Sharon Synan 1 Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography Balajthy, E. (2007). Technology and current reading literacy assessment strategies. Reading Teacher, 61(3), 240-247. doi:10.1598/RT.61.3.4 This article discusses the variety of literacy assessments available both paper based and online. The author gives an opinion of the best design, function and reliability based on the modes of delivery. Along with the assessment descriptions, the author points out that the study of literacy has become the study of new literacies which require new skills, strategies and dispositions that are needed to successfully communicate on the internet. The author writes in the conclusion a major concern with assessments in general regarding the restrictions that assessments place on determining reading ability, and may take away from the scope and richness of reading and literacy instruction. This article is important because it brings up the limitations of current assessments in a digital learning environment. The article could be used to make the case that current assessments, even online assessments, measure linear text and disregards the multiple modes and systematic process involved in reading. The writing is clear and detailed in explaining the current popular assessments. I like the quote given on page 240 quoting Durkin, “Do not replace teaching with testing”. Burnett, C. (2009). Research into literacy and technology in primary classrooms: An exploration of understandings generated by recent studies. Journal of Research in Reading, 32(1), 22- 37. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9817.2008.01379.x Cathy Burnett disaggregates 38 empirical studies on literacy practices; both traditional and new literacies. In this article literacy is categorized in three ways; operational, Sharon Synan 2 Annotated Bibliography cultural and critical. A significant finding from this literature is that most reading programs take traditional reading instruction approaches and automate the process. Although this automation is a step toward innovation by adding in technology it does not transform reading instruction as required by new literacies. This article is important to my study of literacy measurement because it breaks down the processes of literacy into easily defined categories and it supports my hypothesis that new assessments need to be designed that will transform literacy instruction to include multi-modes of literacy instruction. I was somewhat disappointed that Burnett did not expand on her conclusions and needs for further research. Dyson, M.C. (2004). How physical text layout affects reading from screen. Behavior and Information Technology, 23(6), 377-393. doi:10.1080/01449090410001715714 This article examines several empirical research studies of typography and screen reading. It examines typography variables such as line, length, columns, window size, inter linear spacing. Dyson points out methodological issues are prevalent when comparing individual studies. Further studies are needed to explore line length, eye movement, scrolling movements, reading patterns and familiarity with formats. This paper helps identify some of the hindrances in adopting and adapting to screen text and adapting to screen text in the past may simply be based on capability. In the 1980’s constraints on screen type was limited to 25 lines of 80 columns or 32 lines of 80 columns. This information is vital when considering current assessments of screen text are still based on these limitations which are no longer viable. This article is important to my research in assessing reading in a digital learning environment because it breaks screen text down and compares the screen text with the functions a digital reader will use. Sharon Synan 3 Annotated Bibliography By combining the user function and the screen text components the decoding of text can be measured with accuracy and leaves room for the instructor to add in or consider other modes of reading as well as decoding and would in theory result in a more accurate measure of literacy in a digital environment. I found the writing to be scholarly and relevant with clear conclusions and interesting points for further research. Goswami, U. (2008). Reading complexity and the brain. Literacy, 42(2), 67-74. doi:10.1111/j.1741-4369.2008.00484.x This article discusses brain imaging as a method to study and better understand the acquisition of reading by children. Goswami writes that reading is a highly complex task involving the rapid co-ordination of visual, phonological, semantic and linguistic processes. The article goes into a great amount of detail on languages and strategies for decoding. This is important to literacy discussions and this research supports the complexity of learning to read and that reading is a multi-modal process relying on visual, auditory cues as well as phonology and semantics. This article is important to my research because it supports the theory that reading is multi-sensory with physical evidence from the brain imaging. This article actually takes the idea of new literacies to a new level where reading is not achieved by transference but rather transduction. The writing is somewhat complex and detailed but important when re-defining what reading really is. Larson, L.C. (2010). Digital readers: The next chapter in e-book reading and response. Reading Teacher, 64(1), 15-22. doi:10.1598/RT.64.1.2 This article is about E-readers and how they can be used to increase reading comprehension Larson looks at research that argues most children are immersed in Sharon Synan 4 Annotated Bibliography multi-modal experiences and, therefore, have a keen awareness of the possibility of combining modes and media to create a message. Reading motivation appears higher after children interact with multi-modal texts especially among children with reading difficulties. Larson conducts a study in a mid-west K-12 district collecting qualitative data. This article is important to my research because it collects data that highlights multi-modal experiences. Current paper based and online reading assessments measure reading in a linear fashion and omit the multi-modal experience. The writer is clear and scholarly in presenting the material for the reader and obtained in the research. Levy, R. (2009). 'You have to understand words...but not read them': Young children becoming readers in a digital age. Journal of Research and Reading, 32(1), 75-91. doi:10.1111/j.1467.9817.2008.01382.x This article raises the question about how young children learn to read screen texts and how this understanding can influence the teaching of reading within the digital culture in which children live today (pg.85). Strong evidence is given as to the use of multi-modal cues and using those cues simultaneously. The methodology of study in the research presented includes interviews and observations gathering longitudinal data in exploratory research. This article is especially important to me in the formation of my research interests and hypothesis. Observing young students using words on screen and by trial and error learning the meaning and function of those words is highly interesting. This research shows the more they work with the print the more meaning the print makes. When moving into traditional school settings confidence with printed words drops due to the demands of decoding and the emphasis on decoding type linear tests. This is the most Sharon Synan 5 Annotated Bibliography important piece I have read so far. This article is the catalyst for my research interest and I would like to make some efforts to communicate with the author directly. Malloy, J.A. & Gambrell, L.B. (2006). Approaching the unavoidable: Literacy instruction and the internet. Reading Teacher, 59(5), 482-484. doi:10.1598/RT.59.5.8 This article asks the question, how does reading online differ from reading print? Two major differences make up the majority of the analysis beginning with the purpose for reading. Whether in print or online the main purpose for reading is to obtain information or content. The internet provides a greater number of pages. Pages can be book marked like print pages. Although we teach students to question the author of a book, using strategies to discern and evaluate online text becomes critical. In addition the use of keywords and searching techniques adds a level of learning not unlike finding a book in the library but more complex with many paths. This article is important to my research to show that reading requires multi-modal strategies and modes to read in a digital environment. The research and conclusions found by the authors show that reading print- based and digital text have some similarities but multiple differences. This article helps establish the need to look at assessments to see if the multi-modal strategies and modes are considered when reading digital environment. I appreciate the contrast and comparison nature of the writer’s findings and I think this article is important for that purpose. Mangen, A. (2008). Hypertext fiction reading haptics and immersion. Journal of Research in Reading, 31(4), 404-419. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9817.2008.00380.x This article examines the multi-sensory functions of reading. Reading traditional text requires decoding and phenomenological skills but additionally it requires a connection Sharon Synan 6 Annotated Bibliography with reader and the text in a physical sense. This research considers what our bodies are doing when we read specifically and in particular our fingers and hands, for the immersive fiction reading experience. More and more of our daily reading is reading from screens rather than reading from print. This article considers how digital technology changes the ways we read. Readers use decoding strategies to decipher print based text, however, when reading digital text different modes and cues for understanding are used. It is important to point out that advancements in technology and in the digital learning environments over the last ten years have greatly increased the physical connection between the reader and the digital text allowing the reader to have the multi-sensory and tactile ability. This article is important to my research to show how important the advancements in technology related to digital text have changed and added to the multi-sensory nature capable in a digital environment. When considering assessment, a linear assessment is not sufficient to measure reading ability and comprehension when learned in a multi-modal and multi-sensory environment. I think this article brings a new perspective when thinking about readers and text. Focusing more on the physical act of reading rather than the process and strategies enabling the reader to understand and decode the text. Rickelman, R.J., & Henk, W.A. (1990). Reading technology and the brain. Reading Teacher, 43(4), 334-336. This article is more of a science article than a reading education article but is nonetheless critical to the understanding of reading and reading processes. This article identifies and explains the technology devices that enable scientist and researchers to see the brain as it functions. This is known as neuroimaging technology. This technology is unnatural and Sharon Synan 7 Annotated Bibliography very costly. The article is important because it brings medical science to education and to begin preparing the way for educators to embrace new ideas for diagnosing reading problems and for addressing those issues early and effectively. I found it especially interesting to read the discoveries these technologies have provided in regard to dyslexic readers. Walsh, M. (2008). Worlds have collided and modes have merged: Classroom evidence of changed literacy practices. Literacy, 42(2), 101-108. doi:10.1111/j.1741- 4369.2008.00495.x Walsh writes on policy and practices in education. As technology changes practices of literacy new definitions and pedagogy are needed. The article briefly mentions the need for a new assessment and the assessment work done by Bearne in 2007. Re-defining literacy and recognizing the convergence of categories in the past not considered when measuring literacy. In conclusion the recognition that literacy can no longer be measured in a linear manner but is rather complex and multi-modal. Walsh covers research that includes these examples of data: observation, video data, teacher and student digital and print journals, student work samples. This article is important to research of literacy assessment because it highlights visual modes and auditory modes are used when reading digital text. The author further re-defines literacy to include multi-modal literacy.
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