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Hormones

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					                                                                Affected
 HORMONE       Released By:           In response to:           organ/ muscle:                         ACTION:
melatonin      pinneal gland          light from retina            brain              controls circadian rhythms, cause sleepiness
                                                                                     secreted in higher levels in night/ winter:SAD disorder
  ADH          post. Pituitary     dehydration/ bleeding          kidneys           decreases urine output by increasing water reabsorp.
 oxytocin      post. Pituitary          childbirth             uterus/mammory      stimulates uterine smooth muscle contraction and the
                                                                         glands                development of mammory glands
  TSH          ant. Pituitary      thyroid releasing hormone       thyroid                  stimulates thyroid to release T3/ T4
                                   from the hypothalamus
   ACTH        ant. Pituitary     adrenal releasing hormone     adrenal cortex     stimulates the adrenal cortex to release both its
                                  from the hypothalamus                           glucocorticoids(cortisol) and mineralocorticoids( aldosterone)
 FSH / LH      ant. Pituitary     gonadic releasing hormone        gonads         prompts the ovary to produce eggs and estrogen in females
                                  from the hypothalamus                           prompts the testes to produce sperm and testosterone
 prolactin     ant. Pituitary   hypo releasing hormone mammary glands new mother breast development and lactation
  GH           ant. Pituitary   hypo releasing hormone tissue, bones     stimulates bone and muscle growth
  T3/T4         thyroid gland    in response to TSH       many cells       increases metabolism, increases glucose breakdown
                                                                            increases fat breakdown, regulates body temperature
 calcitonin   thyroid gland     increased Ca levels       osteoblasts     decreases Ca blood levels as blasts pull Ca out of the
                                                                                       blood to make new bone
    PTH      parathyroid gland decreased Ca levels        osteoclasts     increases Ca blood levels as clasts release Ca into the
                                                                                        blood as they break down bone
epinephrine medulla of the      increased stress levels cardiac muscles    short term stress response includes BP increase,
    and         adrenal gland   in the hypothalamus +    + other muscles    heartbeat increase, increased blood glucose levels,
norepinephr.                    spinal cord stimulation                                      and energized muscles
             cortex of the         ACTH releasing          all tissues      long term stress response includes increased blood
  cortisol      adrenal gland         hormone                            glucose levels (gluconeogenesis of fats), anti- inflam-
                                from anterior pituitary                   matory, decreases WBC activity- immune suppresion
aldosterone cortex- adrenal gl. Angiotensin II levels       kidneys        increase BV and BP by causing kidneys to reabsorb
                                                                             salt and water (see review sheet for more on cycle)
  insulin      islets of langerhansdecreased blood             body cells, bind to activates gene that codes for glucose transporters
                in the pancreas       glucose levels           insulin receptors allows glucose to travel into the cells for ATP production

 glucogon      islets of langerhans increased blood                 liver          stimulate liver to break down glycogen stores
               in the pancreas         glucose levels
testosterone       testes               puberty                 entire body       responsible for secondary male sex charecteristics

estrogen           ovaries              puberty                 entire body       responsible for secondary female sex charecteristics
progesterone
thymosins   thymus gland   early development   immune system   stimulate production and maturation of t lymphocytes

				
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posted:11/9/2011
language:English
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