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Introduction to Project Management

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					Introduction to Project
     Management




                          1
Examples of Projects?




                        2
      Attributes of a Project

Uniqueness
Well defined goals and objective
Specific time, cost, and performance
requirements
Requires resources generally drawn from
functional departments of the organization



                                             3
The triple constraints

        Time




Cost           Performance


                             4
            Project Definition

A project is “a temporary endeavor
undertaken to create a unique product,
service, or result”. (PMI, A Guide to the Project
Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (2004), p. 5.)




                                                             5
A unique set of coordinated activities, with
definite starting, and finishing points,
undertaken by an individual or
organization to meet specific performance
objectives within defined schedule, cost
and performance parameters. (BS 6079:2000)



                                               6
A project is a complex, non-routine, one-
time effort limited by time, budget,
resources, and performance specifications
designed to meet customer needs.




                                        7
     When to use projects?
As a means of achieving an organization‟s
strategic plan
For the activities that cannot be addressed
within the organization‟s normal operations
limits
For complex activities requiring expertise
from across the functions


                                          8
       Types of projects

Research and Development projects
Aerospace / Defense projects
Construction projects
New product development projects
Information system projects
Organizational change projects


                                    9
      Types of organizations
Project-based
– In a project-based organization all work is
  carried out through projects
– Each project is a cost/profit centre and total
  profit is summation of profits on all projects
Non-project-based
– Project exists to support the product lines or
  functional lines
– Profit/loss measured on vertical/functional
  lines
                                                   10
Quantum of project activities

The U.S. spends $2.3 trillion on projects
every year, or one-quarter its GDP and the
world as a whole spends nearly $10 trillion
of its $40.7 GDP on projects of all kinds.
(PMI, The PMI Project Management Fact Book, Second
Edition, 2001.)




                                                     11
Project Management




                     12
         Project Management
             (Definitions)
   Project management is “the
   application of knowledge, skills,
   tools and techniques to project
   activities to meet project
   requirements.”*
(*PMI, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOK® Guide) (2004), p. 8.)



                                                             13
                    Definitions

Project management is the discipline of
organizing and managing resources (e.g.
people) in such a way that the project is
completed within defined scope, quality,
time and cost constraints.
(Wikipedia, http:/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/project _management)




                                                               14
Project Management provides an
organization with powerful tool that
improve its ability to plan, implement, and
control its activities to accomplish specific
organizational objective




                                                15
Project vs. General management
General management            Project management
– Responsible for managing    – Responsible for overseeing
  status quo                    change
– Well defined authority      – Lines of authority „fuzzy‟
– Consistent set of tasks     – Ever-changing set of tasks
– Responsibility limited to   – Responsibility for cross-
  their own function            functional activities
– Works in a permanent        – Structure is for a project
  organizational structure    – Main task is resolution of
– Main task is optimization     conflicts




                                                        16
 Advantages of using formal PM
Better control of resources.
Improved customer relations.
Shorter development times.
Lower costs.
Higher quality and increased reliability.
Higher profit margins.
Improved productivity.
Better internal coordination.
Higher worker morale (less stress).



                                            17
A survey evaluating the merit of project
management (according to 20 different IT
metrics) showed more than 21% overall
improvement when project management
initiatives came into play. (Source: Centre for
Business Practices, USA)




                                                  18
    Historical Perspective
1. Pre-1950s    No such area or
                discipline. Gantt chart by
                H. L. Grant


2. 1950s        Network based
                techniques for managing
                large, complex projects

3. Post 1990s   Emphasis on strategic
                roles of PM
                                         19
    Problems/issues in Project
           Execution
Organizational/ Behavioral
Financial
Legal
Technical
Resources availability/usage
Weather conditions
Conflicting Interest of stack holders
Changes in the specifications /scope at different
stages of project life cycle


                                                20
Technical and Socio-cultural
      aspects of PM
                      Socio cultural
                       -Leadership
                                       1.   Messier contradictory
                       -Team work                 World
                                       2.   Centers on temporary
                      -Conflict mgt
                                              social system
                       -Politics……

      Technical
       -Scope
       -WBS
       -Schedules
       -Resource allocation
                            1. Consists of the formal disciplined,
       -Budgets
                               pure logic parts of the process
                            2. Relies on formal information
                                    system available

                                                           21
  Role of a Project Manager
Project managers work with project sponsors,
project teams, and other people involved in
projects to meet project goals.
Provides direction, coordination, and integration
to the project team.
Marshals resources for the project.
Direct link between company and the customer.
Responsible for performance and success of the
project.


                                                    22
  Skills for Project Manager
Project managers need both “hard” and
“soft” skills.

– Hard skills include product knowledge and
  knowing how to use various project
  management tools and techniques.

– Soft skills include being able to work with
  various types of people.


                                                23
             Specific skills
Communication skills: Listens, persuades.
Organizational skills: Plans, sets goals,
analyzes.
Team-building skills: Shows empathy, motivates,
promotes esprit de corps.
Leadership skills: Sets examples, provides vision
(big picture), delegates, positive, energetic.
Coping skills: Flexible, creative, patient,
persistent.
Technology skills: Experience, project
knowledge
                                               24
    PM Professional Bodies
Project Management Institute (PMI) USA,
www.pmi.org
Association for Project Management (APM) UK,
www.apm.org.uk
International Project Management Association
(IPMA), Netherlands, www.ipma.ch
Project Management Associates (PMA) India,
www.pma-india.org
PRINCE2 UK, www.prince 2 .com

                                               25
  PM tools and Techniques
Project management tools and techniques
assist project managers and their teams in
various aspects of PM
Specific tools and techniques include:
– Project charter, Scope statement, and WBS
  (Scope)
– Gantt chart, Network diagram, Critical path
  analysis, Critical chain scheduling (Time)
– Cost estimates and earned value
  management (Cost)
                                                26
            Project success
Traditional view
– Completion of project within time, cost, and
  performance
Modern view
– Within the allocated time and budgeted cost
– At the proper performance or specification levels
– With acceptance by the customer / user
– With minimum or mutually agreed upon scope
  changes
– Without disturbing the main work flow of the
  organization

                                                      27
                 Program
A program is a group (or related initiatives)
which collectively achieve a beneficial objective.
The projects may address aspects of overall
change and may follow different timelines
Program often have a long duration such that
some future activities are only aspiration ideas
when the program is first defined
There will be a management team guiding the
overall program in addition to the project
managers for each individual project
                                                 28
           Program definition
“A group of related projects managed in a
coordinated way to obtain benefits and
control not available from managing them
individually”
(PMI, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOK® Guide) (2004), p. 16.)




                                                            29
            Program v/s Project
Program                              Project
 Address the entire business           Deliver a specific change
 change                                component
 Focus on strategic goals              Focus on tactical delivery
 May have imprecise definition         Have a precise definition
 May have uncertain timing             Are defined with a specific
 Evolve over a period of time to       timeline and budget
 derive optimum benefit for the        Try to avoid change to the
 organization                          defined scope in order to
 Require much senior                   ensure delivery
 management attention, often           Require management
 including strategic and political     communication primarily at an
 debate                                operational level concerning
                                       operational goals
                                                                   30
            Assignment 1
Identify one project from internet or from
your surroundings and analyze the same
considering following
– Objectives
– Stakeholders
– Time, Cost, Scope
– Whether the project was a success or failure
  and why
Submitted by 22-01-2010 to mlmittal.mnit@gmail.com

                                                     31
Thanks




         32

				
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