Bags of Shelter by cuiliqing

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									Humangineers




Bags of Shelter
[Type the document subtitle]
Heather Baker, Marley DeLlamas, Brianne Reilly,
Tahsa Sturgis




                                     Spring
                                      2010
Bags of Shelter                                                                                                              Humangineers




Table of Contents
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................ ii
Table of Figures & Tables.................................................................................................................v
1 Problem Formulation .................................................................................................................. 1
   1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1
   1.2 Objective ............................................................................................................................... 1
2 Problem Analysis and Literature Review .................................................................................... 1
   2.1       Introduction to the Problem Analysis ............................................................................... 1
      2.1.1 Specifications .................................................................................................................. 1
      2.1.2 Considerations ............................................................................................................... 1
      2.1.3 Criteria........................................................................................................................... 2
      2.1.4 Usage ............................................................................................................................. 2
      2.1.5 Production Volume ....................................................................................................... 2
   2.2 Introduction to Literature Review ...................................................................................... 2
   2.3 World Shelters ..................................................................................................................... 2
   2.4 Client Criteria ...................................................................................................................... 3
   2.5       Earthen Construction ....................................................................................................... 3
      2.5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 3
      2.5.2 Wattle and Daub ........................................................................................................... 3
      2.5.3 Cob ................................................................................................................................ 4
      2.5.4 Earthbags ...................................................................................................................... 5
      2.5.5 Compressed Earth Block ............................................................................................... 5
      2.5.6 Rammed Earth .............................................................................................................. 6
      2.5.8 Mud Bricks .................................................................................................................... 6
      2.5.9 Quake Safe Adobe ..........................................................................................................7
   2.6 Rice Hull Bag Construction ..................................................................................................7
   2.7 Haiti ..................................................................................................................................... 9
      2.7.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 9
      2.7.2 Topography of Haiti ...................................................................................................... 9
      2.7.3 Climate of Haiti ............................................................................................................. 9
      2.7.4 Soils ............................................................................................................................... 9
      2.7.5 Vegetation .................................................................................................................... 11
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Bags of Shelter                                                                                                            Humangineers



      2.7.6 Economy ...................................................................................................................... 11
      2.7.7 Haiti Labor Force ......................................................................................................... 12
      2.7.8 Imports ........................................................................................................................ 12
      2.7.9 Exports ......................................................................................................................... 12
      2.7.10 Agriculture ................................................................................................................. 12
      2.7.11 Natural Resources ....................................................................................................... 13
      2.7.12 Industry ...................................................................................................................... 13
   2.8 Polypropylene ..................................................................................................................... 13
3 Alternative Solutions ................................................................................................................. 13
   3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 14
   3.2 Brainstorming .................................................................................................................... 14
   3.3 Alternative Solutions .......................................................................................................... 14
      3.3.1 Don’t be a Square ......................................................................................................... 14
      3.3.2 The U-Hull House ........................................................................................................ 15
      3.3.3 Bamboozle.................................................................................................................... 16
      3.3.4 The Gopher Mound ...................................................................................................... 17
      3.3.5 Gobs of Fun ..................................................................................................................18
      3.3.6 Stick in the Mud ........................................................................................................... 19
      3.3.7 Quakelbags .................................................................................................................. 20
      3.3.8           Bags of Shelter ....................................................................................................... 21
4 Decision Process....................................................................................................................... 22
   4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 22
   4.2 Criteria ............................................................................................................................... 22
   4.3 Solutions ............................................................................................................................ 23
   4.4 Decision Process ................................................................................................................ 23
   4.5 Final Decision .................................................................................................................... 26
5 Specification ............................................................................................................................. 26
   5.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 26
   5.2 Description of Solution ...................................................................................................... 26
      5.2.1 The walls ...................................................................................................................... 27
      5.2.2 The roof ....................................................................................................................... 28
      5.2.3 The door and windows ................................................................................................ 29

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Bags of Shelter                                                                                                             Humangineers



      5.2.4 The protective coating................................................................................................. 29
   5.3 Cost .................................................................................................................................... 30
      5.3.1 Design Costs ................................................................................................................ 30
      5.3.2 Materials Costs............................................................................................................ 30
      5.3.3 Maintenance Costs ....................................................................................................... 31
   5.4 Instructions for Implementation and Use of Model ......................................................... 32
Coming soon! ................................................................................................................................ 32
   5.5 Results ............................................................................................................................... 32
References ..................................................................................................................................... 32
6 Appendices ................................................................................................................................. 36
6.1 Group Member Project Hours ................................................................................................. 36
   Appendix A: Brainstorm Session (1) ......................................................................................... 38
   Appendix B: Brainstorm Session (2)......................................................................................... 39




                                                                        iv
Bags of Shelter                                                                                                               Humangineers




List of Figures
Figure 1-1: The black box model gives a simplified overview of what the design
implementation will accomplish...................................................................................................... 1
Figure 2-1: Wattle wall with horizontal weaving. (The Wattle Panels are Rendered with Daub.
2002.).............................................................................................................................................. 4
Figure 2-2: A foundation made for a cob structure. (Cob Construction. 2000.) ......................... 5
Figure 2-3: Earth Block (Adam)................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2-4: Bamboo frame shown wrapped around the outside of a previously existing adobe
wall. This is an example of quake safe adobe. (Jones, Dowling 2009)...........................................7
Figure 2-5: Rick Hulls (Oliver) .................................................................................................... 8
Figure 2-6: The first rice hull house built in 2004 (Olivier) ........................................................ 8
Figure 2-7: Rice hull project in Oregon (Stephens) ..................................................................... 9
Figure 2-8: Inceptisol Soil Profile (NRCS) ..................................................................................10
Figure 2-9: Ultisol Soil Profile (NRCS) .......................................................................................10
Figure 2-10: Satellite picture of border between Haiti (left) and Dominican Republic showing
mass amount of deforestation. (Nasa 2002) ................................................................................. 11
Figure 3-1: Don’t be a Square. (Photo by Tahsa Sturgis) ........................................................... 15
Figure 3-2: The U-Hull House. (Photo by Heather Baker) ......................................................... 16
Figure 3-3: Bamoozle. (Photo by Marley DeLlamas) ................................................................. 17
Figure 3-4: The Gopher Mound. (Photo by Marley DeLlamas) ................................................18
Figure 3-5: Gobs of Fun. (Photo by Brianne Reilly) ................................................................... 19
Figure 3-6: Stick in the Mud. (Photo by Brianne Reilly) .......................................................... 20
Figure 3-7: Quakelbags. (Photo by Tahsa Sturgis)..................................................................... 21
Figure 3-8: Bags of Shelter. (Photo by Marley DeLlamas) ....................................................... 22
Figure 5-1: CAD Drawing of model size floor plan. (Source: Marley DeLlamas)....................... 27
Figure 5-2: CAD Drawing of South Elevation (Source: Tahsa Sturgis) .................................... 28
Figure 5-3: CAD Drawing of Roof Plan (Source: Brianne Reilly) ............................................. 29
Figure 5-4: CAD Drawing of 4’ wall with window (Source: Heather Baker) ............................ 29
Figure 5-5: Total Team Design Hours ........................................................................................ 30



List of Tables
Table 4-1: Weighted Criteria ....................................................................................................... 24
Table 4-2: The Delphi Method.................................................................................................... 25
Table 5-1: Cost of Materials for Bags of Shelter ........................................................................... 31
Table 5-2: Maintenance Costs for Bags of Shelter....................................................................... 31




                                                                          v
Bags of Shelter                                                                        Humangineers




1 Problem Formulation
1.1 Introduction
In Phase 1 of the design process the Humangineers formulated an objective statement as well as
a black box diagram shown in Figure 1-1. The diagrams purpose is to show the state of the world
before and after the design implementation.

1.2 Objective
The objective of this project is to design a transitional shelter utilizing dirt as a primary building
resource for disaster relief situations in Haiti. The design of this project will be based off a given
set of criteria by the client, World Shelters.




Figure 1-1: The black box model gives a simplified overview of what the design implementation will
accomplish.




2 Problem Analysis and Literature Review
2.1 Introduction to the Problem Analysis
The problem analysis classifies each of the client criteria and discusses the associated
constraints. Also covered are specifications, considerations, usage, and production volume.

2.1.1 Specifications
Dirt is to be used as primary building resource. Design must be able to provide long-term
housing. Assembly labor is to be done manually to open up jobs in Haiti.

2.1.2 Considerations
Soil samples from Haiti will be unavailable during the first month of our project. An
assumption that Haiti has an abundance of clay will be made while making our designs.




                                                   1
Bags of Shelter                                                                     Humangineers




2.1.3 Criteria


                  Criteria                                     Constraints
      Use of dirt as a building resource                There is an abundance of dirt in Haiti

      Safety, earthquake and hurricane                  The shelter cannot succumb to a
       resistance                                         natural disaster

      Cost                                              Must cost less than $ 350

      Structural integrity                              The shelter framework must be reliable

      Local labor vs. machinery                         In order to boost Haiti’s economy labor
                                                          must stay local and not be dependent
                                                          on machinery.
      Ecological impacts                                Shelter construction must be
                                                          sustainable
      Durable, transitional, repairable                 Shelter must be long lasting; in order
                                                          for this to be possible components
                                                          must be repairable.
      Rapid and simple, mass production                 Quick to set-up and large numbers of
                                                          shelters can be sent to areas in need

2.1.4 Usage
The proposed design will be considered to be used as long-term housing as part of the disaster
relief efforts in Haiti.

2.1.5 Production Volume
One sample size prototype will be built for demonstration purposes.

2.2 Introduction to Literature Review
The purpose of the literature review is to provide appropriate background information which
will provide a give a foundation for the design process. The following topics will be discussed:
World Shelters, client criteria, Haiti, Earthen construction, and properties of mud.

2.3 World Shelters
World Shelters is an organization that operates in Arcata, California. The mission of World
Shelters is to provide temporary relief shelters for people who are victims of natural disasters.
World Shelters also sells the sustainable shelters they create with a portion of sales going to
finance their aid efforts. World Shelters is working with some of the students from the Spring


                                                 2
Bags of Shelter                                                                      Humangineers



2010 Engineering 215 class at Humboldt State University. Together they are working on
designing temporary housing for people displaced by the January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake.

2.4 Client Criteria
 Kurt Therkelsen, of World Shelters (W.S.), presented the requirements for the project on
February 25th. He discussed how the project will, ideally, be used as temporary long-term
housing in the disaster relief effort in Haiti. A main concern of Kurt’s was the use of local labor
and resources. Further requirements for the design project are outlined in the following list of
client criteria:

      Use of dirt as a building resource
      Safety, earthquake and hurricane resistance
      Cost
      Structural Integrity
      Local Labor vs. machinery
      Ecological impacts
      Durable, transitional, repairable
      Rapid and simple, mass production

2.5 Earthen Construction
2.5.1 Introduction
There are many pre-existing techniques and recipes to build structures made largely out of mud;
up to 40 percent of the world’s population lives in earthen housing (Smith 2000). This section
will explore many of these earthen construction methods, reporting advantages and
disadvantages of each.

2.5.2 Wattle and Daub
Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques in the world. Remains of historical
wattle and daub structures exist around the world. They can be found in Africa, North America,
and Europe. (Shaffer 1993)

 Wattle and daub refers to the use of mud and sticks as a building medium. A frame is
constructed and sticks, known as wattle create the walls. Figure 2-1 shows the wattle being
placed between the framework, woven together horizontally. Daub is the mud which is formed
around the waddle to create the walls. Upon completion the structure generally fired to cure the
daub so that it will be protected from the elements (Sunshine 2006). The sticks chosen generally
need to be taken while they are green, meaning they are still wet, so that they will be flexible
enough to weave with. Any type of wood which is insect and fungal resistant is recommended,
hazel is an example of a common wood that has been successfully used as waddle. Daub is
composed of thick clay, chalk, and water mixed with a dried grass. (Sunshine 2006)



                                                 3
Bags of Shelter                                                                      Humangineers




Figure 2-1: Wattle wall with horizontal weaving. (The Wattle Panels are Rendered with Daub. 2002.)



Wattle and Daub can be considered advantageous because it requires little to no use of
machinery, which depends on how the framework is manufactured (Sunshine 2006). The walls
have a high thermal mass which work to keep the cold out in the winter and the heat out in the
summer. Provided a sturdy frame, wattle and daub structures are considered durable and long
lasting. Materials required to build can generally be found on site with the exception of the
frame which is traditionally made from timber. This could require milling and transporting to
site. (Sunshine 2006).

2.5.3 Cob
Cob is an earthen construction method made from a mud mixture and requires no extra
reinforcements in the walls. What sets it apart from other earthen construction methods is its
high proportion of straw. This straw acts as tensile strength in the walls. The process of
building with cob begins with the preparation of the mud, which is hand mixed and stomped to
compact it together. Once a strong foundation is built, the cob is hand formed to make the walls.
Figure 2-2 shows an example of a cob foundation. It is difficult to build more than one foot in
height per day in order for it to dry out enough to support the next layer (McCann 2004). The
tensile strength of the straw mixture in the walls acts as reinforcement, helping to prevent
against major cracking, and adds protection from earthquakes (McCann 2004). The final
structure must have a strong roof with sufficient overhangs, as well as a protective coat in order
to prevent water damage. (McCann 2004)

Building with cob requires no use of machinery, and no framework for the walls. On site
materials can be used, however some straw and sand may need to be transported. A substantial
foundation is required to create a safe structure. The walls of a cob building provide insulation,
will not burn, rot, or be probe to insect infestation, but do require some type of finish (e.g.
stucco) to protect them from weathering. The process of building a cob house is labor intensive
and timely. (McCann 2004)



                                                  4
Bags of Shelter                                                                      Humangineers




            Figure 2-2: A foundation made for a cob structure. (Cob Construction. 2000.)



2.5.4 Earthbags
Earthbags, also called “Sandbags” are a building method that uses burlap or polypropylene bags
filled with soil, gravel, or crushed volcanic rock to create housing structures. Earthbag structures
were originally used by the military for creating protective barriers and for flood control (Daigle
2008). Because the walls are strong and substantive they are able to resist severe weathering,
which makes them useful for housing. The technique used for building is simple and quick
(Daigle 2008). Each bag is filled with the chosen material, laid side by side and stacked on top of
each other, similar to brick laying. Two strands of 4-point barbed wire are placed between each
level to keep the bags above from slipping and provide additional structural support(earthbag
building process). To protect from weathering, a protective plaster should be applied from the
outside. The plaster can range from earthen material, such as clay or lime, to papercrete.

Structural building with earthbags is simple, quick, and cost effective. The simplistic design of
earthbags allows for unskilled labor to learn the building method (). One person familiar with
the building technique can teach others to aide in construction process. The cost of construction
can be kept low by utilizing local resources as filler in the bags and through local labor.

Long-term durability has not been widely tested and depends on the materials used in the bags.
Sand can cause the bags to deform and make maintaining the structure difficult (Daigle 2008).
Clay is good as an adhesive, but too much can cause the bags to swell with excessive moisture
(Daigle 2008). The loosed material such as gravel or volcanic rock does not compact as well as
soil which can cause difficulty in building and time.

2.5.5 Compressed Earth Block
Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB) use a mixture of a variety of soil’s to create solid blocks that can
be used in building houses. Earth blocks are made from pressers that compact the dirt used into
a brick like form. The methods for brick pressing range from manual to motorized machines.
The manual pressers are simple wooden brick molds that are operated by hand pressure. The
appropriate soil selection must have more than 40% sand and finely crushed, and often times
5% cement, by volume, is added to the processed soil, using a 1cubic foot wooden box (Ahmed).
                                                 5
Bags of Shelter                                                                    Humangineers



The soil characteristics of basic earth construction are a minimum of silt and clay to facilitate
cohesion. The blocks should be stored in shade and covered while being moistened frequently
for curing in a two week time period. When bricks are laid, mortar of the same mix used in the
block should be used with a larger amount of water. Small amounts of lime can be added to
prevent shrinkage cracks (Ahmed). Compressed Earth Block can be used in conjugation with the
waddle and daub construction and other earth construction methods (Ahmed)

This method has many advantages in rural areas when compared to customary building
techniques. Earth Blocks utilize soil as the main resource and is best used in areas where there is
a plentiful supply available. Cost is kept low by using soil as the primary material. Construction
is relatively easy when no specialized equipment is used (Adam 2001). Buildings with Earth
Blocks can moderate extreme outdoor temperatures while maintaining a comfortable internal
temperature. There is little pollution associated with Earth blocks when resources are used in
their natural state (Adam 2001).

Compressed Earth Blocks have disadvantages that can make this an unsatisfactory building
method when compared to customary building techniques. Durability is reduced when not
regularly maintained and protected, particularly in areas with medium to high rainfall (Adam
2001). Resistance to abrasion and impact is low if not reinforced or protected (Adam 2001).
Earth Blocks have poor resistance to bending movements as well as building codes and
performance standards that have not been fully developed (Adam 2001).




                                  Figure 2-3: Earth Block (Adam)


2.5.6 Rammed Earth
Rammed Earth is a system of building earthen walls by compacting soil within wooden or steel
forms. The forms can be tied with rope, wood, or steel with rope being the simplest (Ahmed).
The walls are built in layers, reusing the forms for each layer. The compaction of the soil in the
forms can be done using a hand-held tamp, rammer, or strong wooden battens. The strength of
the wall is directly associated with compaction, the more compact a wall is made from form, the
stronger the wall becomes (Ahmed). More compacted walls require a larger amount of soil and
the availability of resources is used to determine the level of compaction by the builder. Soil
used should be stabilized with cement for water resistance (Ahmed).

2.5.7 Mud Bricks
Mud bricks are made using a mixture of clay, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding
material such as rice husks or straw. The mud bricks are composites, meaning they use a
                                                6
Bags of Shelter                                                                     Humangineers



combination of materials to form a stronger more durable product. This product combines
reinforcement with a binder that holds the particles of the brick together and evenly distributes
the weight. The straw in the mixture gives the brick extra tensile strength (flexibility). The
straw fibers also stop small cracks in the mud brick from spreading increasing its durability and
lifespan. In warm climates the straw in the brick can also reduce any shrinking that may occur.
The bricks are made by pouring the mixture into a mold of 2x4s. The mixture is then left in the
sun to harden for at least 24 hours. During construction the bricks are laid in a mortar also
made up of straw, sand and gravel using traditional masonry tools. Mud bricks are sensitive to
humidity so a coating of earth covered in lime is also applied as a protectant to help withstand
weathering in the bricks. One favorable trait of mud bricks is its regulation of inside
temperature within the walls. These structures stay cool in the summer and store heat in the
winter.

2.5.8 Quake Safe Adobe
Quake safe adobe construction involves the use of easily available materials: bamboo, string,
and wire, to greatly improve a typical adobe building’s seismic resistance. This method of
construction utilizes a framework of bamboo constructed around each adobe (mud brick) wall of
a structure (Dowling 2009). This frame can either be retrofitted into an existing adobe
structure, or constructed within the walls during the initial building process. Bamboo poles are
tied to the interior and exterior walls with string laced through small holes drilled through the
bricks as shown in Figure 2-4. Support is also added with multiple levels of wire strung
horizontally, connecting the pieces of bamboo on both sides of the wall. Adobe quake safe
construction reduces the risk of building collapse and at the least gives the occupants more time
to escape in the event of an earthquake.Quake safe was invented by engineer Dom Dowling.




Figure 2-4: Bamboo frame shown wrapped around the outside of a previously existing adobe wall. This
is an example of quake safe adobe. (Jones, Dowling 2009)

2.6 Rice Hull Bag Construction
Rice Hull Bag Construction is done with woven polypropylene bags that are filled with rice hulls.
A photograph of rice hulls can be seen in Figure 2-5. Bags of rice hulls are stacked on top of one
another and barbed wire is added in between the bags. Metal wire is placed to enclose the bags,
similar to a wire cage. Rice hull bags are not heavy and provide good insulation. (Rice-Hull
                                                  7
Bags of Shelter                                                                      Humangineers



Bagwall Construction, 2010) An example of a completed Rice Hull House can be seen in Figure
2-6. This rice hull house is the first one ever made. An example of a smaller version of a rice hull
house can be seen in Figure 2-7. This is a rice hull house that is in its construction phase.

Rice Hulls also do not easily burn, they provide good insulation and their moisture content is so
low there is no need to worry about mold or fungal growth. Rice Hulls do not off-gas and do not
emit formaldehyde. Rice hulls do not have odors and R values are more than 3.0 per inch. R
values are important because they measure the heat flow resistance of a given material. Knowing
the R value determines whether or not the material is a good insulator or not. The larger the R
value, the better the insulation. (Insulation, 2009) Rice hulls do not need insulation, as long as
they are tightly packed. Rice hulls are a sustainable means of building in that they do not
require the use of fossil fuels. They can be transported a ton at a time for an inexpensive cost
(Olivier, 2010).




Figure 2-5: Rick Hulls (Oliver)




Figure 2-6: The first rice hull house built in 2004 (Olivier)




                                                     8
Bags of Shelter                                                                      Humangineers




Figure 2-7: Rice hull project in Oregon (Stephens)

2.7 Haiti
2.7.1 Introduction
The following sections will provide some background information on Haiti. Haiti is
approximately 10,700 square miles and holds a population of 9,035,536 (CIA, 2010). Haiti
makes up the western third of Hispaniola in the Caribbean (Encyclopedia, 2010). Discussed will
be topography, climate, soil, vegetation, economy, labor force, imports, exports, agriculture,
natural resources and industry.

2.7.2 Topography of Haiti
The topography of Haiti indicates that it is a mountainous region. In fact, the name “Haiti”
comes from the word “Ayti” which means “mountainous land” in Arawak (Haiti, 2010). Most of
the country is above 1,600 feet in elevation (Encyclopedia Britannica) Haiti has a fault line,
known as the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden Fault. The epicenter of the earthquake on January 12,
2010 was near this fault. (Whitty, 2010)

2.7.3 Climate of Haiti
The annual temperature of Haiti ranges from the high 70’s to mid 80’s (Encyclopedia, 2010).
Rainfall in Port-au-Prince occurs at an annual average 53 inches a year. Haiti is prone to
tropical storms, especially hurricanes, which cause heavy rains and strong winds. (Haiti
Introduction, 2010)

2.7.4 Soils
Haiti has almost lost all of its forests (Than, 2010). Because of the deforestation that has
occurred in Haiti, the soils are weak. Much of the topsoil in Haiti has been lost due to rainfall
(Haiti: Erosion).During periods of rain, mudslides often occur. The predominant soil types of
Haiti are Inceptisols, but Ultisols are also present (Global Soil Regions).


                                                     9
Bags of Shelter                                                                       Humangineers



2.7.4.1    Inceptisols
Inceptisols are one of the two types of soil present in Haiti. Inceptisols are present in humid and
sub-humid regions. Horizons are altered and have lost iron and aluminum bases. (Inceptisols,
NRCS). Figure 2-8 depicts a soil horizon of the Inceptisol order.

.




                              Figure 2-8: Inceptisol Soil Profile (NRCS)



2.7.4.2 Ultisols
Ultisols are the other type of soil that is found in Haiti. Soils of this order contain silicate clays
and have a base saturation of less than 35%. (Ultisols, NRCS.) Figure 2-9 depicts a soil profile of
the Ultisols order. The bottom layer of the profile indicates clay. Red clay is abundant in Haiti
(Haiti, 2010).




                                Figure 2-9: Ultisol Soil Profile (NRCS)

2.7.4.3 Loams
Loams are a type of soil and contain a mixture of 40% sand, 40% silt and 20% clay (*********).
Loams are present in Haiti (Haiti, 2010).



                                                  10
Bags of Shelter                                                                       Humangineers



2.7.5 Vegetation
The lush tropical climate of Haiti allows the growth of a wide variety of trees and shrubs. In the
higher lying mountainous regions there are pine forests. In the valleys cedar, mahogany and
oak trees thrive. Orange and mango trees were once abundance before Haiti's vegetation was
decimated by cultivation and deforestation for timber. The deforestation that has occurred in
Haiti is displayed below in Figure 2-10, showing the difference in landscapes between Haiti and
Dominican Republic. Land pressure due to population growth and degradation of soils has lead
to the poor to clear and farm unsuitable land. Other factors that have lead to the deforestation
of Haiti include the decrease in profit of mangoes and coffee. These trees were cut down and
replaced with marginally profitable crops. Haiti also relies on burning wood as a source of
energy adding to the degradation. Haiti is home to over 5,000 plant species. There are 600 fern
species and 300 species of orchids. 35% of the plants only exist in Haiti.




  Figure 2-10: Satellite picture of border between Haiti (left) and Dominican Republic showing mass
                                 amount of deforestation. (Nasa 2002)

2.7.6 Economy
Haiti is currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere with over 80% of the
population living below the poverty line (Central, 2010). Over 70% of the population lives on
less than $2 per day (Hornbeck, 2009) Two-thirds of the population relies on small scale
subsistence farming that is susceptible to natural disasters, increasingly so by the widespread
deforestation that has left the land bare. The United States (U.S.) has helped to boost the
Haitian economy by providing tariff free access to the U.S. through the Haitian HOPE
(Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement) Act of 2006 and by extending
preferences through 2018 with a second version, HOPE II, in 1998 (Hornbeck, 2009). The
current political system in Haiti has not benefited the lower classes and the unevenness of the
social structures remains a central problem in the regeneration of the economy (Hornbeck
2009). The government relies on international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability
(Central, 2010). An increase in available jobs would help boost the local economy.




                                                 11
Bags of Shelter                                                                    Humangineers



2.7.7 Haiti Labor Force
Haiti’s struggling economy is reflected in the current labor force. The labor force consists of
3.643 million (Central, 2010) with a lack of skilled workers. The economy is controlled by a
small portion of the population in the upper class who earn over 50% of the nations income.
Two-thirds of the population relies on the agricultural sector and remain vulnerable to frequent
natural disaster. The majority of the labor force works for small scale subsistence farming and
earn less than $260/year.

2.7.8 Imports
Haiti imports many food items as well as machinery and petroleum. Below is a list of their top
imports. (United, 2009)

      Grains
      Soybean oil
      Motor vehicles
      Machinery
      Meat
      Vegetables
      Plastics
      Petroleum

2.7.9 Exports
Haiti’s exports are low in comparison to their imports (United, 2009). A list of exports can be
found below.

      Apparel
      Mangoes
      Leather
      Raw Hides
      Seafood
      Electrical

2.7.10 Agriculture
Below is a list of agriculture which is harvested in Haiti (United, 2009).

      Coffee
      Mangoes
      Sugarcane
      Rice
      Corn
      Cacao
      Sorghum

                                                12
Bags of Shelter                                                                           Humangineers



       Pulses
       Other fruits and vegetables

2.7.11 Natural Resources
The country of Haiti has the following natural resources available:

       Bauxite
       Copper
       Calcium Carbonate
       Gold
       Marble

    (United, 2009)

2.7.12 Industry
Industry in is listed below in order of highest to lowest, with apparel being Haiti’s top industry
(United, 2009).

       Apparel
       Handicrafts
       Electronics Assembly
       Food Processing
       Beverages
       Tobacco
       Products
       Furniture
       Printing
       Chemicals
       Steel

2.8 Polypropylene
Polypropylene has many benefits to its use. Polypropylene offers excellent chemical and physical
properties, as well as thermal properties. Polypropylene is also light-weight and does not easily gain
moisture (Polypropylene, San Diego Plastics, 2010.) Polypropylene can be melted down to create
another plastic item (Polypropylene, Lenntech, 2010).



3 Alternative Solutions



                                                    13
Bags of Shelter                                                                      Humangineers



3.1 Introduction
Alternative solutions were conjured during brainstorm sessions. Each solution offers a feasible
option for transitional housing.

3.2 Brainstorming
We held two brainstorming sessions. During each session, we utilized a white-board in an empty
classroom.

3.3 Alternative Solutions
The following is a list of eight alternative solutions (explained in detail) that were conjured while
we conducted our brainstorm sessions.




3.3.1 Don’t be a Square
Don’t be a square combine’s quake safe adobe with the use of polypropylene bags used as a
cover. The building process is identical with quake safe adobe. Adobe bricks are laid down and
supported by bamboo that is implemented in the structure as a building frame on the outside
and inside of the building and tied between as well as across the structure for added support.
Polypropylene bags that are used for earthbag construction are then cut open to maximize their
surface area. These cut bags are then zipped tied between the bamboo framework, and will wrap
around the entire structure as in figure 3-1. The polypropylene bag cover will increase lifespan of
the quake safe adobe by limiting the amount of weathering of the adobe bricks. The bag cover
can be cut and zipped tied on site and for more aesthetic value, can be sewn together first before
being zipped tied to the structure. Sewing the cut bags together can be used to stimulate the
local labor force by providing workers with wages.




                                                 14
Bags of Shelter                                                                     Humangineers




                      Figure 3-1: Don’t be a Square. (Photo by Tahsa Sturgis)




3.3.2 The U-Hull House
The U-Hull House is a dome shaped house model made of rice hulls pictures in Figure 3-2. A
dome-shaped or upside down three-dimensional “U” is built out of barbed wire and built to
resemble a cage. Polypropylene bags filled with rice hulls are stacked and tightly packed inside
the “U” cage. A door can be attached by using looped siding opposite the door-knob attaching
the door with zip ties. The door is a cut piece of plexi-glass. The door knob is a small piece of
bamboo that slides into a hole in the plexi-glass door.




                                                15
Bags of Shelter                                                                Humangineers




                     Figure 3-2: The U-Hull House. (Photo by Heather Baker)




3.3.3 Bamboozle
The Bamboozle is a mud brick house that uses bamboo to increase its seismic resistance (“quake
safe adobe” invented by Don Dowling). Bamboo is attached on the insides and outsides of the
walls with wire as shown in Figure 3-3. Holes are drilled through the mud brick to allow the
bamboo to be tied. Wire is then wrapped around the structure at multiple levels and plastered
over with an earthen mixture.




                                              16
Bags of Shelter                                                                   Humangineers




                       Figure 3-3: Bamoozle. (Photo by Marley DeLlamas)




3.3.4 The Gopher Mound
The Gopher Mound is a structure using earthbag building techniques. Polypropylene bags are
filled with an earthen mixture and closed by folding the open end under the bag when stacked.
The bags are laid in a running bond masonry style as shown in Figure 3-4. Two strands of
barbed wire are laid between each layer of earthbags to keep them from sliding. The barbed
wire acts as a Velcro mortar and allows the bags to be set slightly inside of the bags below it
creating the dome shape. Chicken wire is wrapped around the structure and an earthen adobe
plaster is applied. Bamboo is tied together and used as a door and bug screens are placed in the
windows.




                                               17
Bags of Shelter                                                                  Humangineers




                   Figure 3-4: The Gopher Mound. (Photo by Marley DeLlamas)

3.3.5 Gobs of Fun
Gobs of fun is made using the technique of cob construction pictured in Figure 3-3. The
foundation is laid using concrete blocks. The walls are composed of clay, sand, and straw, and
are mixed either by stomping or by tossing gobs back and forth. The walls are made by
“gobbing” the mixture along the foundation, only creating one foot in height per day. Windows
and doors are framed with bamboo. The roof is framed with large bamboo posts and filled in
with thatching which will overhang the structure by one foot.




                                              18
Bags of Shelter                                                                      Humangineers




                         Figure 3-5: Gobs of Fun. (Photo by Brianne Reilly)




3.3.6 Stick in the Mud
Stick in the Mud utilizes the methods of wattle and daub. A frame is built using large bamboo
posts, including the roof shown in Figure 3-6. Posts of smaller diameter are placed 16 inches
apart within the walls. Next strands of bamboo are woven between the posts of the walls to
create stability. All posts are attached using twine. The walls are covered with a mixture of clay,
water, and straw. Windows and doors are framed out of large bamboo posts, and doors are
made of bamboo and twine. For the roof, Stick in the Mud proposes to use a single sheet of
polypropylene attached to the bamboo using zip ties, leaving an overhang to protect the mud
walls from water damage.




                                                 19
Bags of Shelter                                                                    Humangineers




                       Figure 3-6: Stick in the Mud. (Photo by Brianne Reilly)

3.3.7 Quakelbags
Quakelbags combines the building methods of earthbags and quake safe adobe. Polypropylene
bags are filled with dirt, then laid down in a sequence similar to earthbag construction, but in a
square rather than a circle. Bamboo is combined during the stacking process to add additional
structural support. The bamboo is placed on both sides of each wall as well as every corner.
Hemp is used to secure the bamboo on each side with one another on the opposite side through
tiny openings in the bags as shown in the Figure 3-7. All bamboo that runs along each wall is
attached together by wire running along each side, similar to quake safe adobe construction.
Windows and doors are framed in the structure with the bamboo and are covered with bamboo
and twine. A large plastic sheet is used as the roof and attached to a bamboo outline of the roof
using zip ties. Holes are placed in the roof using a drill and fitted to where the bamboo meets the
roof, leaving a small overhang to redirect rain.




                                                 20
Bags of Shelter                                                                    Humangineers




                         Figure 3-7: Quakelbags. (Photo by Tahsa Sturgis)



3.3.8             Bags of Shelter
The design for bags of shelter utilizes polypropylene earthbags stacked in a rectangular structure
as shown in Figure 3-8. Polypropylene bags are filled with three parts sand, one part dirt mixed
together prior to filling bags. Barb wire is placed between layers of the earth bags to prevent
them from slipping. On top of the final layer of earthbags, wood is attached with rebar bent over
the top of the board. One side of the wall is built two feet lower than the other to allow water to
run off the roof of the shelter. The roofing will be made of polypropylene sheets nailed to the
wood joists. The structure also includes a door with screen window and additional side window
for improved air flow.




                                                21
Bags of Shelter                                                                     Humangineers




                      Figure 3-8: Bags of Shelter. (Photo by Marley DeLlamas)



4 Decision Process

4.1 Introduction
Section 4 is dedicated to the Decision Process. This section evaluates all of the alternative
solutions from Section 3 and identifies one solution using the Delphi Method. The Delphi
Method produces an outcome that offers a solution that best fits the criteria discussed in Section
2.

4.2 Criteria
Presented below are definitions of the criteria. These definitions give a detailed summary of each
criterion, which is used to judge how well each alternative solution fits the criteria.


Durability, reparability-The structure should be able to withstand weathering, and require
little maintenance over time.

Level of Safety (Earthquake & Hurricane Resistance) - Families will be living in the
shelter and their safety is of utmost concern. The final structure needs to be able to withstand
earthquakes and hurricanes that are frequent in Haiti.
                                                22
Bags of Shelter                                                                      Humangineers



Cost- The cost for all materials used in constructing a model for this project is not to exceed the
predetermined budget set in section 2.

Use of Local Labor- Little to no imports and machine use should be required to build the
shelter. The extraction of the shelter’s materials and the construction of the shelter should be
done utilizing the local labor force of Haiti.

 Ecological Impacts-The materials used in the building process should be sustainable
resources in an effort to maintain a low carbon footprint.

Ease of mass production- In the event of a natural disaster the shelter should be able to be
mass produced by Haitians.

Ratio of Dirt of the Structure- The structure should have a high ratio of dirt to other
materials.



4.3 Solutions
The following list is comprised of the alternative solutions from Section III

      Don’t be a square
      The U-Hull House
      Bamboozle
      The Gopher Mound
      Gobs of Fun
      Stick in the Mud
      Quakelbags
      Bags of Shelter

Details of each alternative solution are given in Section 3.



4.4 Decision Process
We used the decision matrix technique known as the Delphi method for determination of our
solution. The first step in creating the matrix was to assign a weighting for each criteria
discussed in Section 2. We rated each criterion on a 1-10 scale based on importance, with 10
being the highest shown in Table 4-1. As a group we came to a consensus for how we should
weight each criterion by giving explanations for why one should be of higher importance than
another. The second step in this process is to assign a rating on a 0-50 scale for each alternative
solution shown in Table 4-2. A 50 is given to a solution that bests meets a criterion. Again, we
came to a consensus as a group to why each solution should be given a particular score. The final
step in this decision process is to then multiply each alternative solution by each criterion rating;

                                                 23
Bags of Shelter                                                                  Humangineers



the sum of the multiplied scores are added and used to determine a final solution. The solution
with the highest weighted sum is the one that best fits each criterion based on the ratings
assigned.



                                  Table 4-1: Weighted Criteria

                                              Criteria
                                       List            Weight
                                     Level of
                                                         10
                                      Safety
                                   Use of Local
                                                         9
                                     Labor
                                    Durability,
                                                         9
                                   Reparability

                                       Cost              8

                                   Ratio of Dirt         8

                                   Ease of Mass
                                                         7
                                    Production
                                    Ecological
                                                         4
                                     Impacts




                                                  24
Bags of Shelter                                                                                                                                         Humangineers




                                                                         Table 4-2: The Delphi Method
              Criteria                                                                          Solutions
           List            Weight   Don't be a Square The U-Hull House     Bamboozle    Bags of Shelter   Gobs of Fun   Stick in the Mud   Quakelbags   Gopher Mound

                                      5                45                  15           35                35             20                20           10
            Cost             8
                                              40                360              120             280             280              160            160            80
        Ratio of Dirt        8
                                      5                 5                  30           50                40             10                20           25
                                              40                40               240             400             320               80            160           200
      Level of safety,
                                     25                35                  40           45                5              30                20           40
      earthquake and         10
    hurricane resistance                      250               350              400             450              50              300            200           400
     Use of local labor      9
                                     30                40                  45           40                40             40                30           45
                                              270               360              405             360             360              360            270           405
                                     10                15                  30           25                40             35                20           20
     Ecological impacts      4
                                              40                60               120             100             160              140             80            80
       Ease of mass
                             7
                                     30                40                  25           40                10             30                30           25
        production
                                              210               280              175             280              70              210            210           175
        Durability,                  20                40                  40           45                30             25                20           35
                             9
       repairability
                                             180               360             360             405               270           225             180           315
                            Total         1030              1810            1820            2275              1510          1475            1260          1655




                                                                                       25
Bags of Shelter                                                                            Humangineers




4.5 Final Decision
The Delphi method concluded that the design Gopher Mound was bet fit to be used as long-term
housing in Haiti. The design had a reasonable final cost and utilized a large ratio of dirt in the
structure. Prior relief efforts by the organization, Cal Earth Pakistan, showed how effective use of
earth bag building techniques could provide homes with a high level of safety. The construction
process would also contribute to the Haitian economy by creating a need for local labor. Gopher
Mound shelters are a simple design process, making it easy to mass produce. Once constructed,
repairs can be made on the Gopher Mound by simply pasting over sections in need with an earthen
mixture.



5 Specification
5.1 Introduction
Section 5 of the document includes a detailed description of the final solution chosen in the previous
section. Multiple views of the design will be displayed to help specify in-depth details. A table of costs
is included analyzing team design hours, implementation costs for construction, and maintenance
costs. Estimates on materials cost and hours of labor time will be accounted for in the implementation
for construction and maintenance costs analysis. Also step by step instructions on how to implement
and use the model are listed. Concluding section 5 are results of the Save me Poly prototype model.

5.2 Description of Solution
Bags of Shelter, is a one third scale model shelter made from earthbags. Before construction, Bags of
Shelter requires a trench foundation to provide long-term support. The group Rubblution constructed
a rubble trench foundation which was 9 inches deep and 9 inches wide. The dimensions of the model
shelter are 6’ by 8’ and can be seen in the floor plan Figure 5-1.




26 | P a g e
Bags of Shelter                                                                                 Humangineers




                  Figure 5-1: CAD Drawing of model size floor plan. (Source: Marley DeLlamas)




5.2.1 The walls
The walls of Bags of Shelter are constructed from polypropylene bags which are filled with an earthen
mixture and stacked on top of one another. The earthen mixture consists of 75% sand and 25% clay.
Once filled, the bags are compacted to be as flat as possible and stacked on top of one another to form
the walls of the shelter. Between each layer of bags a strip of four-point, barbed wire is run along the
surface of the bags which provide support (Figures 7 and 8). Door and window frames must be
inserted as the walls are constructed to prevent the bags from slipping in towards the open space.

Bags of Shelter requires a sloping roof for weather proofing so wall heights vary. Half-scale dimensions
of wall heights can be seen in Figure 5-2. One wall is 2 feet high, the opposite side 4 feet high and the
remaining 2 walls are sloping.




27 | P a g e
Bags of Shelter                                                                           Humangineers




                   Figure 5-2: CAD Drawing of South Elevation (Source: Tahsa Sturgis)



5.2.2 The roof
The roof of Bags of Shelter is made of polypropylene sheeting. The model size shelter requires two 4’
by 8’ sheets. These sheets are attached by screws or nails to rafters that are attached to the framework
of the roof. The framework is made of 1"x6" top plate boards that are layed across the top most layers
of the bags and secured with wire. Two holes are drilled through the 1"x6" boards every four feet. The
wire is wrapped through these holes and secured down underneath the top three layers of bags. The
CAD drawing depicted above in Figure 5-2 shows a side view of the roof, which has a two foot slope
and a one foot overhang in order to protect the structure from water damage. Figure 5-3 shows the
locations of the top plates and rafters.




28 | P a g e
Bags of Shelter                                                                            Humangineers



                      Figure 5-3: CAD Drawing of Roof Plan (Source: Brianne Reilly)




5.2.3 The door and windows
Bags of Shelter has two windows and one door. One window can be seen in figure 5-4, and is one foot
by one foot. Figure 5-2 shows the doorway which is combined in the drawing with the second window.
The design is such that there is no earthbag load on the top of the window and door frames, therefore
less lumber is necessary and the total materials costs are reduced.




                  Figure 5-4: CAD Drawing of 4’ wall with window (Source: Heather Baker)




5.2.4 The protective coating
To prevent the polypropylene bags from degrading a protective coating is required for this structure.
This protective coating can be made from many different possibilities including, plaster, papercrete,
lime, etc. In addition to the coating it is recommended that two coats of lime wash be painted on as a
final coat. In this project the protective coating was not implemented due to the short lifespan of the
model structure.




29 | P a g e
Bags of Shelter                                                                            Humangineers



5.3 Cost
5.3.1 Design Costs
The design costs indicate the quantity of hours that Humangineers as a team has put into this design
project. Humangineers has spent 426.67 hours on this design project. The design hours spent in phase
5 total 310.47 hours. Figure 5-5 represents the distribution of hours that went into this project.


                        Design Cost (Hours) 5.7
                                                                  Phase 1 Problem
                                                                  Formulation
                                                  56.5
                                                                  Phase 2 Literature
                                                                  Review & Problem
                                                         31.5     Analysis
                                                                  Phase 3 Alternative
                                                           22.5   Solutions

                                                                  Phase 4 Decision
                             310.47
                                                                  Phase

                                                                  Phase 5 Decision
                                                                  Specification
                             Total Hours: 426.67

                                      Figure 5-5: Total Team Design Hours

5.3.2 Materials Costs
Table 5-1 indicates the costs of materials used in the construction of Bags of Shelter. The total amount
spent to construct the project was $222.47. Because many items were donated, a column for projected
costs is included in Table 5-1. The total projected costs for Bags of Shelter is $272.81. Also included in
the list of materials is implementation costs, these are estimates of what a full scale structure may cost
to be erected in Haiti.




30 | P a g e
Bags of Shelter                                                                                Humangineers



                                 Table 5-1: Cost of Materials for Bags of Shelter
               Materials                   Use          Qantity Project Cost ($) Projected Project Cost ($)
    Polypropylene Bags (15x27) Building Blocks               225          112.87                    112.87
    Polypropylene Bags (9x18) Building Blocks                  20       Donation                      10.80
    18 Gauge Wire                Roof Reinforcement          36ft       Donation                      18.99
    Sand                         Fill Material          3.87 tons           86.60                     86.60
    Clay                         Fill Material           .97 tons       Donation                       4.75
    Polypropylene Sheet          Roofing                   8.5x7              N/A                       N/A
    Thread                       Sewing Poly Bags          4 rolls           5.00                      5.00
    20 Gauge Wire Strips         Sewing Poly Bags        4 packs             8.00                      8.00
    4 Point Barbed Wire          Intermediate Support      358ft        Donation                      21.00
    Lumber (1x12)                Door, Window Frame          13ft       Donation                       4.80
    Lumber(1x6)                  Roof Frame                  28ft           10.00                     10.00
    Lumber(2x4)                  Roof Rafters                21ft       Donation                       6.75
    Screws                       Door, Window Frame            16       Donation                       1.60
                                                            Total $       222.47    $               272.81




5.3.3 Maintenance Costs
Bags of Shelter was created to be durable, so maintenance costs are low. During initial mass
production the roofs are made of polypropylene sheeting as described in section 5.2.2, however to
transition into long term housing it is recommended that the roof be replaced with longer lasting metal
roofing. This is because of the short life span of the polypropylene sheets, which is about 3 years
(World Shelters). The metal roofing should be replaced roughly every 20 years depending on the type
and grade of the metal used. In addition to the roofing it is suggested that any cracks or damage to the
plaster exterior is repaired or filled as needed with lime plaster, approximately once every 3 years. The
total maintenance costs of Bags of Shelter should be less than $65 per year.

                                Table 5-2: Maintenance Costs for Bags of Shelter

                 Maintenance Tasks                  Frequency         Projected Cost/Yr ($)
                           Metal Roofing                20 yrs                             35.2

                  Limewash protective coat               3 yrs                               30
                                                            Total                          $65



31 | P a g e
Bags of Shelter                                                                            Humangineers



5.4 Instructions for Implementation and Use of Model
Before the construction of the model can begin, the polypropylene bags are prefilled with a mixture of
clay and sand. They are then stacked masonry style in a rectangular structure. Between each layer of
earthbags barbed wire is laid down to hold them in place. Open ends of the bags are folded under to
seal the contents. All bags are stomped flat before a new layer is started. Finish with a two foot slope
between high and low wall. Attach wood beam with wire wrapped around three or more layers of
earthbags. Nail polypropylene roofing to frame. For more detailed instructions see section 5.2 of the
document.

Once constructed the model is left outdoors and will remain intact under moderate storm conditions.
The shelter provides a safe transitional shelter for its occupants.

5.5 Results
The results concluded that Bags of Shelter is an effective way to utilize dirt as a building resource. The
design yields a sturdy structure that requires a lot of labor in the construction. The large amount of
labor required could be helpful in providing jobs for Haiti.




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32 | P a g e
Bags of Shelter                                                                        Humangineers



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Bags of Shelter                                                                         Humangineers



       http://ezproxy.humboldt.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&
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35 | P a g e
Bags of Shelter                                                Humangineers




6 Appendices

6.1 Group Member Project Hours
Heather Baker’s Hours-12 Week Project ENGR 215
  Date                 Task Description             Hours
2/11/2010   Team Brainstorm                              1.0
2/12/2010   Project Research                             1.0
2/13/2010   Timesheet # 1                                0.0
2/15/2010   Section 1                                    1.0
2/15/2010   Project Request/Appropedia                   0.5
2/15/2010   Project Research                             6.5
2/16/2010   Project Research                             4.5
2/20/2010   Team Meeting/Lit Review                      2.5
2/27/2010   Research                                     3.0
2/28/2010   Team Meeting/Lit review                      3.0
 3/1/2010   Project Analysis                             1.0
 3/2/2010   Project Analysis                             0.5
3/15/2010   Team Meeting                                 1.0
3/17/2010   Team Meeting                                 1.0
3/18/2010   Client Meeting                               0.5
3/22/2010   Phase 3 (drawings, edits, etc.)              3.0
3/23/2010   Team Meeting                                 1.0
3/23/2010   Document Creation/Upload                     0.1
3/24/2010   Team meeting                                 1.0
3/24/2010   Research                                     3.9
3/24/2010   Phase 4 Research/Cost Analysis               2.0
3/28/2010   Team Meeting/Phase 4                         2.0
 4/3/2010   Team Meeting                                 2.0
 4/5/2010   Team Meeting with Clay Johnson               1.0
 4/8/2010   Meeting with Client                          0.5
 4/8/2010   Team Meeting/Research                        1.0
4/16/2010   Meeting With Clay Johnson                    1.5
4/16/2010   Purchase of Materials                        2.0
4/16/2010   Purchase of Sewing Materials                 2.3
4/16/2010   Sewing Poly Bags/Phase 5                     4.5
4/17/2010   Building Project/Phase 5                     4.5
4/18/2010   Group Meeting/Poster Design                  3.0
4/19/2010   Phase 5 Section/Writing                      1.5
4/21/2010   Group Meeting/Practice Presentation          4.5
4/21/2010   Phase 5 Work/Writing                         1.0
4/22/2010   Group Meeting/Cad Drawings                   3.0
4/22/2010   Client Meeting                               0.3
4/22/2010   Practice w/Group for Presentation            1.0
4/23/2010   Project Work/Filling Sandbags                5.0
4/24/2010   Project Work/Filling Bags & Building         6.0
4/25/2010   Project Building                             4.0
4/27/2010   Poster Work                                  6.0
4/28/2010   Practice w/Group for Presentation            3.0
 5/4/2010   Group Meeting/Complation of Docs             5.0
 5/4/2010   Appropedia/Work on Docs (Indep.)             2.0
 5/5/2010   Team Meeting/Work on Compilation             5.0
                                            TOTAL     109.6




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Bags of Shelter                                                                                              Humangineers



Marley DeLlamas’s Hours-12 Week Project ENGR 215

                                               Marley DeLlamas
                                               All Time in Hours
Date        Task Description                   General Course Time Project Time             Total Course Time
                                               Task       Total       Task       Total
1/20/2010   Syllabus Post                             0.2         0.2        0.0        0.0                 0.2
1/21/2010   Rube Goldberg Meeting                     2.0         2.2        0.0        0.0                 2.2
1/23/2010   Rube Goldberg Meeting                     2.0         4.2        0.0        0.0                 4.2
1/26/2010   Rube Goldberg Meeting                     2.5         6.7        0.0        0.0                 6.7
1/27/2010   Time Log                                  0.5         7.2        0.0        0.0                 7.2
1/28/2010   Learning Style Assessment                 0.5         7.7        0.0        0.0                 7.7
1/30/2010   Weekly Schedule                           1.0         8.7        0.0        0.0                 8.7
1/30/2010   Excel #1                                  1.4        10.1        0.0        0.0                10.1
2/2/2010    Rube Goldberg Meeting                     3.0        13.1        0.0        0.0                13.1
2/13/2010   Timesheet #1                              1.0        14.1        0.0        0.0                14.1
2/15/2010   Draft Document Outline                    1.5        15.6        0.0        0.0                15.6
2/15/2010   Open Pario Username                       0.0        15.6        0.2        0.2                15.8
2/20/2010   Formatting With Word #1                   2.0        17.6        0.0        0.2                17.8
2/20/2010   Excel #2                                  0.5        18.1        0.0        0.2                18.3
2/21/2010   Literature Review                         0.0        18.1        2.0        2.2                20.3
2/24/2010   Project Gantt Chart                       0.0        18.1        1.0        3.2                21.3
2/27/2010   Literature Review                         0.0        18.1        3.0        6.2                24.3
2/28/2010   Literature Review                         0.0        18.1        3.0        9.2                27.3
3/1/2010    Problem Analysis                          0.0        18.1        0.5        9.7                27.8
3/3/2010    Timesheet #2                              0.5        18.6        0.0        9.7                28.3
3/10/2010   Formatting With Word #2                   1.5        20.1        0.0        9.7                29.8
3/25/2010   Midterm Class Evaluation                  0.5        20.6        0.0        9.7                30.3
3/25/2010   Midterm Peer Evaluation                   1.5        22.1        0.0        9.7                31.8
3/27/2010   Decision Section                          0.0        22.1        2.5       12.2                34.3
4/1/2010    Natural Building CCAT                     2.0        24.1        0.0       12.2                36.3
4/3/2010    Team Meeting                              0.0        24.1        2.0       14.2                38.3
4/10/2010   Cad #2                                    2.0        26.1        0.0       14.2                40.3
4/16/2010   Purchasing Materials                      0.0        26.1        2.0       16.2                42.3
4/16/2010   Meeting with Clay Johnson                 0.0        26.1        1.5       17.7                43.8
4/17/2010   Building Site                             0.0        26.1        4.0       21.7                47.8
4/22/2010   Team Cad Drawings                         0.0        26.1        3.0       24.7                50.8
4/23/2010   Filling bags/Practice Presentation        0.0        26.1        8.5       33.2                59.3
4/24/2010   Filling bags/Construction                 0.0        26.1        8.5       41.7                67.8
4/25/2010   Construction                              0.0        26.1        4.0       45.7                71.8
4/26/2010   Construction                              0.0        26.1        2.0       47.7                73.8
4/27/2010   Construcion/Client Meeting                0.0        26.1        6.0       53.7                79.8
4/28/2010   Team Meeting                              0.0        26.1        1.0       54.7                80.8
4/29/2010   Practice Presentation                     0.0        26.1        2.0       56.7                82.8
4/30/2010   Deconstruction                            0.0        26.1        2.0       58.7                84.8
5/4/2010    Final Document Edits                      0.0        26.1        5.0       63.7                89.8
5/5/2010    Final Document Edits                      0.0        26.1        5.0       68.7                94.8

Brianne Reilly’s Hours-12 Week Project ENGR 215

Tahsa Sturgis’s Hours-12 Week Project ENGR 215




37 | P a g e
Bags of Shelter                      Humangineers



Appendix A: Brainstorm Session (1)




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Bags of Shelter                      Humangineers



Appendix B: Brainstorm Session (2)




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