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					    College of Public Health Graduate Student Orientation




                Administrative Offices - 126 Lowry Hall
                              330-672-6500
                        Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011            www.kent.edu/publichealth
                                 Orieintation               1
                        Introduction of Faculty
    Sonia Alemagno (Health Policy and                    Scott Grey (Biostatistics)
    Management)                                          David Hussey (Social and Behavioral
    Madhav Bhatta (Epidemiology)                         Sciences)
    Mark James (Epidemiology)                            Eric Jefferis (Social and Behavioral
    Jonathan Van Geest (Health Policy and                Sciences)
    Management)                                          Willie Oglesby (Health Policy and
    John Hornkeek (Health Policy and                     Management)
    Management)                                          R. Scott Olds (Social and Behavioral
    Shanhu Lee (Environmental Health                     Sciences)
    Sciences)                                            Lynette Phillips (Epidemiology)
    Derek Kenne (Health Policy and                       Ken Slenkovich (Assistant Dean)
    Management)                                          John Staley (Health Policy and
    Peggy Shafer-King (Social and Behavioral             Management)
    Sciences)                                            Maggie Stedman-Smith (Environmental
    Fred Tavill (Epidemiology)                           Health)
    Thomas Brewer (Social and Behavioral                 Tomas Tamulis (Environmental Health)
    Sciences)                                            Christopher Woolverton (Environmental
    Vinay Cheruvu (Biostatistics)                        Health)
                                                         Melissa Zullo (Epidemiology)

                                   Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                                   Orieintation                                         2
            I. Purpose and Goals

    Kent State University College of Public Health
    (CPH) is dedicated to the development and
    training of public health professionals.
    This session is designed to provide a proper
    academic orientation for you as you begin your
    graduate studies.
    CPH strives to promote an environment that
    fosters excellence in student learning and the
    practice of public health.
                    Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                    Orieintation            3
                II. Purpose and Goals
            CPH will promote appropriate and effective
            interactions with the community.
            CPH will promote high ethical standards.
            Everyone, faculty, staff and students, will
            adhere to high standards of professional
            integrity.
            This session will also avail you of various
            resources, e.g. student handbook and library
            resources, to enhance your academic
            experience and scholarly productivity.
                        Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                        Orieintation              4
      Graduate Student Handbook




              Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011              Orieintation            5
      Graduate School – What to Expect
                          Dr. Jefferis, Dr. Bhatta
               Lorriane Odhiambo, William Opoku-Agyeman
    Academic Differences
      –     Intellectually more challenging
      –     Focused on discipline rather than overviews
      –     Increased independence in learning
      –     Thesis/dissertation is culmination
      –     More reading, expectation of using peer reviewed literature, high quality writing, critical thinking,
            problem solving, etc
      –     Detailed classroom discussions of materials and ability to draw from wide body of knowledge
    Differing Expectations
      –     Research, communication skill building
      –     High standard for ethical and professional conduct
      –     Higher expectations for self-motivation
      –     Participate eagerly
    Cultural Differences
      –     Grad school is a lifestyle, not a 9-5 job
      –     Closer relationships with professors/mentors
      –     Build relationships with professionals in field
      –     Involvement in organizations
      –     Expectation of professionalism
      –     Passion for discipline/in grad school for career
      –     Increased interdependence with cohort



                                           Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                                           Orieintation                                                    6
                 Technical Writing
                     Dr. R. Scott Olds

    Class assignments
    Research papers
      – Prospectus for thesis or dissertation
    Literature reviews
    Journal articles
    Grant proposals


                      Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                      Orieintation            7
                 Writing a paper
    Know your audience
      – Scientific, lay person, policy makers
      – Check the outlet, journal for style
    It‘s a research paper, not a novel
    Writing is hard work= drafts and rewrites
    Length matters
      – Its harder to be brief and clear vs. long-
        winded
    Your professor is not your editor
    Spell check is NOT proof reading
                      Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                      Orieintation            8
                  Writing a Paper
    Choosing a topic
    Conducting your research/ literature review
    Organize with a detailed outline
    Start with an abstract
    Sections of the paper
      – Literature review; Method; Results; Discussion
      – Presenting statistical results; Tables; Figures
    Referencing your work

                       Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                       Orieintation              9
                 Referencing
    Works cited in the narrative is a Reference
    List
      – In reference list, alphabetical by last name of
        first author; numbered as they appear in
        paper
      – In text, last name of author, year e.g. (Olds,
        2010)
    Bibliography - more comprehensive
    Endnotes (end of document) v Footnotes
    (end of page)
    Indexing (RefWorks)
                      Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                      Orieintation               10
             Helpful resources
    Publication Manual of the American Psychological
    Association, 6th edition (APA style)
    MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers,
    6th edition
    MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly
    Publishing (MLA style)
    Gitlin & Lyons (2008). Successful Grant Writing:
    Strategies for Health and Human Service
    Professionals
    AMA Manual of Style: A guide for authors and
    editors
    http://www.library.kent.edu/page/10603
                    Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                    Orieintation            11
               Plagiarism
            Dr. Chris Woolverton
             Dr. Tomas Tamulis
                   Yours?
                   Mine?
                   Ours?
                Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                Orieintation            12
                Plagiarism*
 1: an act or instance of plagiarizing
 2: something plagiarized
— pla·gia·rist \-rist\ noun
— pla·gia·ris·tic \ˌplā-jə-ˈris-tik also -jē-ə-\
 adjective




                  Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                  Orieintation            *Merriam-Webster.com
                                                                    13
pla·gia·rized or pla·gia·riz·ing*
PLAGIARIZE
 transitive verb
      – : to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of
        another) as one's own : use (another's
        production) without crediting the source
    intransitive verb
      – : to commit literary theft : present as new and
        original an idea or product derived from an
        existing source
                      Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                      Orieintation            *Merriam-Webster.com
                                                                        14
  At UNC*, plagiarism is defined
               as
   "the deliberate or reckless representation of
   another's words, thoughts, or ideas as one's
   own without attribution in connection with
   submission of academic work, whether
   graded or otherwise.‖
   Because it is considered a form of cheating,
   the Office of the Dean of Students can punish
   students who plagiarize with course failure
   and suspension.
                            Public Health Graduate Student
*http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/plagiarism.html
11/9/2011                            Orieintation            15
            Plagiarism Detection (online)
    Dupli Checker 
      – http://www.duplichecker.com/
    Academicplagiarism
      – http://www.academicplagiarism.com/
    Turnitin 
      – http://turnitin.com/static/index.php
    CheckForPlagariaism.net 
      – http://www.checkforplagiarism.net/
                      Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                      Orieintation            16
            Fair Use and Copyright*
    You are responsible for identifying and
    obeying any and all copyrights defined
    authors.
    Just because a website advertises freedom
    to remix or redistribute a work does not
    guarantee transfer to copyright free materials.
    Be cautious, cite original authors, and ask
    permission not forgiveness owners.
    When in doubt, produce original work!
                   Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                   Orieintation            17
                       Summary

            Yours – your creative idea(s), word(s),
            art, other expression.
            Mine – well, you know: it‘s not yours!
            Ours – Fair Use?




                        Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                        Orieintation            18
 http://www.copyright.gov/title17/
  *An owner of copyright has the right to reproduce or to authorize others to
  reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords. This right is subject to certain
  limitations found in sections 107 through 118 of the copyright law (title 17, U. S.
  Code). One of the more important limitations is the doctrine of ―fair use.‖
  *Section 107 contains a list of the various purposes for which the reproduction
  of a particular work may be considered fair, such as criticism, comment, news
  reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Section 107 also sets out four
  factors to be considered in determining whether or not a particular use is fair:
    – The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature
      or is for nonprofit educational purposes
    – The nature of the copyrighted work
    – The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a
      whole
    – The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work
  *The distinction between fair use and infringement may be unclear and not
  easily defined. There is no specific number of words, lines, or notes that may
  safely be taken without permission. Acknowledging the source of the
  copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission.




                                  Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                                  Orieintation                                        19
                                                               *http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html
        Public Health Library Guide
              Library Resources

               Clare Leibfarth
              University Libraries




                 Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                 Orieintation            20
Approaches toward Conducting a
Review of the Scientific Literature




Maggie Stedman-Smith, Ph.D., M.P.H., M.S., R.N.
            John Hornbeek, PhD
What is “Scientific Literature”?
Theoretical and research publications
–   Scientific journals
–   Reference books
–   Textbooks
–   Government reports
–   Policy papers
 What is a review of the scientific
 Literature through peer reviewed
             journals ?
Reading, analyzing, and summarizing a
synthesis of scholarly material about a topic
–   Hypothesis
–   Scientific methods
–   Strengths
–   Weaknesses
–   Author interpretation
–   Conclusions
Why Conduct a Literature Review?
• Foundation for generating public health
 research, practice, and policy
  – Grant proposals
  – Research papers
  – Summary articles
  – Books
  – Evidence-based health care statements
  – Consumer material
  – Policy and regulatory statements
Conducting a Literature Review
Finding the literature
–   Subject word search in a relevant database
–   Author search
–   Bibliography search
–   Journal search
Creating a paper trail
Producing a matrix of the literature
Managing journal articles
              Define:
     Research Topic & Question
What is your research topic and question ? Write it out in words
– Example Topic: Lead blood levels in African American children
– Example Question: Do African American children have a
  higher incidence of elevated blood lead levels than children
  from other ethnic groups in the US?
    Finding the Literature
            Public Health Lib-Guide
http://libguides.library.kent.edu/publichealth
                   Select a Data Base
•   PubMed -- MEDLINE from NLM Life sciences database from the National
    Library of Medicine. Use this special link to see KSU and OhioLINK
    holdings.
•   How to import PubMed search results into RefWorks From UC Berkley
•   CINAHL Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
•   ISI Web of Knowledge Includes Science Citation Index, Journal Citation
    Reports, BIOSIS, and MEDLINE.
•   Cochrane Library Systematic reviews, clinical trials, technology
    assessments, and more.
•   Google Scholar Find It with OLinks is available on campus!
•   PsycNET (American Psychological Association)
•   BIOSIS Previews Life sciences and biomedical research covering pre-
    clinical and experimental research, methods and instrumentation, animal
    studies, and more.
•   ProQuest Public Health
•   Faculty of 1000 Biology Comprehensively and systematically highlights and
    reviews the most interesting papers published in the biological sciences.
•   University Libraries List of All Databases Listed by Subject Education,
    Psychology, Nutrition, and more!
           PubMed-Medline
Key word search
 – “Lead blood levels” (n=15,204)
Limits Tab
 – Ages (n=3,322)
      0-18 years
 – English only along with ages (n= 2,973)
Boolean Search term AND
 – African Americans (n= 38)
 – Incidence (n= 24)
    Finding the Literature
            Public Health Lib-Guide
http://libguides.library.kent.edu/publichealth
         Strategies:
Finding Most Relevant Articles
Read abstracts
– To pull up abstracts, “Display Settings”
Save abstracts
– To save search, “Advanced Search”
Perform additional key word searches
– Read abstracts
– Medical Subject heading (MeSH) Terms
– SAVE All SEARCHES!
           Other Approaches
Bibliography search
 – Most important articles referenced-abstracts
Author Search- Author’s last name followed by a
space and initials, (Bateson GL)
 – Most important articles referenced-abstracts
Journal search
 – Environmental Health Perspectives
 – American Journal of Public Health
     PubMed-Medline- Journal Search:
      – Key Words: Environmental Heath Perspectives AND blood
        lead in children
    Goal: To Own the Literature
Within a Given Topic-know
–   Major ideas
–   What has been researched
–   Author names
–   Common methodologies
–   Strengths and limitations
–   How the literature has progressed over time
–   What is missing in the stream of research
     Managing the Literature

Health Science Literature Review Made Easy:
The Matrix Method
– Judith Gerrard, PhD, Health Policy &
  Management
    University of Minnesota, School of Public Health
          Literature Review Matrix

Authors                    Methods
          Pub
 Title           Purpose    Data     Results Limitations
          Year
Journal                    Source
                 WRAP-UP
For further in-depth information on how to
conduct a review of the literature see
Tutorial – Link on PUBH LIB-GUIDE website
Make an appointment
– Clare Leibfarth, Librarian, College of Public Health
                      Credibility of Evidence
                       Graduate Student Orientation
                          College of Public Health
                             January 13, 2011
                          Moulton Hall Ballroom



            – Dr. Tom Brewer
            – Mr. Ken Slenkovich




                            Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                            Orieintation            37
            Evidence Based Sources




                   Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                   Orieintation            38
            Evidence Based Sources




                   Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                   Orieintation            39
            Evidence Based Sources




                   Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                   Orieintation            40
Community Engagement

 Scott Grey and David Hussey
           Mission
The mission of the Kent State
University College of Public
Health is to develop and
promote sustainable public
health solutions, in
collaboration with community
organizations, through
education, research and service
for populations served by Kent
State University campuses and
beyond.
                Research
Our faculty engage in cutting edge research that
seeks answers to some of society’s most difficult
problems including preventing violence, responding
to natural and manmade disasters, curbing
substance abuse, and improving the delivery of
health care. Our partners include local health
departments, community organizations, health care
institutions, and businesses that enable us to
provide our students with real-world experiences in
the exciting field of public health. If you are looking
for a stimulating academic experience and a
rewarding career, Kent State‘s College of Public
Health in Ohio is the place for you.
          A Few Partners
Local and State Health Departments
Summa Health Care Systems
Center for Community Solutions
Cleveland Clinic
Hospitals
Schools
Juvenile Justice
Adult Probation
Alcohol Drug Abuse & Mental Health Services
Law Enforcement
Fire Fighters and EMTs
Foundations
Faith Based Organizations
Media
Practicum & Culminating
       Experience
PH 60172 Culminating Experience Seminar (3)
Seminar component of the Practicum Experience;
course must be taken at the same time as the
Practicum Experience; students prepare a final
portfolio and seminar presentation integrating theory
and practice.

PH 60192 Practicum Experience (3)
Observational and participation in public health
activities of a public health agency, hospital or other
approved organization. The student completes the
field experience with joint supervision from the
university and approved organization or agency.
Multiple and Unique Host
      Environments
Mission
Culture
Clients/Consumers
Regulatory Mechanisms and
Operating Procedures
Security & Confidentiality
Expectations and Needs
Professionalism
Gerontology Certificate Program
    Dr. Greg Smith




                 Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                 Orieintation            47
                Professionalism
            in Graduate Education




                  Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                  Orieintation            48
                         Professionalism
    Profession
     – a calling requiring specialized knowledge and often
       long and intensive academic preparation1
    Professional
     – having a particular profession as a permanent career1
    Professionalism
     ―…about individual modes of behaviour that command respect and
       build trust. It is about excellence in service as measured by
       recognised standards. It is about delivering services or working
       to standards that meet the needs of and are expected by our
       clients. ―2
Sources:
1 Merriam-Webster Dictionary, www.merriam-webster.com
2 ‗The importance of professionalism in globally interdependent markets‘ by Graham Ward, MA, FCA,
     Deputy President, International Federation of Accountants, presented to the 2004 Pensions
     Convention of the UK Actuarial Profession
            Professionalism




               Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011               Orieintation            50
Professional Identity

                                                            Appearance
                                                            • Dress
                                                            • Carry yourself
                                                            • Represent
       Honesty and Integrity     Responsibility                yourself in
       • In the classroom        • Follow                      interactions
       • Conducting                 directions                 with others
         research                • Do what you
       • Presentations              say you are
                                    going to do



        Respect for
        Others                  Commit to Excellence
        • Faculty
                                • Exceed expectations
        • Staff
        • Students              • Continue learning
        • Community


                          Interactions with faculty, staff, students, and
                                           community
                                 Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                                 Orieintation                         51
            Professionalism

  The ability to demonstrate ethical choices,
 values and professional practices implicit in
  public health decisions; consider the effect
    of choices on community stewardship,
 equity, social justice and accountability; and
    to commit to personal and institutional
                  development.


11/9/2011        Public Health Graduate Student Orieintation   52
      Graduate Student Ethics: Research Integrity
                             Graduate Student Orientation
                                College of Public Health
                                   January 13, 2011
                                Moulton Hall Ballroom



            –   Dr. John A. Staley
            –   Dr. Vinay Cheruvu




                                     Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                                     Orieintation            53
            Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011            Orieintation            54
                 What is Ethics?
      ―Ethics‖ refers to the discipline that examines
      what is good conduct, the moral standards of a
      society, and what, all things considered, we
      should do in a particular situation or when faced
      with a decision.




                     Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                     Orieintation            55
            Tuskegee Syphilis Study




                             Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                             Orieintation                             56
                   Records of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Research Integrity- You have a critical
    responsibility in the research process!

    There are increasingly complex ethical conflicts
    in day-to-day activities, both in and out of school




                     Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                     Orieintation            57
                     Scientists behaving badly…

                     (includes student scientists)
    Source: K. Craig-Henderson. Ethics and the Responsible Conduct of Research for Graduate Education and Beyond.
                                                Accessed January 2011.




                                        Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                                        Orieintation                                                58
             Top 10 Misbehaviors
    Falsifying or ―cooking‖ research data
    Ignoring major aspects of human subjects requirements
    Not properly disclosing involvement in forms whose
    products are based on one‘s own research
    Relationships with students, research subjects or clients
    that may be interpreted as questionable
    Using another‘s ideas without obtaining permission or
    giving due credit



                       Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                       Orieintation                59
     Top 10 Misbehaviors cont‘d:
    Unauthorized use of confidential information in
    connection with one‘s own research.
    Failing to present data that contradict one‘s own
    previous research.
    Circumventing certain minor aspects of Human Subjects
    requirements (e.g., informed consent).
    Overlooking others use of flawed data or questionable
    interpretation of data.
    Changing the design, methodology or results of a study
    in response to pressure from a funding source.
                      Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                      Orieintation              60
    Take home message on this: research
    misconduct is not rare, so do not fall into
    the trap.




                   Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                   Orieintation            61
    Reducing research misconduct begins
    with training

      – Kent State University Division of Research
        and Sponsored Programs: Research Safety
        Compliance




                     Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                     Orieintation            62
    Online CITI training is required for ALL
    KSU researchers conducting human
    subject research. This includes:
      – Principal investigators and co-investigators
      – Students
      – Faculty advisors for students conducting
        research
      – Faculty requiring students to conduct
        research for a course
      – Visiting scholars Health Graduate Student
                       Public
11/9/2011                 Orieintation                 63
            CITI Training




            Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011            Orieintation            64
    For professions, codes are created in part to lay
    the foundations for trust with those that they
    serve and to establish the profession‘s particular
    identity.

    The Code of Ethics for Public Health is a list of
    moral norms of public health professionals.



                     Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                     Orieintation              65
    Public health ethics is
    a field of study that
    can enrich and
    support real-world
    public health decision
    making and
    management of
    ethical conflict.




                     Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                     Orieintation            66
    Public health leaders have
    developed a Code of Ethics
    for professional practice.

    The Public Health
    Leadership Society (PHLS)-
    promulgated the ―Principles
    of the Ethical Practice of
    Public Health‖ (Code)

    Adopted by the American
    Public Health Association
    Executive board in 2002.
    An ‗aspirational‘ code

    Sources: 1) Thomas JC, Sage M, Dillenberg J, Guillory VJ. A Code of Ethics for Public Health. American Journal of Public Health 2002; 92: 1057-
                                                     of public health. Journal of Student
    1059. Thomas JC. Skills for the ethical practicePublic Health GraduatePublic Health Management and Practice 2005; 11: 260-261.
11/9/2011                                                       Orieintation                                                                67
    2)―Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health.‖ Public Health Leadership Society website at http://www.phls.org/products.htm
      The Principles of the Ethical Practice of
                   Public Health
1.      Public health should address principally the
        fundamental causes of disease and
        requirements for health, aiming to prevent
        adverse health outcomes.

2.      Public health should achieve community health
        in a way that respects the rights of individuals
        in the community.


                       Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                       Orieintation            68
The Principles of the Ethical Practice of
       Public Health Continued
3.      Public health policies, programs, and priorities
        should be developed and evaluated through
        processes that ensure an opportunity for input
        from community members.

4.      Public health should advocate for, or work for
        the empowerment of, disenfranchised
        community members, ensuring that the basic
        resources and conditions necessary for health
        are accessible to all people in the community.

                       Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                       Orieintation               69
The Principles of the Ethical Practice of
       Public Health Continued
5.      Public health should seek the information
        needed to implement effective policies and
        programs that protect and promote health.

6.      Public health institutions should provide
        communities with the information they have
        that is needed for decisions on policies or
        programs and should obtain the community's
        consent for their implementation.

                      Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                      Orieintation            70
The Principles of the Ethical Practice of
       Public Health Continued
7.      Public health institutions should act in a timely
        manner on the information they have within the
        resources and the mandate given to them by
        the public.

8.      Public health programs and policies should
        incorporate a variety of approaches that
        anticipate and respect diverse values, beliefs,
        and cultures in the community.

                       Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                       Orieintation              71
The Principles of the Ethical Practice of
       Public Health Continued
9.      Public health programs and policies should be
        implemented in a manner that most enhances
        the physical and social environment.

10. Public health institutions should protect the
        confidentiality of information that can bring
        harm to an individual or community if made
        public. Exceptions must be justified on the
        basis of the high likelihood of significant harm
        to the individual or others.

                       Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                       Orieintation               72
The Principles of the Ethical Practice of
       Public Health Continued
11. Public health institutions should ensure the
        professional competence of their employees.

12. Public health institutions and their employees
        should engage in collaborations and affiliations
        in ways that build the public's trust and the
        institution's effectiveness.




                       Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                       Orieintation            73
             Practicum Guide
    Dr. Billy Oglesby




                  Public Health Graduate Student
11/9/2011                  Orieintation            74

				
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