivalent einen Antrag stellen
19th 2010, 9 am.                                   Society Institute.                                 in: Handbuch zur politischen Bildung (ed.        considering the fact that a motion in British par-
   7                 9, ac-         Wolfgang W. Mickel), Bonn 1999, p. 403 - 407.    liamentary speech is “moved” by the individual
debateeurope/index_de.htm                          cessed on March 31th 2010, 2 pm.                   (Massing, 1999).                                 bringing it forward.

  24                                                                                                                                                                                               25                                                                                                                                        
states a fact , imposes action or, rare-
                                                     charismatic leader? What sort of                                                                 no influence on deciding the topic. We
ly, raises a question.                               leader ought to lead the European
                                                                                                           As a “European                             therefore strongly advise debate coach-
                                                     Council?”15) but rather focus on one                  citizens’ debate”                          es to let participants suggest possible
  However, the ideal motion should not
                                                     of them. Otherwise, definition discus-                should not exclusively                     topics, discuss them in groups and,
be ambiguous. Otherwise the debaters
will try to define what is meant by the
                                                     sions may arise again. Plus, it should                build on the debate                        finally, vote on them to choose one. A
issue at stake rather than debating
                                                     not take two sentences to explain the                 culture of one or                          basic and proven method to eliminate
                                                     topic. Keep it straight and simple.                   two countries, we                          topics not suiting a debate is to brain-
about it. “How deep should European
                                                                                                                                                      storm about possible arguments of pro
integration go?” would therefore serve                 One simple way of sharpening the                    leave it to the reader                     and con. If this process goes slowly
as a bad example. Plus, while debat-                 motion is rooted in British parliamen-                to include other                           during preparation time, it will not be
ing about such a vague question, it                  tarism. Simulating parliamentary                      elements than British                      better “on stage”. However, the final
might even turn out that the moderate                procedures, debates according to the
debaters’ positions in both groups are               British Parliamentary Style16 start with
                                                                                                           and American in                            wording of the debate’s motion should
closer to each other than to their team              the “Prime Minister” (first speaker of                future debates.                            be left to the debate coach. He still can
                                                                                                                                                      discuss the streamlined motion with
members.14 This way the debate will                  the pro-team) introducing the issue
                                                                                                                                                      the participants afterwards.
lose momentum. One should always                     at stake and eventually bringing for-                not possible to get to one, may work
remember that debating is about con-                 ward the motion by the “government”                  on the participant’s subliminal level to      As a “European citizens’ debate”
troversial issues which, for the sake                (the pro-team). The motion starts with               the benefit of a heated, but fair debate.   should not exclusively build on the
of the debate, might even be brought                 the words “This house believes …”17                                                              debate culture of one or two countries,
                                                                                                            Rephrasing the two above cited mo-
to the extreme. Exaggeration is part of              stipulating a fictional consensus (to be                                                         we leave it to the reader to include oth-
                                                                                                          tions according to this scheme leaves
debating and the coach should trust                  achieved) among the debaters which                                                               er elements than British and American
                                                                                                          us with the following:
the audience and debaters in unmask-                 is, of course, not very likely to happen                                                         in future debates. We can, however,
ing blunt simplifications embedded in                neither in politics nor in pro/con-de-               ƒ “This house believes that European        benefit from the anglophone coun-
the motion rather than restricting the               bates with set roles. But this provoca-                integration went to far.”                 tries’ long-lasting debating tradition.
debate by watering down the motion                   tive demanding of a consensus (“This                 ƒ “This house believes a charis-            Nevertheless, the author is eager to
beforehand.                                          house believes”), where it is virtually                matic leader is needed to chair the       learn about how debates are organized
                                                                                                            European Council.”                        in other European countries.18
 However, for reasons of simplicity                     15 This particular topic has been de-
and, again, to keep it controversial,                bated during the Y4M training seminar “The            If the reader feels strong disagree-
a motion should not juxtapose two                    voice of Europe” in Berlin in December 2009.
                                                     Although the debate went well, a more clear-         ment with at least one of those state-
extreme positions (“The President                    cut motion would have turned out even more           ments, rephrasing the motions proved
of Europe - a loyal coordinator or                   thought-provoking.                                   successful and they will now be suita-
                                                        16 For further information and details on
   13 Please read again the first sentence of this   this particular style of debating, feel encouraged
                                                                                                          ble for igniting a controversial debate.
article.                                             to read:
                                                                                                           However, presenting the participants
   14 It seems to the author that such a “sud-       Parliamentary_Style, as accessed on April 23rd
den consensus” is much more likely to happen         2010, 12 am.                                         with a ready-phrased motion will not
in a German debate rather than in a heated              17 The word “house” refers to parliament          encourage them to debate if they had          18 Feel free to contact the author via mail:
British one.                                         here.                                                                                  

  26                                                                                                                                                                                          27                                                                                                               

                                                                                      address citizens’ concerns directly by    nity media to enter into a closer dia-
                                                                                      “going local”.                            logue with citizens.
Community                                                                               The EU policy initiatives and their      The Commission for Culture and

                            in the 21st century
                                                                                      effects should be debated in the lo-      Education:
                                                                                      cal context of people’s everyday life.
                                                                                                                                ƒ urges Member States to give the
                                                                                      Community media could help to foster
                                                                                                                                  legal recognition to community
                                                                                      civil participation in public policies.
                                                                                                                                  media as a distinct group along-
Dr. Joachim Musholt, Germany                                                          Collaborating more actively with local-
                                                                                                                                  side commercial and public me-
                                                                                      ly-based community media could be a
                                                                                                                                  dia where such recognition is still
                                                                                      way for the Commission to enter into
Community media are open for participation in the creation                                                                        lacking;
                                                                                      closer dialogue with citizens.
of content by members of the community. As such, they are a
                                                                                                                                ƒ calls on the Commission to take
distinct group within the media sector alongside commercial                             Recently European Commission re-
and public media.                                                                                                                 into account community media
                                                                                      leased a statement that “it is impor-
                                                                                                                                  as an alternative, bottom-up solu-
                                                                                      tant that citizens better understand
Community media are non-                   Community media can be a tool to                                                       tion for increasing media pluralism
                                                                                      the economic and cultural dimen-
profit media                               advance the peoples’ abilities in the                                                  when designing indicators for me-
                                                                                      sion of media and that a discussion
                                           media sphere. The acquisition of ana-                                                  dia pluralism;
                                                                                      takes place about the importance for
 Community media help to strengthen        logue, digital and internet knowledge      Europe’s economy of having strong         ƒ calls on Member States for more ac-
the identities of specific communities     in addition to a job in the sphere leads   and competitive media at a                  tive support of community media to
while enabling members of those com-       to advantageous skills which are also      global level, delivering                    ensure media pluralism.
munities to interact with other groups     good for other sectors as open chan-       pluralism and cultural
in society. They therefore can play a      nels, free radio and web-TV where          diversity”.                                     We need community
key role in fostering tolerance and plu-   citizens can develop and present their                                                      media and European
ralism in society.                         own broadcasts. As producers they of-       Therefore     the
                                           fer their products to the public.          Committee       for
  Media pluralism is a concept that
                                                                                      Culture       and                                 There are a lot of reasons why
involves young citizens’ access to a
                                           The European Dimension                     Education of the                                 we need European community
broad variety of information sources
                                                                                      European Parliament                              media and there is no doubt
on a broad range of content that en-
                                             The White Paper on the European          urges the European                                 about a lack of this. The case
able them to form their opinion with-
                                           communication policy makes a clear         Commission to                                               of European media
out the undue influence of one domi-
                                           reference to the right of information,     collaborate                                                     is     complicat-
nant opinion-forming power. As such
                                           freedom of expression, inclusiveness,      more ac-                                                                ed. One
it is considered an important element
                                           diversity and participation which          tively                                                                  group of
in a democratic society and is there-
                                           should guide the EU policy-making          with                                                                     people
fore also enshrined in Article 11 of
                                           in this area. One of the core princi-      com-                                                                       con-
the Charter of Fundamental Rights.
                                           ples promoted in the White Paper is to     mu-

 28                                                                                                                                                               29                                                                                                            
sider initiation and development of     federations which assemble citizens’        dial reports.                            ƒ strengthening civic society by
the European media and creating         organizations with common aims, val-                                                   building up networks and struc-
                                                                                     European        citizen   media  and
pan-European news, journalistic and     ues and interests. Those young peo-                                                    tures between associations, non-
                                                                                    European Web-TV support young
cultural channels (vide Euronews,       ple possess a profitable potential of                                                  governmental organisations, aca-
                                                                                    people to develop the civil society in
Arte). Second group, headed with Jose   Europe. They need space not only to                                                    demic and non-academic cultural,
                                                                                    Europe through using digital tools to
Manuel Barroso, claim that national     express themselves but also to influ-                                                  educational and youth institutions,
                                                                                    fulfill the following objectives:
and regional media should bring up      ence the reality and its changes.                                                      colleges and universities
European topics. He supported his                                                   ƒ political and intercultural educa-
                                          For our young and active people it                                                 ƒ promoting and supporting the citi-
point of view with an argument about                                                  tion for young people in Europe
                                        should be a big chance to use interac-                                                 zen media in Europe
diversity of languages. He also asked                                               ƒ conveyance of media competence
                                        tive digital audiovisual media on inter-
in which language should this pan-                                                                                           ƒ Web-TV and dissemination of the
                                        net creatively and to develop European        and non-formal education at the
European TV station be broad-                                                                                                  European content in the internet.
                                          citizens media. Their mission will          European level
casted to be a mass media                                                                                                    Citizen media can help to overcome
                                           be framing agreement, promoting          ƒ qualification of young people and
and be watched by all                                                                                                                   boundaries in Europe
                                            solidarity, tolerance and coop-           multipliers in the sphere of commu-
generations.                                                                                                                               and the world to bring
                                             eration but also raising European        nication and media (young people
  Nowadays young peo-                         citizens consciousness. They will                                                             people       together.
                                                                                      get knowledge and skills in techni-
ple are more mobile,                           also be shaping medial content,                                                               With the help of new
                                                                                      cal equipment, journalism, man-
know foreign lan-                               which would initiate debates                                                                 technologies     and
                                                                                      agement, public relations as well
guages, study and                                about important European is-                                                               cross medial meth-
                                                                                      as audio, video, film, digital media
work in different                                 sues, present different points                                                           ods citizen media
                                                                                      and Web-TV)
places in Europe.                                  of view, different solutions                                                             connect people from
They benefit from                                  of social problems and dif-      ƒ training of citizens to become                        different parts of the
many international                                ferent opinions of European         youth reporters, video journal-                       world and strength-
scholarships      and                              citizens. There are many           ists, EU-Mediatrainers and                            en       intercultural
programs. They can                                           civil blogs, on-line     trainers for internet and                             communication and
travel without pass-                                           magazines and          computer         technolo-                            coach networking.
port, take part in in-                                          internet portals      gies
ternational     events                                            where citizens                                                           Community Media
and use internet as a                                              from many                                                               and Literacy
global communica-                                                    European                                                              Policies
tor. They associate in                                                countries
European non-gov-                                                      are pub-                                                             Community media and
ernmental organiza-                                                      lishing                                                         media literacy education
tions, create allianc-          e s ,   their                              o w n                                                        is currently at a point of
international groups            and     m e -                                                                                         transition. Current changes
                                                                                                                                    in the media environment are

 30                                                                                                                                                          31                                                                                                                      
not just about technology but also            gence, because the distinction be-          focuses on thinking more about litera-      critical practise. Then there is partici-
about how identities are formed and           tween old and new is not always             cy learning.                                patory potential also of the so-called
lived in modern societies.                    helpful either.                                                                         social software or “web 2.0” blogs,
                                                                                            New technologies offer the potential
                                                                                                                                      with wikis, user- generated content,
  The term “digital literacy” seems to         Digital resources – websites, com-         for young people to speak to audi-
                                                                                                                                      video and photo sharing, citizens jour-
have appeared on the policy agenda            puter games, online environments            ences and communicate and for media
                                                                                                                                      nalism and web TV.
even more recently, although in fact          – mediate the world just like books         education to engage young people and
it is far away from new. For the last         and films and TV: they are media like-      trainers with their community and to
20 years we are talking about compu-          wise, the distinction between digital       intervene in a new way.
ter literacy and information literacy,        and non-digital technologies is fairly
nowadays we are talking about digital         insignificant.                              Engagement with Digital                     Web-TV and Citizenship
literacy.                                                                                 Literacy
                                                Most media – even books and news-                                                       Public or commercial TV channels
  One can say that digital literacy is fre-   papers – involve the use of digital tech-     Those of us who are old enough to         combine more and more TV and inter-
quently defined as a “skill” – a form of      nologies at some point, either in their     remember the trials of analogue media       net. The term “internet TV” can be ex-
individual technological competence           production or in their distribution on      making in schools have good reasons         plained as the conventional television
that is a prerequisite for full participa-    consumption. Media increasingly com-        to feel excited about the new opportu-      that many private and public TV chan-
tion in society. So what might be the         bine different modes of communica-          nities creative innovative media offers.    nels use to publish their programmes
basic grounds for combining commu-            tion and operate across many techno-        This is partly just about accessibility –   on the internet in order to reach a wide
nity me-           dia, media literacy        logical platforms. To this extent, there    about cheapness and ease of use, but        amount of people. Doing so the compa-
and                    digital literacy.      would be very little logic separating       it also has benefits in team and learn-     nies want to reach mainly youngsters.
                         There are some       these things. Media literacy has to         ing. The most exciting promise here is      Through the connection with several
                         good reasons.        learn from digital literacy. Although       not just about people having more op-       video portals like Vimeo, Youtube,
The                      most obvious         the digital literacy agenda is narrower     portunities to make their own media.        etc. additional sources of income for a
o f                         these      are    in some respect, it does                    It also has to do with bringing theory      big broadcast company have become
                                   about      help to move media                          closer to practical media making – and      available. Developments of the inter-
                                    con-      literacy towards a                          these are two dimensions of media           net TV have urged companies to adver-
                                      ver-    more socially inclu-                        education that has offers seen quite        tise during the internet broadcasts.
                                              sive approach, it puts                      separate.
                                              i s -           sues that                                                                Non-profit organisations or non-
                                              deal            with civic                   Digital video editing for example          governmental organisations like the
                                                              participa-                  makes explicit the kind of choices we       European Youth4Media network have
                                                            tion     and                  have to make as we select and com-          developed a web-TV for young people
                                                         citizenship                      bine images into sequences and then         and citizens to create their own media
                                                      more       strongly                 add sounds and music and in that            productions.
                                                    on the agen-                          sense it can allow new possibilities for
                                                  da. It also                             a different, more challenging kind of

  32                                                                                                                                                                      33                                                                                                                                                 audience can be very high: within          ƒ the bandwidth of users of live           better to educate that legislate.
                                           a few days plenty of viewers can be          streams is enormously high.
 Web-TV is a format, especially devel-                                                                                            For the future years the challenges
                                           reached which is vividly proved by the
oped for the internet viewing. In case                                                                                           for community media and media lit-
                                           Youtube service.                           Challenges for community                   eracy will be to enable:
                                             The advantage of the web-TV is that      media in the 21st Century
                                                                                                                                 ƒ lifelong learning for all people
 The advantage of                          there is no rigid standard concerning       The European Commission’s state-of-
 the web-TV is that                        the content and the technique, on con-     the-art-report in Current Friends and
                                                                                                                                 ƒ sharing practices between research-
 there is no rigid                         trary to the private and public televi-    approaches expresses several recom-
                                                                                                                                   ers, practitioners, institutions, reg-
                                                                                                                                   ulation and political leaders
 standard concerning                       sion which follow defined formats. For     mendation for the media literacy in the
                                           the web-TV you can produce broad-
 the content and the                                                                  21st century.                              ƒ foster positive prospects in terms of
                                           casts or reports in high quality quite
 technique, on contrary                    cheap and with few technical precon-         One could agree and the network Y4M
                                                                                                                                   internationalisation (geographic,
                                                                                                                                   cultural and educational) and in-
 to the private and                        ditions. Web-TV is an ideal way for        association agrees with some of this
                                                                                                                                   tercultural dialogue
 public television which                   NGOs, institutions with low budgets        recommendations and works on them,
 follow defined formats.                   to open up a media platform and also       we need more teacher training, better      ƒ offer an open forum for the vari-
                                           reach a wide amount of people. Web-        quality, teaching materials and op-          ous key participants (multiplayer,
                                           TV is a really good tool in intercultur-   portunities for citizens, young people       trainer, schools, university, etc.)
of web-TV short movies, reports as well    al communication and international         and students to engage them in pro-
                                                                                                                                 ƒ to build bridges between popu-
as broadcasts are produced according       youth work.                                duction, and a more critical evaluation
                                                                                                                                   lar youth culture and traditional
to the special criteria. Web-TV is main-                                              and research. European Commission’s
                                             Web-TV gives the possibility to of-                                                   education
ly directed at youngsters and therefore                                               Viviane Reding pointed out in August
                                           fer your products “on demand”. This        2009 that “Today, to be able to read       ƒ to develop new materials and
has adopted dynamic way of present-
                                           means that the produced video mate-        and write – in other words traditional       methodologies
ing the content. Web-TV reports are
                                           rial can be uploaded on several video      literacy – is no longer sufficient. We
usually brief and vivid.                                                                                                         ƒ to overcome the confusion between
                                           platforms such as Youtube, myspace         must increase peoples’ awareness of
  Open Web-TV is a platform for the        and be watched by the visitors of this                                                  different linguistic terms like infor-
                                                                                      the means of expressing themselves           mation literacy, e –learning, digital
non-commercial audio and video pro-        site at any time.                          effectively and interpret the informa-
ductions that have already been broad-                                                                                             literacy or educational and media
                                           ƒ open Web-TV and           tion that receives especially via blogs,     literacy
casted in an open channel. Visitors can                                               search engines or or advertisements…”
                                             offers additionally the possibility to
watch many of these self-made produc-                                                                                            ƒ more connections between theory
                                             broadcast life, in real-time, confer-      Thus “expressing oneself effective-
tions and everyone who wants can join                                                                                              and practise
                                             ences, interviews;                       ly” now comes to the top of the list
the forum and become a member of it.
                                           ƒ ooncerts or whole broadcasts;            of aspects of media skills. In this “ef-   ƒ to support training methods like
 Besides television, the internet is                                                  fectiveness” we may also understand          blended learning and encourage
seen as a medium that nowadays is          ƒ on the framework of live streams                                                      the connection between e-learning
                                                                                      without damage, without prejudice in
the most important way how to spread         it’s possible to do live reporting in                                                 and face-to-face with non-formal
                                                                                      V. Reding continues, saying that it’s
information. The accessibility of the        flash;                                                                                methods.

 34                                                                                                                                                                   35                                                                                                              
                                                                                     media and ICT, in particular the crea-   research and investigation, drama-

MediaTrainer - vocational training
                                                                                     tive use of digital audio-visual media   turgy of a short segment, the shoot and
                                                                                     and the internet. They will also ac-     choosing the image sections and ports.
                                                                                     quire knowledge about methodologies      By producing a short video segment
                 course for the community                                            for teaching media skills to children,
                                                                                     young people, social workers, com-
                                                                                                                              the participants try out functional me-
                                                                                                                              dia work and become familiar with it.

                                          media sector in Europe                     munity media workers, NGO leaders,
                                                                                     migrants and senior citizens.
                                                                                                                              On the theoretical level they learn the
                                                                                                                              basics of journalistic work. Question
                                                                                                                              techniques and writing down a presen-
In contrast to traditional mass media which is a one way com-                         Our vocational training course con-
                                                                                                                              tation (moderation), handling guests
munication, the internet consists of participants who are                            sists of 3 modules:
                                                                                                                              and getting to know the legal frame-
transmitters and receptors at the same time. Users of the                            ƒ module A – video journalism            work of public communication are also
new media are the so called «Produsers», a term synthesising
«Producers» and «Users».                                                             ƒ module B – on-line journalism          parts of this module.

                                                                                     ƒ module C – train the trainer            The aim: Getting to know video jour-

E   veryone can become «a produser».
    Training courses across Europe de-
veloped by the European Youth4Media
                                           Who can attend our courses?
                                            Our primary target groups are lectur-    Module A: video journalism
                                                                                                                              nalism, personal competences and
                                                                                                                              knowledge to take an active part in
                                           ers and people employed in:                                                        public communication.
network together with it’s partners in
8 European countries will help you to                                                 Module A trains the participants in
                                           ƒ vocational education institutions       video journalism, using a functional/                   Module B: on-line
develop your skills in effective use of
ICT and new media. You can become a        ƒ community media centres                 practical approach. The functional and                   journalism
web-TV reporter, new media journalist                                                safe handling of a cam-           era,
or even a trainer.                         ƒ trade unions                                                                                        In module B the
                                                                                     a microphone and
                                           ƒ NGOs                                    sound are taught                                           contents of the pre-
Why develop ICT and new                                                              through small                                               vious module are
                                           ƒ other civil society institutions                                                                    deepened and com-
media skills?                                                                        tasks.      The
                                             In addition vocational education in     participants                                                  plemented. That
 The European Union and its Member                                                                                                                   means       that
                                           social and community media will in-       thereby     get
States want to preserve and devel-                                                                                                                   the functional
                                           terest the employment sector, media       used to the de-
op their leading position and the                                                                                                                    and       practi-
                                           designers, journalists, graphic design-   velopment      of
European economy, which is char-                                                                                                                     cal as well as
                                           ers, media educators, as well as youth    their own ideas
acterised by dynamic technological                                                                                                                   the    theoreti-
                                           and social workers.                       and stories. The
changes. It is important that European                                                                                                               cal journalis-
                                                                                     main criteria are
employees and citizens develop their                                                                                                                 tic basics are
                                           What can you learn?                       exposé       de-
ICT skills and are familiar with social                                                                                                              deepened. On
and community media tools as means          Participants of our training courses                                                                     the    practical
of self-expression and communication.      will acquire skills in the field of new                                                                  level this means

 36                                                                                                                                                              37                                                                                                                  
the production of a further segment/       report or others).                         biography from which the require-          their own seminar preparation. The
broadcast as well as the further use                                                  ments of a good trainer are taken.         ability to deal with participants and
                                            The aim of this module is to deepen
of information gained. That is what                                                   Therefore topics include reflecting on     their products later on when teach-
                                           and reinforce personal journalistic
                                                                                      one’s own values as well as increas-       ing modules A and B is a criteria-led
                                           skills and competences in the field
 The aim of this module                    of video journalism, getting to know
                                                                                      ing understanding of how participants      quality standard for radio, TV and on-
 is to deepen and                                                                     should react as a trainer in the frame-    line products and will be developed
                                           cross media elements for an internet
                                                                                      work of the project. The emphasis lies     in module C as the application of the
 reinforce personal                        based public community and to learn
                                                                                      on “quality in acting”. Because every      principles learned can be tested by the
 journalistic skills and                   how to use on-line tools to get a mes-
                                                                                      competent trainer has to have knowl-       participants within the seminar to get
                                           sage across.
 competences in                                                                       edge about a huge variety of methods       functional and practical experiences
 the field of video                                                                   which allows them to react correctly in    concerning their role. Feedback and
                                           Module C: train the trainer
 journalism...                                                                        different situations with different peo-   dealing with participants in a sensi-
                                             This module is designed for people       ple within the seminar, the second em-     tive manner is also a part of module C,
                                           who on the one hand have the con-          phasis lies on getting to know and test    to ensure an appropriate conveyance
is meant by a cross media approach:        textual media knowledge and com-           different methods.                         of those standards and to gain strong
Journalistic work on several levels,       petences which were imparted within                                                   feedback competences. At the end
                                                                                        Alongside the tools of the cross me-
TV on the one hand but also the other      modules A (video journalism) and B                                                    of the module everything is brought
                                                                                      dia TV journalist (which participants
channels of dissemination like audio       (on-line journalsim). Module C leads                                                  together, with self-reflection on the
                                                                                      learned in modules A and B) this part
and the internet. How does a story         the participants through a role change                                                trainer role and personal feedback of
                                                                                      is about the methods available to con-
need to be worked differently for the      from participant to seminar leader/                                                   the actual training supervisor.
                                                                                      vey knowledge and competences. A
internet? What does it mean to dis-        trainer. Three days working on deep-       theoretical instruction in the areas of     Our training courses are conduct-
seminate on the internet? How do the       ening that understanding follow. The       cognitive, affective and psychomotor       ed across Europe on the national or
hypertext principle and needs of the       module is built up in such a way that      learning aims and the targeted and ap-     European level. Every course consists
users need to be handled to achieve as     participants are taken from their own      propriate application of methods go        of 3 phases: preparation and e-learn-
wide an audience as possible? Which        experiences as a participant into their    hand in hand with that. Also the im-       ing, training course, internship.
text form is needed, which pictures or     new role as a trainer. This is done by     portance of personal reflection about
links are used? Module B aims to give      an instructive process of reflection and   their own preferences and abilities is
the participants a good knowledge of       perception of what it means to be a                                                     Further information on
                                                                                      part of the seminar to strengthen the
crossmedia work.                           trainer and which competences are re-      participants in their prospective train-
 The journalistic knowledge of Module      quired on a personal level.                er role. As well as the variety of meth-     e-learning platform

A is also deepened. Further learning in-    The first two days focus on the con-      ods a trainer needs tools for preparing
                                                                                                                                   ongoing training courses
cludes different interview forms, writ-    veyance of knowledge about the             an ideal seminar.
ing for talking, target-group-specific                                                                                   
                                           project as well as on an introduction to    Participant analysis and a sensible         European web-TV programme and
presentations and knowledge of differ-     the new role. This is done by personal                                                  vocational education magazines
                                                                                      use of evaluation results should make
ent journalistic forms (news, segment,     reflection about one’s own learning        the prospective trainers feel safe in

 38                                                                                                                                                                 39                                                                                                               

                        web - TV
                                                                                    We recommend you to convert your video

                                                                                   using a freeware (SUPER eRight Soft).
                                                                                    Main parameters are:
                                                                                    •	    aspect ratio: 4:3

                            (                                    •	
                                                                                          frame/sec: 25
                                                                                          resolution: 384 x 288
                                                                                    •	    bitrate: 576 kbps
                                                                                    •	    Audio: 44100 sampling frequency, 2
Michał Wójcik, Poland                                                                     channels, bitrate: 128 kbps.

                                                                                  channel Bucharest and York.                  page, where you can edit the video. is a platform for the non-commercial video
                                                                                                                               Don’t click anything. Just wait and it
productions. The motto of this platform is ‘community media                        Local community media centers can
                                                                                                                               will take you automatically to the next
Europe’. It means that this web-TV is made by citizens, by lo-                    broadcast in their national languages.
cal communities from different European countries.                                                                             page (editing panel).
                                                                                  The main channel
                                                                                  broadcasts only in English. The best         ƒ change your video title

E is mostly made
   by young and active people in
Poland, Germany, Ukraine, Belarus,
                                      can get it’s own web-TV channel
                                      and stream it’s productions on-line.
                                                                                  productions from our national part-
                                                                                  ners are translated and streamed in the
                                                                                                                               ƒ write short description on the
                                                                                  main channel.
                                      The mission of the is                                                     ƒ put some keywords referring to
                                      promoting solidarity, tolerance and                                                        your video
                                                                                  How to upload video report -
                                      cooperation. Moreover it is also rais-
                                      ing European citizens consciousness.
                                                                                  step by step                                 ƒ make      the     slug          (like
                                      European web-TV team initiate de-                                                          european_video_report)
                                                                                   At first you have to sign up and after-
                                      bates about important European is-
                                                                                  wards log into the platform. You will        ƒ choose the thumbnail of the video
                                      sues, present different point of views,
                                                                                  enter a dashboard, which is an inter-          - click the ‘Thumbnail’ tab. Here
                                      different solutions of social problems
                                      and different opinions of European          nal content management system.                 you will see the player. Let the
                                      citizens.                                                                                  video run. In the box ‘Select frame
                                                                                   1.    Upload your video
                                                                                                                                 in player window’ you will see the
                                      How to join the platform?                     Click upload video near the VIDEO            current second of the movie. Select
                                                                                  icon. Than you have to click the               the frame by stopping the video.
                                       Everyone can sign up and upload his        Upload button and choose the                   Click ‘Update thumbnail’.
                                      own video reports. Community media          file from your computer. Please
                                                                                                                               ƒ put your video on-line by changing
Romania, United Kingdom and           centers can get it’s own channel for        choose .flv files (up to 100 MB).
Turkey. But it is open to everyone,                                                                                              it’s status to Published one.
                                      video streaming. For now we have local      After selecting your video click ADD
to every local or national commu-     channels from Lublin and Muenster. In       button. It starts uploading. Be patient.      Remember: always click Update
nity media broadcaster. Each one      the near future we will also create local   It will take you automatically to the        status.

 40                                                                                                                                                              41                                                                                                                

                                                                                     We give young                    people
                                                                                                                the   voice digital media

                                                                                     European Youth4Media e.V. is an association of 34 organisa-
                                                                                     tions from 23 countries working in the field of community me-
                                                                                     dia and civil society.

                                                                                      Youth4Media has a wide sphere of          the different national point of views,
                                                                                     activities on local as well as on the      a variety of themes are discussed and
                                                                                     European level. The main spheres of        presented in films. Thus, the young-
                                                                                     activities include:                        sters work out specific values and ele-
                                                                                                                                ments which clarify the characteristics
                                                                                     Political, intercultural and               of active citizenship and codetermina-
                                                                                     media education                            tion and how they can be realized.

 2.   Put your video in the playlist            start watching it.                     The new informational technologies       Intercultural dialogue projects
                                                                                     are offering attractive means of com-      (disseminated via europeanweb.
 Under the icon ‘Programs’ you will          In    case     of     technical prob-
                                                                                     munication which are adopted to in-        tv)
see the ‘List of programms’. Click         lems you can always contact
                                                                                     tercultural learning and political edu-
on it. You will see the ‘main’ list. In    us       at:
                                                                                     cation. The youngsters deal with the         Local and European events are broad-
the Operations click the first icon        If your community media center is in-
                                                                                     different possibilities of civic engage-   casted by European Web-TV team all
operationplaylist.                         terested in getting your own channel
                                                                                     ments on local and on European level.      over Europe (,
                                           feel also free to contact us.
  This is the playlist in the main play-                                             Young people investigate political, cul-, It’s in-
er on the starting page. Please put                                                  tural, social issues in public debates     dependent from the state and dissemi-
your video in the right order. It goes                                               with politicians and experts, dealing      nates films of young people from the
very fast, because here you have a                                                   with questions of the European civil       network. It features information about
drag&drop function. Drag your video                                                  society. These debates are disseminat-     new members, EU-related films, films
from the left column to the right one                                                ed live via internet, with involvement     concerning issues of antidiscrimina-
and put in the order. Than clik Update                                               of the European partners (www.ngotv.       tion, tolerance and understanding in
playlist.                                                                            eu and and by that are        Europe, broadcast of public debates,
                                                                                     reaching a Europe wide public. From        conferences and cultural events to
 3.   Your video is on-line. You can

 42                                                                                                                                                               43                                                                                                                 

                                                                                      The Virtue of Youth4Media:
promote the specific cultural values         Members of the network are Eurodesk
and intercultural dialogue between a        and Europe Direct service points. They
wide range of stakeholders from dif-        offer all important information con-
ferent sectors in an active and innova-
tive way; it raises the awareness of all
                                            cerning the Youth in Action Program
                                            and other European programs. Internet
                                                                                                               The story of a participant
those living in the EU, especially the      and TV, being very popular for young-
                                                                                      Mathew Davies, United Kingdom
young people, about the importance of       sters, are intensively used and by that
the intercultural dialogue in their daily   reach this age class directly.
life. This innovative service is offered
                                                                                      For something to happen, there needs to be a happener!
by the young people engaged in the          International youth cooperation
NGO´s in the Y4M network.
                                              The network supports the mobility of    Introduction                               of Young Leaders. Prior to this event I
Training and exchange of                    youngsters by organizing international                                               was invited by the organisers, and spe-
experts of the youth media work             youth media camps. Guided by trained
                                            multipliers, the youngsters learn how     M     y name is Mathew Davies, I am
                                                                                            twenty five years old and from the
                                                                                      United Kingdom. I now study at the
                                                                                                                                 cifically by the European Youth4Media
                                                                                                                                 Network (Youth4Media) to participate
  In regular training- seminars, innova-    to produce TV-reports. They create                                                   in a debate which pertained to the
tive and media-pedagogical concepts         films, music, digital media and live      University of Bristol and oversee the
                                                                                      development of the NGO ‘the Beyond         Lisbon Treaty. This was my first con-
for the promotion of political educa-       TV broadcasts). Hands-on media work                                                  tact with Youth4Media and therefore a
                                                                                      Security Network’. For the past three
tion are put into practice. These semi-     is a possibility for the youngsters to                                               good place to begin.
                                                                                      years I have had the pleasure to par-
nars offer new professional- and me-        express themselves in a creative way,     ticipate in two young leaders forums in
diation competences to workers and          to present their own world, to reflect    2008 and 2009, both in Nowy Sacz in        Economic Forum of Young
volunteers for their work especially        the reality and to articulate their own   Southern Poland, and two trainings in      Leaders (September 2008,
with unprivileged youngsters. The           interests. The products are dissemi-      Berlin in December 2009 and Istanbul       Poland)
participants learn how to work out and      nated widely via internet (www.euro-      in May 2010.
how to present political and intercul-, and www.           I would like to share my observa-          During the debate the first thing which
tural themes together with youngsters. and via Open TV Channels in      tions and findings with respect to         caught my attention was the diversity
In the network, also youth institutions     Europe (about 15 million people).         these events with you. To do this in a     of the participants. Some were young
of the Roma-minority and NGO´s of                                                     concise way I would like you to imag-      politicians beginning their careers,
Eastern Europe are engaged.                                                           ine that you study politics in some do-    whereas others worked for think tanks
                                                                                      main, and at the end of the first year     and NGO‘s. Therefore many differ-
Promoting European                                                                    of your studies you began attending        ent systems of thought were heard by
information. Advocacy for                                                             conferences and networking at several      members of the audience at the debate.
community media development                                                           Institutions throughout the European       In the course of 3 days a few networks
in Europe                                                                             region. I did precisely this in the sum-   from Youth4 Media taught a group of
                                                                                      mer of 2008, and one of the events that    us how to use a camera and film street
 Our association promotes                                                                                                        interviews. I was very nervous about
                                                                                      I attended was the Economic Forum

 44                                                                                                                                                                  45                                                                                                                    
this and thought it would be more           Economic Forum of Young                       I returned to Nowy Sacz in 2009           produce a short film. Prior to meeting in
appropriate to have been prepared.          Leaders (September 2009,                    however this time I helped the              Berlin I finished the online e-learning
Nevertheless it was an exhilarating         Poland)                                     Youth4Media team film interviews and        lessons which introduced the theoreti-
process. During this period I met the                                                   construct questions. I remember inter-      cal elements of filming in preparation
Director of Bennohaus, which is a pub-        The forum of young leaders is an          viewing Dick Roche. I was so embar-         for practise. I found this theoretical
lic media service in Münster Germany.       event which brought students, and           rassed because I failed to pronounce        process very useful, and on reflection
His name is Joachim, and he explained       civil society members to Nowy Sacz in       his name correctly, however being the       vital. This is because terminology such
that the virtue of civil and youth media    Southern Poland (close to Krakow) to        good sport he is, he laughed it off and     as white balance, dolly and many oth-
lay in the politicisation of important      ask direct questions to various panels      delivered a great interview. In addition    ers, including the feedback from my
issues portrayed in a fun way. At this      which included ex and current presi-        to the personal and professional level,     trainer meant I was in good stead upon
point I found it dificult to comprehend     dents, Lords, Ministers and economists      I noticed that the Youth4Media team         arriving in Berlin. Therefore when I did
Joachim’s thesis because I still couldn’t   from the Bretton Woods Institutes and       were open and happy to work with            arrive in Berlin for the training I was
see how and why this was necessary a        vital think tanks. This atmosphere and      other networks like my own. Moreover        prepared and ready to transform theo-
political process and or system, albeit     circumstance facilitated, in my opin-       in collaboration with my own reflec-        ry into practise. The process of revising
one which reports on political issues.      ion, a situation where young aspiring       tions I decided it was time to learn how    what I had learnt in the e-learning was
However, we filmed a debate which           leaders were energised by the positive      to film.This was because I realised that    proceeded by the production of a short
was about the ratification of the Lisbon    feedback and networking possibili-          politics is not something to be hidden      movie on German Christmas Markets.
Treaty in a pro and con style. The pro      ties in virtue of this forum. This led to   away, but for deepening democracy,          I think the group I was in worked to-
side, which means the side which de-        synergy between participants when           decentralising power, and addressing        gether well and made an entertaining
fended the Treaty had to challenge          planning new projects and gathering         the low turn out in elections in 2009,      short movie.
and debate with the con side, which         information vital to ones self develop-     which was a miserable 42%. It was,
                                            ment. However, what truly caught my                                                       More generally, the week went fan-
tried to prove to the audience that the                                                 and is paramount that information
                                            attention was what was happening                                                        tastic and was a lot of fun. At the end
Lisbon treaty was not a good policy.                                                    pertaining to the structure and poli-
                                            behind the scenes. This was a forum                                                     of the week we had a second debate.
                                                                                        cies of parties, and stories throughout
 When I watched the debate back it          established by co-operating networks                                                    this time it concerned the newly rati-
                                                                                        the political domain, be accessible,
quickly became clear how youth me-          through the direct action of young                                                      fied Lisbon Treaty, and the mecha-
                                                                                        transparent and entertaining not only
dia could be used in a virtuous way,        people from the European region, and                                                    nisms which emerged from the Treaty,
                                                                                        in commercial media but from outside
not only through deploying the tools to     within individual states. Facilitated by                                                specifically the new president of the
                                                                                        it. Therefore I applied to take part in a
equip people with a voice to share their    the Youth in Action Programme, which                                                    European Union. It was a logical con-
                                                                                        training course ‘Video journalism’ or-
ideas and disseminate information.          is designed to, among others objec-                                                     tinuation of the previous debate from
                                                                                        ganised by the Youth4 Media.
But also by role playing conflictual        tives, deepen democracy and steer                                                       2008, and the movie is now online
scenario’s which were prescient and         youth initiatives. For me this was the                                                  ( which in-
granted a voice to members of civil so-                                                 Video journalism training                   cludes street interviews of what peo-
                                            perfect example of positive multi re-       course (December 2009, Berlin)
ciety from across the European terrain.     gional collaboration and good politics,                                                 ple in Berlin thought about the new
This, I believe, facilitated democracy      and thus led me to continuing my in-          This course aims to equip the par-        president.
in action.                                  terest in this sphere after the Forum.      ticipants with the technical skills to       Overall, the entire week was an

 46                                                                                                                                                                     47                                                                                                                     
interesting mix of political education,     ing ‘the other’. Therefore attention was      the experience of Istanbul was fabu-       incite dialogue and develop this space
practical tools and cultural learning.      drawn to methods, focused feedback,           lous. There is so much to learn about      of civil society and to meet new chal-
I would argue that these elements to-       quality management and discourse              this remarkable City. All the partici-     lenges in a progressive way.
gether in a fun environment facilitated     analysis.                                     pants, I think, gathered a rich insight
                                                                                                                                       In summary the joy of working in the
my learning because I was empowered                                                       into the (multi) cultural nature of
                                              Prior to the course I didn’t think that                                                domain of political communication
rather than forced, to convert theory                                                     Istanbul. The experience served as
                                            I would gather much from this course                                                     is multi layered and delivers many
into practise.                                                                            another example of cultural learning.
                                            as I have a background in philosophy,                                                    opportunities. I would highly recom-
                                                                                          Therefore I think it is clear that the
                                            however I was wrong. For example:                                                        mend that others learn and collabo-
Train the Trainers (May 2010,                                                             above projects and conferences have
                                            there were moments during the week                                                       rate from the mechanisms and profes-
Istanbul)                                                                                 impacted on me in a very clear and
                                            where I not only explored the meta                                                       sionals which already exist inside the
                                                                                          progressive way.
  In May I attended Train the train-        physical level of what type of trainer                                                   sphere of civil media. Whilst under-
ers course which aims to equip future       I would like to be. But I was also im-                                                   standing that sometimes the trainings
                                            mersed in challenging environments            Conclusion                                 and processes can be a little stressful.
trainers with the necessary skills to be-
come multipliers. This is a role which      with others which made me reflect on            This impact has yielded a hunger         This is because bureaucracy, and com-
aims to pass knowledge and multilevel       my own form and approach to problem           for me to organise projects with part-     munication across sovereign stress can
skills in a way which will benefit the      solving and conflict management.              ners outside and within the United         present challenges, even when facili-
participant, and facilitate his or her                                                    Kingdom. There are many subjects           tated by a regional management sys-
                                              It ought to be noted that I realised that
learning. This was a more theoreti-                                                       such as network society, the demo-         tem such as the European Union.
                                            being a trainer is certainly not an easy
cal module than the video journalism        job. It takes precision and the ability       cratic deficit and European expansion        In virtue of these challenges, the
one. Nevertheless the week was led by       to juggle many                  skills si-    which I think require civil engagement,    projects ought, I think to be perceived
an established competent and intelli-       multaneously.                      This is    drawn together through networks.           as training exercises where everyone is
gent trainer of trainers who made the       a     challenge                    which      Youth4Media is a web of networks           learning and helping one another for
week fun and enlightening. This week        I am grate-                        ful    I   which requires more transparent and        many reasons in achieving different
                           explored         was given the                       chance    accessible systems, partners and more      objectives. This is something which is
                            the (meta)      to explore.                                   generally information management           central to civil society more broadly,
                             philo-                                                       systems. This is normal, as an organi-     and integral to regionalism, such as
                                             In                                  a d -
                             sophical                                                     sation, or score of networks increases,    the European project evidently shows.
                              dimen-                                                      efficiency reduces. Therefore centralis-   Thus I finish on the assumption that
                              sions of                                                    ing the networks, in a democratic and      the virtue of Youth4Media lays in its
                                                                                          progressive way may steer a more func-     hunger for partnership, deepening de-
                                                                                          tional, and perhaps more projects and      mocracy and active engagement in vi-
                                                                                          further successful collaboration. That     tal developments which affects people
                                                                                          is one reason why a conference on the      today.
                                                                                          5th anniversary of the Youth4Media
                                            t    o
                                  train-                                                  in Brussels is extremely important. To

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