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                                   DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE *
                                   1400 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250
                                   Phone, 202–720–2791. Internet,

                                   SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE                                             ANN M. VENEMAN
                                   Deputy Secretary                                                     JAMES MOSELEY
                                   Under Secretary for Farm and Foreign                                 J.B. PENN
                                       Agricultural Services
                                     Deputy Under Secretary                                             THOMAS HUNT SHIPMAN
                                     Administrator, Farm Service Agency                                 JAMES LITTLE
                                     Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service                        ELLEN TERPSTRA
                                     Administrator, Risk Management Agency                              ROSS J. DAVIDSON, JR.
                                   Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and                             ERIC M. BOST
                                       Consumer Services
                                     Deputy Under Secretary                                             SUZANNE BIERMANN
                                     Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service                          ROBERTO SALAZAR
                                     Executive Director, Center for Nutrition                           STEVE CHRISTENSEN, Acting
                                         Policy and Promotion
                                   Under Secretary for Food Safety                                      ELSA A. MURANO
                                     Deputy Under Secretary                                             MERLE D. PIERSON
                                     Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection                          GARRY MCKEE
                                   Under Secretary for Natural Resources and                            MARK E. REY
                                     Deputy Under Secretary for Forestry                                DAVE TENNY
                                     Deputy Under Secretary for Conservation                            MACK GRAY
                                     Chief, Forest Service                                              DALE BOSWORTH
                                     Chief, Natural Resources Conservation                              BRUCE KNIGHT
                                   Under Secretary for Research, Education, and                         JOSEPH J. JEN
                                     Deputy Under Secretary                                             RODNEY J. BROWN
                                     Administrator, Agricultural Research Service                       EDWARD B. KNIPLING, Acting
                                     Administrator, Cooperative State Research,                         COLIEN HEFFERAN
                                         Education, and Extension Service
                                     Administrator, Economic Research Service                           SUSAN E. OFFUTT
                                     Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics                    RON BOSECKER
                                   Under Secretary for Rural Development                                THOMAS C. DORR
                                     Deputy Under Secretary                                             GILBERT GONZALEZ

                                     *[Editorial   Note: Department omitted organizational chart.]

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                                   104         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                     Administrator, Rural Business-Cooperative                        JOHN ROSSO
                                     Administrator, Rural Housing Service                             ARTHUR A. GARCIA
                                     Administrator, Rural Utilities Service                           HILDA GAY LEGG
                                   Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations                    MARY WATERS
                                     Deputy Assistant Secretary                                       WANDA WORSHAM
                                   Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory                       WILLIAM T. HAWKS
                                     Deputy Under Secretary                                           CHUCK LAMBERT
                                     Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service                    A.J. YATES
                                     Administrator, Animal and Plant Health                           BOBBY R. ACORD
                                          Inspection Service
                                     Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers,                        DONNA REIFSCHNEIDE
                                          and Stockyards Administration
                                   Assistant Secretary for Administration                             LOU GALLEGOS
                                     Deputy Assistant Secretary                                       JOHN SURINA
                                     Chairman, Board of Contract Appeals                              HOWARD A. POLLACK, Acting
                                     Judicial Officer                                                 WILLIAM G. JENSON
                                     Chief Judge, Administrative Law Judges                           JAMES HUNT
                                     Director, Office of Civil Rights                                 DAVID WINNINGHAM
                                     Director, Office of Ethics                                       RAYMOND SHEEHAN
                                     Director, Office of Human Resources                              RUTHIE F. JACKSON
                                     Director, Office of Operations                                   PRISCILLA CAREY
                                     Director, Office of Outreach                                     JAMES HOUSE, Acting
                                     Director, Office of Procurement and                              W.R. ASHWORTH
                                          Property Management
                                     Director, Office of Small and Disadvantaged                      JAMES HOUSE
                                          Business Utilization
                                   Chief Information Officer                                          SCOTT CHARBO
                                     Deputy Chief Information Officer                                 IRA L. HOBBS
                                   Chief Financial Officer                                            TED MCPHERSON
                                     Deputy Chief Financial Officer                                   PATRICIA HEALY
                                   General Counsel                                                    NANCY S. BRYSON
                                     Deputy General Counsel                                           J. MICHAEL KELLY
                                   Inspector General                                                  PHYLLIS FONG
                                     Deputy Inspector General                                         JOYCE N. FLEISCHMAN
                                   Director, Office of Communications                                 KEVIN HERGLOTZ
                                   Chief Economist                                                    KEITH COLLINS
                                     Deputy Chief Economist                                           JOSEPH GLAUBER
                                     Director, Office of Risk Assessment and                          JAMES SCHAUB, Acting
                                          Cost-Benefit Analysis
                                     Chairman, World Agricultural Outlook                             GERALD BANGE
                                   Director, Global Change Program Office                             WILLIAM HOHENSTEIN
                                   Director, Office of Energy Policy and New                          ROGER CONWAY
                                   Director, National Appeals Division                                ROGER J. KLURFELD
                                   Director, Office of Budget and Program                             STEPHEN B. DEWHURST
                                   Director, Office of the Executive Secretariat                      BRUCE BUNDICK

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                                                                                            DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                       105

                                   Director, Sustainable Development and Small                         ADELA BACKIEL
                                   [For the Department of Agriculture statement of organization, see the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 7,
                                   Part 2]

                                   The Department of Agriculture works to improve and maintain farm income and to
                                   develop and expand markets abroad for agricultural products. The Department helps
                                   to curb and to cure poverty, hunger, and malnutrition. It works to enhance the
                                   environment and to maintain production capacity by helping landowners protect the
                                   soil, water, forests, and other natural resources. Rural development, credit, and
                                   conservation programs are key resources for carrying out national growth policies.
                                   Department research findings directly or indirectly benefit all Americans. The
                                   Department, through inspection and grading services, safeguards and ensures
                                   standards of quality in the daily food supply.

                                   The Department of Agriculture (USDA)                     Financial Officer, Office of the Chief
                                   was created by act of May 15, 1862 (7                    Information Officer, Office of
                                   U.S.C. 2201).                                            Communications, Office of
                                      In carrying out its work in the program               Congressional and Intergovernmental
                                   mission areas, USDA relies on the                        Relations, Office of the Inspector
                                   support of departmental administration                   General, and the Office of the General
                                   staff, as well as the Office of the Chief                Counsel.

                                   Rural Development
                                   The rural development mission of USDA                    cooperatives that can prosper in the
                                   is to assist rural Americans in using their              global marketplace. To meet business
                                   abilities to improve their quality of life.              credit needs in underserved areas, RBS
                                   To accomplish this, USDA works to                        business programs are usually leveraged
                                   foster new cooperative relationships                     with commercial, cooperative, or other
                                   among Government, industry, and                          private sector lenders. RBS business
                                   communities. The mission is carried out                  programs include:
                                   by the Rural Housing Service, which                      Business and Industry Guaranteed Loans
                                   includes rural housing and rural                         This program helps create jobs and
                                   community facility loan and grant                        stimulates rural economies by providing
                                   programs; the Rural Business-                            financial backing for rural businesses.
                                   Cooperative Service, which includes                      Loan proceeds may be used for working
                                   business and cooperative development                     capital, machinery and equipment,
                                   programs; and the Rural Utilities Service,               buildings and real estate, and certain
                                   which includes telephone, electric,                      types of debt refinancing.
                                   water, and sewer programs.                               Business Enterprise These grants help
                                   Approximately 850 rural development                      public bodies, nonprofit corporations,
                                   field offices provide frontline delivery of              and federally recognized Indian tribal
                                   all rural development loan and grant                     groups finance and facilitate
                                   programs at the local level.                             development of small and emerging
                                                                                            private business enterprises located in
                                   Rural Business-Cooperative Service                       rural areas. Grant funds can pay for the
                                                                                            acquisition and development of land and
                                   The mission of the Rural Business-                       the construction of buildings, plants,
                                   Cooperative Service (RBS) is to enhance                  equipment, access streets and roads,
                                   the quality of life for all rural Americans              parking areas, utility and service
                                   by providing leadership in building                      extensions, refinancing, and fees for
                                   competitive businesses and sustainable                   professional services, as well as

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                                   106         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                   technical assistance and related training,              magazine, Rural Cooperatives, reports
                                   startup costs and working capital,                      current developments and research for
                                   financial assistance to a third party,                  cooperative management leadership.
                                   production of television programs                       Economic Development These loans
                                   targeted to rural residents, and rural                  and grants finance economic
                                   distance learning networks.                             development and job creation projects
                                   Business Opportunities This program                     based on sound economic plans in rural
                                   promotes sustainable economic                           areas. Loans and grants are available to
                                   development in rural communities with                   any eligible Rural Utilities Service
                                   exceptional needs. Funds are provided                   electric or telecommunications borrower
                                   for technical assistance, training, and                 to assist in developing rural areas from
                                   planning activities that improve                        an economic standpoint, to create new
                                   economic conditions. Applicants must                    job opportunities, and to help retain
                                   be located in rural areas.                              existing employment. Loans at zero
                                   Cooperative Development These grants                    interest are made primarily to finance
                                   finance the establishment and operation                 business startup ventures and business
                                   of centers for cooperative development.                 expansion projects. Grants are made to
                                   The primary purpose of this program is                  eligible telephone and electric utilities to
                                   to enhance the economic condition of                    establish revolving loan programs
                                   rural areas through the development of                  operated at the local level. The revolving
                                   new cooperatives and improving                          loan program provides capital to
                                   operations of existing cooperatives.                    nonprofit entities and municipal
                                   Cooperative Opportunities and                           organizations to finance business or
                                   Problems Research This program                          community facilities which promote job
                                   encourages research, funded through                     creation in rural areas, for facilities
                                   cooperative agreements, on critical                     which extend or improve medical care
                                   issues vital to the development and                     to rural residents, and for facilities which
                                   sustainability of agricultural and other                promote education and training to
                                   rural cooperatives as a means of                        enhance marketable job skills for rural
                                   improving the quality of life in America’s              residents.
                                   rural communities.                                      Intermediary Relending These loans
                                   Cooperative Services This program                       finance business facilities and
                                   helps farmers and rural communities                     community development projects in
                                   become self-reliant through the use of                  rural areas. The Service lends these
                                   cooperative organizations. Studies are                  funds to intermediaries, which in turn
                                   conducted to support cooperatives that                  provide loans to recipients who are
                                   market farm products, purchase                          developing business facilities or
                                   production supplies, and perform related                community development projects.
                                   business services. These studies                        Sheep Industry The National Sheep
                                   concentrate on the financial,                           Industry Improvement Center promotes
                                   organizational, legal, social, and                      strategic development activities to
                                   economic aspects of cooperative activity.               strengthen and enhance the production
                                   Technical assistance and research is                    and marketing of sheep and goat
                                   provided to improve cooperative                         products in the United States. It works to
                                   performance in organizing new                           improve infrastructure development,
                                   cooperatives, merging existing                          business development, and market and
                                   cooperatives, changing business                         environmental research and designs
                                   structures, and developing strategies for               unique responses to the needs of the
                                   growth. Applied research is conducted to                industries for their long-term sustainable
                                   give farmers and rural communities                      development. The Center’s board of
                                   expert assistance pertaining to their                   directors oversees its activities and
                                   cooperatives. The program also collects                 operates a revolving fund for loans and
                                   and publishes statistics regarding the role             grants.
                                   and scope of cooperative activity in U.S.               Technology Transfer This program
                                   agriculture. The Service’s bimonthly                    provides information to farmers and

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                                                                                           DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                      107

                                   other rural users on a variety of                          —direct and guaranteed multi-family
                                   sustainable agricultural practices that                 housing loans for private nonprofit
                                   include both cropping and livestock                     corporations, consumer cooperatives,
                                   operations. It offers reliable, practical               State or local public agencies, and
                                   information on production techniques                    individuals or organizations operating on
                                   and practices that reduce costs and that                a nonprofit or limited profit basis to
                                   are environmentally friendly. Farmers                   provide rental or cooperative housing in
                                   can request such information by                         rural areas for persons of very low, low,
                                   telephone at 800–346–9140 (toll free).                  and moderate income;
                                                                                              —farm labor housing loans and grants
                                   For further information, contact Rural
                                   Development, Legislative and Public Affairs Staff,
                                                                                           enabling farmers, public or private
                                   Stop 0705, Department of Agriculture, 1400              nonprofit organizations, or units of local
                                   Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC                 government to build, buy, or rehabilitate
                                   20250–0320. Phone, 202–720–6903.                        farm labor housing;
                                                                                              —housing preservation grants made to
                                   Rural Housing Service                                   a public body or public/private nonprofit
                                   The Rural Housing Service (RHS)                         organization to provide assistance to
                                   provides affordable rental housing,                     homeowners and landlords to repair and
                                   homeownership opportunities, and                        rehabilitate housing for very low- and
                                   essential community facilities to rural                 low-income families in rural areas;
                                                                                              —housing for the homeless, SFH real-
                                   Americans through a broad array of
                                                                                           estate-owned (REO) property to nonprofit
                                   direct loan, guarantee, and grant
                                                                                           organizations or public bodies for
                                   programs. Rural residents and
                                                                                           transitional housing for the homeless and
                                   communities may inquire about any of
                                                                                           to the Federal Emergency Management
                                   these programs through local and State
                                                                                           Agency to house families affected by
                                   rural development offices. The Service
                                                                                           natural disasters; and
                                   provides financial and management                          —community program loans, direct
                                   assistance through the following services:              and guaranteed loans and grants for
                                      —guaranteed single-family housing                    public and quasi-public bodies,
                                   (SFH) loans which guarantee loans made                  nonprofit associations, and Indian tribes
                                   by commercial lenders to moderate-                      for essential community facilities such as
                                   income rural residents with sufficient                  health care centers, public safety
                                   income and acceptable credit, who may                   buildings and vehicles, and child care
                                   lack the downpayment to secure a loan                   centers.
                                   without assistance;
                                      —direct single-family housing loans                  For further information, contact Rural
                                                                                           Development, Legislative and Public Affairs Staff,
                                   made available to people with incomes                   Stop 0705, Department of Agriculture, 1400
                                   less than 80 percent of area median to                  Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC
                                   build, purchase, and repair rural homes;                20250–0320. Phone, 202–720–6903.
                                      —home improvement and repair loans
                                   and grants are available to owner-                      Rural Utilities Service
                                   occupants to remove health and safety                   The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) is a
                                   hazards from a home;                                    credit agency that assists rural electric
                                      —mutual self-help housing technical                  and telecommunications utilities in
                                   assistance grants for nonprofit                         obtaining financing and administers a
                                   organizations and public bodies to help                 nationwide water and waste loan and
                                   groups of six to eight very low- and low-               grant program to improve the quality of
                                   income families to build their own                      life and promote economic development
                                   homes by providing ‘‘sweat equity’’                     in rural America. A total of 890 rural
                                   which reduces the families’ mortgage;                   electric and 800 rural
                                      —rural housing site loans for private                telecommunications utilities in 47 States,
                                   or public nonprofit organizations to                    Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam,
                                   purchase sites for the development of                   the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the
                                   housing for very low- and low-income                    Northern Mariana Islands, and the
                                   families;                                               Federated States of Micronesia have

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                                   108         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                   received financial assistance.                          assistance and training on a wide range
                                   Approximately 7,200 rural communities                   of issues relating to the delivery of water
                                   are currently served through financial                  and waste service to rural residents.
                                   assistance received from water and                         —Solid waste management grants are
                                   waste loans and grants. RUS provides                    available for nonprofit organizations and
                                   assistance by use of the following                      public bodies to provide technical
                                   programs:                                               assistance and training to rural areas and
                                      —The electric program provides loans
                                                                                           towns to reduce or eliminate pollution of
                                   for improving electric service to persons
                                                                                           water resources and improve planning
                                   in rural areas, including construction of
                                                                                           and management of solid waste facilities.
                                   electric generating plants and
                                   transmission and distribution lines to                     —The rural water circuit rider
                                   provide reliable electric service.                      technical assistance program provides,
                                      —The telecommunications program                      through the National Rural Water
                                   provides telephone service in rural areas.              Association, technical assistance to rural
                                      —The water and waste direct and                      water systems to solve operational,
                                   guaranteed loan program provides                        financial, and management problems.
                                   assistance to develop water and                            —The distance learning and
                                   wastewater systems, including solid                     telemedicine program provides
                                   waste disposal and storm drainage, in                   assistance to help rural schools and
                                   rural areas, cities, and towns.                         health care providers invest in
                                      —Water and waste disposal grants
                                                                                           telecommunications facilities and
                                   assist in reducing water and waste
                                                                                           equipment to bring to rural areas
                                   disposal costs to a reasonable level for
                                                                                           educational and medical resources that
                                   users of the system.
                                      —Emergency community water                           otherwise might be unavailable.
                                   assistance grants provide assistance to                    —The Service also guarantees loans
                                   rural communities experiencing a                        from the Department of the Treasury’s
                                   significant decline in quantity or quality              Federal Financing Bank (FFB), which it
                                   of drinking water.                                      lends to borrowers, primarily for large-
                                      —Technical assistance and training                   scale electric and telecommunication
                                   grants are available to nonprofit                       facilities. RUS may also guarantee
                                   organizations to provide rural water and                electric and telecommunications loans
                                   waste system officials with technical                   from private sources.

                                   For further information, contact the Rural Development Legislative and Public Affairs Staff, Department of
                                   Agriculture, Stop 0705, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250–0320. Phone, 202–720–

                                   Marketing and Regulatory Programs
                                   This mission area includes marketing                    market news, marketing orders, research
                                   and regulatory programs other than those                and promotion, and regulatory programs.
                                   concerned with food safety.                             Market News The Service provides
                                                                                           current, unbiased information to
                                   Agricultural Marketing Service                          producers, processors, distributors, and
                                                                                           others to assist them in the orderly
                                   The Agricultural Marketing Service                      marketing and distribution of farm
                                   (AMS) was established by the Secretary                  commodities. Information is collected on
                                   of Agriculture on April 2, 1972, under                  supplies, demand, prices, movement,
                                   the authority of Reorganization Plan No.                location, quality, condition, and other
                                   2 of 1953 (5 U.S.C. app.) and other                     market data on farm products in specific
                                   authorities. The Service administers                    markets and marketing areas. The data is
                                   standardization, grading, certification,                disseminated nationally via a modern

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                                                                                           DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                  109

                                   satellite system and is shared with                     program, AMS is responsible for the
                                   several countries. The Service also assists             development and revision of
                                   countries in developing their own                       specifications used by Federal agencies
                                   marketing information systems.                          in procuring food for military and
                                   Standardization, Grading, and Classing                  civilian uses. The Service coordinates
                                   Grade standards have been established                   and approves certification programs
                                   for about 230 agricultural commodities                  designed to ensure that purchased
                                   to help buyers and sellers trade on                     products conform to the specification
                                   agreed-upon quality levels. Standards are               requirements.
                                   developed with the benefit of views from                Regulatory Programs The Service
                                   those in the industries directly affected               administers several regulatory programs
                                   and others interested. The Service also                 designed collectively to protect
                                   participates in developing international                producers, handlers, and consumers of
                                   standards to facilitate trade.                          agricultural commodities from financial
                                      Grading and classing services are                    loss or personal injury resulting from
                                   provided to certify the grade and quality               careless, deceptive, or fraudulent
                                   of products. These grading services are                 marketing practices. Such regulatory
                                   provided to buyers and sellers of live                  programs encourage fair trading
                                   cattle, swine, sheep, meat, poultry, eggs,              practices in the marketing of fruits and
                                   rabbits, fruits, vegetables, tree nuts,                 vegetables, require truth in seed labeling
                                   peanuts, dairy products, and tobacco.                   and in advertising. The Service provides
                                   Classing services are provided to buyers                voluntary laboratory analyses of egg
                                   and sellers of cotton and cotton                        products, and monitors the disposition of
                                   products. These services are mainly                     restricted shell eggs—eggs that are a
                                   voluntary and are provided upon request
                                                                                           potential health hazard.
                                   and for a fee. The Service also is
                                                                                           Marketing Agreements and Orders
                                   responsible for the certification of
                                                                                           These programs help to establish and
                                   turpentine and other naval stores
                                   products, and the testing of seed.                      maintain orderly marketing conditions
                                   Laboratory Testing The Service                          for certain commodities. Milk marketing
                                   provides scientific and laboratory                      orders establish minimum prices that
                                   support to its commodity programs                       handlers or distributors are required to
                                   relating to testing of microbiological and              pay producers. Programs for fruits,
                                   chemical factors in food products                       vegetables, and related specialty crops
                                   through grading, certification,                         like nuts and spearmint oil help stabilize
                                   acceptance, and regulatory programs;                    supplies and market prices. In some
                                   testing of peanuts for aflatoxin; testing of            cases, they also authorize research and
                                   imported flue-cured and burley tobacco                  market development activities, including
                                   for pesticide residues; and testing seeds               advertising supported by assessments
                                   for germination and purity. The agency                  that handlers pay. Through orderly
                                   also carries out quality assurance and                  marketing, adjusting the supply to
                                   safety oversight activities with respect to             demand, and avoiding unreasonable
                                   the Service’s commodity division                        fluctuations during the marketing season,
                                   laboratory and testing activities relating              the income of producers is increased by
                                   to milk market administrators, resident                 normal market forces, and consumer
                                   grading programs, and State and private                 interests are protected through quality
                                   laboratory programs.                                    and quantity control.
                                      The Service also administers the                     Plant Variety Protection Program The
                                   Pesticide Data Program which, in                        Service administers a program that
                                   cooperation with States, samples and                    provides for the issuance of certificates
                                   analyzes 33 agricultural commodities for                of plant variety protection. These
                                   pesticide residues. It shares residue test              certificates afford developers of novel
                                   results with the Environmental Protection               varieties of sexually reproduced plants
                                   Agency and other public agencies.                       exclusive rights to sell, reproduce,
                                   Food Quality Assurance Under a                          import, or export such varieties, or use
                                   governmentwide quality assurance                        them in the production of hybrids or

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                                   110         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                   different varieties for a period of 20                    The Agricultural Marketing Service
                                   years for non-woody plants and 25 years                 manages the Pesticide Recordkeeping
                                   for woody plants.                                       Program in coordination with the
                                   Research and Promotion Programs The                     National Agricultural Statistics Service
                                   Service monitors certain industry-                      and the Environmental Protection
                                   sponsored research, promotion, and                      Agency. The Service has developed
                                   information programs authorized by                      educational programs and assists State
                                   Federal laws. These programs provide                    agencies in inspecting applicator
                                   farmers with a means to finance and                     records.
                                   operate various research, promotion, and                For further information, contact the Information
                                   information activities for cotton,                      Staff, Agricultural Marketing Service, Department of
                                   potatoes, eggs, milk and dairy products,                Agriculture, P.O. Box 96456, Washington, DC
                                                                                           20250. Phone, 202–720–8999.
                                   beef, pork, honey, watermelon,
                                   mushrooms, soybeans, and popcorn.
                                                                                           Animal and Plant Health Inspection
                                   Transportation Programs The Service is
                                   also responsible for the development of
                                   an efficient transportation system for                  [For the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
                                                                                           statement of organization, see the Code of Federal
                                   rural America that begins at the farm                   Regulations, Title 7, Part 371]
                                   gate and moves agricultural and other
                                   rural products through the Nation’s                     The Animal and Plant Health Inspection
                                   highways, railroads, airports, and                      Service (APHIS) was reestablished by the
                                   waterways, and into the domestic and                    Secretary of Agriculture on March 14,
                                   international marketplace. To                           1977, pursuant to authority contained in
                                   accomplish this, AMS conducts                           5 U.S.C. 301 and Reorganization Plan
                                   economic studies and analyses of these                  No. 2 of 1953 (5 U.S.C. app.).
                                   systems, and represents agricultural and
                                                                                              The Service was established to
                                   rural transportation interests in policy
                                                                                           conduct regulatory and control programs
                                   and regulatory forums. To provide direct                to protect and improve animal and plant
                                   assistance to the transportation                        health for the benefit of man and the
                                   community, AMS supplies research and                    environment. In cooperation with State
                                   technical information to producers,                     governments, the agency administers
                                   producer groups, shippers, exporters,                   Federal laws and regulations pertaining
                                   rural communities, carriers,                            to animal and plant health and
                                   governmental agencies, and universities.                quarantine, humane treatment of
                                   Organic Standards The Service, with                     animals, and the control and eradication
                                   the assistance of the National Organic                  of pests and diseases. Regulations to
                                   Standards Board, develops national                      prevent the introduction or interstate
                                   organic standards.                                      spread of certain animal or plant pests or
                                   Other Programs Other marketing                          diseases are also enforced by the
                                   service activities include financial grants             Service. It also carries out research and
                                   to States for marketing improvement                     operational activities to reduce crop and
                                   projects. The agency also has                           livestock depredations caused by birds,
                                   responsibility for the conduct of studies               rodents, and predators.
                                   of the facilities and methods used in the               Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ)
                                   physical distribution of food and other                 Plant protection officials are responsible
                                   farm products; for research designed to                 for programs to control or eradicate
                                   improve the handling of all agricultural                plant pests and diseases. These programs
                                   products as they move from farm to                      are carried out in cooperation with the
                                   consumers; and for increasing marketing                 States involved, other Federal agencies,
                                   efficiency by developing improved                       farmers, and private organizations. Pest
                                   operating methods, facilities, and                      control programs use a single tool or a
                                   equipment for processing, handling, and                 combination of pest control techniques,
                                   distributing dairy, poultry, and meat                   both chemical and nonchemical, which
                                   products.                                               are both effective and safe.

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                                                                                           DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                  111

                                      PPQ officials develop Federal                        production methods, and testing
                                   regulations and policies that prohibit or               products under a surveillance program.
                                   restrict the entry of foreign pests and                 Animal Care The Service administers
                                   plants, plant products, animal products                 Federal laws concerned with the
                                   and byproducts, and other materials that                humane care and handling of all warm-
                                   may harbor pests or diseases. These                     blooded animals bought, sold, and
                                   regulations and policies, in conjunction                transported in commerce and used or
                                   with inspections conducted by the                       intended for use as pets at the wholesale
                                   Department of Homeland Security’s                       level, or used or intended for use in
                                   Customs and Border Protection (CBP)                     exhibitions or for research purposes. The
                                   help protect agricultural production and
                                                                                           agency also enforces the Horse
                                   natural resources from pests and
                                                                                           Protection Act of 1970, which prohibits
                                   diseases. CBP maintains inspection
                                   services at all major sea, air, and land                the soring of horses at shows and sales.
                                   border ports of entry into the United                   International Services Service activities
                                   States; PPQ continues to be present at                  in the international arena include
                                   many of these locations to take                         conducting cooperative plant and animal
                                   regulatory action on prohibited or                      pest and disease control, eradication,
                                   restricted products that are found.                     and surveillance programs in foreign
                                   Veterinary Services Animal health                       countries. These programs provide a first
                                   officials are responsible for programs to               line of defense for the United States
                                   protect and improve the health, quality,                against threats such as screwworm,
                                   and marketability of U.S. animals and                   medfly, foot-and-mouth disease, and
                                   animal products. The programs are                       other exotic diseases and pests. The
                                   carried out through cooperative links                   Service also provides international
                                   with States, foreign governments,                       representation concerning sanitary and
                                   livestock producers, and other Federal                  phytosanitary technical trade issues, and
                                   agencies.                                               manages programs for overseas
                                      Service officials exclude, control, and              preclearance of commodities,
                                   eradicate animal pests and diseases by                  passengers, and U.S. military activities.
                                   carrying out eradication and control                    Wildlife Services Wildlife services
                                   programs for certain diseases, providing                officials cooperate with States, counties,
                                   diagnostic services, and gathering and                  local communities, and agricultural
                                   disseminating information regarding                     producer groups to reduce crop and
                                   animal health in the United States                      livestock depredations caused by birds,
                                   through land, air, and ocean ports. They
                                                                                           rodents, and predators. Using methods
                                   also certify as to the health status of
                                                                                           and techniques that are biologically
                                   animals and animal products being
                                                                                           sound, environmentally acceptable, and
                                   exported to other countries and respond
                                   to animal disease incursions or                         economically feasible, they participate in
                                   epidemics which threaten the health                     efforts to educate and advise farmers and
                                   status of U.S. livestock and poultry.                   ranchers on proper uses of control
                                      The Service also administers a Federal               methods and techniques; they suppress
                                   law intended to ensure that all veterinary              serious nuisances and threats to public
                                   biological products, whether developed                  health and safety caused by birds,
                                   by conventional or new biotechnological                 rodents, and other wildlife in urban and
                                   procedures, used in the diagnosis,                      rural communities; and they work with
                                   prevention, and treatment of animal                     airport managers to reduce risks of bird
                                   disease are safe, pure, potent, and                     strikes. In addition, they conduct
                                   effective. The Service regulates firms that             research into predator-prey relationships,
                                   manufacture veterinary biological                       new control methods, and more efficient
                                   products subject to the act, including                  and safe uses of present methods such as
                                   licensing the manufacturing                             toxicants, repellants and attractants,
                                   establishment and its products,                         biological controls, scare devices, and
                                   inspecting production facilities and                    habitat alteration.

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                                   112         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                   For further information, contact Legislative and        services are provided on a fee basis,
                                   Public Affairs, Animal and Plant Health Inspection
                                   Service, Department of Agriculture, Washington,
                                                                                           upon request.
                                   DC 20250. Phone, 202–720–2511.                          Standardization The Administration is
                                                                                           responsible for establishing, maintaining,
                                   Grain Inspection, Packers, and                          and revising official U.S. standards. Such
                                   Stockyards Administration                               standards exist for corn, wheat, rye, oats,
                                                                                           barley, flaxseed, sorghum, soybeans,
                                   The Grain Inspection, Packers, and                      triticale, sunflower seed, canola, and
                                   Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) was                   mixed grain. It is authorized to perform
                                   established in 1994 to facilitate the                   applied research to develop methods of
                                   marketing of livestock, poultry, meat,                  improving accuracy and uniformity in
                                   cereals, oilseeds, and related agricultural             grading grain. It is also responsible for
                                   products and promote fair and                           standardization and inspection activities
                                   competitive trading practices for the                   for rice, dry beans, peas, lentils, hay,
                                   overall benefit of consumers and                        straw, hops, and related processed grain
                                   American agriculture. The agency’s                      commodities. Although standards no
                                   mission is carried out in two different                 longer exist for hay, straw, and hops,
                                   segments of American agriculture: the                   GIPSA maintains inspection procedures
                                   Federal Grain Inspection Service                        for and retains authority to inspect these
                                   provides the U.S. grain market with                     commodities.
                                   Federal quality standards and a uniform                 Methods Development The
                                   system for applying them, and the                       Administration’s methods development
                                   Packers and Stockyards Programs                         activities include applied research or
                                   ensures open and competitive markets                    tests that produce new or improved
                                   for livestock, meat, and poultry. GIPSA                 techniques for measuring grain quality.
                                   also certifies State central filing systems             Examples include new knowledge
                                   for notification of liens against farm                  gained through study of how to establish
                                   products. GIPSA is responsible for                      the framework for real-time grain
                                   establishing official U.S. standards for                inspection and develop reference
                                   grain and other assigned commodities,                   methods to maintain consistency and
                                   and for administrating a nationwide                     standardization in the grain inspection
                                   official inspection and weighing system.                system, and the comparison of different
                                   Inspection The United States Grain                      techniques for evaluation of end use
                                   Standards Act requires that, with some                  quality in wheat. Included in this
                                   exceptions, all U.S. export grain be                    program area are also the development
                                   officially inspected. At export port                    of a new wheat classification system,
                                   locations, inspection is performed by                   evaluation of prototype wheat hardness
                                   GIPSA or by State agencies that have                    meters, and adapting measurement
                                   been delegated export inspection                        techniques for pesticides, mycotoxins,
                                   authority by the Administrator. For                     heavy metals, vitamins, and grain odor
                                   domestic grain, marketed at inland                      for use in the official grain inspection
                                   locations, the Administrator designates                 system.
                                   private and State agencies to provide                   Packers and Stockyards Activities The
                                   official inspection services upon request.              Packers and Stockyards Act is an
                                   Both export and domestic services are                   antitrust, trade practice, and financial
                                   provided on a fee basis.                                protection law. Its principal purpose is to
                                   Weighing Official weighing of U.S.                      maintain effective competition and fair
                                   export grain is performed at port                       trade practices in the marketing of
                                   locations by GIPSA or by State agencies                 livestock, meat, and poultry for the
                                   that have been delegated export                         protection of livestock and poultry
                                   weighing authority by the Administrator.                producers. Members of the livestock,
                                   For domestic grain marketed at inland                   poultry, and meat industries are also
                                   locations, the weighing services may be                 protected against unfair or monopolistic
                                   provided by GIPSA or by designated                      practices of competitors. The act also
                                   private or State agencies. Weighing                     protects consumers against unfair

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                                                                                           DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                   113

                                   business practices in the marketing of                  restrictions of competition that could
                                   meats and poultry and against                           unduly affect meat and poultry prices.

                                   For further information, contact the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration, Department
                                   of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250. Phone, 202–720–0219.

                                   Food Safety
                                   Food Safety and Inspection Service                      and retail channels; and takes necessary
                                   The Food Safety and Inspection Service                  compliance actions to protect the public,
                                   (FSIS) was established by the Secretary of              including detention of products,
                                   Agriculture on June 17, 1981, pursuant                  voluntary product recalls, court-ordered
                                   to authority contained in 5 U.S.C. 301                  seizures of products, administrative
                                   and Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1953                   withdrawal of inspection, and referral for
                                   (5 U.S.C. app.).                                        criminal prosecution. The Service also
                                   Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products                         conducts State programs for the
                                   Inspection Federal meat and poultry                     inspection of meat and poultry products
                                   inspection is mandatory for cattle,                     sold in intrastate commerce.
                                   calves, swine, goats, sheep, lambs,                        The Service monitors livestock upon
                                   horses (and other equines), chickens,                   arrival at federally inspected facilities;
                                   turkeys, ducks, geese, and guineas used                 conducts voluntary reimbursed
                                   for human food. The work includes                       inspection for rabbits, other domestic
                                   inspection of each animal or bird at                    food animals, bison, other exotic food
                                   slaughter, and inspection of processed                  animals, ratites, and certain egg products
                                   products during various stages of                       not covered by the inspection law; and
                                   production. The Service conducts                        ensures that inedible egg products and
                                   mandatory, continuous inspection of the                 inedible products from meat or poultry,
                                   production of liquid, dried, and frozen                 such as offal rendered for animal feed,
                                   egg products, to ensure that egg products               are properly identified and isolated from
                                   are safe, wholesome, unadulterated, and                 edible products.
                                   accurately labeled. The Service tests                      The Service maintains a toll-free meat
                                   samples of egg products, and meat and                   and poultry hotline (800–535–4555; in
                                   poultry products for microbial and                      the Washington metropolitan area, 202–
                                   chemical contaminants to monitor trends                 720–5604) to answer questions about
                                   for enforcement purposes.                               labeling and safe handling of meat and
                                      Each product label must be approved                  poultry, meat and poultry products, and
                                   by the agency before products can be                    egg products. The hotline is also
                                   sold. The agency monitors meat and                      accessible (on the same extension) by
                                   poultry products in storage, distribution,              TDD.

                                   For further information, contact the Director, Food Safety Education and Communications Staff, Food
                                   Safety and Inspection Service, Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250. Phone, 202–720–7943.
                                   Fax, 202–720–1843. Internet,

                                   Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services
                                   The mission of the Food, Nutrition, and                 access to food, a healthful diet, and
                                   Consumer Services is to reduce hunger                   nutrition education to children and
                                   and food insecurity, in partnership with                needy people in a manner that supports
                                   cooperating organizations, by providing                 American agriculture.

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                                   114         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                   Food and Nutrition Service                              their infants and children under age 6,
                                   The Food and Nutrition Service (FNS)                    and the elderly. Nutrition education is
                                                                                           also provided through this program.
                                   administers the USDA food assistance
                                                                                              —The National School Lunch Program
                                   programs. These programs, which serve
                                                                                           supports nonprofit food services in
                                   one in six Americans, represent our                     elementary and secondary schools and
                                   Nation’s commitment to the principle                    in residential child-care institutions.
                                   that no one in this country should fear                 More than half of the meals served
                                   hunger or experience want. They                         through these institutions are free or at
                                   provide a Federal safety net to people in               reduced cost.
                                   need. The goals of the programs are to                     —The School Breakfast Program
                                   provide needy persons with access to a                  supplements the National School Lunch
                                   more nutritions diet, to improve the                    Program by supporting schools in
                                   eating habits of the Nation’s children,                 providing needy children with free or
                                   and to help America’s farmers by                        low cost breakfasts that meet established
                                   providing an outlet for distributing foods              nutritional standards.
                                   purchased under farmer assistance                          —The Special Milk Program for
                                   authorities.                                            Children provides milk for children in
                                      The Service works in partnership with                those schools, summer camps, and
                                   the States in all its programs. State and               child-care institutions that have no
                                   local agencies determine most                           federally supported meal programs.
                                   administrative details regarding                           —The Child and Adult Care Food
                                   distribution of food benefits and                       Program provides cash and commodities
                                   eligibility of participants, and FNS                    for meals for preschool and school-aged
                                   provides commodities and funding for                    children in child-care facilities and for
                                   additional food and to cover                            functionally impaired adults in facilities
                                   administrative costs. FNS administers the               that provide nonresidential care for such
                                   following food assistance programs:                     individuals.
                                      —The Food Stamp Program provides                        —The Summer Food Service Program
                                   food benefits through State and local                   for Children helps various organizations
                                   welfare agencies to needy persons to                    get nutritious meals to needy preschool
                                   increase their food purchasing power.                   and school-aged children during the
                                   The benefits are used by program                        summer months and during school
                                   participants to buy food in retail stores               vacations.
                                   approved by the Food and Nutrition                         —The Emergency Food Assistance
                                   Service to accept and redeem the                        Program provides State agencies with
                                   benefits.                                               commodities for distribution to food
                                      —The Special Supplemental Nutrition                  banks, food pantries, soup kitchens, and
                                   Program for Women, Infants, and                         other charitable institutions throughout
                                   Children (WIC) improves the health of                   the country, with administrative funds to
                                   low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and                 assist in distribution.
                                   nonbreastfeeding postpartum women,                         —The Food Distribution Program on
                                   and infants and children up to 5 years of               Indian Reservations and the Trust
                                   age by providing them with specific                     Territories provides an extensive package
                                   nutritious food supplements, nutrition                  of commodities monthly to low-income
                                   education, and health care referrals.                   households on or near Indian
                                      —The WIC Farmers’ Market Nutrition                   reservations in lieu of food stamps. This
                                   Program provides WIC participants with                  program is administered at the local
                                   increased access to fresh produce. WIC                  level by Indian tribal organizations or
                                   participants receive coupons to purchase                State agencies.
                                   fresh fruits and vegetables from                           —The Nutrition Program for the
                                   authorized farmers.                                     Elderly provides cash and commodities
                                      —The Commodity Supplemental Food                     to States for meals for senior citizens.
                                   Program provides a package of foods                     The food is delivered through senior
                                   monthly to low-income pregnant,                         citizen centers or meals-on-wheels
                                   postpartum, and breastfeeding women,                    programs.

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                                                                                           DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                     115

                                      —The Nutrition Assistance Programs                   Center for Nutrition Policy and
                                   for Puerto Rico and the Northern                        Promotion
                                   Marianas are block grant programs that                  The Center coordinates nutrition policy
                                   replace the Food Stamp Programs in                      in USDA and provides overall leadership
                                   these two territories and provide cash                  in nutrition education for the American
                                   and coupons to resident participants.                   public. It also coordinates with the
                                      —The Nutrition Education and                         Department of Health and Human
                                   Training Program grants funds to States                 Services in the review, revision, and
                                   for the development and dissemination                   dissemination of the Dietary Guidelines
                                                                                           for Americans, the Federal Government’s
                                   of nutrition information and materials to
                                                                                           statement of nutrition policy formed by a
                                   children and for training of food service
                                                                                           consensus of scientific and medical
                                   and teaching personnel.                                 professionals.
                                   For further information, contact the Public             For further information, contact the Office of
                                   Information Officer, Food and Nutrition Service,        Public Information, Center for Nutrition Policy and
                                   Department of Agriculture, Alexandria, VA 22302.        Promotion, Suite 200, 1120 20th Street NW.,
                                   Phone, 703–305–2286. Internet,            Washington, DC 20036–3406. Phone, 202–418–
                                   fns.htm.                                                2312. Internet,

                                   Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services
                                   Farm Service Agency                                     ranchers to purchase farmland and
                                   The Farm Service Agency (FSA)                           finance agricultural production. These
                                   administers farm commodity, crop                        programs help farmers who are
                                   insurance, and resource conservation                    temporarily unable to obtain private
                                   programs for farmers and ranchers, and                  commercial credit. These may be
                                   makes and guarantees farm emergency,                    beginning farmers who have insufficient
                                   ownership, and operating loans through                  net worth to qualify for commercial
                                   a network of State and county offices.                  credit, who have suffered financial
                                   Farm Commodity Programs The                             setbacks from natural disasters, or who
                                   Agency manages programs for                             have limited resources with which to
                                   conservation efforts through commodity                  establish and maintain profitable farming
                                   programs such as production flexibility                 operations.
                                   contracts, commodity and livestock                      Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance
                                   disaster programs, marketing assistance                 Program (NAP) For crops for which
                                   loan programs, noninsured crop disaster                 Federal crop insurance is not available,
                                   assistance programs, and tobacco and                    NAP provides crop loss protection.
                                   peanut programs. It administers                         Crops that are eligible include
                                   commodity loan programs for wheat,                      commercial crops grown for food and
                                   rice, corn, grain sorghum, barley, oats,                fiber, floriculture, ornamental nursery
                                   oilseeds, tobacco, peanuts, upland and                  products, Christmas tree crops, turfgrass
                                   extra-long-staple cotton, and sugar. FSA                sod, seed crops, aquaculture (including
                                   provides operating personnel for the                    ornamental fish such as goldfish), and
                                   Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), A                   industrial crops. Losses resulting from
                                   Government-owned and -operated                          natural disasters not covered by the crop
                                   organization providing short-term loans                 insurance policy may also be eligible for
                                   using the commodity as collateral,                      NAP assistance. NAP does not include
                                   providing farmers with interim financing                trees grown for wood, paper, or pulp
                                   and orderly distribution of farm                        products.
                                   commodities throughout the year and in                  Other Emergency Assistance In the
                                   times of surplus and scarcity.                          aftermath of a natural disaster, FSA
                                   Farm Loan Programs FSA makes and                        makes available a variety of emergency
                                   guarantees loans to family farmers and                  assistance programs to farmers in

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                                   116         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                   counties that have been designated or                   Commodity Credit Corporation
                                   declared disaster areas, including cost-                The Commodity Credit Corporation was
                                   share assistance to producers who do                    organized in 1933, and was managed
                                   not have enough feed to maintain                        and operated in close affiliation with the
                                   livestock because of a loss of a                        Reconstruction Finance Corporation until
                                   substantial amount of their normal feed                 1939, when it was transferred to the
                                   production.                                             Department of Agriculture. CCC
                                   Conservation Programs Conservation                      stabilizes, supports, and protects farm
                                   programs of FSA include preservation of                 income and prices, assists in maintaining
                                   farmland, wildlife habitat, and water and               balanced and adequate supplies of
                                   air quality. The Conservation Reserve                   agricultural commodities and their
                                   Program is the Federal Government’s                     products, and facilitates the orderly
                                   single largest environmental                            distribution of commodities.
                                   improvement program on private lands.                   Foreign Assistance The Corporation
                                   It safeguards millions of acres of topsoil              carries out assigned foreign assistance
                                   from erosion improving air quality,                     activities, such as guaranteeing the credit
                                   increasing wildlife habitat, and                        sale of U.S. agricultural commodities
                                   protecting ground and surface water by                  abroad. Major emphasis is also being
                                                                                           directed toward meeting the needs of
                                   reducing water runoff and sedimentation.
                                                                                           developing nations. Agricultural
                                   In return for planting a protective cover
                                                                                           commodities are supplied and exported
                                   of grass or trees on vulnerable property,
                                                                                           to combat hunger and malnutrition and
                                   the owner receives a rental payment                     to encourage economic development in
                                   each year of a multi-year contract. Cost-               developing countries. In addition, under
                                   share payments are also available to                    the Food for Progress Program, the
                                   help establish permanent areas of grass,                Corporation supplies commodities to
                                   legumes, trees, windbreaks, or plants                   provide assistance to developing
                                   that improve water quality and give                     democracies.
                                   shelter and food to wildlife.
                                                                                           For further information, contact the Information
                                   Commodity Operations Under the                          Division, Foreign Agricultural Service, Department
                                   dairy price support program, CCC buys                   of Agriculture, Stop 1004, 1400 Independence
                                   surplus butter, cheese, and nonfat dry                  Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250. Phone, 202–
                                                                                           720–7115. Fax, 202–720–1727.
                                   milk from processors at announced
                                   prices to support the price of milk. These
                                                                                           Risk Management Agency
                                   purchases help maintain market prices at
                                   the legislated support level, and the                   The Risk Management Agency (RMA)
                                   commodities are used for hunger relief                  helps to stabilize the agricultural
                                   both domestically and internationally.                  economy by providing a sound system of
                                   Commodity operations personnel also                     crop insurance. RMA administers the
                                   aid in the storage, management, and                     programs of the Federal Crop Insurance
                                                                                           Corporation (FCIC) and has oversight for
                                   disposition of food security commodity
                                                                                           other programs related to the risk
                                   reserve grain and food products used to
                                                                                           management of U.S. crops and
                                   meet humanitarian needs abroad and the
                                                                                           commodities. Generally, multiple peril
                                   disaster reserve used to meet emergency                 crop insurance (MPCI) policies insure
                                   livestock feed needs domestically. CCC                  farmers and ranchers against unexpected
                                   commodities are also used to supply the                 production losses from natural causes,
                                   national school lunch and domestic and                  including drought, excessive moisture,
                                   international food aid programs to help                 hail, wind, flooding, hurricanes,
                                   fight hunger worldwide.                                 tornadoes, and lightning. Policies do not
                                   For further information, contact the Public Affairs     cover losses resulting from neglect, poor
                                   Branch, Farm Service Agency, Department of              farming practices, or theft.
                                   Agriculture, Stop 0506, 1400 Independence Avenue           RMA also reinsures several revenue-
                                   SW., Washington, DC 20250. Phone, 202–720–              based plans of insurance. Generally,
                                   5237. Internet,                       revenue insurance provides protection

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                                                                                           DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                  117

                                   against loss of income due to low yields,               and related subjects that affect
                                   prices, or both. One plan, crop revenue                 agriculture and agricultural trade.
                                   coverage, is widely available on corn,                     At the Foreign Agricultural Service in
                                   grain sorghum, cotton, soybeans, and                    Washington, DC, agricultural economists
                                   wheat. Producers must purchase crop                     and marketing specialists analyze these
                                   insurance by the sales closing date                     and other reports. These analyses are
                                   established for the crop they wish to                   supplemented by accumulated
                                   insure. Policies are sold and serviced by               background information and by the crop
                                   private crop insurance agents and                       condition assessment system, which
                                   companies.                                              analyzes Landsat satellite weather and
                                     For information about Federal crop                    other data.
                                   insurance programs, contact the                            To improve access for U.S. farm
                                   Research and Development Division,                      products abroad, FAS international trade
                                   9435 Holmes Road, Kansas City, MO                       policy specialists coordinate and direct
                                   64131. Phone, 816–926–7394. Internet,                   USDA’s responsibilities in international
                          For information about                trade agreement programs and
                                   the Risk Management Education                           negotiations. They maintain an ongoing
                                   outreach initiative, contact the Risk                   effort to reduce foreign trade barriers and
                                   Management Education Division, Risk                     practices that discourage the export of
                                   Management Agency, Department of                        U.S. farm products.
                                   Agriculture, 1400 Independence Avenue                      To follow foreign governmental
                                   SW., Washington, DC 20250. Phone,                       actions that affect the market for U.S.
                                   202–690–2957.                                           agricultural commodities, FAS relies on
                                   For further information, contact the Office of the
                                                                                           its agricultural counselors and attaches.
                                   Administrator, Risk Management Agency,                  In Washington, a staff of international
                                   Department of Agriculture, 1400 Independence            trade specialists analyzes the trade
                                   Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250. Phone, 202–           policies and practices of foreign
                                   690–2803. Internet,
                                                                                           governments to ensure conduct in
                                                                                           conformance with international treaty
                                   Foreign Agricultural Service                            obligations. During international
                                   The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)                  negotiations, FAS provides staff and
                                   has primary responsibility for USDA’s                   support for U.S. agricultural
                                   overseas market information, access, and                representation.
                                   development programs. It also                              The Service has a continuing market
                                   administers USDA’s export assistance                    development program to create,
                                   and foreign food assistance programs.                   maintain, and expand commercial export
                                   The Service carries out its tasks through               markets for U.S. agricultural products. It
                                   its network of agricultural counselors,                 carries out programs with nonprofit
                                   attaches, and trade officers stationed                  commodity groups, trade associations,
                                   overseas and its U.S.-based team of                     and State agriculture departments and
                                   analysts, marketing specialists,                        their regional associations. It manages
                                   negotiators, and other professionals.                   market opportunity referral services and
                                      The Foreign Agricultural Service                     organizes trade fairs and sales teams.
                                   maintains a worldwide agricultural                         The Export Credit Guarantee Program
                                   intelligence and reporting system                       (GSM–102) and the Intermediate Export
                                   through its attache service with staff                  Credit Guarantee Program (GSM–103)
                                   posted in 130 countries around the                      provide guarantees on private financing
                                   world. They represent the Department of                 of U.S. exports to foreign buyers
                                   Agriculture and provide information and                 purchasing on credit terms.
                                   data on foreign government agricultural                    The Supplier Credit Guarantee
                                   policies, analyses of supply and demand                 Program guarantees a portion of a
                                   conditions, commercial trade                            payment due for purchase of U.S.
                                   relationships, and market opportunities.                agricultural products for import, for
                                   They report on more than 100 farm                       which the exporter has directly extended
                                   commodities, weather, economic factors,                 short-term financing.

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                                   118         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                     The Facility Guarantee Program                        enhance America’s agricultural
                                   facilitates the financing of U.S.-                      competitiveness globally; and increases
                                   manufactured goods and services                         income and food availability in
                                   exported to emerging markets.                           developing nations by mobilizing
                                     The Emerging Markets Program                          expertise for agriculturally led economic
                                   promotes agricultural exports to
                                   emerging markets through sharing U.S.
                                   agricultural expertise by technical                        The Service also manages programs to
                                   assistance.                                             exchange visits, germplasm, and
                                     The Export Enhancement Program and                    technologies between U.S. and
                                   the Dairy Export Incentive Program are                  international scientists; supports
                                   export assistance programs designed to                  collaborative research projects of mutual
                                   counter or offset the adverse effects from              interest to the United States and other
                                   competitors’ unfair trade practices on                  nations; taps the U.S. agricultural
                                   U.S. agriculture.                                       community to provide technical
                                     The Market Access Program provides
                                   cost-share assistance to trade promotion                assistance and professional development
                                   organizations, cooperatives, and small                  and training programs to assist economic
                                   businesses to help fund their market                    development in lower income nations;
                                   development activities overseas.                        serves as U.S. liaison with international
                                     The Service helps other USDA                          organizations; and organizes overseas
                                   agencies, U.S. universities, and others                 trade and investment missions.

                                   For further information, contact the Public Affairs Division, Foreign Agricultural Service, Stop 1004, 1400
                                   Independence Avenue SW., Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250–1004. Phone, 202–720–
                                   7115. Fax, 202–720–1727. Internet,

                                   Research, Education, and Economics
                                   This mission area’s main focus is to                    Americans; sustain a competitive
                                   create, apply, and transfer knowledge                   agricultural economy; enhance the
                                   and technology to provide affordable                    natural resource base and the
                                   food and fiber, ensure food safety and                  environment; and provide economic
                                   nutrition, and support rural development                opportunities for rural citizens,
                                   and natural resource needs of people by                 communities, and society as a whole.
                                   conducting integrated national and                         Research activities are carried out at
                                   international research, information,                    103 domestic locations (including Puerto
                                   education, and statistical programs and                 Rico) and 3 overseas locations. Much of
                                   services that are in the national interest.             this research is conducted in cooperation
                                                                                           with partners in State universities and
                                   Agricultural Research Service                           experiment stations, other Federal
                                   The Agricultural Research Service                       agencies, and private organizations. A
                                   conducts research to develop and                        national program staff, headquartered in
                                   transfer solutions to agricultural                      Beltsville, MD, is the focal point in the
                                   problems of high national priority. It                  overall planning and coordination of
                                   provides information access and                         ARS’ research programs. Day-to-day
                                   dissemination to ensure high-quality,                   management of the respective programs
                                   safe food and other agricultural products;              for specific field locations is assigned to
                                   assess the nutritional needs of                         eight area offices.

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                                                                                                 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                              119

                                                                Area Offices—Agricultural Research Service
                                                           Office                                                        Address

                                   Beltsville Area—Beltsville Agricultural Research Center,   Bldg. 003, Beltsville Agricultural Research Ctr. W., Beltsville,
                                     National Arboretum, Washington, DC                         MD 20705
                                   Mid South Area—AL, KY, LA, MS, TN                          P.O. Box 225, Stoneville, MS 38776
                                   Midwest Area—IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, MO, OH, WI                1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604
                                   National Agricultural Library                              10301 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
                                   Northern Plains Area—CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, SD, UT, WY        Suite 150, 1201 Oakridge Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80525–5562
                                   North Atlantic Area—CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY,        600 E. Mermaid Ln., Philadelphia, PA 19038
                                     PA, RI, VT, WV
                                   Pacific West Area—AK, AZ, CA, HI, ID, NV, OR, WA           800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710
                                   South Atlantic Area—FL, GA, NC, PR, SC, VI, VA             P.O. Box 5677, Athens, GA 30604–5677
                                   Southern Plains Area—AR, NM, OK, TX                        Suite 230, 7607 Eastmark Dr., College Station, TX 77840

                                      The National Agricultural Library                          Cooperative State Research Service and
                                   (NAL) provides information services over                      the education and outreach functions of
                                   a broad range of agricultural interests to                    the former Extension Service. The result
                                   a wide cross-section of users, from                           is better customer service and an
                                   research scientists to the general public.                    enhanced ability to respond to national
                                   The Library assists its users through a                       priorities.
                                   variety of specialized information                               The Service links the research and
                                   centers. Its staff uses advanced                              education resources and activities of
                                   information technologies to generate                          USDA and works with academic and
                                   new information products, creating an                         land-grant institutions throughout the
                                   electronic library as it improves access                      Nation. In cooperation with its partners
                                   to the knowledge stored in its                                and customers, CSREES provides the
                                   multimedia collection of more than 2                          focus to advance a global system of
                                   million items.                                                research, extension, and higher
                                      Information is made available through                      education in the food and agricultural
                                   loans, photocopies, reference services,                       sciences and related environmental and
                                   and literature searches. A subject                            human sciences to benefit people,
                                   profiling system for selective searches of                    communities, and the Nation.
                                   agricultural databases is available for                          The Service’s mission emphasizes
                                   USDA scientists. Citations to the                             partnerships with the public and private
                                   agricultural literature are stored in the                     sectors to maximize the effectiveness of
                                   agricultural online access (AGRICOLA)                         limited resources. Its programs increase
                                   database, available through online                            and provide access to scientific
                                   computer systems and on compact disc                          knowledge; strengthen the capabilities of
                                   (CD’s). The Library also distributes in the                   land-grant and other institutions in
                                   United States the AGRIS database of                           research, extension, and higher
                                   citations to the agricultural literature                      education; increase access to and use of
                                   prepared by centers in various parts of                       improved communication and network
                                   the world and coordinated by the Food                         systems; and promote informed
                                   and Agriculture Organization of the                           decisionmaking by producers, families,
                                   United Nations.                                               and social conditions in the United
                                   For further information, contact the Information
                                                                                                 States and globally. These conditions
                                   Staff, Agricultural Research Service, Department of           include improved agricultural and other
                                   Agriculture, Room 1–2250, 5601 Sunnyside Avenue,              economic enterprises; safer, cleaner
                                   Beltsville, MD 20705–5128. Phone, 301–504–1638.               water, food, and air; enhanced
                                   Fax, 301–504–1648.
                                                                                                 stewardship and management of natural
                                                                                                 resources; healthier, more responsible
                                   Cooperative State Research,                                   and more productive individuals,
                                   Education, and Extension Service                              families, and communities; and a stable,
                                   The Cooperative State Research,                               secure, diverse, and affordable national
                                   Education, and Extension Service                              food supply.
                                   (CSREES) expands the research and                                The Service provides research,
                                   higher education functions of the former                      extension, and education leadership

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                                   120         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                   through programs in plant and animal                    developments; agricultural resource and
                                   systems; natural resources and                          environmental issues; and the effect of
                                   environment; economic and community                     public and private actions and policies
                                   systems; families, 4–H, and nutrition;                  on national rural and agricultural
                                   partnerships; competitive research grants               conditions, including the transformation
                                   and awards management; science and                      of the rural economy, the financial
                                   education resources development; and                    performance of the farm sector, and the
                                   communications, technology, distance                    implications of changing farm credit and
                                   education, and special activities.                      financial market structures.
                                     The Service’s partnership with the                    For further information, contact the Information
                                   land-grant universities and their                       Services Division, Economics Research Service,
                                   representatives is critical to the effective            Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC
                                   shared planning, delivery, and                          20036–5831. Phone, 202–694–5100. Fax, 202–694–
                                   accountability for research, higher
                                   education, and extension programs.
                                     As a recognized leader in the design,                 National Agricultural Statistics
                                   organization, and application of                        Service
                                   advanced communication technologies
                                   and in meeting the growing demand for                   The National Agricultural Statistics
                                   enhanced distance education                             Service (NASS) prepares estimates and
                                   capabilities, CSREES provides essential                 reports on production, supply, price,
                                   community access to research and                        chemical use, and other items necessary
                                   education knowledge and connects the                    for the orderly operation of the U.S.
                                   private citizen to other Federal                        agricultural economy.
                                                                                              The reports include statistics on field
                                   Government information.
                                                                                           crops, fruits and vegetables, dairy, cattle,
                                   For further information, contact the                    hogs, sheep, poultry, aquaculture, and
                                   Communications, Technology, and Distance                related commodities or processed
                                   Education Office, Cooperative State Research,
                                   Education, and Extension Service, Department of         products. Other estimates concern farm
                                   Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250–0906. Phone,          numbers, farm production expenditures,
                                   202–720–4651. Fax, 202–690–0289. TDD, 202–              agricultural chemical use, prices
                                   690–1899. E-mail, Internet,         received by farmers for products sold,
                                                                                           prices paid for commodities and
                                                                                           services, indexes of prices received and
                                   Economic Research Service                               paid, parity prices, farm employment,
                                   The mission of the Economic Research                    and farm wage rates.
                                   Service is to provide economic and other                   The Service prepares these estimates
                                   social science information and analysis                 through a complex system of sample
                                   for public and private decisions on                     surveys of producers, processors, buyers,
                                   agriculture, food, natural resources, and               and others associated with agriculture.
                                   rural America. The Service produces                     Information is gathered by mail,
                                   such information for use by the general                 telephone, personal interviews, and field
                                   public and to help the executive and                    visits.
                                   legislative branches develop, administer,                  NASS is responsible for conducting the
                                   and evaluate agricultural and rural                     census of agriculture, formerly
                                   policies and programs.                                  conducted by the Bureau of the Census.
                                      The Service produces economic                        The census of agriculture is taken every
                                   information through a program of                        5 years and provides comprehensive
                                   research and analysis on domestic and                   data on the agricultural economy down
                                   international agricultural developments;                to the county level. Periodic reports are
                                   statistical indicators of food and                      also issued on irrigation and horticultural
                                   consumer issues and concerns, including                 specialities.
                                   nutrition education and food assistance,                   The Service performs reimbursable
                                   food safety regulation, determinants of                 survey work and statistical consulting
                                   consumer demand for quality and safety,                 services for other Federal and State
                                   and food marketing trends and                           agencies and provides technical

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                                                                                             DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                      121

                                   assistance for developing agricultural
                                   data systems in other countries.

                                   For further information, contact the Executive Assistant to the Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics
                                   Service, Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250–2000. Phone, 202–720–2707. Fax, 202–720–

                                   Natural Resources and Environment
                                   This mission area is responsible for                      management in meeting their specific
                                   fostering sound stewardship of 75                         objectives;
                                   percent of the Nation’s total land area.                     —providing technical and financial
                                   Ecosystems are the underpinning for the                   assistance to cities and communities to
                                   Department’s operating philosophy in                      improve their natural environment by
                                   this area, in order to maximize                           planting trees and caring for their forests;
                                   stewardship of our natural resources.                        —providing international technical
                                   This approach ensures that products,                      assistance and scientific exchanges to
                                   values, services, and uses desired by                     sustain and enhance global resources
                                   people are produced in ways that sustain                  and to encourage quality land
                                   healthy, productive ecosystems.                           management;
                                                                                                —assisting States and communities in
                                   Forest Service                                            using the forests wisely to promote rural
                                                                                             economic development and a quality
                                   [For the Forest Service statement of organization, see    rural environment;
                                   the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 36, Part              —developing and providing scientific
                                                                                             and technical knowledge, improving our
                                   The Forest Service was created by the                     capability to protect, manage, and use
                                   Transfer Act of February 1, 1905 (16                      forests and rangelands; and
                                   U.S.C. 472), which transferred the                           —providing work, training, and
                                   Federal forest reserves and the                           education to the unemployed,
                                   responsibility for their management from                  underemployed, elderly, youth, and the
                                   the Department of the Interior to the                     disadvantaged.
                                                                                             National Forest System The Service
                                   Department of Agriculture. The mission
                                                                                             manages 155 national forests, 20
                                   of the Forest Service is to achieve quality
                                                                                             national grasslands, and 8 land
                                   land management under the sustainable,
                                                                                             utilization projects on over 191 million
                                   multiple-use management concept to
                                                                                             acres in 44 States, the Virgin Islands, and
                                   meet the diverse needs of people. It’s
                                                                                             Puerto Rico under the principles of
                                   objectives include:
                                                                                             multiple-use and sustained yield. The
                                      —advocating a conservation ethic in                    Nation’s tremendous need for wood and
                                   promoting the health, productivity,                       paper products is balanced with the
                                   diversity, and beauty of forests and                      other vital, renewable resources or
                                   associated lands;                                         benefits that the national forests and
                                      —listening to people and responding                    grasslands provide: recreation and
                                   to their diverse needs in making                          natural beauty, wildlife habitat, livestock
                                   decisions;                                                forage, and water supplies. The guiding
                                      —protecting and managing the                           principle is the greatest good to the
                                   national forests and grasslands to best                   greatest number in the long run.
                                   demonstrate the sustainable, multiple-use                    These lands are protected as much as
                                   management concept;                                       possible from wildfire, epidemics of
                                      —providing technical and financial                     disease and insect pests, erosion, floods,
                                   assistance to State and private forest                    and water and air pollution. Burned
                                   landowners, encouraging them toward                       areas get emergency seeding treatment
                                   active stewardship and quality land                       to prevent massive erosion and stream

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                                   122           U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                   siltation. Roads and trails are built where                    on three major program components:
                                   needed to allow for closely regulated                          understanding the structure and
                                   timber harvesting and to give the public                       functions of forest and range ecosystems;
                                   access to outdoor recreation areas and                         understanding how people perceive and
                                   provide scenic drives and hikes. Picnic,                       value the protection, management, and
                                   camping, water-sport, skiing, and other                        use of natural resources; and
                                   areas are provided with facilities for                         determining which protection,
                                   public convenience and enjoyment.                              management, and utilization practices
                                   Timber harvesting methods are used that                        are most suitable for sustainable
                                   will protect the land and streams, assure                      production and use of the world’s
                                   rapid renewal of the forest, provide food                      natural resources.
                                   and cover for wildlife and fish, and have
                                                                                                  Manpower Programs The Service
                                   minimum impact on scenic and
                                   recreation values. Local communities                           operates the Youth Conservation Corps
                                   benefit from the logging and milling                           and the Volunteers in the National
                                   activities. These lands also provide                           Forests programs and participates with
                                   needed oil, gas, and minerals.                                 the Department of Labor on several
                                   Rangelands are improved for millions of                        human resource programs that involve
                                   livestock and game animals. The                                the Nation’s citizens, both young and
                                   national forests provide a refuge for                          old, in forestry-related activities.
                                   many species of endangered birds,                              Included in these programs are the Job
                                   animals, and fish. Some 34.6 million                           Corps and the Senior Community Service
                                   acres are set aside as wilderness and                          Employment Program. These programs
                                   175,000 acres as primitive areas where                         annually accomplish millions of dollars
                                   timber will not be harvested.                                  worth of conservation work, while
                                   Forest Research The Service performs                           providing participants with such benefits
                                   basic and applied research to develop                          as training, paid employment, and
                                   the scientific information and technology                      meaningful outdoor experience.
                                   needed to protect, manage, use, and
                                                                                                  For further information, contact the Office of
                                   sustain the natural resources of the                           Communications, Forest Service, Department of
                                   Nation’s forests and rangelands. The                           Agriculture, P.O. Box 96090, Washington, DC
                                   Service’s forest research strategy focuses                     20090–6090. Phone, 202–205–8333.

                                                                            Field Offices—Forest Service
                                      Region/Station/Area                                               Address

                                                                      National Forest System Regions—Regional Forester
                                   1. Northern                  Federal Bldg. (P.O. Box 7669), Missoula, MT 59807
                                   2. Rocky Mountain            740 Simms St., P.O. Box 25127, Lakewood, CO 80225
                                   3. Southwestern              517 Gold Ave. SW., Albuquerque, NM 87102
                                   4. Intermountain             324 25th St., Ogden, UT 84401
                                   5. Pacific Southwest         630 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94111
                                   6. Pacific Northwest         333 SW. 1st Ave., P.O. Box 3623, Portland, OR 97208
                                   8. Southern                  1720 Peachtree Rd. NW., Atlanta, GA 30367
                                   9. Eastern                   310 W. Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53203
                                   10. Alaska                   Federal Office Bldg. (P.O. Box 21628), Juneau, AK 99802
                                                                                   Research Stations—Director
                                   Forest Products Labora-      1 Gifford Pinchot Dr., Madison, WI 53705
                                   North Central                1992 Folwell Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108
                                   Northeastern                 Suite 200, 100 Matson Ford Rd., P.O. Box 6775, Radnor, PA 19087–4585
                                   Pacific Northwest            333 SW. 1st Ave., P.O. Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208
                                   Pacific Southwest            800 Buchanan St., P.O. Box 245, Albany, CA 94710
                                   Rocky Mountain               240 W. Prospect Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80526
                                   Southern                     200 Weaver Blvd., P.O. Box 2860, Asheville, NC 28802
                                                                           State and Private Forestry Areas—Director
                                   Northeastern                 Suite 200, 100 Matson Ford Rd., P.O. Box 6775, Radnor, PA 19087–4585
                                   International Institute of   UPR Experimental Station Grounds, Botanical Garden, Call Box 25000, Rio Piedras, PR 00928
                                      Tropical Forestry

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                                                                                           DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                  123

                                   Natural Resources Conservation                          committees, including such areas as
                                   Service                                                 nutrient management, pest management,
                                   [For the Natural Resources Conservation Service
                                                                                           and grazing land management.
                                   statement of organization, see the Code of Federal      Farmland Protection Program (FPP)
                                   Regulations, Title 7, Parts 600 and 601]                This program protects soil by
                                   The Natural Resources Conservation                      encouraging landowners to limit
                                   Service (NRCS), formerly the Soil                       conversion of their farmland to
                                   Conservation Service, has national                      nonagricultural uses. States, Indian
                                   responsibility for helping America’s                    tribes, or local governments administer
                                   farmers, ranchers, and other private                    all aspects of acquiring lands that are in
                                   landowners develop and carry out                        FPP except when it is more effective and
                                   voluntary efforts to conserve and protect               efficient for the Federal Government to
                                   our natural resources.                                  do so.
                                   Conservation Technical Assistance This                  Forestry Incentives Program This
                                   is the foundation program of NRCS.                      program helps to increase the Nation’s
                                   Under this program, NRCS provides                       supply of products from nonindustrial
                                   technical assistance to land users and                  private forest lands. This also ensures
                                   units of government for the purpose of                  more effective use of existing forest lands
                                   sustaining agricultural productivity and                and, over time, helps to prevent
                                   protecting and enhancing the natural                    shortages and price increases for forest
                                   resource base. This assistance is based                 products. The program shares the cost
                                   on the voluntary cooperation of private                 incurred by landowners for tree planting
                                   landowners and involves comprehensive                   and timberstand improvement.
                                   approaches to reduce soil erosion,                      National Cooperative Soil Survey The
                                   improve soil and water quantity and                     National Cooperative Soil Survey
                                   quality, improve and conserve wetlands,                 provides the public with local
                                   enhance fish and wildlife habitat,                      information on the uses and capabilities
                                   improve air quality, improve pasture and                of their soils. The published soil survey
                                   range condition, reduce upstream
                                                                                           for a county or other designated area
                                   flooding, and improve woodlands.
                                                                                           includes maps and interpretations that
                                   Emergency Watershed Protection
                                   Program This program provides                           are the foundation for farm planning and
                                   emergency assistance to safeguard lives                 other private land use decisions as well
                                   and property in jeopardy due to sudden                  as for resource planning and policy by
                                   watershed impairment by natural                         Federal, State, and local governments.
                                   disasters. Emergency work includes                      The surveys are conducted cooperatively
                                   quickly establishing a protective plant                 with other Federal, State, and local
                                   cover on denuded land and stream                        agencies and land grant universities. The
                                   banks; opening dangerously restricted                   Service is the national and world leader
                                   channels; and repairing diversions and                  in soil classification and soil mapping,
                                   levees. An emergency area need not be                   and is now expanding its work in soil
                                   declared a national disaster area to be                 quality.
                                   eligible for help under this program.                   Plant Materials Program At 26 plant
                                   Environmental Quality Incentive                         materials centers across the country,
                                   Program This program assists producers                  NRCS tests, selects, and ensures the
                                   with environmental and natural resource                 commercial availability of new and
                                   conservation improvements on their                      improved conservation plants for erosion
                                   agricultural lands. One-half of the                     reduction, wetland restoration, water
                                   available funds are for conservation                    quality improvement, streambank and
                                   activities related to livestock production.             riparian area protection, coastal dune
                                   Technical assistance, cost-share                        stabilization, biomass production, carbon
                                   payments, incentive payments, and                       sequestration, and other needs. The Plant
                                   education focus on priority areas and                   Materials Program is a cooperative effort
                                   natural resource concerns identified in                 with conservation districts, other Federal
                                   cooperation with State technical                        and State agencies, commercial

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                                   124         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                   businesses, and seed and nursery                        conducted in the Western States and
                                   associations.                                           Alaska.
                                   Resource Conservation and                               Watershed Surveys and Planning This
                                   Development Program This program                        program assists Federal, State, and local
                                   (RC&D) is a locally driven program—an                   agencies and tribal governments in
                                   opportunity for civic-oriented groups to                protecting watersheds from damage
                                   work together sharing knowledge and                     caused by erosion, floodwater, and
                                   resources in solving common problems                    sediment and conserves and develops
                                   facing their region. The program offers                 water and land resources. Resource
                                   aid in balancing the environmental,                     concerns addressed by the program
                                   economic, and social needs of an area.                  include water quality, water
                                   A USDA coordinator helps each                           conservation, wetland and water storage
                                   designated RC&D council plan, develop,                  capacity, agricultural drought problems,
                                   and carry out programs for resource                     rural development, municipal and
                                   conservation, water management,                         industrial water needs, upstream flood
                                   community development, and                              damages, and water needs for fish,
                                   environmental enhancement.                              wildlife, and forest-based industries.
                                   Rural Abandoned Mine Program This                       Types of surveys and plans include
                                   program helps protect people and the                    watershed plans, river basin surveys and
                                   environment from the adverse effects of
                                                                                           studies, flood hazard analysis, and flood
                                   past coal-mining practices and promotes
                                                                                           plain management assistance. The focus
                                   the development of soil and water
                                                                                           of these plans is to identify solutions that
                                   resources on unreclaimed mine land. It
                                                                                           use land treatment and nonstructural
                                   provides technical and financial
                                   assistance to land users who voluntarily                measures to solve resource problems.
                                   enter into 5- to 10-year contracts for the              Wetlands Reserve Program Under this
                                   reclamation of eligible land and water.                 program, USDA purchases easements
                                   Small Watersheds Program The                            from agricultural land owners who
                                   program helps local sponsoring groups                   voluntarily agree to restore and protect
                                   to voluntarily plan and install watershed               wetlands. Service employees help these
                                   protection projects on private lands.                   owners develop plans to retire critical
                                   These projects include flood prevention,                wetland habitat from crop production.
                                   water quality improvement, soil erosion                 The primary objectives are to preserve
                                   and sediment reduction, rural and                       and restore wetlands, improve wildlife
                                   municipal water supply, irrigation water                habitat, and protect migratory waterfowl.
                                   management, fish and wildlife habitat                   Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program
                                   enhancement, and wetlands restoration.                  This program provides financial
                                   The Service helps local community                       incentives to develop habitats for fish
                                   groups, government entities, and private                and wildlife on private lands.
                                   landowners working together using an                    Participants agree to implement a
                                   integrated, comprehensive watershed                     wildlife habitat development plan, and
                                   approach to natural resource planning.                  USDA agrees to provide cost-share
                                   Snow Survey and Water Supply                            assistance for the initial implementation
                                   Forecasting Program This program                        of wildlife habitat development
                                   collects snowpack moisture data and                     practices. USDA and program
                                   forecasts seasonal water supplies for                   participants enter into a cost-share
                                   streams that derive most of their water                 agreement for wildlife habitat
                                   from snowmelt. It helps farm operators,                 development, which generally lasts a
                                   rural communities, and municipalities                   minimum of 10 years from the date that
                                   manage water resources through water                    the contract is signed.
                                   supply forecasts. It also provides
                                                                                           For further information, contact the Management
                                   hydrometeorological data for regulating                 Services Division, Natural Resources Conservation
                                   reservoir storage and managing                          Service, Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 2890,
                                   streamflow. The Snow Supply Program is                  Washington, DC 20013. Phone, 202–690–4811.

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                                                                                           DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                   125

                                   Graduate School, U.S. Department of Agriculture
                                   Fourteenth Street and Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250
                                   Phone, 202–314–3300

                                   Director                                                           PHILIP H. HUDSON
                                   Deputy Director                                                    LYNN EDWARDS
                                   Associate Director                                                 ROBERT BROWN

                                   The Graduate School was established by                  selected because of their professional
                                   act of May 15, 1862 (7 U.S.C. 2201). It                 and specialized knowledge and
                                   is a continuing education school offering               experience and thus bring a practicality
                                   career-related training to adults. Courses              and experience to their classrooms.
                                   are planned with the assistance of                         The school does not grant degrees but
                                   Government professionals and                            does provide planned sequences of
                                   specialists. The Graduate School’s                      courses leading to certificates of
                                   objective is to improve Government                      accomplishment in a number of
                                   services by providing needed continuing                 occupational and career fields important
                                   education and training opportunities for                to government. Training areas include
                                   Government employees and agencies.                      management, auditing, computer
                                      The faculty is mostly part-time and is               science, communications, foreign
                                   drawn from throughout Government and                    language, procurement, financial
                                   the community at large. They are                        management, and others.

                                   For further information, contact the Communications Office, Graduate School, U.S. Department of
                                   Agriculture, Room 160, 600 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20024. Phone, 202–401–9129.

                                   Sources of Information
                                   Consumer Activities Educational,                        appropriate examination administered by
                                   organizational, and financial assistance                the Office of Personnel Management or
                                   is offered to consumers and their families              Department Special Examining Units.
                                   in such fields as rural housing and farm                General employment inquiries should be
                                   operating programs, improved nutrition,                 directed to the agencies.
                                   family living and recreation, food stamp,                  Persons interested in employment in
                                   school lunch, donated foods, and other                  the Food and Consumer Service should
                                   food programs. Contact the Office of                    contact the regional offices located in
                                   Public Affairs, Department of                           Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas,
                                   Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250.                      Denver, San Francisco, and Robbinsville,
                                   Phone, 202–720–2791.                                    NJ, or the national headquarters in
                                   Contracts and Small Business Activities                 Alexandria, VA. Phone, 703–305–2351.
                                   To obtain information about contracting                    Persons interested in employment in
                                   or subcontracting opportunities,                        the Office of the Inspector General
                                   attending small business outreach                       should contact the USDA Office of
                                   activities, or how to do business with                  Personnel, Room 31–W, Jamie L.
                                   USDA, contact the Office of Small and                   Whitten Building, Washington, DC
                                   Disadvantaged Business Utilization.                     20250. Phone, 202–720–5781.
                                   Phone, 202–720–7117. Internet,                             In addition, all Forest Service field
                                                   offices (addresses indicated in the
                                   Employment Most jobs in the                             preceding text) accept employment
                                   Department are in the competitive                       applications.
                                   service and are filled by applicants who                Environment Educational,
                                   have established eligibility under an                   organizational, technical, and financial

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                                   126         U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

                                   assistance is offered to local citizens,                purchase. For a listing of titles and
                                   organizations, and communities in such                  prices, contact the Photography Center,
                                   fields as watershed protection, flood                   Office of Communications, Department
                                   prevention, soil and water conservation                 of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250.
                                   practices to reduce erosion and                         Phone, 202–720–6633.
                                   sedimentation, community water and                      Whistleblower Hotline Persons wishing
                                   waste disposal systems, safe use of                     to register complaints of alleged
                                   pesticides, and the development of                      improprieties concerning the Department
                                   pesticide alternatives.                                 should contact one of the regional
                                      Contact the nearest county extension                 offices or the Inspector General’s
                                   agent or USDA office, or write to the                   whistleblower hotline. Phone, 800–424–
                                   Office of Communications, Department                    9121 (toll free, outside Washington, DC);
                                   of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250.                   202–690–1622 (within the Washington,
                                   Phone, 202–720–2791.                                    DC, metropolitan area); or 202–690–
                                   Films Motion pictures on a variety of                   1202 (TDD). Fax, 202–690–2474.
                                   agricultural subjects are available for                 Reading Rooms Located at each USDA
                                   loan through various State Extension                    agency at addresses indicated in the
                                   Service film libraries. Contact the Video,              preceding text.
                                   Teleconference, and Radio Center,                       Speakers Contact the nearest
                                   Office of Communications, Department                    Department of Agriculture office or
                                   of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250,                   county Extension agent. In the District of
                                   for a listing of cooperating film libraries.            Columbia, contact the Office of Public
                                   Phone, 202–720–6072.                                    Liaison, Office of Communications,
                                      Color filmstrips and slide sets on a                 Department of Agriculture, Washington,
                                   variety of subjects are available for                   DC 20250. Phone, 202–720–2798.

                                   For further information concerning the Department of Agriculture, contact the Office of Communications,
                                   Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250. Phone, 202–720–2791. Internet,

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