Annotated Bibliography by linzhengnd


									                                                                                    Sharon Synan 1
                                                                          Annotated Bibliography

                                     Annotated Bibliography

Balajthy, E. (2007). Technology and current reading literacy assessment strategies. Reading

      Teacher, 61(3), 240-247. doi:10.1598/RT.61.3.4

       This article discusses the variety of literacy assessments available both paper based and

       online. The author gives an opinion of the best design, function and reliability based on

       the modes of delivery. Along with the assessment descriptions, the author points out that

       the study of literacy has become the study of new literacies which require new skills,

       strategies and dispositions that are needed to successfully communicate on the internet.

       The author writes in the conclusion a major concern with assessments in general

       regarding the restrictions that assessments place on determining reading ability, and may

       take away from the scope and richness of reading and literacy instruction.

       This article is important because it brings up the limitations of current assessments in a

       digital learning environment. The article could be used to make the case that current

       assessments, even online assessments, measure linear text and disregards the multiple

       modes and systematic process involved in reading. The writing is clear and detailed in

       explaining the current popular assessments. I like the quote given on page 240 quoting

       Durkin, “Do not replace teaching with testing”.

Burnett, C. (2009). Research into literacy and technology in primary classrooms: An exploration

       of understandings generated by recent studies. Journal of Research in Reading, 32(1), 22-

       37. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9817.2008.01379.x

       Cathy Burnett disaggregates 38 empirical studies on literacy practices; both traditional

       and new literacies. In this article literacy is categorized in three ways; operational,
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       cultural and critical. A significant finding from this literature is that most reading

       programs take traditional reading instruction approaches and automate the process.

       Although this automation is a step toward innovation by adding in technology it does not

       transform reading instruction as required by new literacies. This article is important to my

       study of literacy measurement because it breaks down the processes of literacy into easily

       defined categories and it supports my hypothesis that new assessments need to be

       designed that will transform literacy instruction to include multi-modes of literacy

       instruction. I was somewhat disappointed that Burnett did not expand on her conclusions

       and needs for further research.

Dyson, M.C. (2004). How physical text layout affects reading from screen. Behavior and

      Information Technology, 23(6), 377-393. doi:10.1080/01449090410001715714

       This article examines several empirical research studies of typography and screen

       reading. It examines typography variables such as line, length, columns, window size,

       inter linear spacing. Dyson points out methodological issues are prevalent when

       comparing individual studies. Further studies are needed to explore line length, eye

       movement, scrolling movements, reading patterns and familiarity with formats. This

       paper helps identify some of the hindrances in adopting and adapting to screen text and

       adapting to screen text in the past may simply be based on capability. In the 1980’s

       constraints on screen type was limited to 25 lines of 80 columns or 32 lines of 80

       columns. This information is vital when considering current assessments of screen text

       are still based on these limitations which are no longer viable. This article is important to

       my research in assessing reading in a digital learning environment because it breaks

       screen text down and compares the screen text with the functions a digital reader will use.
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       By combining the user function and the screen text components the decoding of text can

       be measured with accuracy and leaves room for the instructor to add in or consider other

       modes of reading as well as decoding and would in theory result in a more accurate

       measure of literacy in a digital environment. I found the writing to be scholarly and

       relevant with clear conclusions and interesting points for further research.

Goswami, U. (2008). Reading complexity and the brain. Literacy, 42(2), 67-74.


       This article discusses brain imaging as a method to study and better understand the

       acquisition of reading by children. Goswami writes that reading is a highly complex task

       involving the rapid co-ordination of visual, phonological, semantic and linguistic

       processes. The article goes into a great amount of detail on languages and strategies for

       decoding. This is important to literacy discussions and this research supports the

       complexity of learning to read and that reading is a multi-modal process relying on

       visual, auditory cues as well as phonology and semantics. This article is important to my

       research because it supports the theory that reading is multi-sensory with physical

       evidence from the brain imaging. This article actually takes the idea of new literacies to

       a new level where reading is not achieved by transference but rather transduction. The

       writing is somewhat complex and detailed but important when re-defining what reading

       really is.

Larson, L.C. (2010). Digital readers: The next chapter in e-book reading and response. Reading

      Teacher, 64(1), 15-22. doi:10.1598/RT.64.1.2

       This article is about E-readers and how they can be used to increase reading

       comprehension Larson looks at research that argues most children are immersed in
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       multi-modal experiences and, therefore, have a keen awareness of the possibility of

       combining modes and media to create a message. Reading motivation appears higher

       after children interact with multi-modal texts especially among children with reading

       difficulties. Larson conducts a study in a mid-west K-12 district collecting qualitative

       data. This article is important to my research because it collects data that highlights

       multi-modal experiences. Current paper based and online reading assessments measure

       reading in a linear fashion and omit the multi-modal experience. The writer is clear and

       scholarly in presenting the material for the reader and obtained in the research.

Levy, R. (2009). 'You have to understand words...but not read them': Young children becoming

       readers in a digital age. Journal of Research and Reading, 32(1), 75-91.


       This article raises the question about how young children learn to read screen texts and

       how this understanding can influence the teaching of reading within the digital culture in

       which children live today (pg.85). Strong evidence is given as to the use of multi-modal

       cues and using those cues simultaneously. The methodology of study in the research

       presented includes interviews and observations gathering longitudinal data in exploratory

       research. This article is especially important to me in the formation of my research

       interests and hypothesis. Observing young students using words on screen and by trial

       and error learning the meaning and function of those words is highly interesting. This

       research shows the more they work with the print the more meaning the print makes.

       When moving into traditional school settings confidence with printed words drops due to

       the demands of decoding and the emphasis on decoding type linear tests. This is the most
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       important piece I have read so far. This article is the catalyst for my research interest and

       I would like to make some efforts to communicate with the author directly.

Malloy, J.A. & Gambrell, L.B. (2006). Approaching the unavoidable: Literacy instruction and

      the internet. Reading Teacher, 59(5), 482-484. doi:10.1598/RT.59.5.8

       This article asks the question, how does reading online differ from reading print? Two

       major differences make up the majority of the analysis beginning with the purpose for

       reading. Whether in print or online the main purpose for reading is to obtain information

       or content. The internet provides a greater number of pages. Pages can be book marked

       like print pages. Although we teach students to question the author of a book, using

       strategies to discern and evaluate online text becomes critical. In addition the use of

       keywords and searching techniques adds a level of learning not unlike finding a book in

       the library but more complex with many paths. This article is important to my research

       to show that reading requires multi-modal strategies and modes to read in a digital

       environment. The research and conclusions found by the authors show that reading print-

       based and digital text have some similarities but multiple differences. This article helps

       establish the need to look at assessments to see if the multi-modal strategies and modes

       are considered when reading digital environment. I appreciate the contrast and

       comparison nature of the writer’s findings and I think this article is important for that


Mangen, A. (2008). Hypertext fiction reading haptics and immersion. Journal of Research in

       Reading, 31(4), 404-419. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9817.2008.00380.x

       This article examines the multi-sensory functions of reading. Reading traditional text

       requires decoding and phenomenological skills but additionally it requires a connection
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       with reader and the text in a physical sense. This research considers what our bodies are

       doing when we read specifically and in particular our fingers and hands, for the

       immersive fiction reading experience. More and more of our daily reading is reading

       from screens rather than reading from print. This article considers how digital

       technology changes the ways we read. Readers use decoding strategies to decipher print

       based text, however, when reading digital text different modes and cues for

       understanding are used. It is important to point out that advancements in technology and

       in the digital learning environments over the last ten years have greatly increased the

       physical connection between the reader and the digital text allowing the reader to have

       the multi-sensory and tactile ability. This article is important to my research to show how

       important the advancements in technology related to digital text have changed and added

       to the multi-sensory nature capable in a digital environment. When considering

       assessment, a linear assessment is not sufficient to measure reading ability and

       comprehension when learned in a multi-modal and multi-sensory environment. I think

       this article brings a new perspective when thinking about readers and text. Focusing

       more on the physical act of reading rather than the process and strategies enabling the

       reader to understand and decode the text.

Rickelman, R.J., & Henk, W.A. (1990). Reading technology and the brain. Reading Teacher,

     43(4), 334-336.

       This article is more of a science article than a reading education article but is nonetheless

       critical to the understanding of reading and reading processes. This article identifies and

       explains the technology devices that enable scientist and researchers to see the brain as it

       functions. This is known as neuroimaging technology. This technology is unnatural and
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      very costly. The article is important because it brings medical science to education and to

      begin preparing the way for educators to embrace new ideas for diagnosing reading

      problems and for addressing those issues early and effectively. I found it especially

      interesting to read the discoveries these technologies have provided in regard to dyslexic


Walsh, M. (2008). Worlds have collided and modes have merged: Classroom evidence of

     changed literacy practices. Literacy, 42(2), 101-108. doi:10.1111/j.1741-


      Walsh writes on policy and practices in education. As technology changes practices of

      literacy new definitions and pedagogy are needed. The article briefly mentions the need

      for a new assessment and the assessment work done by Bearne in 2007. Re-defining

      literacy and recognizing the convergence of categories in the past not considered when

      measuring literacy. In conclusion the recognition that literacy can no longer be measured

      in a linear manner but is rather complex and multi-modal. Walsh covers research that

      includes these examples of data: observation, video data, teacher and student digital and

      print journals, student work samples. This article is important to research of literacy

      assessment because it highlights visual modes and auditory modes are used when reading

      digital text. The author further re-defines literacy to include multi-modal literacy.

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