ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT by PastorGallo

VIEWS: 1,157 PAGES: 42

More Info
									Organizational Management
                                “We need to constantly improve our services, learn from experience
                                   and correct our mistakes. Good management is in the interest of
                            everybody. Bad management serves no one. And let me be clear about
                            the goal of management reform. It is to equip the Secretary-General and
                             Secretariat with the management tools and resources needed to handle
                             complex global operations. And it is to ensure that we are answerable
                                   for results and performance through effective, stringent oversight.
                                                 Working together, we can and must achieve this.”
                                                                             Secretary-General Kofi Annan




                                                                                           UN Photo/Milton Grant
Chapter Summary




                  -

                  -
                  -
                                                       UN Photo/Mark Garten
Organizational
Management
2005



  Strategic                                          Section takes up the essential work that frames
                                                     and supports all of these activities. Three types

  Issues                                             of services accomplish the task of managing the
                                                     Secretariat as an organiza-
                                                                                     Three types of services
                                                     tion: conference manage- accomplish the task
                                                     ment, resource and assets of managing the Secre-
                                                     management, and safety tariat as an organization:
                                                                                     conference manage-
                                                     and security management. ment, resource and
                                                     Each of them is critical assets management,
                                                     to the efficient and effec- and safety and security
  The previous chapters have presented an                                            management. Each of
                                                     tive day-to-day function- them is critical to the
  account of the Secretariat’s eight strategic
                                                     ing of the Secretariat. In
  areas of programme work in 2005 — priori-
                                                     the external sphere, public day-to-day functioning
  ties as envisioned in the Medium-Term Plan for                                     of the Secretariat.
                                                     information activities seek
  2002-2005 — joined to performance analysis
                                                     to raise global awareness of the work of the
  of the actual programmes through which the
                                                     Organization, thereby ensuring support for the
  Secretariat delivers its mandated and budgeted
                                                     aims and activities of the United Nations. All
  activities. This final chapter of the Performance
                                                     of these services are the object of continuous




                                                                                                               245
                                                                     UN Photo/Mark Garten
                                                                       United States Federal Reserve,
                                                                       to head the panel, named the
                                                                       Independent Inquiry Committee.
                                                                       Absorbing the findings of the
                                                                       Committee was distressing for
                                                                       the UN community, as was the
                                                                       damage to the United Nations’
                                                                       reputation. Nonetheless, the
                                                                       Volcker investigation and related
                                                                       inquiries into the corruption and
                                                                       inefficiencies of the Oil-for-Food
      improvement in keeping with the guidance of          Programme revealed significant laxity in the
      the Secretary-General’s reform agendas of pre-       execution of the directives of the Security
      vious and current years. The discussion below        Council’s “661 Committee” on Iraq — in par-
      reviews the highlights of performance in each of     ticular, management weaknesses and insuf-
      these areas.                                         ficient controls in dealing with complex and
                                                           high-volume transaction processes. These were
          Beyond these functional commitments,
                                                           problems that went beyond the peculiarities of
      however, 2005 was a year of astringent chal-
                                                           the Programme, and pointed to systemic issues
      lenge and sobering reflection. As a result of alle-
                                                           that could not be ignored.
      gations of fraud and corruption on the part of
      United Nations personnel and agents, as well as          The outcome was an upsurge of in-house
      contractors, including entities that had entered     management review that addressed policy, proc-
      into contracts with the United Nations or            ess, controls, checks and balances and oversight
      with Iraq under the Oil-for-Food Programme,          aspects. This was amplified and accelerated by
      Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed an             the recommendations flowing from the 2005
      independent, high-level inquiry in April 2004        World Summit, in which world leaders com-
      to investigate the administration and manage-        mitted themselves to cooperate in providing
      ment of the Office of the Iraq Programme.              multilateral solutions to problems in four areas:
      Following this, the United Nations Security          development, peace and collective security,
      Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1538          human rights and the rule of law, and strength-
      (2004), which endorsed the inquiry and called        ening the United Nations itself.
      for full cooperation in the investigation by all
                                                               The Summit recommendations, the reso-
      United Nations officials and personnel, the
                                                           lutions of the General Assembly’s fifty-ninth
      Coalition Provisional Authority, Iraq, and all
                                                           session, and the Secretariat’s own analysis
      other Member States, including their national
                                                           resulted in a number of groundbreaking meas-
      regulatory authorities. The Secretary-General
                                                           ures designed to make the United Nations
      named Paul Volcker, former chairman of the




246
                                                                                                     Organizational
                                                                                                      Management



more accountable and efficient, while maintain-       tional mechanism was expected to be addressed
ing the highest standards of ethical conduct.       in 2006, given the range of advice and concern
In direct response to concerns about fairness       expressed by the General Assembly.
and integrity, and to prevent the recurrence of
                                                        In parallel, and in keeping with contempo-
such damaging incidents as the sexual exploita-
                                                    rary public sector practices, a new Independent
tion reported in certain peacekeeping missions,
                                                    Audit Advisory Committee, consisting of sen-
misconduct of senior officials, and harassment
                                                    ior experts external to the Organization, was
in the workplace, the United Nations began to
                                                    also proposed, with the prospective role of
implement concrete reform measures. A new
                                                    helping the Secretary-General and the General
Ethics Office, currently guided by a Special
                                                    Assembly to better exercise governance respon-
Advisor to the Secretary-General, was estab-
                                                    sibilities with respect to the various operations
lished at the end of the year, with a charge to
                                                    of the United Nations, and ensure that the
oversee ethical standards, advise staff members
                                                    UN audit processes are operating efficiently
on ethical questions, develop an ethics training
                                                    and effectively. In addition, the High-Level
curriculum for all staff, identify vulnerabilities
                                                    Committee on Management, which governs
to fraud and corruption, protect “whistle-blow-
                                                    UN System-wide harmonization of manage-
ers” from retaliation under a newly promulgated
                                                    ment policies and processes, decided to adopt
policy, and administer a more rigorous finan-
                                                    the International Public Sector Accounting
cial disclosure mechanism for all senior staff
                                                    Standards to align the Organization with
and those mid-level staff with special fiduciary
                                                    best practices in this essential component of
responsibilities, such as procurement officers.
                                                    financial management. Prior to publication of
    A Management Performance Board was              this report, this measure was approved by the
launched. The Board will systematically assess      General Assembly in July 2006; it is expected to
the performance of the senior-most tier of man-     be fully implemented by 2010.
agers, present matters to the Secretary-General
                                                        The General Assembly resolution 59/283
that require his attention, and advise him of
                                                    in April 2005 requested the forming of a
suggested corrective action where necessary. To
                                                    Redesign Panel on the United Nations Internal
address shortcomings identified by both the
                                                    Justice System. The Panel would review and
General Assembly and the Independent Inquiry
                                                    propose a rational and comprehensive rede-
Committee and to increase the effectiveness of
                                                    sign of the Secretariat’s system of internal jus-
the oversight function, an Oversight Committee
                                                    tice, which needs to be an effective mechanism
was proposed, with the role of ensuring that,
                                                    for resolving staff grievances. Such a redesign
within the Secretariat, appropriate management
                                                    would be focused on improving the independ-
action is taken to implement the recommenda-
                                                    ence, impartiality, fairness and timeliness of the
tions of the Office of Internal Oversight Services,
                                                    system, which has frustrated staff and manag-
the Board of Auditors, and the Joint Inspection
                                                    ers alike, and long been an issue of concern for
Unit. The issue of its functioning and opera-




                                                                                                               247
      the Secretary-General. By year’s end, he had                   and approximately 700 meetings per year. It
      appointed the Panel, which commenced its                       now supports 192 Member States and approxi-
      work on 1 February 2006.                                       mately 8,000 meetings per year, running at
                                                                     maximum capacity eight months of the year and
          During 2005, the General Assembly and the
                                                                     over capacity during the four months of General
      Secretariat leadership also went forward with
                                                                     Assembly sessions. The complex has building
      their inescapable engagement with major infra-
                                                                     systems that are well past their useful life and
      structural challenges: a decaying, environmen-
                                                                     impossible to operate at an acceptable level of
      tally threatening building complex in New York,
                                                                     energy efficiency. Hazardous materials, includ-
      and a relatively outdated information and com-
                                                                     ing asbestos, and standards of building safety in
      munications technology (ICT) architecture.
                                                                     key areas have been found to be unacceptable.
          The UN Headquarters complex in New                         Based on a series of reports on such issues, the
      York City, comprising seven buildings on a 17-                 General Assembly had approved the implemen-
      plus acre campus, was built largely between                    tation of the Capital Master Plan (CMP) in
      1949 and 1952. At that time, it was a state-of-                January 2003 to renovate the UN Headquarters
      the-art, code-compliant structure. The build-                  complex in compliance with building and fire
      ing support, administration and infrastructure                 safety codes and modern standards for security,
      were designed to handle 70 Member States                       energy efficiency, sustainability and accessibility.
                                                                     By end of 2005, major technical studies were
                                                                     completed and the results incorporated into
                                                                     the design documents. (Further analysis and
                                                                     reporting on the CMP follow, in the Resources
                                                                     and Asset Management sub-chapter.)

                                                                         The Organization committed itself to
                                                                     explore the acquisition of an Enterprise
                                                                     Resource Planning (ERP) IT system as a
                                                                     comprehensive solution to its information and
                                                                     communications management needs. In the
                                                                     early 1990s, the Secretariat had developed and
                                                                     implemented a client/server system called the
                                                                     Integrated Management Information System
                                                                     (IMIS). By the turn of the millennium, it had
                                                                     become outmoded and, indeed, the expected
                                                    UN Photo/MB.cp




                                                                     integration of functions and interoperability
                                                                     of systems had never been fully attained. An
                                                                     ERP system would provide the power, flex-
                                                                     ibility and standard of performance necessary




248
                                                                                                     Organizational
                                                                                                      Management



to support a global, 21st century organization.
In 2005, senior management and the Member
                                                   Conference
States began discussions on planning for
and defining the functional requirements of
                                                   Management
Secretariat operations.

     With release of the Volcker Committee’s
findings and with other investigations and
audits in progress, the Secretary-General
ordered that immediate action be taken to
assess the adequacy of internal controls of pro-   As a parliament of 192 nations and a community
curement operations. Procurement is a substan-     of global stakeholders, problem-solving experts,
tial and growing area of work: in 2005, the UN     and policy advocates, the United Nations pur-
Procurement Service purchased US$ 1.62 bil-        sues its work as much through exchange of views,
lion in goods and services — a US$ 250 million     political negotiation, mutual education and con-
increase over 2004 — the majority of which         sensus-building in real time and in real spaces
was in support of peacekeeping operations. The     — conference environments — as it does by
Secretariat requested a review of internal con-    direct delivery of services. Every year, UN offices
trols in procurement management, for which         in New York, Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi host
the services of the international firm Deloitte     and manage an almost nonstop procession of
Development LLC were commissioned. The             dozens of legislative sessions, conferences, brief-
firm submitted its findings in January 2006,         ings and the like. To organize and support these
together with 14 associated recommendations        events — conducted, at a minimum, in the six
such as establishing effective management           official UN languages (additional working lan-
reporting processes, developing UN procure-        guages sometimes required), and informed by
ment service competency models, implement-         and recorded in extensive documentation — is
ing an online procurement manual and content       a uniquely formidable enterprise. One aspect
management system, and proactively tracking        of the technical support, language interpreta-
and acting upon critical assessment and audit      tion, was celebrated in feature-film treatment in
findings, to cite a few. In addition to the man-    2005, and given its challenges, perhaps deserv-
agement focus of these reviews, audits and         edly so. But the translation and publishing of
improvement actions, forensic auditing and         hundreds of UN official documents, the provi-
investigative work are underway to identify pos-   sion of overall intergovernmental direction for
sible instances of wrongdoing. In the midst of     the Organization, calendaring and servicing of
2005’s audits, reviews and investigations, the     meetings, and the facilitation of major delib-
work of procurement continued, and is summa-       erations by providing authoritative advice and
rized and analysed in the Resources and Assets     secretariat services — all are demanding, highly
Management section later in this chapter.          interactive and essential.




                                                                                                               249
          The Department of General Assembly             Sessions in 2005 continued to entertain General
      and Conference Management (DGACM)                  Assembly discussion of the organizationally
      is embarked on an initiative to integrate its      anomalous fact that DGACM activities include
      present geographically and methodologically        library services in Geneva and Vienna, whereas
      fragmented conference service operations into      the principal library at UN Headquarters is
      a single global system, supported by new tech-     a component of the Department of Public
      nologies and featuring fuller sharing of manage-   Information. Thus far, however, no decision has
      ment and technical solutions. As this initiative   been taken to make a change, so this arrange-
      goes forward in 2006-2007, the Organization        ment continues.
      will benefit through more effective sharing of
      legacy knowledge, work-load leveling, and more
      frequent exchange of talented technical staff
      among duty stations. The Department’s cli-
      ents increasingly insist on, concomitantly, both
      excellent service and flexible response to ad hoc
      requirements, as real-world events precipitate
      unanticipated deliberative sessions. DGACM         The DGACM’s principal objectives are to
      therefore must continue to pursue its goals of     facilitate, through the provision of authorita-
      improved quality, productivity, timeliness and     tive advice and secretariat services, the delib-
      cost-effectiveness in its services.                 erations of the General Assembly, its General
                                                         and Main Committees and its various sub-
                                                         sidiary organs, the Trusteeship Council, the
                                                         Economic and Social Council and its subsidi-
                                                         ary and ad hoc bodies, and special conferences
                                                         and meetings held under the auspices of the
                                                         United Nations dealing with disarmament,
                                                         international security, and economic, social,
      The Department of General Assembly and             and related matters. Concurrently, it seeks to
      Conference Management and the conference-          provide high-quality conference-servicing sup-
      servicing units at the United Nations Offices        port to all intergovernmental and expert bod-
      in Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi are responsi-        ies meeting at Headquarters and at the United
      ble for delivering organizational and technical    Nations Office at Geneva, the United Nations
      conference services. Overall intergovernmen-       Office at Vienna, and the United Nations
      tal direction on the organization and servicing    Office at Nairobi.
      of meetings is provided by the Committee on
                                                             The Department advanced its reform to
      Conferences, which is maintained as a perma-
                                                         ensure that the programme of work is effec-
      nent subsidiary organ of the General Assembly.
                                                         tively managed. For the period 2004-2005,




250
                                                                                                                  Organizational
                                                                                                                   Management



                                                                 to improve meetings and documentation proc-
                                                                 ess by aggregating and controlling information
                                                                 for each duty station.

                                                                     The overall quality rating by the principal
                                                                 clients of technical secretariat servicing was
                                                                 encouraging: periodic surveys to Member States
                                                                 reflected an average satisfaction of 90 per cent




                                                UN Photo/MB.cp
                                                                 with the Conference services provided by the
                                                                 Department, including translation, interpreta-
                                                                 tion and distribution of documentation.

                                                                     Financial accountability was strengthened
88 per cent of its programme outputs, such as                    through the monthly review of expenditures by
support to meetings, translation and editorial                   the senior management, timely identification of
services, and production and distribution of par-                over expenditure and regular review of the cor-
liamentary documentation, were implemented                       relation between expenditure and workload.
as scheduled — strong performance, but not
good enough, given the disruptions attendant
on late service delivery. To improve conference
service performance in New York and all other
duty stations, the Department embarked on a
two-year project on integrated management of
conference services and their supporting infor-
                                                                 To properly edit, translate, publish and distrib-
mation systems.
                                                                 ute the reports and other documents that sup-
    The document slotting system, which man-                     port deliberation, strict project timelines are
ages the processing of official documents against                  critical. However, the initial dependency is on
the legislative and conference calendar, was                     timely submission by the author departments
constantly fine-tuned to gauge its effective and                   inputting material into the conference proc-
identify areas in need of improvement.Thanks                     ess. While flexibility in the slotting schedule
to these adjustments, the system served as an                    improved the compliance rate for submission,
effective document management tool for more                       the Department faced hard choices in handling
accurate programming and monitoring of man-                      late submissions. It was forced to give these doc-
uscript submission by author departments, and                    uments high priority to ensure their issuance in
enhanced predictability of workload. New busi-                   time for deliberation so as not to disrupt the
ness applications such as “e-meets” for schedul-                 smooth functioning of the intergovernmental
ing and virtual conferencing, and “e-docs” for                   machinery, but this resulted in penalizing other
remote translation services, were implemented                    documents that were submitted on time.




                                                                                                                            251
      1
      To improve the global planning and coordination of conference services through rational allocation
      and capacity utilization; and to ensure that intergovernmental bodies, special conferences and Member
      States have access to meeting and documentation services in accordance with the resolutions and rules
      establishing language arrangements for the various organs and bodies of the United Nations.



          Improved quality and efficiency of the                  Improvement in timeliness regarding the
          conference services provided to United                 submission and issuance of documentation
          Nations organs, particularly as regards                in accordance with relevant rules, in
          the timely issuance of documentation.                  particular regarding the six-week rule for
                                                                 issuance and distribution of parliamentary
                                                                 documentation simultaneously in the six
                                                                 official languages.




                                                                                   2005             2005
        Improvement in timeliness regarding the
        submission and issuance of documentation in
        accordance with relevant rules, in particular
        regarding the six-week rule for issuance and
        distribution of parliamentary documentation
        simultaneously in the six official languages     % of parliamentary documents issued in a timely manner


        New York                                               41%              55% (estimate)      37%

        Geneva                                                42.4%             57% (estimate)      57%

        Vienna                                                 50%              60% (estimate)      23%

        Nairobi                                                33%              50% (estimate)     36.5%




252
                                                                                                    Organizational
                                                                                                     Management




Resource                                            identify priority areas for improvement and fol-
                                                    low-up action. And in the sphere of internal jus-

and Assets                                          tice systems, progress was made toward greater
                                                    timeliness, with time-bound targets for disposi-
Management                                          tion of appeals and disciplinary cases being met
                                                    and exceeded.




                                                    The Organization’s most essential asset is its
                                                    people; their effective management is the cardinal
                                                    predictor of success or failure in UN operations.
                                                    The internal and external environment in which
                                                    the United Nations operates has changed enor-
                                                    mously in recent years, requiring new approaches
At the hub of the Secretariat’s management,         to the management of its human resources, par-
the Office of the Under-Secretary-General             ticularly in field operations. The current human
for Management provides strategic leadership,       resources management framework was originally
identifies opportunities and serves as the locus     designed for a more stable, largely Headquarters-
for issues that go beyond or cut across the vari-   based operational concept. At present, some
ous functional areas of human resource man-         30,000 staff members are serving the UN
agement, budgetary and financial management,         Secretariat, over half of whom are in the field.
central support services and the management
                                                        In addition, the Organization’s increas-
of capital improvements to facilities. Steering
                                                    ingly complex mandates require new skill pro-
the overall management agenda, and identify-
                                                    files for staff, so as to respond in an integrated,
ing threats to its successful implementation,
                                                    flexible way to new needs in areas as diverse as
requires useful and actionable information
                                                    humanitarian assistance, peacekeeping, elec-
— information that does not automatically
                                                    toral assistance, and drugs and crime. The con-
announce itself but must be developed through
                                                    cept of human resources management itself as
targeted analysis of organizational symptoms.
                                                    a centrally provided service has shifted from
In 2005, the Office produced a solid account
                                                    administrative processing to setting policies and
of Secretariat-wide management improvement
                                                    standards and to providing training and support
measures, assessing the progress and impact of
                                                    to promote compliance with these standards.
these concrete reform initiatives in the context
of overall resource management performance.            The Office of Human Resources Manage-
During the same period, the Department of           ment, a component of the Department of
Management used the findings from a global           Management, plays a key role in carrying for-
survey of clients of management services to         ward the Secretary-General’s human resources




                                                                                                              253
      reform programme, which aims to create              security management system, four new peace-
      a more productive, adaptable and results-           keeping operations and other peacekeeping
      oriented Organization. To this end, the reform      reports prepared out of cycle.
      programme is designed to foster a culture of
                                                              One year after the introduction of results-
      continuous learning, high performance and
                                                          based budgeting (RBB) in peacekeeping
      managerial excellence. The programme is based
                                                          operations, peacekeeping budgets showed a
      on ten key building blocks: human resources
                                                          significant improvement in the measurability
      planning; streamlined rules and procedures;
                                                          of RBB elements. In 2004-2005, 84 per cent
      recruitment, placement and promotion; mobil-
                                                          of the outputs were clearly measurable, com-
      ity; competencies and continuous learning; per-
                                                          pared with 51 per cent in 2003-2004. This
      formance management; career development;
                                                          went hand-in-hand with the increased involve-
      conditions of service; contractual arrangements;
                                                          ment of senior managers in preparing the
      and administration of justice.
                                                          RBB frameworks. The budgets also reflected
          During 2005 in particular, the Office con-        improved linkages between the RBB frame-
      centrated its efforts on integrating core and        works and the resource requirements.
      managerial competencies into the areas of
                                                              One finding in the aforementioned global
      recruitment, development and performance
                                                          client survey was that financial management
      appraisal. It likewise focused on developing and
                                                          knowledge was unevenly distributed among the
      refining human resources action plans as a tool
                                                          Secretariat’s management cadre. In response, the
      for monitoring the use of delegated authority;
                                                          Department’s Office of Programme Planning,
      on delivering strengthened managerial and lead-
                                                          Budget and Accounts provided expanded and
      ership training programmes for senior manag-
                                                          intensified advice and training on financial
      ers; and on preparing the implementation of the
                                                          management and control through workshops,
      global policy on staff mobility by piloting man-
                                                          town hall meetings and retreats, following up
      agement reassignments in which staff members
                                                          with further surveying to evaluate the effect of
      volunteer themselves. Their job experiences are
                                                          the effort.
      subsequently evaluated and fed into the imple-
      mentation plan.

                                                          Over the last two years, the value of procure-
                                                          ment has effectively doubled as a direct result
      In 2005, the Department of Management took
                                                          of the unprecedented surge in peacekeep-
      steps to accommodate proposals for budgets
                                                          ing. This translated into a sustained spike in
      well beyond those originally anticipated and
                                                          demand for procurement services which was,
      planned for, namely those precipitated by the
                                                          however, not matched by an equivalent increase
      2005 World Summit Outcome, additional
                                                          in human resources. During the summer of
      political missions, new courts and tribunals, the
                                                          2005, an instance of criminal conduct on the




254
                                                                                                   Organizational
                                                                                                    Management



part of a senior Procurement Officer came to             A preceding section, “Management’s
light, raising questions regarding the internal    Discussion and Analysis,” addresses the range
controls for procurement operations and the        of recommendations, proposals and actions
adequacy of management oversight capacity          undertaken by early 2006, and planned for
at the United Nations. This event led to the       the immediate future, in accomplishing pro-
engagement of an outside consultant to review      curement reform, with the joint aims both of
internal controls within the procurement func-     attaining greater management efficiencies and
tion of the Secretariat. The consultant’s report   of preventing mismanagement and wrongdo-
revealed deficiencies in several areas, pointing    ing. The initiatives discussed in greater detail
out that the major control in the UN procure-      there include increased resources, and a reform
ment process was human performance alone           agenda focused on three main areas: strategic
thus creating vulnerability and raising risk to    management of procurement, optimizing UN
the Organization. During 2005, the Office of         acquisition management, and changes to inter-
Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) was also        nal control measures. Strategic management
tasked by the General Assembly to review           will ensure the establishment of a “procure-
peacekeeping operations. Their resulting report    ment reform implementation team” to monitor
contained negative observations on a number of     changes. Improving acquisition management
procurements conducted both at Headquarters        will place a greater emphasis on strategic sourc-
and in peacekeeping operations.                    ing and partnerships, to avoid duplication and
                                                   improve purchasing power. The procurement
                                                            function will also make improved use
                                                            of technology, including e-procurement
                                                            systems and purchasing cards.




                                                           Overall, the Secretariat achieved
                                                           progress in making ICT more produc-
                                                           tive in 2005; however, in the absence of
                                                           a coherent and enforced Organization-
                                                           wide policy on investments in infor-
                                                           mation technology, many information
                                                           systems within the Organization have
                                                           been developed independently. The
                                                           result is a proliferation of stand-alone
                                                           systems that do not interact or connect
                                                           well with other systems, thus limiting




                                                                                                             255
                                                                                              a robust infrastructure at all
                                                                                              established UN offices; secu-
                                                                                              rity policies and provisions to
                                                                                              ensure business continuity and
                                                                                              systems integrity; reliable con-
                                                                                              nectivity with the field; and a
                                                                                              cadre of ICT staff, efficiently
                                                                                              deployed, with focused skills in
                                                                                              key technologies and manage-
                                                                                              ment practices.

                                                                              For the fiscal period 2002-
                                                                          2003, the General Assembly
                                                                          imposed severe budget cuts
                                                                          which seriously undermined the
                                                                     UN Photo/Andrea Brizzi
                                                                          Secretariat’s ability to sustain
                                                                          ICT operations with any degree
                                                                          of reliability. The restoration of
                                                                          resources in the following bien-
                                                                         nium, 2004-2005, allowed the
                                                          Secretariat to raise the capability of its technical
      the ability to share information across different
                                                          infrastructure to adequate levels and to proceed
      parts of the Organization. This has inhibited the
                                                          with further standardization as a priority.
      Secretariat’s ability to aggregate data in a man-
      ner that would efficiently support management’s           In 2005, accordingly, the Secretariat began
      decision-making and operational processes, and      to standardize the critical network infrastruc-
      failed to optimize return on investment.            ture that supports all voice and data com-
                                                          munications among all duty stations and to
          In 2002, an ICT strategy was established
                                                          consolidate its management. It strengthened
      with overall goals to make possible efficient and
                                                          policies and procedures to ensure conform-
      effective decision-making and to support finan-
                                                          ance to standards, non-duplication of effort
      cial and administrative processes; to share the
                                                          and a positive return on investment for each
      Organization’s institutional knowledge; and to
                                                          major initiative. And finally, the Secretariat
      provide higher-quality services to governing
                                                          completed ICT security risk assessments for
      bodies and Member States.
                                                          all major Secretariat duty stations, during
         For the Secretariat to achieve these goals,      which existing processes were evaluated for
      four elements forming the necessary “build-         effectiveness, and opportunities for improve-
      ing blocks” need to be established, namely:         ment were identified.




256
                                                                                                    Organizational
                                                                                                     Management



                                                 ance (per diem) rates for thousands of interna-
                                                 tional staff in the field.




                                                 The Office of Programme Planning, Budget
                                                 and Accounts (OPPBA) is responsible for
The Office of Human Resources Management           establishing budgetary, accounting and financial
(OHRM) provides leadership, direction and        management policies and procedures for the
advice on matters that relate to the develop-    Organization, and the systematic strengthening
ment, implementation, application and coordi-    of compliance with established rules and regu-
nation of human resources management strat-      lations and exercising financial control over the
egies, policies and programmes. In partnership   resources of the Organization.
with the Department of Economic and Social
                                                    OPPBA participates in the review of gov-
Affairs and the Department of Peacekeeping
                                                 ernance principles and internal control frame-
Operations, the existing IT support tool for
                                                 work in the UN common system through
advertising vacancies and managing evaluation
                                                 the High-Level Committee on Management
of candidates, Galaxy, was modified to meet the
                                                 (HLCM) mechanism.
needs for recruiting experts and field staff.

    Improved inter-agency cooperation on
issues related to conditions of service, HIV/    The Procurement Service administers the
AIDS, and avian influenza preparedness has        procurement of goods and services for the
resulted in improved coordination and harmo-     Secretariat, devises standards such as terms and
nization of human resources and staff assist-     conditions for tender and contracts, and main-
ance programmes and policies. The Secretariat    tains a geographically diverse roster of effective,
initiated adoption of certain practices of UN    financially viable vendors.
agencies such as those of the United Nations
                                                     Procurement support is provided centrally
Development Programme (UNDP), the
                                                 by the Department of Management for its larg-
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF),
                                                 est customer, DPKO, for high-value, complex or
and the Food and Agriculture Organization
                                                 multi-year contracts. Peacekeeping missions have
(FAO), both in reviewing and determining
                                                 been delegated authority to undertake procure-
the best prevailing conditions of employment,
                                                 ment which lends itself to local and regional sourc-
including salaries for locally recruited staff,
                                                 ing. As such, staffing, resources and systems in sup-
and, given the fiscal impact of maintaining
                                                 port of field operations are managed by DPKO.
17 peacekeeping missions around the globe,
collaborated with DPKO in conducting eco-           The UN Secretariat plans to significantly
nomic surveys on mission subsistence allow-      expand inter-agency cooperation and to exten-




                                                                                                              257
      sively utilize Common Services Arrangements
      with other UN and international organizations.
      All organizations would benefit from each oth-
      er’s specialized expertise and from the right to
      use each other’s specialized model procurement
      contracts. Accordingly, work has begun to deter-
      mine in which field specific UN entities have a
      competitive advantage. Areas for cooperation so
      far identified include: UNICEF/WHO con-
      tracts for drugs and related medical supplies;
      UNHCR contracts for basic relief goods and
      rudimentary shelters; World Food Programme
                                                           and cooperative work, and offers consultancy
      contracts for transportation services; Inter-
                                                           and advisory services.
      agency Procurement Services Office contracts for
      electoral support, vehicles and other catalogued         The ICT Board is the interdepartmental
      goods; and the UN Secretariat’s own contracts        body entrusted with the coordination and har-
      for vehicles, prefabricated buildings, engineering   monization of ICT initiatives in the United
      equipment, office equipment, generators, supply        Nations Secretariat. Several working groups,
      items, safety equipment, information technology      subsidiaries of the ICT Board, perform the sub-
      and telecommunications equipment.                    stantive review and analysis of business cases,
                                                           investments and potential procurement of ICT
                                                           standardized goods and services. They then sub-
                                                           mit proposals to the Board for approval. The IT
                                                           Services Division provides secretariat services
      The Office of Central Support Services (OCSS)
                                                           to the Board and takes the leading role on issues
      delivers ICT services to the UN Headquarters.
                                                           related to standardization and methodology.
      It also provides significant IT support to
      Permanent Missions, in the form of Internet
      accounts and e-mail, website hosting, wireless
      access on the UN campus, access to the UN
      Official Document System, recycled equipment
      to developing country missions, and technical
      support. The Office’s Information Technology
      Services Division (ITSD) establishes technical
      standards and policies for the global Secretariat.   The objectives of the Department of Manage-
      It also provides and supports the physical ICT       ment encompass the range of administra-
      infrastructure, develops/acquires and maintains      tive and financial functions for which it is
      enterprise applications for knowledge exchange       responsible. To cite the principal objectives, in




258
                                                                                                    Organizational
                                                                                                     Management



the area of human resources management, the
Department aims to develop and sustain a sys-
tem that ensures that the Secretariat can carry
out its functions efficiently and effectively, so as
to meet the expectations of its governing bod-
ies. The human resources management pro-
gramme also works to promote organizational
                                                      The year 2005 witnessed the Office of
culture change in the Secretariat, build a more
                                                      Human Resources Management’s implement-
versatile and multi-skilled staff, and improve
                                                      ing improvements in the procedures for staff
the recruitment, placement and promotion
                                                      selection; making preparations for mobility;
processes. The objective of the Department’s
                                                      strengthening career support and development,
budgetary and financial management function
                                                      particularly in leadership; streamlining admin-
is to ensure sound financial management of the
                                                      istrative procedures; improving geographical
Organization and the effective monitoring and
                                                      and gender balance; harmonizing conditions
management of its assets. This involves the pro-
                                                      of service among staff assigned to the field;
vision of timely services to Secretariat and other
                                                      developing further management reform pro-
users by strengthening budgetary and account-
                                                      posals; and increasing the efficiency of existing
ing policies, and by systematic compliance with
                                                      human resources-related information technol-
financial rules and effective administration of
                                                      ogy systems, such as the electronic performance
financial processes. In procurement of goods
                                                      appraisal system and the IT tool for the staff
and services, the objective is to ensure the effi-
                                                      selection system, known as Galaxy e-staffing.
cient, effective and economical administration
of procurement activities, and related support           To enhance consistency in the Secretariat’s
services for Headquarters and for peacekeep-          staff-selection system, several guidelines
ing and other field missions, special assistance       were issued and made available on-line in the
programmes, international criminal tribu-             Human Resources Handbook. Training was
nals, regional commissions and, upon request,         provided for building capacity throughout the
United Nations agencies and subsidiary organs.        Secretariat, and enhancements were introduced
In the area of information and communications         to Galaxy e-staffing.
technology management, the Department has
                                                          Actions to improve recruitment included
established the objective of providing efficient,
                                                      the following:
effective and high-quality support to users in
information technology and information man-              a) Improvements in the procedures for the
agement, by developing and implementing long-            annual National Competitive Examinations,
term strategies. Particular attention is to be paid      an important mechanism for the recruitment
to harmonizing the IT infrastructure, as well as         of qualified young candidates from unrep-
associated resources, at all duty stations.              resented and underrepresented Member




                                                                                                              259
         States, resulted in an increase of 26 per cent   new one-stop client service centre has provided
         in the number of applicants over the pre-        staff and retirees with a single centre for all pay-
         vious biennium (27,095 vs. 21,500). This         roll, tax, insurance, after-service health insur-
         led to the rostering of the highest number       ance and related entitlement issues.
         of qualified candidates ever (220 in 2005,
                                                              Treasury’s banking project to assist peace-
         163 in 2004).
                                                          keeping missions helped to improve cash
         b) A “Fast Track” project was developed          transportation and storage policies and proce-
         to establish a special roster of candidates      dures, to implement new payment systems, and
         from unrepresented and underrepresented          to train mission staff in treasury procedures
         Member States for a number of professional       and policies. The United Nations joined the
         posts. Candidates from this roster may be        Society for Worldwide Inter-bank Financial
         selected when a vacancy arises at the P-4 or     Telecommunication (SWIFT) to maintain
         P-5 level.                                       secure and reliable global arrangements with
                                                          banks to send payment instructions, execute
          The Office enhanced staff development
                                                          payments and receive transaction data.
      programmes, including introduction of a new
      programme for senior women leaders and                  A new Budget Information System enables
      new organizational development tools that           budget instructions to be posted directly on the
      model effective management and departments.          Intranet, together with facilities for preparation
      OHRM also launched a programme to foster            and submission of budget proposals.
      a shared understanding of the meaning of eth-
      ics, integrity, transparency and accountability.
      Greater access to staff development programmes
                                                          The serious concerns about the internal con-
      was made possible through on-line provision of
                                                          trol environment within procurement led to a
      e-learning tools.
                                                          number of actions designed to strengthen inter-
          In 2005, OHRM also played a role in             nal controls.
      the establishment of several new entities: the
                                                              Regarding procurement processes, review
      Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate; the
                                                          work done in 2005 led to the release of an
      Department of Safety and Security, discussed
                                                          updated Procurement Manual in June 2006. On
      later in this chapter; and the Ethics Office.
                                                          a medium-term project basis, the Organization
                                                          is also reviewing technical requirements to
                                                          develop the online version of the Manual to
      The use of automation techniques has improved       incorporate full search functions so that users
      the summarizing of financial statements, allow-      will have more effective access to the topics
      ing more time for review and verification of         and issues. The Secretariat has also devel-
      accounts and improving reporting deadlines. A       oped revised terms and conditions for tender




260
                                                                                                       Organizational
                                                                                                        Management



documents to reinforce the Organization’s             trained over 400 officers and assistants in 2004
position against collusive bidding, anti-com-         and 2005.
petitive conduct, attempts to gain improper
                                                          Skillful procurement, producing the most
assistance, improper use of former UN employ-
                                                      benefit to the Organization, takes full consid-
ees and various corrupt or questionable prac-
                                                      eration of the “best value for money principle,”
tices. Additional actions involved strengthening
                                                      as established in UN Financial Regulation
the vendor review committee and the vendor
                                                      5.12. This means that, when procuring goods
roster, the latter with particular attention to
                                                      and services, procurement officers need to sat-
building in a more rigorous evaluation of the
                                                      isfy that the best possible outcome has been
financial viability of vendors. Finally, a number
                                                      achieved by taking into account all relevant
of ex-post facto cases have arisen due to the exi-
                                                      costs and benefits over the duration of the pro-
gencies of procurement in the field during rapid
                                                      curement cycle.
start-up or expansion of peacekeeping missions;
requests for waivers of rules regarding solicita-         Key elements of overall governance of the
tion and approval fell behind the actions taken.      procurement function include risk management
Concurrently, certain Procurement Manual              and contract compliance. In field operations,
revisions undertaken in 2005 were addressed at        where the greatest risk to fiscal resources exists,
clarifying correct procedures in these special cir-   the Department of Peacekeeping Operations
cumstances. In September 2005 a directive was         (DPKO) has expanded its risk-mitigating strat-
issued stating that all ex-post facto cases must      egies and particular attention is being placed
be prepared and reviewed by the head of offices,        on managing the risks during the start-up and
providing detailed explanation of reasons for a       major expansion of peacekeeping operations.
belated submission.                                   In particular, it has improved coordination and
                                                      oversight during the mission planning process,
    In the critical area of management and
                                                      such as the establishment of the Requirement
staff, improvement measures focused on pro-
                                                      Review Panel, whose task is to confirm, inter
curement staff mobility and rotation, and on
                                                      alia, the validity of key planning factors and
implementing a more comprehensive train-
                                                      assumptions in the early stages of mission
ing programme. In respect to the former, the
                                                      planning. In June 2005, DPKO established a
Procurement Service has already started a
                                                      Contracts Compliance and Management Unit
lateral reassignment programme within the
                                                      to consolidate vendor monitoring as a compre-
Service to ensure that staff do not deal with the
                                                      hensive management function, and to pay spe-
same vendors for an extended period of time.
                                                      cial attention to major service contracts such as
On the point of career growth through train-
                                                      those for fuel, rations and airfield services.
ing, the Procurement Service has developed
its own field training programme after hav-               Ethics and integrity training have become
ing taken over responsibility for procurement         an integral and regular part of training pro-
training for staff in peacekeeping missions, and       grammes in the Organization. Continuing and




                                                                                                                 261
      improving the training of staff in procurement               States. The ODS currently averages more
      processes, accommodating both efficiency prin-                than 7,000 hits a day.
      ciples and issues of ethics and integrity, is a pri-
                                                                • Enhanced policies on ICT security and
      ority. The Procurement Service has finalized
                                                                  on business continuity/emergency pre-
      the Supplier Code of Conduct, and has also
                                                                  paredness went into force in 2005. Beyond
      developed an implementation guide, a remedia-
                                                                  these self-promulgated policies, during
      tion guide and self-assessment tools for suppli-
                                                                  this period the Secretariat also began the
      ers. Effective implementation of the Supplier
                                                                  work of implementing improvements in
      Code of Conduct is critical to achieving the
                                                                  ICT security standards so as to qualify
      goal of safeguarding the integrity of the United
                                                                  for certification against the international
      Nations in procurement activities.
                                                                  standard for information security manage-
                                                                  ment, ISO27001. As of this writing, this
                                                                  had been accomplished in March 2006
                                                                  — making the Secretariat the first of the
      In 2005, the Information Technology Services                UN family of organizations to achieve
      Division accomplished the following:                        such certification. These two policy issu-
                                                                  ances on security and business continuity
         • The upgrade of the physical local area
                                                                  are the cornerstones in providing a robust
           network (LAN) at United Nations
                                                                  policy framework and will lay the founda-
           Headquarters was started in early 2005 and
                                                                  tion for ensuring the reliability of the ICT
           is now 65 per cent complete. This upgrade
                                                                  services within the Secretariat.
           augments the data transmission capacity
           to each desktop computer from ten mega-              • ITSD provided the ICT infrastructure
           bits per second (MBPS) to 100 MBPS,                    to support iSeek, a new Secretariat-wide
           thereby adding performance, redundancy                 global intranet system spearheaded by the
           and reliability to the functioning of the              Department of Public Information. iSeek is
           network. In addition, the upgrade paves                the primary vehicle for all internal communi-
           the way for further advances in technology             cations, making it easier for information to be
           such as desktop conferencing and secure                shared across all departments and locations.
           access to the network.
                                                                 ITSD has safeguarded staff productivity by
         • Free public access to the Official                  providing a very reliable e-mail service despite
           Documents System (ODS) on the Internet            the explosion of viruses from 2,000 per day in
           was implemented in 2005, enabling the             2002-2003 to 20,000 per day in 2004-2005 and
           public at large to access a vast amount of        unsolicited mail (spam) from zero to 250,000
           UN data, and allowing increased sharing of        per day during the same period, and an increase
           the Organization’s institutional knowledge        in volume of messages from 90,000 per day to
           among all UN duty stations and Member             200,000 per day.




262
                                                                                                     Organizational
                                                                                                      Management



                                                    system and interface; and upgrading conditions
As of September 2005, some 60 per cent of           of service of Secretariat staff in the field so they
project documentation for design develop-           are on a par with those of comparable, field-based
ment for the General Assembly, Conference,          staff of United Nations funds and programmes.
Secretariat, South Annex, and North Lawn
                                                        Efforts to improve geographical distribu-
buildings and the basements and central infra-
                                                    tion have not produced an optimum result.
structure had been completed. During the
                                                    Fluctuations in assessments, numbers of staff,
year, however, the preferred design plan and its
                                                    and the total number of Member States make
financing encountered political opposition, ren-
                                                    satisfying the representation goals a continuous
dering non-viable both proposed construction
                                                    challenge. The “Fast Track” project described in
of an additional headquarters building, and the
                                                    the Performance Summary section of this chap-
use of commercial swing space close to the East
                                                    ter is a new mechanism representing ongoing
River. In addition, the rate of increase of con-
                                                    efforts in this area.
struction costs in the region had risen dramati-
cally in 2004. A third annual progress report           Another area of concern is the limited cov-
on the CMP, submitted to the Assembly in            erage of the existing staff selection system. Lack
December, took all of these factors into account,   of integration of human resources systems at
and proposed a phased renovation approach in        established duty stations and field missions
increments of ten floors at a time with modified      limits the Organization’s ability to manage its
funding and financing formulas.                      human resources as a global workforce.

                                                        Investment in developing and managing
                                                    talent at all levels of the Organization is inad-
                                                    equate. Funds for training amount to only
                                                    one per cent of staff costs. To address this, a
                                                    proposal to increase the allocation for staff
                                                    development activities by US$ 20 million over
                                                    the next two years has been submitted by the
While progress has been made, challenges remain,    Secretary-General to the General Assembly.
including fulfilling the General Assembly’s man-
dates for equitable geographical distribution and
gender parity; bringing recruitment, placement
                                                    A client survey in the accounting area pointed
and promotion policies into conformance with
                                                    to some shortcomings in services that will be
those mandates; obtaining resources for training
                                                    addressed. In financial reporting and account-
that are sufficient for assessed needs; integrating
                                                    ing, the goal of better meeting clients’ needs
IT applications for the human resource business
                                                    had mixed results, given that only 50 per cent
functions, so that critical and comprehensive
                                                    of respondents said that services provided were
information can be obtained through a single




                                                                                                               263
      better compared to those of the past. There was     Group (IAPWG) to develop a common pro-
      significant improvement in the number of travel      curement certification programme to achieve
      claims that were processed within 30 days, which    a more long-term solution. A United Nations-
      increased from 73 per cent to 98.8 per cent.        specific, System-wide certification programme,
                                                          centrally administered for staff serving world-
          Reports from peacekeeping missions to the
                                                          wide, would be quite cumbersome and costly.
      Security Council, the General Assembly, other
                                                          While IAPWG will continue to review the
      intergovernmental bodies, and troop-contribut-
                                                          feasibility of providing a System-wide procure-
      ing countries were timelier, contributing to bet-
                                                          ment certification programme, staff should be
      ter-informed decisions on peacekeeping issues.
                                                          provided with opportunities and encouraged to
      Reports for newly established missions (Liberia,
                                                          use external certification programmes available
      Cote d’Ivoire, Burundi, Haiti and Sudan) and
                                                          from procurement training institutes in various
      missions with mandate changes (Timor-Leste,
                                                          regions. Concurrently, during the second half of
      the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Sierra
                                                          2005, the training of staff from 24 organizations
      Leone) were submitted within three months of
                                                          was initiated to develop in-house trainers.
      the respective Security Council resolutions.
                                                               In addition to management improvements
          The Secretariat’s liabilities to troop-
                                                          in risk assessment for peacekeeping missions,
      contributing countries were reduced to an
                                                          discussed in the Performance Summary above,
      average of two months’ cost at the time of pay-
                                                          numerous practical risk-reduction measures
      ment. This led to increased efficiency and effec-
                                                          have been introduced to further strengthen
      tiveness in the financial and budgetary aspects
                                                          internal controls over daily activities. Procedures
      of peacekeeping.
                                                          have been tightened for meetings with vendors.
                                                          In line with best public sector procurement prac-
                                                          tices, a perforating machine has been introduced
      The challenges of procuring goods and serv-         to authenticate the original tender documents,
      ices for a multi-billion dollar organization with   which virtually eliminates the risk of replace-
      a global, value-driven mission and distinc-         ment documents. Security enhancements to
      tive governance features go beyond the previ-       the tender room in the Procurement Service are
      ously described issues of internal controls. The    planned for 2006, first a closed-circuit television
      scope of purchasing requires a substantial cadre    monitoring system and then the introduction of
      of specialists, equipped with contemporary          a biometric card key lock system.
      knowledge, who can be assigned on a mobile
                                                              From the strategic management perspec-
      basis among the dozens of UN duty stations.
                                                          tive, a significant undertaking is to increase
      While the field training programme for 400
                                                          procurement opportunities and participation of
      staff in peacekeeping missions is a helpful start,
                                                          vendors from developing countries and econo-
      the Procurement Service has been working
                                                          mies in transition. This has been a priority issue
      with the Inter-Agency Procurement Working




264
                                                                                                      Organizational
                                                                                                       Management



with the General Assembly; the Secretariat has        efforts, and several of its planned reforms will
attempted to increase awareness of procure-           allow the Secretariat to implement necessary
ment opportunities among vendors in such              changes more quickly in the future. Examples
countries through business seminars designed          include the transition to a new Enterprise
to increase vendor registration. Seminars have        Resource Planning (ERP) system, strengthened
been conducted in only 24 developing coun-            governance with a Chief Information Technology
tries since 2001, leading to only a modest suc-       Officer and a shift in the emphasis from informa-
cess, with 248 additional vendors registered. As      tion technology to information management.
to outcome of this effort, the actual trends are
                                                          Information management (IM) is a disci-
represented in the table below. With increased
                                                      pline that involves an understanding and analy-
capacity for business education, and better align-
                                                      sis of the business of an organization and the
ment between the needs of Organization and
                                                      information that it needs to carry out its busi-
the goods and services offered by vendors from
                                                      ness processes. Information and communica-
developing countries and economies in transi-
                                                      tion technology, on the other hand, is the dis-
tion, a more favourable future can be foreseen.
                                                      cipline that provides the infrastructure needed
                                                      to move business information in an efficient and
                                                      secure manner from one point to another. The
                                                      Secretariat has not been able to fully leverage
All of the initiatives under the Information and
                                                      the potential of ICT as an enabler of effective
Communication Technology (ICT) strategy,
                                                      management and reform, due partly to the lack
including those related to departmental serv-
                                                      of a Secretariat-wide IM strategy, illustrated by
ices and administrative applications, continue to
                                                      the lack of investments and capacity-building
require sustained efforts that transcend a single
                                                      directed specifically to IM.
year or biennium. The strategy supports these




    (




                                       2001          2002        2003          2004          2005
    Procurement from developing
    countries and countries in          542.2        483.6        429.1         587.7         791.1
    transition
    Grand total                       1,109.5        966.8      1,010.4       1,399.9       1,774.0
    Percentage of total                  48.9         50.0         42.5          42.0          44.6




                                                                                                                265
      1
      To improve the recruitment, placement and promotion system throughout the Secretariat, in particu-
      lar through the progressive delegation of authority to departments and offices.



          An enhanced system of forecasting,                         An improvement in the geographical
          planning and staffing (including the                        representation and gender balance of
          recruitment, placement and promotion                       staff.
          of staff) allowing programme managers
          to select highly qualified and motivated
          candidates based on readily available
          and accurate information.




                                                                                2005                2005

        Number of unrepresented and                       15                      12                  17
        underrepresented Member States               unrepresented           unrepresented       unrepresented
                                                     Member States           Member States       Member States


                                                          10                       7                   8
                                                    underrepresented        underrepresented    underrepresented
                                                     Member States           Member States       Member States


        Percentage of women at the
                                                       36.8%                     38%               37.2%
        Professional level and above




266
                                                                                                   Organizational
                                                                                                    Management




2
To promote organizational culture change in the Secretariat and to build a more versatile and multi-
skilled staff, in particular by improving competitive entry processes, staff development and training
programmes, performance management systems, the internal system of justice and the working envi-
ronment, including conditions of service.



    Improved policies, programmes and                    • Increased mobility of staff;
    systems for competitive examinations,                • More multi-skilled staff.
    staff development, mobility, performance
    management and conditions of service.




                                                                            2005          2005

  Mobility index percentage (refers to the annual
  ratio of number of staff who have broadened their
  skill set through increased movement within and
  between functions, departments, occupations, duty       9.9%               12%          14.26%
  stations and UN organizations compared to the
  total number of staff in the same department at the
  beginning of the year)

  Attendance level of staff in staff development and     43,200            45,400         53,795
  training programmes




                                                                                                             267
      3
      To further improve the sound and timely accounting of all United Nations transactions, as well as the
      provision of timely financial information to programme managers and intergovernmental and expert
      bodies, and the provision of services to clients.



          Accurate United Nations financial                      Positive audit opinion of the Board of
          statements are provided on a timely basis.            Auditors on the financial statements of the
                                                                United Nations.




          Timely and accurate financial transactions.            Increase in percentage of payments
                                                                processed by the due date.




                                                                                  2005             2005
        Positive audit opinion of the Board of Auditors on        Yes              Yes               Yes
        the financial statements of the United Nations
        Percentage of staff separations, education grant
        payments, vendor claims and travel claims that           82%              86%          82% (estimate)
        are processed within 30 days of receipt of all
        appropriate documents




268
                                                                                                   Organizational
                                                                                                    Management




4
To strengthen budgetary control and monitoring of expenditures.



    Improved budgetary control and                      Reduction in the number of budget
    monitoring of expenditures.                         sections where final expenditures deviate
                                                        by more than 1 per cent from the final
                                                        appropriation.




                                                                         2005             2005
  Percentage by which the final expenditure deviates
                                                        0.11%           0.10%             1.2%
  from the final appropriation




5
To ensure effective management and safeguarding of the Organization’s cash resources.



    Improved efficiency and security of the              Increase in the percentage of automated
    Organization’s cash management and                  (non-cheque) payments.
    payments systems.




                                                                         2005             2005

  Percentage of automated (non-cheque) payments          75%             98%              81%




                                                                                                             269
      6
      To ensure efficient, effective and high-quality procurement services for the Organization.



          Increased level of simplicity, transparency         Degree of satisfaction expressed by
          and effectiveness of administrative                 recipients of procurement services
          procedures in procurement activities.               rendered by the Procurement Service.




                                                                               2005               2005

        Degree of satisfaction expressed by recipients of      95.5%           80%               93.5%
        procurement services, as captured in client survey    satisfactory   satisfactory       satisfactory
                                                               response      response*           response




270
                                                                                                     Organizational
                                                                                                      Management




7
To ensure efficient, effective and high-quality support for users in the area of information technology
and information management.



    Increased technological contribution to              Percentage of time that information and
    the effectiveness of decision-making and             communication technology systems are
    administrative processes.                            available to users.




                                                                          2005             2005
  Percentage of time that information and communi-
                                                          99%              99%             99%
  cation technology systems are available to users




8
To ensure that information and communication technology is a strong enabler of the process of
reform.



    Increased effectiveness of administrative            Increase in the number of new information
    processes.                                           and communication technology
                                                         applications implemented.




                                                                          2005             2005

  Number of new information and communication               8               17              17
  technology applications implemented




                                                                                                               271
      Safety and




                                                          UN Photo/Stephenie Hollyman
      Security
      Management

                                                                                 also needed greater resources to create capaci-
                                                                                 ties commensurate with the new threats and
                                                                                 challenges at hand. And the circumstances
      As the mandates of the United Nations have
                                                                                 required the Organization to elevate and inte-
      evolved, a significant result has been the deploy-
                                                                                 grate security assessment, planning, manage-
      ment of a larger number of its staff members,
                                                                                 ment and accountability into the highest levels
      notably from the humanitarian agencies, on
                                                                                 of deliberation about proposed operations and
      potentially hazardous missions. At the same
                                                                                 into the conduct of ongoing operations.
      time, peacekeeping missions place more and
      more personnel in areas at war or in situations                                In the aftermath of the Baghdad attack,
      of high risk. Increasingly, humanitarian staff                              the 2003 assessment report of former Finnish
      members are being deployed alongside military                              President Martti Ahtisaari’s Independent Panel
      units in integrated multidisciplinary missions.                            on the Safety and Security of United Nations
                                                                                 Personnel called for a new, drastically revised
          The suicide truck-bomb on the United
                                                                                 security strategy for the United Nations.
      Nations Headquarters at the Canal Hotel in
                                                                                 Responding to this and other reports, as well
      Baghdad on 19 August 2003 was the first ter-
                                                                                 as to proposals put forward by the Secretary-
      rorist attack in which the United Nations was
                                                                                 General, the General Assembly in December
      targeted as an institution with the deliberate
                                                                                 2004 decided to establish a Department of
      intention of inflicting mass casualties. This
                                                                                 Safety and Security (DSS) as the central node
      made clear that the United Nations could
                                                                                 of a strengthened and unified security manage-
      no longer rely solely on the respect and pro-
                                                                                 ment system for the United Nations System as
      tection provided by its flag, its neutrality and
                                                                                 a whole. The goal was to ensure the safety and
      good intentions. This new era required modi-
                                                                                 security of United Nations staff, operations and
      fied policies and changed attitudes. Given the
                                                                                 premises in all locations and establish a unified
      severity of the challenge, the United Nations
                                                                                 capacity for policy, standards, coordination,
      security management system needed an
                                                                                 communication, compliance, and threat and risk
      unprecedented degree of cooperation and
                                                                                 assessment. Accordingly, all the relevant secu-
      harmonization of rules and approaches. It
                                                                                 rity management components at Headquarters,




272
                                                                                                                                  Organizational
                                                                                                                                   Management



                              at other main duty stations and in the field were       In light of the broader recognition that shar-
                              consolidated into the new Department that          ing ideas and experiences, opportunities and
                              came into being in 2005.                           costs is the only way to reduce the common vul-
                                                                                 nerability, to communicate adequately and to use
                                                                                 resources more efficiently and effectively, DSS
                                                                                 has been working very closely with the secu-
                                                                                 rity services of all UN System agencies, funds
                                                                                 and programmes, under the umbrella of the
                                                                                 Inter-Agency Security Management Network
                                                                                 (IASMN) and the High-Level Committee on
                              DSS’s overall mission is to provide leader-        Management (HLCM).
                              ship, operational support and oversight of the
                              United Nations’ security management system
                              to enable the safest and most efficient conduct
                              of the programmes and activities of the UN
                              System, including those in the most challeng-
                              ing locations on the globe. DSS is respon-
                              sible for the safety and security of more than
                              100,000 UN staff members and an estimated           The Department aims to reinforce security
                              300,000 dependents worldwide.                      operations in all locations and establish a uni-
                                                                                         fied capacity for policy, standards,
                                                                                         coordination, communication, compli-
                                                                                         ance, and threat and risk assessment;
                                                                                         and to protect staff, delegates, visiting
                                                                                         dignitaries and other visitors on the
                                                                                         UN premises and to prevent damage
                                                                                         to UN property.

                                                                                              DSS was established through con-
                                                                                          solidation and substantive strengthen-
                                                                                          ing of the existing security and safety
                                                                                          structures of the Office of the United
                                                                                          Nations Security Coordinator at UN
                                                                                          Headquarters and in the field, and
Safety and Security Service




                                                                                          the security and safety services at all
                                                                                          headquarters locations and regional
                                                                                          commissions. The civilian security
                                                                                          components of peacekeeping and spe-




                                                                                                                                            273
      cial political missions led by the Department of    placed a heavy burden on the resources of the
      Peacekeeping Operations and the Department          infant Department. As a result, DSS has not
      of Political Affairs, respectively, have also been   been able to meet its staffing targets in 2005 and
      brought under the umbrella of the Department        has had to rely on temporary personnel for the
      of Safety and Security so as to ensure effective     performance of some of its core functions, while
      coordination of security decisions, compliance      continuing to plan and gradually implement its
      with common security policies and full applica-     longer-term goals.
      tion of the common security standards.
                                                              The IASMN partners continued to debate
                                                          the wording of an accountability frame-
                                                          work establishing UN System-wide lines of
                                                          accountability on security matters. This seems
                                                          to be heading to a successful settlement in
                                                          2006. Occasional friction continued over the
                                                          payment of assessed contributions by agen-
      The filling of some 750 new posts, which
                                                          cies and the allocation of shared resources,
      entailed the writing of job descriptions and
                                                          which has now been resolved with all but two
      vacancy announcements, along with the evalu-
                                                          organizations.
      ation and interview of thousands of candidates,                        Safety and Security Service




274
                                                                                                     Organizational
                                                                                                      Management




1
To protect staff, delegates, visiting dignitaries and other visitors on the United Nations premises and
to prevent damage to United Nations property.



    Improved security and safety of the                   Percentage of duty stations with
    working environment.                                  established Minimum Operating Security
                                                          Standards.




                                                                           2005            2005

  Percentage of duty stations with established             45%             100%            88%
  Minimum Operating Security Standards




                                                                                                               275
      2
      To reduce and/or prevent critical incident stress and to increase the knowledge and skills of staff of the
      United Nations System with respect to safety and security issues.



          Strengthened capacity of staff of the                   Increased percentage of UN staff and
          United Nations System to manage critical                their families exposed to critical incidents
          incident stress.                                        in the field who have received stress
                                                                  management training.




          Enhanced abilities in security and safety               Increased percentage of United Nations
          matters of all actors in the United Nations             staff members certified in basic security
          security management system, including                   training in the field.
          designated officials, security management
          team members, security officers and staff
          members, through security training.




                                                                                     2005              2005

        Percentage of UN staff and their families exposed
        to critical incidents in the field who have received        70%               90%                95%
        stress management training

        Percentage of United Nations staff members certified                                             95%
                                                                   70%               90%
        in basic security training in the field                                                        (estimate)




276
                                                                                                          Organizational
                                                                                                           Management




       Public                                           ies of UN programmes. These people need to
                                                        understand and appreciate the Organization’s

       Information                                      work if it is to be effective. In addition, in areas
                                                        of conflict, if local communities have a reason-
                                                        able understanding of the work and objec-
                                                        tives of UN staff, this can have a beneficial
                                                        effect on the safety and security of those staff.
                                                        More broadly, sophisticated communications
                                                        strategies can assist the United Nations in
                                                        influencing key audiences to the benefit of the
       The obligation of the Secretary-General to
                                                        Organization’s aims and activities.
       articulate the work of the Organization to the
       world community flows from the discharge of           The year 2005 saw the culmination of a
       his responsibilities under Chapter 15, Article   three-year systematic evaluation of the effec-
       98 of the Charter of the United Nations. The     tiveness of the activities of the Department
       effectiveness of the Organization is greatly      of Public Information (DPI) in strategically
       enhanced when its activities and concerns, and   communicating the activities and concerns of
       stood by the world community. The global tax-    the United Nations. Using a variety of audi-
       payer has expectations of the United Nations,    ence research methods, internal evaluation
       and people all over the world are beneficiar-     techniques and other management tools, the
UN Photo




                                                                                                                    277
                                                                               and penetration by region and audience group
                                                                               across the globe.

                                                                                   By year’s end, a notable increase had been
                                                                               seen in penetration, with the estimated reach of
                                                                               UN radio programmes alone having doubled to
                                                                               almost 300 million listeners per week in Africa,
                                                                               and strong growth in the Arabic, Chinese, French
                                                                               and Spanish language audiences. On average,
                                                                               usage of the main United Nations website and
                                                                               local language sites, the latter maintained by the
                                                                               global network of UN Information Centres, had
                                                                               also increased by 50 per cent. Similarly, strong
                                                                               rises have been identified in subscriptions to the
                                                                               e-mail news service and participation in guided
                                                                               tours of UN Headquarters. These products and
      UN Photo/Mark Garten




                                                                               services have also received considerable positive
                                                                               feedback from their target audiences, with an
                                                                               average of 80 per cent responding positively on
                                                                               their usefulness, relevance and quality.

                                                                                   The public perception of the United Nations,
                                                                               like the image of any public institution, is the
                        Department of Public Information, in collabo-
                        ration with the Office of Internal Oversight
                        Services, introduced a transformative institu-                              United Nations radio and television
                        tionalization of a culture of evaluation at all lev-                     programmes: estimated weekly audience
                        els of its staff and management. It took the posi-                              (in millions) by region, 2005
                        tion that it was not enough to have produced
                        a given number of communication products,                                                                                      Television programmes
                                                                                                     300         282.9
                        such as booklets, guided tours, films, videos                                                                                   Radio programmes
                                                                                                     250
                        and radio programmes. The true gauge must be
                                                                                Audience, millions




                                                                                                                                       214.4
                        the reach and impact of those United Nations                                 200

                        public information products and services. The                                150                                       141.3
                                                                                                                                                                  116.9
                        Department set out to determine this through
                                                                                                     100                                                  75.2
                        the collection and analysis of audience statistics.                                                     57.3
                        It became clear that using a diversity of media,                              50
                                                                                                                                                                          n.a.




                                                                                                           9.2           18.3
                        and adjusting media strategies to meet differ-                                                                                  1.4
                                                                                                       0
                                                                                                           Africa        Americas Asia/Pacific         Europe    Multiregion
                        ent circumstances, ensured proper coverage




278
                                                                                                                                 Organizational
                                                                                                                                  Management




                    United Nations website:
                average weekly hits (in millions)
                        by region, 2005
           20              19.6
                                                                               The Department of Public Information has pri-
           15                                                                  mary responsibility for United Nations strategic
                                                    13.8
                                                                               communications. Discharging this responsibil-
Millions




                                                                               ity involves highly interactive and collaborative
           10
                                                                               processes and multiple clients and partners.
                                        7.3

            5                                                                      Internal coordination and client orientation
                 2.2                                                           are central to the Department’s work in devel-
                                                                  0.4          oping effective strategies for communicating
            0
            Africa     Americas   Asia/Pacific   Europe     Unspecified        the Organization’s priority issues to the global
                                                                               public. Internal coordination demands that
                                                                               synergies be enhanced within the Department,
                         sum total of views held in the public mind. This
                                                                               with client departments and with United
                         image comes from a variety of sources and is not
                                                                               Nations System partners. The United Nations
                         quickly or easily susceptible to change as a result
                                                                               Communications Group, established in 1998 as
                         of even the best public information campaigns.
                                                                               a weekly coordinating meeting, was converted in
                         Following disagreement in the Security Council
                                                                               2002 at the initiative of DPI into a global net-
                         over Iraq in 2003, the picture in many people’s
                                                                               work of heads of information of the entire UN
                         minds of the United Nations acquired a nega-
                                                                               System, and has emerged as a strong unifying
                         tive cast. Despite the improvements in the reach
                                                                               platform for dealing with common communica-
                         and effectiveness of the United Nations’ public
                                                                               tions challenges facing the United Nations. Its
                         information activities, a number of polls con-
                                                                               utility as a coordinating body is demonstrated
                         ducted in the last two years show that support
                                                                               by its growing membership, which has increased
                         for the Organization, and understanding of its
                                                                               by 35 per cent since its inception, and by its ris-
                         global role, has faltered. However, those same
                                                                               ing ratings; in 2005, eight in ten members stated
                         polls also show that most people around the
                                                                               that the Group made an important contribution
                         world want a United Nations that is stronger
                                                                               to their communications work, compared with
                         and more capable of living up to their expec-
                                                                               75 per cent in 2003.
                         tations. Furthermore, global polling data con-
                         firms the public’s belief that the Organization            The Department aims to establish new part-
                         is central to solving world conflicts (Gallup          nerships with media organizations worldwide,
                         “Voice of the People,” October 2005; PIPA/            while maintaining the existing ones. Fostering
                         Gallup in Africa, June 2005; Zogby America,           a system of partnerships is fundamental to the
                         May 2005).                                            objective of reaching multiple target audiences.




                                                                                                                                           279
      One avenue through which DPI has
      made the most of partnerships is the
      International Television Programme
      Market (MIP TV), the largest inter-




                                                  UN Photo/Mark Garten
      national gathering in the television
      programming industry, in which
      over 12,000 representatives from the
      world’s programme providers par-
      ticipate. The crucial presence of the
                                                                         engagement of its substantive clients. Emphasis
      UN System at this event has promoted aware-
                                                                         is placed on publicizing, in a timely and effec-
      ness of its “brand” to the world’s media decision-
                                                                         tive manner, the work of the Organization and
      makers. More exposure has resulted in increased
                                                                         demonstrating its relevance to the daily lives and
      distribution, as well as in co-production part-
                                                                         concerns of people everywhere. It aims to reach
      nerships, many of which started at the event and
                                                                         global audiences, through intermediaries such
      have developed though regular follow-up. The
                                                                         as the media and through partnerships with
      participation of the audio-visual components of
                                                                         governmental and non-governmental organi-
      UN System organizations under the leadership
                                                                         zations, educational institutions and other seg-
      of the Department of Public Information has
                                                                         ments of civil society.
      doubled every year since DPI first attended MIP
      TV in 2002. In 2005, 13 organizations and 30                           The systematic collection of feedback from
      representatives took part.                                         various audiences has provided a great deal of
                                                                         information on the effectiveness of the United
                                                                         Nations public information programme. An
                                                                         analysis of the views of Member States’ repre-
                                                                         sentatives showed that 72 per cent of their com-
                                                                         ments were favourable on products, services and
                                                                         activities, with only 13 per cent critical. Areas
                                                                         that enjoy particularly strong support included
      The Department of Public Information’s mis-                        the United Nations website (www.un.org) and
      sion is to help fulfill the substantive purposes                    the United Nations News Centre [www.un.org/
      of the United Nations by strategically com-                        news/]; UN radio [http://radio.un.org] and tel-
      municating the activities and concerns of the                      evision [www.un.org/av/tv] programmes. In the
      Organization to achieve the greatest public                        area of educational outreach, they particularly
      impact. This includes broadening support                           commended Cyberschoolbus (www.un.org/
      and understanding for the work of the United                       cyberschoolbus), an online service whose target
      Nations by devising effective communications                        audience is teachers and students from primary
      strategies on priority issues through systematic                   to secondary school. Member States also praised




280
                                                                                                          Organizational
                                                                                                           Management



DPI’s efforts to promote issues of concern to the            One of the Department’s central goals is
United Nations, such as the New Partnership              to reach target audiences worldwide with the
for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the                 Organization’s messages by means of diversi-
September 2005 World Summit agenda. In a sur-            fied products. Tracking of trends shows healthy
vey among members of the General Assembly’s              growth in this effort, as shown in the table below.
Committee on Information (COI), 70 per cent
stated that the Organization’s work in the area of
humanitarian relief was widely covered by their
country’s news media.

    Public awareness of the work of the United
Nations depends, to a large degree, on the extent
                                                         The Department strives to maximize the effi-
of media coverage of its activities. Therefore,
                                                         ciency of its content distribution by utilizing
on World Press Freedom Day in 2004, the
                                                         the latest information and communication
Department launched “Ten Stories the World
                                                         technologies. As part of that effort, it has
Should Hear More About,” an annual outreach
                                                         found that some products can be discontinued,
initiative to help draw media attention to impor-
                                                         while others are more effective if presented in
tant international developments and issues that
                                                         new and different forms. Accordingly, the dis-
often remain underreported. An analysis of
                                                         tribution of photo prints and audio cassettes
press clippings showed that each launch raised
                                                         to news organizations and radio programmes
the level of coverage and that there was a con-
                                                         in areas with robust Internet capabilities are
siderable improvement in focusing media atten-
                                                         being supplanted by digital (Web/Internet)
tion on the issues between the launches in 2004
                                                         means of delivery.
(6 per cent) and 2005 (39 per cent).




                                                       2003                2004               2005

 Annual conference of non-governmental
 organizations (interactive website                           520             1,562             21,000
 participants)

 News centre e-mail service (subscribers)                 22,053             33,500             44,217

 Guided Tours (visitors)                                323,169             360,157            412,042

 UN Chronicle (readership: print and online)            384,620             439,420            716,997

 United Nations Radio
                                                     133,263,150                  n/a     299,095,000
 (estimated number of listeners)




                                                                                                                    281
                     In terms of overall programme management,        toward a broader goal. Improvement of public
                 DPI’s initiative to institutionalize a culture of    understanding, and more positive public opin-
                 evaluation has generated findings that indicate its   ion about the United Nations, and as a result,
                 work is on target, and has enabled informed, con-    enhanced support for its work — the ultimate
                 tinuous correction of its strategies and products.   desired outcomes — are not easy to attain, and
                 But increased reach and penetration of public        can only be reached when the substantive activi-
                 information products is just one important step      ties they promote are effective and productive.
      UN Photo




282
                                                                                                    Organizational
                                                                                                     Management




1
To broaden understanding of and support for the work of the United Nations on priority issues
through strategic communications.



    Increased awareness of key thematic                 Percentage of target audiences indicating
    issues among target audiences through               increased awareness.
    the implementation of communication
    strategies on those issues.




                                                                         2005             2005

  Percentage of target audiences indicating increased    60%              70%            70.5%
  awareness




                                                                                                              283
      2
      To increase the interest of news organizations and media in, and their access to, up-to-date news and
      other information about the Organization and its activities.



         Satisfaction with the availability of timely,           Percentage of users (e.g., media, Member
         accurate, objective and balanced information            State delegations) indicating that news
         and/or services to the media, delegations,              and information made available by the
         other audiences and redisseminators on the              UN is timely, accurate and objective.
         role of the United Nations in addressing the
         priority issues before the Organization.




                                                                                  2005             2005

        Percentage of users (e.g., media, Member State
        delegations) indicating that news and information      65% (estimate)      70%             80%
        made available by the UN is timely, accurate and
        objective.




      3
      To inform and stimulate opinion and debate through outreach efforts targeted directly to the public
      and in alliance with key partners, including non-governmental organizations, academic institutions,
      other representatives of civil society and the media, using the Millennium Declaration as a guide.



         Enhanced understanding of the role, work                Percentage of target audiences indicating
         and concerns of the United Nations resulting            that their understanding about the United
         from outreach activities, programmes and                Nations’ role, work and concerns has
         services.                                               grown or improved.




                                                                                  2005             2005

        Percentage of target audiences indicating that their
        understanding about the United Nations’ role, work     90% (estimate)      90%             94%
        and concerns has grown or improved



284

								
To top