Digital Watermarking by Chaelynne M. Wolak firstname.lastname@example.org A paper submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for DISS 780 – Assignment Twelve School of Computer and Information Sciences Nova Southeastern University July 2000 Abstract Copyright abuse is the motivating factor in developing new encryption technologies. One such technology is digital watermarking. The focus of this proposed research paper will detail digital watermarking for multimedia applications. It will be complimented with a ten minute PowerPoint presentation. Areas that will be covered are definition of digital watermarking, purpose, techniques, and types of watermarking attacks. Lastly, the current laws in place for digital copyright will be briefly detailed along with a review of the fair use guidelines and the future of digital watermarking technology. ii Table of Contents Abstract ii Problem Statement and Goal 1 Relevance and Significance 2 Barriers and Issues 2 Approach 3 Annotated Bibliography 4 iii 1 Digital Watermarking Problem Statement and Goal The desire for the availability of information and quick distribution has been a major factor in the development of new technology in the last decade (Zhao, Koch, & Luo, 1998). There is the increased use of multimedia across the Internet. Multimedia distribution has become an important way to deliver services to people around the world (Arn, Gatlin, & Kordsmeier, 1998, December). It is commonly applied in Internet marketing campaigns and electronic commerce web sites. Due to the growing usage of multimedia content on the Internet, serious issues have emerged. Counterfeiting, forgery, fraud, and pirating of this content are rising (Lan & Tewfik, 1999, October 30 - November 5). Virtually anyone with a sound card, scanner, video frame grabbers, or multimedia authoring systems allow them to incorporate copyrighted material into presentations, web designs, and Internet marketing campaigns. Consequently, copyright abuse is rampant among multimedia users, who are rarely caught (Gatlin, Arn, & Kordsmeier, 1999, July/August). This copyright abuse is the motivating factor in developing new encryption technologies (Zhao et al., 1998). One such technology is digital watermarking. The focus of this proposed research paper will detail digital watermarking for multimedia applications. It will be complimented with a ten minute PowerPoint presentation. Areas that will be covered are definition of digital watermarking, purpose, techniques, and types of watermarking attacks. Lastly, the current laws in place for digital copyright will be briefly detailed along with a review of the fair use guidelines and the future of digital 2 watermarking technology. This research paper and PowerPoint presentation can be used to further one’s understanding of a type of multimedia encryption technique. Relevance and Significance Multimedia usage has developed from the need in satisfying human desires in societies. It is this desire that relies on communication, personal interaction, and entertainment (Lan & Tewfik, 1999, October 30 - November 5). Thus, the emphasis has mostly been placed on making information available and on transmitting and manipulating that information. Protecting information and content has not received the attention that it deserves (Zhao et al., 1998). It has only been recently that fair use guidelines and copyright laws regarding multimedia usage have been established. Any extensive research in this area is non- existent (Arn et al., 1998, December). However, even the current copyright laws are inadequate for dealing with all this digital data (Memon & Wong, 1998). Digital watermarking seems to be the only potential encryption technology to provide protection even after data is decrypted (Zhao et al., 1998). Barriers and Issues Several barriers prevent digital watermarking from being effective and widespread. First, there is not a foolproof protection scheme while making the watermarks imperceptible. Thus, absolute robustness is impossible (Zhao et al., 1998). Second, it is difficult to offer an “off-the-shelf” solution to the mass market. Although, there is significant interest in this technology from OEMs and system integrators, there is no infrastructure or protocols. Besides, the legal status of watermarks 3 used as evidence in lawsuits involving intellectual property has not been tested (Zhao et al., 1998). Lastly, out of fear of piracy, many professional photographers, artists, and other content creators still do not put their work out in digital format. Thus, the market for this new encryption technology is not widespread. Usually a new technology goes through a dormancy period before widespread adoption (Zhao et al., 1998). Approach The goal is the research paper that will detail digital watermarking for multimedia applications. It will be complimented with a ten minute PowerPoint presentation. Areas that will be covered are definition of digital watermarking, purpose, techniques, and types of watermarking attacks. Lastly, the current laws in place for digital copyright will be briefly detailed along with a review of the fair use guidelines and the future of digital watermarking technology. The first step in accomplishing this is performing a thorough search into digital watermarking. Next, the preliminary proposal will be written. It will complete the review of literature and methodology of this paper. In addition, it will detail the production of the PowerPoint presentation. During the production of the PowerPoint presentation, two individuals will be asked for their input of it. Comments and observations from these individuals will be incorporated into the final design. All of this information will be placed into the final research paper. Lastly, the PowerPoint presentation will be completed as well as this research paper on digital watermarking. It will be completed in February 2001 for the final requirement for DISS 880. 4 Annotated Bibliography Arn, J., Gatlin, R., & Kordsmeier, W. (1998, December). Multimedia copyright laws and guidelines: Take the test. Business Communication Quarterly, 32-39. These authors are from the University of Central Arkansas. They discuss the issue of using multimedia content for classroom teaching. Since copyright guidelines affecting multimedia production have only been recently established, a survey was conducted to determine if members of the Association of Business Communication understood these latest guidelines. Results from this survey indicated an average grade of 71.082 percent with a standard margin of error of 1.706. The authors further detail the fair use guidelines. In addition, they provide examples of permitted uses of copyrighted multimedia materials as it relates to an education setting. This information can be used for the conclusion of the research paper describing fair use guidelines when using multimedia content. Bartolini, F., Bini, G., Cappellini, V., Fringuelli, A., Meucci, G., Piva, A., & Barni, M. (1999, June 7 - 11). Enforcement of copyright laws for multimedia through blind, detectable, reversible watermarking. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on multimedia computing and systems, Florence, Italy. All authors are from the University of Florence with the exception of M. Barni, who is from the University of Siena. They propose a new watermark technique based on the decoding process. A new system called the Electronic Copyright Management System (ECMS) is presented using this watermark technique to help enforce copyright laws in open-network environments. The technique works like this. As the digital information travels across the network, no matter how many times it has changed hands, the focus is put on the single piece of data and the information borne by the watermark. At any time, the person who is using this digital information can demonstrate he/she is making a legal use of the information by reading the watermark. In addition, a mechanism is provided that enables authorities to prove the illegal use of any digital information. Berghel, H. (1998). Digital watermarking makes it mark. netWorker: The craft of network computing, 2(4), 30-39. This author is a professor of computer science at the University of Arkansas. He details the history of watermarking back to the Middle Ages. Due to the huge popularity of the World Wide Web and the commercialization of offering multimedia resources through these digital networks for a profit, there is now a strong interest in protecting ownership rights. 5 The author describes the purpose of watermarking, the litmus test for watermarks, the techniques, and the limitations of it. He also goes on to briefly describe the future of digital watermarking. This article will be helpful in the areas of defining watermarking and its purpose as well as what the future holds for it. Busch, C., Funk, W., & Wolthusen, S. (1999, January, February). Digital watermarking: From concepts to real-time video applications. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, 19(1), 25-35. The authors are from the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics. They present an algorithm for watermarking and monitoring video streams in a TV-broadcasting environment. In addition, it has the capability of surviving MPEG-2 compression of high quality, real-world video sequences without degrading the watermark's quality. The algorithm is frame-based. Thus, during the watermark embedding and retrieval, the algorithm separately processes each frame of the uncompressed video stream. This is similar to the Koch-Zhao algorithm, but it is slightly modified. The modification includes new discrete cosine transform (DCT) and inverse DCT routines that are optimized for real-time implementation. Chandramouli, R., & Memon, N. (2000, March 27 - 29). How many pixels to watermark? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the international conference of information technology: Coding and computing, Las Vegas, Nevada. R. Chandramouli is from Iowa State University and N. Memon is from the Polytechnic University. These authors present a watermark technique based on the watermark detection method. By developing this technique, the number of watermark pixels can be reduced almost by a factor of two. This reduction leads to robust watermarking systems. In addition, there is significant cost savings since the need for redundant watermarking systems can be reduced. By decreasing the amount of watermark pixels, there is an increased immunity to host signal attacks such as cropping. The watermark detection algorithm used to develop this new technique is called sequential. Their new watermark technique was tested on a fixed sample size. The results showed that the sequential detection is superior, making it the preferred candidate for watermark detection in image/video databases. Collberg, C., & Thomborson, C. (1999, January 20 - 22). Software watermarking: Models and dynamic embeddings. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 26th ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT on principles of programming languages, San Antonio, Texas. Both authors are from the department of Computer Science at the University of Auckland. They discuss the attacks on watermarking systems. There are five main 6 attacks. They are statistical, distortive, collusive, cropping and additive. The authors also discuss countermeasures against these attacks. The authors explain various software watermarking approaches. Software watermarking is the process of embedding a large number into a program. Thus, the number can be reliably retrieved after the program has been attacked. In addition, the embedding of the number is imperceptible to those that are trying to attack. This software approach is a new watermarking technique. Cox, I., Miller, M., & Bloom, J. (2000, March 27 -29). Watermarking applications and their properties. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the international conference on information technology: Coding and computing, Las Vegas, Nevada. These authors are from the NEC Research Institute. They present various digital watermarking applications. There are seven applications of watermarking. They are broadcast monitoring, owner identification, proof of ownership, authentication, transactional watermarks, copy control, and covert communication. Each of these applications may have different watermark requirements. Therefore, these authors feel that there should not be a single set of standards for all watermarking systems. This work contrasts the work done by Fred Mintzer, Gordon Braudaway, and Alan Bell (1998). Those authors feel that for applications that do not depend strictly on standard techniques, opportunities for standards would better serve the user community. However, the authors from NEC Research Institute claim one size does not fit all. Dittmann, J., Mukherjee, A., & Steinebach, M. (2000, March 27 - 29). Media- independent watermarking classification and the need for combining digital video and audio watermarking for media authentication. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the international conference on information technology: Coding and computing, Las Vegas, Nevada. These authors are from the German National Research Center for Information Technology. The most important parameters of digital watermarks are robustness, security, transparency, complexity, capacity, and verification. Based on these parameters, the authors suggest a watermarking solution that is robust and guarantees authenticity and integrity. Their technique is called content-fragile watermarking. Content-fragile watermarking uses a robust watermark to embed content information. It is this embedded information that can be compared to the actual work. If any changes are made to the work, a warning message is displayed. The fragility portion of this technique is about losing equality of extracted and embedded content. This is another proposal for watermarking techniques. 7 Dittmann, J., Stabenau, M., & Steinmetz, R. (1998, September 13 - 16). Robust MPEG video watermarking technologies. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 6th ACM international conference on multimedia, Bristol, United Kingdom. The authors from the German National Research Center for Information and Darmstadt University of Technology present two watermarking techniques for MPEG video. They discuss the requirements for MPEG video watermarking such as robustness against high compression rates, robustness against scaling, labeling of every single video frame, ensuring correct decoding of the frame sequences, and runtime, performance for streaming video. Two algorithms are discussed such as the Zhao Koch and the Fridrich. The intended audience is for those in the business of video production. A final video production is based on one's individual ideas and unique intellectual creation. However, with digital representation of the video, problems of unauthorized taping, reading, manipulating, or removing of data can be experienced. This article provides additional information on the types of watermarking techniques. Fread, J., Stalnaker, A., & Baughman, L. (2000, April 28). Digimarc and creativepro.com launch marcstation digitial watermarking e-service. Electric Library: Business Wire [Online]. Available: http://www.elibrary.com [2000, July 6]. John Fread and Laura Baughman are from Digimarc Corporation. Anne Stalnaker is from Creativepro.com. Digimarc Corporation develops watermarking techniques and applications. Creativepro.com is an online resource for creative professionals. New services from Creativepro.com allow members to quickly and easily embed watermarks into their works. This is done via Digimarc's newest watermarking technique called MarcStation. MarcStation allow users to embed their digital images with their unique Digimarc ID that links to vital information such as copyright ownership, usage restrictions, and licensing instructions. The watermark is intricately woven into the fabric of the image. Thus, it stays with that image wherever it may be distributed. This is a vital component in identifying, tracking, and marketing content on the Web. Gatlin, R., Arn, J., & Kordsmeier, W. (1999, July/August). AACSB deans' understanding of multimedia copyright laws and guidelines. Journal of Education for Business, 74(6), 368-371. These authors are from the University of Central Arkansas. Another questionnaire was conducted to measure AACSB deans' awareness regarding copyright laws and the usage of multimedia content. The grade from this questionnaire was 68.655 percent with a standard margin of error of 1.086. 8 This study compared to one done earlier with the members of the Association for Business Communication prove that there is a lack of understanding of the copyright guidelines for multimedia production. Here again, a discussion of the fair use guidelines was presented. Gerhardt-Powals, J., & Powals, M. (1999, June 27 - 30). The digital millennium copyright act: An international assault on fair use? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th annual SIGCSE/SIGCUE on innovation and technology in computer science education, Krakow, Poland. Jill Gerhardt-Powals, Ph.D is from Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. Matthew Powals is an attorney at law. Both of these authors discuss the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (called The Act) signed in November 4, 1998 by president Clinton. The Act includes new rules for downloading, sharing, or simply viewing copyrighted materials online. This new law is not widely accepted. The software and entertainment industries feel they can now market their products online without the fear of piracy. However, the academics, educators, and researchers view this new law as a set back. The traditional access and use of information, no matter what the intentions, is now illegal. Grimm, R. (2000, February 7). Verance corporation awarded eleventh digital watermarking patent. Electric Library: Business Wire [Online]. Available: http://www.elibrary.com [2000, July 6]. Randy Grimm is from Verance Corporation. Verance Corporation just received its 11th patent for digital watermarking technology. This latest patent addresses ways in which a Verance watermark is embedded into broadcasted content. Verance claims this newest watermark can generate increased consumer awareness and purchase behavior in response to targeted commercials and programming. This work is related to the article on Digimarc, who developed an "off-the-shelf" solution for members at Creativepro.com. Both companies, Verance and Digimarc, are playing key roles in developing multimedia data protection applications that can be used on the Internet. Kahng, A., Lach, J., Mangione-Smith, W., Mantik, S., Markov, I., Potkonjak, M., Tucker, P., Wang, H., & Wolfe, G. (1998, June 15 - 19). Watermarking technique for intellectual property protection. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 35th annual conference on design automation conference, San Francisco, California. These authors are from the computer science and electrical engineering departments of the University of California Los Angeles and the University of California San Diego. They have proposed a new watermarking technique for intellectual property called the canonical technique. This technique is centered on the use of constraints to sign the 9 output of a given design synthesis. In addition, this watermarking technique can be applied not only to software but also to hardware. Watermarking for intellectual property imposes a much stronger constraint than one just for images. It must remain functionally correct at all times. The key behind this technique is imposing a set of additional constraints during the design and implementation of intellectual property, so that it is uniquely encoded with the signature of the author. Kankanhalli, M., & Ramakrishnan, K. (1998, September 13 - 16). Content based watermarking of images. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 6th ACM international conference on multimedia, Bristol, United Kingdom. The authors from the National University of Singapore and Indian Institute of Science describe an approach to watermarking images. There are two classifications of image watermarking. They are spatial domain and transform domain methods. These methods are used against the 16 different image watermark attacks described in the article. A new image watermark using the advanced spatial domain method is proposed by the authors. It is called the human visual system (HVS). This new method is based on classifying a region of the image based on its sensitivity or tolerance to noise. This is just one of the newest forms of watermarking techniques. Lan, T., & Tewfik, A. (1999, October 30 - November 5). Fraud detection and self embedding. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the seventh ACM international conference (part 2) on multimedia, Orlando, FL. Both authors are from the Electrical and Computer Engineering department of the University of Minnesota. The issue these authors address is fraud detection in multimedia distribution. They discuss three high capacity data embedding watermarking systems such as private, semi-private, and public. Several tests were conducted to determine the robustness, capacity, and visual distortion of these type of high capacity data embedding system. This information further enhances the knowledge in watermarking techniques. Memon, N., & Wong, P. W. (1998). Protecting digital media content. Communications of the ACM, 41(7), 35-43. Nasir Memon is an associate professor of computer science at Northern Illinois University. Ping Wah Wong is the manager of the Internet Imaging Operation at Hewlett Packard. Both authors feel that the current copyright laws are inadequate for dealing with digital data. Therefore, there is an increase interest in copyright protection such as digital watermarking. The article details the purpose of having a watermark signal such as ownership assertion, fingerprinting, authentication and integrity verification, content labeling, usage control, 10 and content protection. In addition, the article explains the watermark insertion process and techniques. This article can be used to explain why digital watermarking is popular due to all of its purposes and some of the latest watermarking techniques. Mintzer, F., Braudaway, G., & Bell, A. (1998). Opportunities for watermarking standards. Communications of the ACM, 41(7), 57-64. The authors who are employed at IBM discuss the opportunities for watermarking standards. One of the barriers to digital watermarking is not being able to provide an "off- the-shelf" solution. This is because there are many integrators and companies with application specific watermarking techniques. In addition, watermarking is such a new field that it is often misunderstood or not accepted. The authors benchmark various watermark techniques for robustness, unintentional attacks, and intentional attacks. They have narrowed the field to three main application areas where the technical requirements are similar. This benchmarked data helps determine the best approach to digital watermarking. Mohanty, S. P., Ramakrishnan, K. R., & Kankanhalli, M. (1999, October 30 - November 5). A dual watermarking technique for images. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the seventh ACM international conference (part 2) on multimedia, Orlando, Florida. Saraju Mohanty and K. R. Ramakrishnan are from the Indian Institute of Science. Mohan Kankanhalli is from the National University of Singapore. These authors developed a dual watermarking technique. This technique places a visible and invisible watermark on an image. The dual watermark serves two main purposes. First, it establishes the owner's right to the image. Second, it detects the intentional and unintentional tampering of the image. This technique can work for images in color or in the gray scale. Even if the visible watermark is removed (by an attack), there is the invisible one as the backup. The visible watermark is inserted into the original image while the invisible watermark is added to it. Therefore, it is a watermark within a watermark creating a dual watermarked image. This is another method of developing robust watermarking techniques. Nikolaidis, N., & Pitas, I. (1999, June 7 - 11). Digital image watermarking: An overview. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on multimedia computing and systems, Florence, Italy. Both authors are from the Artificial Intelligence and Information Analysis Laboratory at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. These authors present an overview to digital watermarking. Image watermarking is a new challenging field that involves principles from diverse disciplines like communications, signal processing, encryption, and steganography. Even though there have been many watermarking techniques developed, 11 there is not one that is robust enough to all possible attacks or to the image processing operation. Due to the financial implications of the new copyright laws, there is an increased effort to research a viable digital watermarking solution. However, for this solution to be accepted worldwide, the legal status of it must be clarified and a trusted central authority has to be established who maintains the regulations and operation of the watermarking framework. Praun, E., Hoppe, H., & Finkelstein, A. (1999, August 8 - 13). Robust mesh watermarking. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGGRAPH 1999 annual conference on computer graphics, Los Angeles, California. These authors from Princeton University address the problem of robustly watermarking 3D models. They present a method of encoding information in the model geometry by displacing the vertices. This method is imperceptible to the human eye. The watermark is hidden within the significant features of the 3D model. It can be identified using a multi- solution approach. This method has proven robust to various watermark attacks. The attacks ranged from vertex reordering, the addition of noise, cropping, smoothing, simplification, and insertion of a second watermark. The work done by these authors was also supported by Microsoft Research and the National Science Foundation. Samuelson, P. (1999). Good news and bad news on the intellectual property front. Communications of the ACM, 42(3), 19-24. Pamela Samuelson is a professor of Information Management and of Law at the University of California. She details the three legal initiatives as they relate to digital information. They are the following: Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the Collections of Information Antipiracy Act, and the Article 2B of the Uniform Commercial Code. She warns that even though digital technology may pose threats such as fraud, piracy, duplicating, etc., that policymakers should be careful not to overreact. By adopting overbroad or imbalanced rules may benefit only some industries, but it is at the cost of others. It could prove detrimental to those in emerging markets and the public. Voyatzis, G., & Pitas, I. (1999, January/February). Protecting digital-image copyrights: A framework. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, 19(1), 18-24. Both authors are from the University of Thessaloniki. The demand for watermarks to remain robust under digital imaging operations has not been successful. This is a remaining problem for many watermarking techniques. The authors present a framework for future algorithms and techniques for digital watermarking. 12 The basic watermarking procedures such as generation, embedding, and detection are discussed. In addition, watermark demands such as perceptual quality preservation, trustworthy detection, computational efficiency, and robustness to digital processing are detailed. Lastly, the intentional attacks on watermarks are described. These attacks include extraction, detection, statistical extraction, multiple watermarking, watermarking with arbitrary keys, and private key loss. Yeung, M., Yeo, B., & Holliman, M. (1998, November/December). Digital watermarks: Shedding light on the invisible. IEEE Micro, 18(6), 32-41. These authors are from the Microcomputer Research Labs of Intel Corporation. They discuss the purpose of digital watermarking, watermarking techniques, and digital imaging devices. The five main purposes are evidence of ownership, fingerprinting, tracing and infringement, copy control, and labeling and metadata insertion. The discussion of techniques includes spatial domain watermarking, transform domain watermarking, and the fragile watermarking technique. Lastly, digital imaging devices can create watermark schemes. In fact, the authors believe they provide stronger protection when the watermark is incorporated into the image capture device. Examples of digital imaging devices include digital cameras and scanners. Zhao, J., Koch, E., & Luo, C. (1998). In business today and tomorrow. Communications of the ACM, 41(7), 67-71. The authors, whom are the President and co-founders of MediaSec Technologies, focus on digital watermarking encryption technology. Protecting information and content has not received the attention it deserves compared to making information available anytime. The authors go on to define digital watermarking and how it can be used in business opportunities. In addition, they also discuss the various companies who specialize in this technology. The intended audience is for those who are in the business of digital and online publication and broadcasting. This article provides the foundation for the introduction and relevance. In addition, it can also be used for finding other sources that specialize in the area of digital watermarking.
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