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					   Phonology



(Additional) Diploma Skills for Life ESOL/
Literacy
Canterbury Christ Church University
2010



                                   Jo-Ann Delaney
 Phonology and Pronunciation
1.   Has your own accent changed during your life?
2.   Have you ever had your pronunciation
     corrected? If so, how did you feel?
3.   When learning another language, was
     pronunciation important for you? Why? /
     Why not?
4.   Why is it useful for Literacy/ESOL teachers
     to have some knowledge of the theoretical
     aspects of phonology?
5.   Do your students talk about accent and
     pronunciation?

                              Jo-Ann Delaney
Objectives

By the end of the session you should be able to:

   Describe the production of sounds in English

   Describe the main features of connected
    speech in English

   Use this knowledge to help support Literacy /
    ESOL learners in the classroom

                               Jo-Ann Delaney
Some definitions

 Intonation the rise and fall of the voice when
  speaking
 Phoneme the smallest element of sound in a
  language which is recognised as making a
  difference in meaning
 Stress the greater emphasis of some syllables
  or words over others during speech




                             Jo-Ann Delaney
Some definitions
 Phonetics the study of speech sounds and
  sound production in general
 Sound system the different phonemes that
  make up a language’s phonology
 Rhythm the regular repetition of stress in time
 Phonology the study of how speech sounds
  are produced and used and distinguished in a
  specific language



                             Jo-Ann Delaney
Some definitions
   Vowel a phoneme that is produced when
    the airstream is not blocked in the mouth
    or throat. The sound is formed by the
    position of the tongue and lips

   Consonant a phoneme produced when
    the airstream from the lungs is blocked or
    restricted in the mouth or the throat


                           Jo-Ann Delaney
The phonemic alphabet (chart)



Go through the sounds and ‘sound out’. Use the
  example words given to help you.
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/try/resources/p
  ronunciation/phonemic-chart




                            Jo-Ann Delaney
Consonants – manner of
articulation
   Plosive

   Fricative

   Nasal

   Affricate

                  Jo-Ann Delaney
Consonants – place of articulation
 Bilabial
 Labiodental
 Alveolar
 Dental
 Palatal
 Velar




                     Jo-Ann Delaney
Manner       Plosive   Fricative   Affricate        Nasal
Place 

Bilabial      /p/ /b/                                /m/

Labiodental             /f/ /v/

Dental                  /θ/ /ð /

Alveolar      /t/ /d/   /s/ /z/                      /n/

Palatal                 /ʃ/ /ʒ/     /ʧ/ /ʤ/ /ŋ/
(post-
alveolar)
Velar         /k/ /g/

                                    Jo-Ann Delaney
Spelling errors:
   Can you explain the spelling errors below, based
    on your knowledge of how consonants are
    produced?
   boyz
   fought (thought)
   readin
   efer (ever)
   blug (plug)
   killt (killed)

                               Jo-Ann Delaney
 Which of the following initial word digraphs are
possible in English?

   sp__
   gp__
   st __
   pl __
   fr__
   nl___
   kf___
Can you suggest a reason why this is the case?

                             Jo-Ann Delaney
Vowels
   Lip position (rounded / not rounded)

   Vertical tongue position (high / low,
    closed / open)

   Horizontal tongue position (front / back)

   Length


                            Jo-Ann Delaney
Application – awareness

   How many different spellings can you
    come up with for the sounds:


                 /eɪ/     /i:/




                           Jo-Ann Delaney
Suggested different spellings:
   mate, came, wait, bay, grey, grade, great,
    eight, age, lake, change, case, space

   meat, meet, scene, piece




                             Jo-Ann Delaney
Connected speech – what happens
to sounds
   Weak forms – see dialogue

   Assimilation

   Elision

   Linking


                         Jo-Ann Delaney
    Connected speech
   Elision
    This is mostly /t/ and /d/ omission. For example:
          /t/                                    /d/
    Post the letter                           old man
    Next please                               sandwich

   Assimilation
    A phoneme changes in quality due to the influence of a neighbouring
    sound. For example:
    Great Britain                 white gloves
    brown belt                    red carpet

   Linking
    To ease pronunciation and extra /j/ or /r/ is sometimes added. For
    example:
    I am                   Australia all out           drawing

                                              Jo-Ann Delaney
Spelling

   You should of come

   Partikly

   You mus tell me

   Wha ya gonna do?


                         Jo-Ann Delaney
Implications for teaching

 Spelling errors – awareness of letters that
  ‘are not there’ or are ‘added’ in spoken language
 Weak forms: e.g. ‘of’ and ‘have’
 Models of language should be realistic and
  contain weak forms and other features of
  connected speech.




                             Jo-Ann Delaney
Mark the stress
a green house                         eccentric

record            a greenhouse

    information                       atomic

explanation


                     Jo-Ann Delaney
Intonation


         Thank you




               Jo-Ann Delaney
What is intonation?
         Pitch and prominence

   English has a much wider pitch range than
    many other languages.




                           Jo-Ann Delaney
Any questions?




         Jo-Ann Delaney

				
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