valette_florence by changcheng2

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									    The interdependency between brand personality and
    emotions: an exploratory study on French ski resorts
    Rita Valette-Florence, Assistant Professor (ATER), IAE Savoie Mont-Blanc, IREGE, France
    Jean-Luc Giannelloni, Professor, IAE Savoie Mont-Blanc, IREGE, France
    Pierre Valette-Florence, Professor, IAE Grenoble, France
    Isabelle Frochot, Associate Professor, IAE Savoie Mont-Blanc, IREGE, France




1
    Introduction
    Overall Framework

      From a managerial perspective, brand
      personality and emotions appear to be key
      elements in tourist advertising
      On an academic level, Ekinci and Hosany (2006),
      Hosany, Ekinci and Uysal (2006) and d’Astous
      and Boujbel (2007) have applied the concept of
      brand personality to tourism destinations
      In addition, within the topic of affect, Hosany and
      Gilbert (2010) have suggested a new scale to
      measure positive emotions linked to some
      holiday destinations
      To the best of our knowledge no research has
      investigated, together, brand personality and
      emotions as respectively cognitive and affective
      determinants of tourist destination choice


2
    Introduction
    Destination Branding & Ski Resorts Brands

      Recent literature has witnessed a shift in focus
      from destination image to destination branding
      In addition, a recent stream of studies has
      addressed the experiential qualities attached to
      tourist destinations and stressed symbolic (e.g.,
      Hosany, Ekinci, and Uysal 2006; Murphy,
      Moscardo, and Benckendorff 2007) as well as
      affective (e.g. Hosany and Gilbert, 2010)
      determinants
      Actually, many ski resorts can be analysed as
      genuine brands that have engaged in branding
      strategies (e.g. brand Paradiski in the French
      Alps)




3
    Conceptual Background (1)
    Brand Personality

      Definition: “Brand personality is an evaluation based on
      human personality traits applicable and relevant to the brand
      and cultural context in which they occur”
      « Macro » Perspective: Aaker’s Scale
      « Micro » Perspective: e.g. Web Sites, Print Media
      Brands…
      Quiet a few studies have investigated the brand
      personality
         Application Aaker’s scale to countries (Ekinci et Hosany,
         2006; Hosany, Ekinci et Uysal, 2006) and cities (Bartikowski et
         al, 2009)
         Creation of a new specific personality scale for countries
         (d’Astous et Boujbel, 2007)
      First Research Question: Can we qualify a ski resort
      with personality traits?

4
    Conceptual Background (2)
    Felt Emotions

      An holistic view of emotions that encompass felt
      emotions, feelings and mood as well
      « Macro » Perspective: Richin’s Consumption
      Emotion Scale (1997)
      « Micro » Perspective: e.g. consumer emotions
      associated with foods (King and Meiselman
      2010)
      In tourism marketing only one study has
      focused on positive emotions linked to
      destinations (Hosany and Gilbert, 2010)
      Second Research Question: Can we also qualify a
      ski resort with specific felt emotions? Can these
      emotions be negative?

5
    Managerial Illustrations
    Brand Personality/Emotions




                                 Val Louron, c'est l'émotion au naturel !
                                                Station familiale de ski.




6
    Qualitative Research Design
    Respondents’ profiles and ski resorts’ listing

                            Concept
      Number of     Group
     respondents             under        Sex      Ski resort                  Category of ski resort
                   number
                            scrutiny
                                                                     Station
         1                                F          Ancelle
                                                                     village
                                                                     Station       Grand    Free &
         1           1                    M         Orcières
                                                                     village        ski      Fun
                                                                     Station
         1                                M     Monetier les Bains
                              Brand                                  village
                            personality                                            Grand    Free &
         1                                F          Tignes
                                                                                    ski      Fun
                                                                     Station       Grand    Free & Cross-country
         1           2                    F         La Clusaz
                                                                     village        ski      Fun      skiing

                                                                                   Grand             Cross-country
         1                                M         Les Gets
                                                                                    ski                 skiing

                                                                                   Grand             Cross-country
         1                                F         Les Gets
                                                                                    ski                 skiing

                                                                                   Grand    Free & Cross-country
         1           1                    F          Avoriaz
                                                                                    ski      Fun      skiing

                                                                     Station                         Cross-country
         1                                M      Villars de Lans
                                                                     village                            skiing
                            Emotions
                                                                     Station
         1                                F     Le Grand Bornand
                                                                     village
                                                                     Station       Grand    Free & Cross-country
         1           2                    M         La Plagne
                                                                     village        ski      Fun      skiing

                                                                     Station       Grand    Free & Cross-country
         1                                M         La Clusaz
                                                                     village        ski      Fun      skiing



7
                        Generation of Items (1)
                        Projective method with collages & classical method
                        in focus groups


                        Triangulation : phase 1                                           Triangulation : phase 2


         R 1, 2 and 3                             R 1, 2 and 3             R 1, 2 , 3,                            R 1, 2 , 3,
                                                                           4, 5 and 6                             4, 5 and 6
           Group 1                                  Group 1
                                                                         Groups 1 and 2                         Groups 1 and 2


        272 items of                           156 items of
        personality                             emotions         48 items from existing scales          69 items from existing scales
                                                                    and 67 additional items                and 32 additional items
    among which 14 from                    among which 21 from
       existing scales                        existing scales
                                                                       Total personality                       Total emotions
         R 1, 2 and 3                             R 1, 2 and 3            115 items                              101 items
           Group 2                                  Group 2




8
    Generation of Items (2)
    Projective method with collages: example of a triad
    organization
                                             Group 1
                                         Brand personality


      R1                      R2           R1                       R2         R1                     R2
    regular                occasional   occasional                regular   occasional             occasional
              Collage                                Collage                       Collage
              Ancelle                                Orcières                  Monetier les Bains
                 R3                                     R3                                 R3
              occasional                             occasional                          regular




9
      F 1  K 
Ir             
      N K  K  1 
                        Generation of Items(3)
                        Reliability coefficients of the qualitative classifications

                                        Personality                                   Emotions

                        Judges    J1     J2     J3     J4     J5    Judges    J1      J2      J3      J4     J5
                          J1     1,00   80%    80%    71%    77%      J1     1,00    84%     74%     76%    87%
                          J2     0,77   1,00   74%    71%    79%      J2     0,82    1,00    73%     78%    85%
                          J3     0,77   0,69   1,00   67%    81%      J3     0,69    0,68    1,00    71%    71%
                          J4     0,65   0,65   0,58   1,00   74%      J4     0,72    0,75    0,65    1,00   74%
                          J5     0,73   0,76   0,79   0,69   1,00     J5     0,86    0,84    0,65    0,69   1,00




                           Ir (Perreault and Leigh, 1989 ) :                              F 1  K 
                                                                                    Ir             
                                                                                          N K  K  1 
                           PRL (Rust and Cooil, 1994) :
                                  personality : 0,96
                                  Emotions : 0,96
                           All in all, we got 189 items for personality
                           and 125 for emotions
  10
     Specificities of ski resorts in terms of personality traits
     Factorial map of ski resorts’ personality

                                                                                  Axis 2 (19.14%)

                                 wild
                                                         enchantress
                                             exciting


                                                                   relaxed

                                                   Villard de Lans               Solitary
                          Individualistic                                                       negative
                                                                     listening

                                                                              La Plagne
                                                                        natural                    Orcières Merlette
                                               mummy organised
                                   Les Gets                                        smile
                                                               fashion
                                                                    active        pensive                  welcoming
                                           positive                                       sympathetic
        Axis 1 (23.22%)                                                           playful                           competitive
                                        adaptable
                                    human                                                    festive       Tignes
                                                                                            warm
                                                                                                                             charming
         Le Grand Bornand                                                                          La Clusaz
                                         sharing                                                      authentic           stylish
                                                         For families friendly
                                 Avoriaz              tiring                        Monêtier les Bains



                                                    Ancelle pleasant




                                          sweet


11
            Specificities of ski resorts in terms of felt emotions
            Factorial map of emotions elicited by ski resorts

                                                                              Axis 2 (19.41%)




                                                                                dream
                                     disgust       fear       boredom                             Amusing
                                                                              interest                         quiet
                               Villard de Lans
                                                                              Ancelle             fantastic          happy
                           anxious     surprised                                                                             emotion
                                                          frustrated
                                                   friendship                            Les Gets
                       Change of scenery                        satisfied                                        Tignes
                              Well being       lonely relaxation           Monêtier les Bains
     Axis 1 (24.81%)   La Plagne                               escape                                                         In love
                                                                    Orcières Merlette
                            Good mood                                                     pleasure
                                                         disappointment                                       warm
                            oppression
                              unpleasant              Avoriaz

                                                              stress                       rest
                                                                   freedom




                                                                       care
                                                                              La Clusaz
                                                                                   magic
                                                          relaxation


12
     Interdependence of brand personality and emotions
     Hierarchical classification tree of personality and emotions




13
     Global vision of ski resorts
     Multidimensional representations of ski resorts




14
     Main Contributions

      Specific personality traits and specific emotions
      may characterize ski resorts

      A focus on positive connotations would reduce the
      differentiation scope of ski resorts

      Globally 10% of personality traits and 38% of the
      emotional items already belong to existing
      inventories. those results underline the interest of
      adopting « Micro » approaches which seem to be
      more efficient than « Macro » approaches

      The interdependence between personality traits and
      the emotional field specific to ski resorts confirms
      the theoretical propositions of Pham (2008) and
      Avnet and Pham (2010)
15
     Limits and Main Outlooks

       Limits
          Based on a double qualitative enquiry, those first results are
          foremost of an exploratory nature and need to be corroborated
          by further studies.

          It would be preferable to check the results’ stability on other
          targets representative of the population frequently using ski
          resorts.

       Main Outlooks
          A quantitative approach should now be undertaken in order
          to identify a scale specific to ski resorts and capable of
          measuring their personality traits and emotions.

          Another perspective could be to investigate the influence of
          those key determinants of brand relationship, such as trust,
          attachment and cognitive and affective engagement.

          Finally, this would help to trace the cognitive and affective
          routes that underpin consumer behavior relative to ski
          resorts.
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