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					Enterprise GIS Architecture



     ESRI Enterprise Consulting Group:
      Ty Fabling (Enterprise Architect)


                                          Federal User Conference 2008   3
Primary GIS Architectural Goals
(prioritize & balance)


    • Functionality      Make it Work
    • Performance        Make it Faster
    • Security           Make it Secure
    • Policy             Make it Compliant
      – Standards
      – COTS
         Versions




                                          Federal User Conference 2008   4
Other Key GIS Architectural Issues
(prioritize & balance)

 • Scalability (Ease of handling more users or higher volumes)
 • Mobility (Field Editing – Disconnected Data)
 • Availability (Dependence on both Internal and External Network)
 • Reliability (HA / Eliminate single pts of failure / Apps, Data & Network)
 • Quality (of Service, Data, etc)
 • Stability (Software bug free / Network up-time)
 • Lowest Cost
 • Maintainability (Central vs. Distributed – Applications vs. Data)
 • Flexibility (Total Life-Cycle – Ease of Upgrading to Future Versions)
                                                               Federal User Conference 2008   5
Technology Maturation Process



                                        Productivity
                                           Gains

                  Standardization


                               Manage Risk
                             More       Less


     Innovation

                                               Federal User Conference 2008   6
Basic Architectures

    Single Tier          Multi Tier

                            Client
                            Client
                         Presentation
                         Presentation
     Presentation
     Presentation
     Presentation
     Presentation
                      Application Server
                      Application Server
    Business Logic
    Business Logic      Business Logic
                        Business Logic
  Data Management
  Data Management
                        Data Server
                         Data Server
                      Data Management
                      Data Management
                                      Federal User Conference 2008   7
GIS Business Planning




                          Application Needs
    Business                                         Data Requirements
                         (User productivity tools)
                                                     (Information resources)
    Processes        Infrastructure Requirements
  (User workflows)

   The three key architecture factors are the location of:
    Users                 Applications                  GIS Data

                                                                 Federal User Conference 2008   8
Enterprise GIS Architectures


 Key Components:
   Users
   Applications
   Data

 Types of Infrastructures:
   Centralized (Citrix, Web Services, Data Center)
   Distributed (Replication, Regional Offices)
   – New SmartClient / Mobile ADF
                                          Federal User Conference 2008   9
Three Elements


                                     Where do each reside
Three Major Elements:
                                      (Data Center, Regions, etc)?
 1. Users                            What is the network connectivity like
                                      between these three?
 2. Applications                      – LAN vs. WAN
                                      – Network Bandwidth and Latency
 3. Data                              – Frequency of Outages or Drops
                              2
                               Applications                     3
                                                                      Data
   1
       Users


                   4                           5             DATABASE
               User-to-App                App-to-Data
               Connectivity               Connectivity

                                                              Federal User Conference 2008   10
Centralized Infrastructure

Centralized Systems
Centralized Application near
Centralized Data
                                   User                         User
(Web Apps or Citrix)
                                    Regional                          Field
                                     Office                           Office
                   User                         Thin Client
                                                Connections           Thin Client
                               Thin Client                            Connections
                    Program
                               Connections       Data Center
                     Office
                                             Applications
                                                               Data

                          Thin Client
                          Connections
                User
                                                               ArcSDE
                                          Citrix Server Farm     DB
                    Lab                         Web Servers

                                                                                    Federal User Conference 2008   11
Distributed Infrastructure
                                                   Regional Office
Distributed Systems
                                                                                          Field Office
Distribute Replicated Data
ArcSDE Replication (9.2)

                     User
                   &
                  App.


                                        User
    User                              &
  &                                  App.
 App.                Data
                                                       Replicate
                  (“Replica”)                          Deltas Only
                                                                                            Replicate
               Local                                                   Data Center          Deltas Only
               Server
                                                                       Data (“Master”)

                                               Replicate
           User                    User
         &                       &             Deltas Only
        App.                    App.

                                                                      Master      File
                                                                     Database    Server
                    Region
                                                                                            Federal User Conference 2008   12
Centralized vs. Distributed Systems

Centralized Systems                     Distributed Systems
 Uses Citrix or Web Service apps         Uses desktop apps
 Single point-of-access for data,         on local workstation
  centralized management                 Multiple replicas of data at Regions,
 Dependant upon network for               synched w/ master
  Application & Data                     Less dependant upon WAN
 Reduced WAN & LAN traffic               Increased LAN traffic
 Increased O&S at Data Centers           Decreased O&S at Data Centers
 Decreased O&S at Region                 Increased O&S at Regions

High Points:                            High Points:
 Minimizes resource requirements at      Editing data offline (during outages)
 regional centers                        Data distribution (i.e. outsourcing to
 Centralized database and system         data vendors, outside agencies)
 administration – integrity             Low Points:
Low Points:                              Increased resources, O&S support
                                         maintaining client software and data at
 Network is a single point of failure    regional centers, etc.
                                         Posting/synchronizing local data with master
                                         database(s) – data currency    Federal User Conference 2008   13
Expanding Deployment Options
Remote Access Client Options

 – Mobile ADF
       Supports Windows XP and Mobile Operating Systems
       Requires development
 – ArcPad                                                               Line between
       Complete Application                                           Mobile Users and
 – Browsers
       ArcGIS Server and ArcIMS                                        Remote Clients
 – ArcEngine                                                             is blurring
       Rich Client Development environment
       Can Consume web services
 – Windows Terminal Services / Citrix
       Full Rich Client Functionality
                              Authors”
       Typically utilized by “Authors”
 – ArcMap
       Full Rich Client Functionality
       Can consume web services and new GeoData disconnected Editing




   Technology
                    Phone            PDA         Tablet         Laptop            Workstation
     Network                     Increasing Bandwidth / Connectivity / Richness
     Software       Mobile ADF               Browser                     Citrix
                                   ArcPad                 ArcEngine                 ArcMap
                                                                                         Federal User Conference 2008   14
The SmartClient Paradigm
Mobile ADF

SmartClient Paradigm
  For Sometimes Connected Systems
  .NET based replication & synchronization
  Masters & Replicas
  with only deltas moving across the wire




                                             Federal User Conference 2008   15
Remote Access Client Options
Mobile ADF in the Enterprise


   Mobile Client                                                  Mobile Server         Existing Systems
    – Map, MapActions                                              – Web services       – GDB Replication
    – MapCache                                                     – Staging of data    – SDE
    – ServerConnection

                                                       GPRS
                                                       EDGE
        ArcMobile                                                     ArcGIS Server      Enterprise Systems
                                                       HSDPA
                                                       802.11
                                                       Cradle




                                                         Web
   User
   User                                                Services
                                                                  Web Services & Data
                Management



                                        Connectivity




   Experience
   Experience
                             Security




   Business
   Business
   Logic
   Logic

   Data & Web
   Data & Web
   Svc
   Svc                                                              Server Manager


                                                                                                Federal User Conference 2008   16
Remote Access Client Options
Mobile ADF Application and Data Deployment
                                   Application
                                  Development                      ArcGIS Server



                            Visual Studio
    Data Extraction
                                                                        Web Service

                                                                                      Refresh Data
                                                 Posts Edits
    MapCache Extractor




                                                                       Connection

               Deployment


                                                                   Day to Day
                                                               synchronization from
           Mobile Applications                                      the Field




                                                 Editing Application                   Viewing Application
                                                                                                       Federal User Conference 2008   17
GIS Is Deployed In Many Ways

              Distributed        Centralized
                             1    Enterprise GIS               2



Traditional

                File Based




                             3                                 4



Emerging



                                                   Federal User Conference 2008   18
GIS Software Evolution
What are the lessons learned?

                          and            where is the technology going?
                                      Platform Performance Change
                                            >> 10x Faster Hardware              >> 10x Faster Hardware
      1980’s                     1990’s                           2000’s                                 2010’s
                                                      2x Process Load
                                                    >> 2x Process Load                          2x Process Load
                                                                                              >> 2x Process Load
                                             >> 10x Faster Technology Change           >> 10x Faster Technology Change
                                              >> 10x Faster Technology Change           >> 10x Faster Technology Change
      Tightly Scripted Software Code
                1982–1999                  Object Relational Software                    Service Oriented Architecture
                                  Internet                                                     Mobility
                                   Web Applications
                                                      ArcGIS Desktop
 ARC/INFO 1982                                        - ArcInfo 1999
       ArcView GIS 1992                                      - ArcEditor 2000
                                                             - ArcView 2000                              SOA
                                      MapObjects 1996               - ArcGIS Server 2004
                                          ArcIMS 1997               - ArcGIS Engine 2004
Coverages
     Librarian
                                                      ArcSDE 1999
          Shapefiles
                                                   - Simple non-versioned file types
                  ArcStorm                               - Geodatabase Versioning (ArcSDE)
                        Spatial Database Engine (SDE)           - Distributed Geodatabase Replication




            Scripts                                   Objects                                  Services
       Distributed                               Centralized                                   Federated
                                                                                                           Federal User Conference 2008   19
Two Geo-Enterprise Information
System Approaches

Enterprise GIS                        Spatially-enabled Information System

GIS Centric                           GIS Enabled
Core GIS technology                   Enterprise Applications that include GIS Information
Geo-centric workflows                 Spatially-enabled lines of business-centric workflows
Advanced GIS applications             Simple GIS functionality
 Data creation and maintenance,        Data exploitation, routing, geocoding, simple map
analysis and modeling
IT-based                              IT-based
Examples                              Examples
  Land records, asset management,       Financial system, facility management, executive
facility sitting, corridor analysis   information system, customer care, first responder
Run by GIS and IT professionals       Run by IT professionals


                                                                            Federal User Conference 2008   20
Enterprise Architecture

            GIS Centric         GIS Enabled

          Desktop           Browser

Clients

                            Web Server
Application
 Servers            GIS   ERP     CRM         CIS        SFA



   Data
  Servers
                                                    Federal User Conference 2008   21
SOA - GIS Functional View
                                             3-D
                                           Viewers

                                                        COP                Presentation
                       2-D                                                      Tier
                     Viewers                                             (multiple viewers)



                   Enterprise Messaging Services


      Catalog     Globe      Map &      Geo-      Image-       Open       Tracking
      Services   Services    Chart   Processing Processing     Web         & RSS
                            Services  Services   Services     Services    Services

                                                                                      Serving/
                                                                                     Publishing
                                                                                        Tier




                                                                              Authoring
                                                                                Tier
                                                                                     Federal User Conference 2008   22
SOA Overview
Definition


       A method of building business applications
              that utilize common services
             to support business functions

                             Service
                             Service
                            Directory
                            Directory

                   Find /
                  Details               Publish



              Service
              Service                    Service
                                          Service
             Consumer
             Consumer         Bind /     Provider
                                         Provider
                              Invoke




                                                    Federal User Conference 2008   23
Web Services Overview
Core Components
                        WSDL      SOAP       UDDI
        These 3 technology standards, coupled with service-oriented
             design principles, form a basic XML-driven SOA

 Service Description
 – WSDL
     Web Services Description Language
     Defines all details about a service                          UDDI


 Service Protocol                                   Enables                  Is accessed
 – SOAP                                           discovery of                   using
     How to format XML documents for
     transmission between applications
                                           WSDL                  Binds to                           SOAP
 Service Discovery
 – UDDI                                                                       Enables
     Universal Description, Discovery, and         Describes                Communication
     Integration                                                              between

     Not a requirement
     Well proven for single Enterprise                            Web
     systems                                                     Services
                                                                                 Federal User Conference 2008   24
What Supports Web Services?
2nd Generation Web Services



                                                                        UDDI



                                                     Enables                    Is accessed
                    Provides a                     discovery of                     using
                    Protocol for


                                                                   Binds to
                                       WSDL                                                       SOAP


                                                                                 Enables
                                                    Describes                  Communication
                             Describes the                         uses                                           uses
                                                                                 between
                              Service for
           Describes the                                                                                                        Provides a
            Service for                                                                                                         Protocol for

                                           Manages                  Web                                  Provides
                         WS-             Context Across            Services                             End- to-
                                                                                                        End-to-end       WS-Security
                      Coordination                                                                      Security for

                                                        Enables                Provides a        Provides
              Manages
                               Provides a              Distributed             Protocol for     Guaranteed                    uses
             Context for
                               Protocol for          Transactions for                           Delivery for


                        Provides a          WS-                                               WS-Reliable
    BPEL                Protocol for                                                                             uses          WS-Policy
                                         Transaction                                          Messaging


                                                                                                                              Federal User Conference 2008   25
                                              orchestrates                                          governs
SOA Infrastructure




     Connects Service Consumers with Service Providers
     May be used to communicate with Service Directories
     May be implemented using a variety of technologies
                                                           Federal User Conference 2008   26
Enterprise SOA Framework
Clients
 – Multi-Channel Access

Types of Applications
 – Client Apps
 – Web Applications
 – Web Services

Data Sources (Producers)

Unifying Components
 – Web Portals
       Common Viewing
         Interface
 – ESB
       Common Messaging
         Framework
 – Objects
       Common System
         Components
 – Different Communication
    Paths may be utilized

                             Federal User Conference 2008   27
GIS SOA Components




                     Federal User Conference 2008   28
How does ESRI fit into SOA?




                              Federal User Conference 2008   29
How does ESRI fit into Enterprise SOA?




                                   Federal User Conference 2008   30
Secure Implementation
Fundamental Tradeoff

                   Secure




         You get to pick any two!

Usable                          Cheap


                                Federal User Conference 2008   31
Simplifying Geodatabases
ArcGIS 9.2 - New Support for File, Personal and
Work Group Geodatabases

     • New GDBs are:
         • Fast
                                         ArcGIS                          Current Options @ 9.1
         • Simple
         • Scalable                      Clients
         • Open
         • Cross Platform*

                New GDBs
                                                                             ArcSDE
                                                                            Enterprise
                                                                             Edition
                                                ArcSDE
                              ArcSDE           Workgroup
                              Personal           Edition
 Personal       File-based*    Edition
(JET Engine)                                                                   SDE**
                                                                            • SQL Server
               *Runs on Windows,          Embeds SDE                        • Oracle
                Linux or UNIX             w/ SQL Express                    • DB2
                                                                            • Informix
                                   **Only SDE supports 9.2 Replication           Federal User Conference 2008   32
Managing Distributed Data
ArcGIS 9.2 - Replication of Geographic Information

 •   Changes Only Updates (Deltas)                Supports
 •   Synchronized Periodically (Configurable)     •   Collaborating Agencies
 •   Works on the Web or Courier (i.e. CD)        •   Co-Data Producers
 •   Client to Client (not DB to DB)              •   Central & Regional Offices
 •   Only Supported on SDE Versioned RDBMS        •   Mobile Units



      Central                                    Read /   Two
                                                 Write           Read /
                                                          Way    Write
                                                One
                         Hierarchy              Way

                    National
                                                  Read
                                                  Only      ArcIMS
                  State

                 Local

                                           . . . Key Technology For GeoWeb
                                                                          Federal User Conference 2008   33
ArcGIS 9.2 Supports Oracle Spatial
Three Ways with New Oracle SQL_Type

            ArcSDE is How ArcGIS Accesses
             And Maintains Data in RDBMS

                       ArcGIS              Can Be Deployable as App Server
                                               (Performance/Scalability)
                               SDE

                                                       *Any GIS application can now
                                            *SQL     query GIS features stored using
                                                          the new ISO SQL_Type
                                                     directly without requiring ArcSDE


                                           Three Storage Types are Supported
    Other DBMS    Binary            ISO    • Binary
                                    Type   • SDO Type
                                           • ISO SQL Type (st_geometry @9.2)
                       SDO Type
                           Oracle

             . . . Using Multiple Methods & Techniques for Many Large Customers
                                                                        Federal User Conference 2008   34
Integration of Time
New Ways to Manage, Analyze & Visualize Geography

 • Extended Data Model
 • Tools for Manipulation
    –   Query
    –   Change Analysis                     View        Control
                                                        Room
    –   Iterative Processing                                                   Multi Dimension
    –   Visualization                                                         Data Sets (NetCDF)
            Animation
            Charting
                                                                                  T
                                                                                            y
    – Tracking Analysis
                                                        Model
                                                       Simulation
                   Current
                       Date                                                                x
                                                                              Files



 Archive/History                 Real Time
          Date
                               Sensor Network
                                                             T1
                   Retire
                                                                                      Future
           History /                                                Present
           Archiving
                                                      Past

                               Mobile
                                         Stationary                    . . . New Opportunities
                                                                                      Federal User Conference 2008   35
ArcSDE Components


                                         ArcGIS Application



  ArcSDE API                             ArcSDE Executable



                                               DBMS


                        SDE Schema                    User Schema(s)

  ArcSDE Schema



                          License Code




                  Note: ArcSDE executables are included in Direct Connect API

                                                                                Federal User Conference 2008   36
ArcSDE Components

                                  ArcGIS Application

  ArcSDE API                          ArcSDE Executable
                    9.1
                                             DBMS


                            SDE Schema              User Schema(s)




  ArcSDE Schema




                              License Code



                  Note: ArcSDE executables are included in Direct Connect API

                                                                                Federal User Conference 2008   37
ArcSDE Components

                                  ArcGIS Application

  ArcSDE API                          ArcSDE Executable
                    9.2
                                             DBMS


                           SDE Schema 1             User Schema(s)




  ArcSDE Schema
                          SDE Schema (n)            User Schema(s)




                              License Code



                  Note: ArcSDE executables are included in Direct Connect API

                                                                                Federal User Conference 2008   38
  Multi-Tiered SDE Architecture
                                                            Recommended
                                    Two-tier                  Two-tier                      Three-tier
                            SDE geodatabase Server          SDE Direct Connect        SDE Application Server


                                   ArcObject                  ArcObject                     ArcObject
  Client                           or ArcIMS                  or ArcIMS                     or ArcIMS
  Tier or                                                       SDE (DC)
                                   SDE Connect                  DB Client                   SDE Connect


                                                                                             SDE GeoMgr
  Application
  Server Tier                                               Direct Connect                  SDE** [gsrvr]
                                                                                              DB Client

                                                                                                    ** Remote Connection
                                   SDE GeoMgr

                                   SDE* [gsrvr]
  Database                             (ASC)                                RDBMS
                                                                            [SDE schema]
  Server Tier                                                               [user schema]
                                    RDBMS
                                    [SDE schema]
                                    [user schema]


ASC - Application Server Connect       * Local Connection                                                 Federal User Conference 2008   39
ArcIMS Component Architecture
                                               Web Server
                            Applications (ColdFusion/ASP/.NET/….Servlet Engine......)




                                                                .NET Link

                                                                            OAI-PWH
                                                                            CS-W
                                                                            WFS
                                                                            WMS
                                                                            Java
                                                                            Servlet
                                                      ActiveX
                                            CF
  Web Applications     WA   Connectors



                                   Map          Map               Map              Map
                                  Request      Request           Request          Request

   Service Manager     SM                    Application Server
                                       Image        Feature                 ArcMap
                                       Virtual      Virtual                 Virtual
                                       Server       Server                  Server

                                        Threads     Threads                 Threads
                                               Spatial Server
    Spatial Services   SS                 Image Feature ArcMap
                                          Extract Query Geocode


                                             Database Connections

       Data Source     DS                        Data Server




                                                                                            Federal User Conference 2008   40
ArcGIS Server Component
Architecture
                                                Web Server
                                    Web Application Server
 Web Applications     WA   Applications (.Net or JSP)      Web Services (SOAP)
                           Application Developer Framework (ADF) runtime
                                   Map          Map         Map        Map
                                  Request      Request     Request    Request
                                            Server Object Manager
  Service Manager     SM                       (load controller)


                                            SOC                 SOC

                                            Pooled            Non Pooled
                                                     Instances
   Spatial Services   SS                 Container Machine
                                         MapServer GeocodeServer
                                          ArcGIS Server Objects


                                               ArcSDE Connects
      Data Source                              Data Server
                      DS                    (Geodatabase Server)



                                                                                 Federal User Conference 2008   41
Single-tier Platform Configuration


      Standard Configuration           High-Availability Configuration
                                             Network Load Balancing
               GIS Server
                                        GIS Server                     GIS Server

                 WA                         WA                             WA

                 SM                         SM            SM
                                                                            SM
                                                     Load Balancing


                  SS
                                       SS         SS                  SS            SS

                  DS
                                             DS                            DS

   Workgroup Server with SQL Express    Enterprise Server with SQL Express



                                                                           Federal User Conference 2008   42
Two-tier Platform Configuration
Enterprise Server with Supported Database


      Standard Configuration          High-Availability Configuration
                                                Network Load Balancing

             GIS Server
                                           GIS Server                        GIS Server

               WA
                                             WA                                WA



               SM                          SM                SM                   SM
                                                        Load Balancing


                SS
                                      SS              SS                 SS               SS


                                                           Cluster Address



                DS                              DS                              DS

                               Primary Data Server                       Failover Data Server
                                                     Common Storage Array       Federal User Conference 2008   43
Three-tier GIS Platform Configurations
Separate Web and Spatial Servers with Supported Database

                                                          High-Availability Configuration
        Standard Configuration
                                                                 Network Load Balancing
                       Web Server
                                                              Web Server                 Web Server
                         WA
                                                                 WA                           WA

                          SM
                                                              SM                SM                  SM
                                                                           Load Balancing
                       SM
                  Load Balancing


          SS                           SS                   SS         SS                   SS            SS

      Map Server                   Map Server                 Map Server                  Map Server
   Container Machine            Container Machine          Container Machine           Container Machine
                                                                            Cluster Address



                          DS                                     DS                               DS
                                                    Primary Data Server                   Failover Data Server
                                                                                              Federal User Conference 2008   44
                                                                      Common Storage Array
Web Services Components in DMZ

                                                WA Access

                              Web Server

                                 WA
                                                          Client
                                                         Browser
                               Map Server
                            Container Machine
                                                              WWW
                                 SM


                                  SS
         Data Replication

       Data Server             Data Server

                                  DS

          Secure Network        DMZ

                                                      Federal User Conference 2008   45
Map/Data Server on Secure Network
(Service Manager inside Firewall)


                          HTTP Access**
                             SOAP/XML


                                        SM Access
         Map Server                                                  WA Access
      Container Machine
                                                    Web Server
            SM      WA
                                                       WA

             SS                                             Output
                                                             File
                                                                        Client
          Data Server                                                  Browser

                           Disk
             DS           Mount*                                              WWW


               Secure Network                         DMZ



                                                                        Federal User Conference 2008   46
Web Services
(with Proxy Server in DMZ)

    Web Server

       WA
                                    Proxy Server
                   Output
                    File
                                      Reverse
     Map Server                        Proxy
  Container Machine WA Access

       SM

                                                      Client
        SS                              PS Access    Browser


                                                         WWW
     Data Server

        DS


                   Secure Network      DMZ

                                                    Federal User Conference 2008   47
ESRI Enterprise Support



  Enterprise Consulting Group
  – System Architecture Design Classes
     (Available around the World)
  – Enterprise GIS Consulting Services
  – EEAP – ESRI Enterprise Advantage Program


  System Design Strategies
  – On-Line Document on ESRI Web Site
  – Capacity Planning Tool   (Excel Worksheet)
                                         Federal User Conference 2008   48

				
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