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Arab Journal of Plant Protection

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					Under the Patronage of H.E. the President of the Council of Ministers, Lebanon



    Arab Journal of Plant Protection
     Volume 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009




                        Abstracts Book

     10th Arab Congress of Plant Protection
                                 Organized by
                        Arab Society for Plant Protection

                             in Collaboration with
                    National Council for Scientific Research

                         Crowne Plaza Hotel, Beirut, Lebanon
                                26-30 October, 2009




                                    Edited by
Safaa Kumari, Bassam Bayaa, Khaled Makkouk, Ahmed El-Ahmed, Ahmed El-Heneidy,
Majd Jamal, Ibrahim Jboory, Walid Abou-Gharbieh, Barakat Abu Irmaileh, Elia Choueiri,
Linda Kfoury, Mustafa Haidar, Ahmed Dawabah, Adwan Shehab, Youssef Abu-Jawdeh
    Organizing Committee of the 10th Arab Congress of Plant Protection


Mouin Hamze          Chairman    National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut, Lebanon


Khaled Makkouk       Secretary   National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut, Lebanon


Youssef Abu-Jawdeh   Member      Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American
                                 University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

Leila Geagea         Member      Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Holy Spirit University-
                                 Kaslik, Lebanon

Mustafa Haidar       Member      Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American
                                 University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

Walid Saad           Member      Pollex sal, Beirut, Lebanon


Samir El-Shami       Member      Ministry of Agriculture, Beirut, Lebanon


Elia Choueiri        Member      Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Tal Amara,
                                 Zahle, Lebanon

Linda Kfoury         Member      Faculty of Agriculture, Lebanese University, Beirut,
                                 Lebanon

Khalil Melki         Member      Unifert, Beirut, Lebanon


Imad Nahal           Member      Ministry of Agriculture, Beirut, Lebanon
     Scientific Committee of the 10th Arab Congress of Plant Protection

Safaa Kumari, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria
Bassam Bayaa, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Syria
Khaled Makkouk, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut, Lebanon
Ahmed El-Ahmed, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Syria
Ahmed El-Heneidy, Agricultural Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
Majd Jamal, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria
Ibrahim Jboory, Faculty of Agriculture, Bagdad University, Iraq
Walid Abou-Gharbieh, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Jordan
Barakat Abu Irmaileh, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Jordan
Elia Choueiri, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Tal Amara, Zahle, Lebanon
Linda Kfoury, Faculty of Agriculture, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
Mustafa Haidar, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
Ahmed Dawabah, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Adwan Shehab, GCSAR, Douma, Damascus, Syria
Youssef Abu-Jawdeh, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
Wafa Khoury, FAO, Rome, Italy
Khalil Melki, Unifert, Beirut, Lebanon
Leila Geagea, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Holy Spirit University, Kaslik, Lebanon
   Executive Committee of the Arab Society for Plant Protection


Wafa Khoury             President                                Lebanon


Majd Jamal              Vice President                           Syria


Mustafa Haidar          Secretary-Treasurer                      Lebanon


Safaa Kumari            Member and Chairman of the Publication   Syria
                        Committee

Ibrahim Jboory          Member and Chairman of Translation       Iraq
                        Committee

Mohamed S. El-Zemaity   Member and Chairman of Membership        Egypt
                        Committee

Ahmed Katbeh            Member and Chairman of Honour and        Jordan
                        Awards Committee

Mouin Hamze             Member and Chairman of the Organizing    Lebanon
                        Committee of the 10th ACPP

Khaled Makkouk          Member and Editor-in-chief, AJPP         Lebanon
              Congress Supporting Institutions

•   National Council for Scientific Reserch (CNRS), Lebanon
•   Islamic Development Bank (IDB), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
•   Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations
•   International Development Research Center (IDRC), Egypt
•   Unifert, Lebanon
•   ARD Unifert, Lebanon
•   Debbane Freres SAL, Lebanon
•   Debbane Freres Trading SAL offshore, Lebanon
•   Agricultural Materials Company (Mikdadi), Jordan
•   Syngenta Agro, Switzerland
•   Bayer Cropscience, Germany
•   Basf Agro, Germany
•   Antagro, Lebanon
•   FMC Agricultural Products International, UAE
•   Russel IPM, UK
•   Dupont International Operations, Switzerland
•   Dow Agrosciences, Middle East
•   Fine Agrochemicals, UK
•   Detia Degesch, Germany
•   Societe Libanaise d’Agriculture et de Chimie, Lebanon
•   Societe Akl Freres, Lebanon
•   Adonis, Lebanon
•   ISAGRO, Greece
•   Cheminova, Denmark
•   AGRIA, Bulgaria
           Arab Journal of Plant Protection
            Volume 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009

                             Table of Contents

Contents                      Abstracts No.            Page No.

Authors Index                                          E-1
Keynote address               KN 1                     E-11
Symposia                      S 1- S 19                E-11
Economic Entomology           E 1- E 108               E-17
Mites                         M 1- M 12                E-45
Fungal Diseases               F 1 - F 96               E-48
Bacterial Diseases            B 1 - B 12               E-74
Viral Diseases                V 1- V 64                E-77
Nematodes                     N 1 - N 35               E-96
Weeds                         W 1 - W 32               E-105
Chemicals Pesticides          P 1 - P 15               E-113
Plant Extracts                EX 1 - EX 25             E-118
Natural Enemies               NA 1 - NE 6              E-124
Host Resistance               R 1- R 30                E-126
Integrated Pest Management    IPM 1 - IPM 18           E-135
Biological Control            BC 1 - BC 87             E-140
Control of Insect Pests       C 1 - C 23               E-163
Post Harvest Pests            PHP 1 - PHP 10           E-169
Beneficial Insects            BI 1 - BI 13             E-171
Rodents, Birds & Snails       RO 1 - RO 7              E-174
General Topics                GT 1 - GT 8              E-176
                                               Authors Index

Name                          Abstract No.                    Name                          Abstract No.
Abang, Mathew M.              F 23, F 86                      Abogharsa, Issa A.            R 21, B 8
Abas, Kazal                   R5                              Abo-Hleka, Al-Taher           V 23
Abass, F.                     E 44                            Abo-Mhara, Amal               V 49, V 8
Abbad, Fouad                  IPM 5                           Abood, M.R.                   BC 85
Abbas, M.K.                   E 69                            Abooud, Intisar J.            F 53
Abbasipour, Habib             EX 22, BC 76                    Abou Al Fadil, Taissir        F 96
Abbo, Fadhel Yousef           V 12                            Abou Ammar, Ghada             BC 73
Abbod, Hadi Mahdi             B 5, F 12                       Abou Elyousr, K.A.M.          F 31
Abbood, Rafeek                BC 65, BC 26                    Abou Faker, Taher             F 96
Abd Al-Razaq, Ayad A.A.H.     BC 68                           Abou Haidar, Charbel          BC 87
Abd alsada, Ali J.            BC 85                           Abou Kubaa, Raied             V 57, V 58, V 64
Abd El Daiem, Hamed A.        IPM 10, IPM 8                   Aboud, Hadi M.                BC 85, F 17
Abd El Hamied, Zidan H.       P 10, RO 7                      Abouelkassem, Sherif          C 9, P 5
Abd El-Wahab, Afaf            EX 8                            Abougarsa, Issa A.            EX 9
Abd-Alaleem, Abdalla M.       V 45                            Abu-Jawdeh, Yousef            BC 23, BC 87, V 22, V 9,
Abdalla, Abdalla M.           R 12, V 4                                                     E 84
Abdalla, Omer A.              V 10                            Aboul-Ata, A.E.               V6
Abdalla, Tag Elsir E.         BC 64, C 20, E 33, E 83         Aboussaid, Houda              BC 30, BC 70, BC 71
Abdallah, A.A.                E 77                            Abou-Tara, Randa              BC 58, E 19, NE 5
Abdel Rahman, Tamader G.      F 55                            Abozakar, Farhat Ali          F 82
Abdel–Aziz,Mounir A.          F 62                            Abu- Alloush, Asem            BC 55
Abd–Elbaky, A.A.              F 56                            Abu Irmaileh, Barakat         W6
Abdel-Baky, N.F.              BC 11                           Abu Kashwa, Sumia             EX 21
Abdelgader, H.                BC 20                           Abugela, Omran A.             E 81
Abdel-Galil, Farouk A.        E 61                            Abu-Gharbieh, Walid           N 16, N 30, N 8
Abdel-Gawad, M.A.             EX 5                            Abu-Ghorra, Mahmoud           B 12
Abd-Elhady, Hany Kamal        C7                              Abu-Hlaka, Al-Taher           R 20
Abdel-Halim, A.               E 11                            Abuhligha, Taher Ahmed        BI 7, F 6
Abdelli, B.                   E 24                            Abukashwa, Sumia              E 34
Abdel-Mallek, Ahmed Y.        C 14, C 6                       Abu-Shirbi, Abeer             V 30
Abdel-Megeed, M.I.            E 20                            Achbani, El Hassan            B6
Abdelmonem, A.M.              F 20                            Acheuk, Fatma                 E 88
Abdel-Moniem, Abdellah S.H.   E 61                            Achoura, A.                   EX 20
Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A.      C 14, C 6                       Adam, Mohamed A. M.           N 13, IPM 2
Abdel-Rhman, Kh. A.           IPM 4                           Addante, Rocco                V 64
Abdel-Samad, Salwa            BC 5, R 18                      Adel, Leith                   BC 63
Abd-El-Samed, Abdallah        E 35                            Adem, Mohammed A.M.           B 1, B 9
Abderabba, Manef              V 59, EX 13                     Adhab, Mustafa Ali            V1
Abdeslam, Arezki Ait          B2                              Adib, Saad                    F 49
Abd-Rabou, Shaaban            BC 3, BC 43                     Adkins, Steve                 W 17
Abdu-Alhaleem, Khalil         BC 24                           Afif, M.                      E 21
Abdul Azize, Maan             C 12                            Afifi, A.I.                   BC 13
Abdul Hamid, Aidi             BC 40                           Afy, Ahmad A.                 BC 63
Abdul Kader, Samah            RO 3                            Afzal, Muhammad               BC 22
Abdul Rahim, Hassanien        BC 38                           Aguib, Sihem                  BI 4
Abdul Razak, Amal. S.         BC 63                           Ahmad, Abdelmonim A.          B 12
Abdul Wahab, Abdul Salam      BC 63                           Ahmad, Mohammad               BC 32, BC 75, M 11, M 6,
Abdul-Alkareem, C.            E 14                                                          BC 28, BC 29
Abdulhai, Mohammed            BC 69                           Ahmad, Manasic Mohamadain     V4
Abdulkarim, H.M.              C4                              Ahmad, S.                     F 11
Abdullah, L.M.                C 16                            Ahmadi,Kamal                  E 99
Abdullah, Samir K.            F 67                            Ahmed, Ayoub I.               N 28, N 29
Abdullah, Suaad Irdeny        E 64, BC 6, E 53, E 54          Ahmed, A.                     E 32
Abdulqader, Aree Adel         PHP 7                           Ahmed, Ahmed H.               IPM 12
Abdul-Razak, Amal Salman      BC 38                           Ahmed, Ali Nasier             F 54
Abdunabi, Aiad M.             E 80                            Ahmed, M.A.                   E 62, R 18, IPM 10, R 1
Abed, Hashem                  GT 3                            Ahmed, Manasic Mohamadain     R 12
Abed, Tamam                   BI 12                           Ahmed, Mohamed                BC 26
Abo Alfadil, Taisser          R4                              Ahmed, Seid                   F 39, F 35, F 86
Abo Kaf, Nabil                NE 6, BC 35, BC 80, E 38        Ahmed, S.A.                   F 71
Abo Trabi, Bassam             R4                              Ahmed, Zana Abubakr           GT 8
Abo-Elghar, Gamal Elsayed     C7                              Ahmmed, R.                    F 43


                                                   2009   /                            27                        E-1
Name                               Abstract No.                      Name                           Abstract No.
AI-Hayalee, M.A.M.                 E 26                              Ali, Juhina A.M.               BC 52
Aissat, Kamel                      F 34                              Ali, Lina                      E 92
Akhtar, N.                         F 11                              Ali, Nawal                     BC 28, BC 29
Akparov, Zeynal                    V 53                              Ali, Othman Omer               GT 8
Al- abbar, Faiha'a                 BC 57                             Ali, Sarfaraz F.               GT 5
Al Abdullah, Jihan                 M8                                Ali, Shaukat                   BC 22
Al Ahmad, M.                       W 30                              Ali, Soaad S.                  V 38
Al BannA, Luma                     N 8, N 24                         Ali, Suliman Abdalla Ibrahim   E 78
Al Barhawi, R. K                   EX 2                              Aliakbari, Farhang             BC 47, EX 24, EX 15
Al Dujaly, T.M.                    F3                                Alim, Naiema Eltayeb           BC 67
Al Hashash, Abd Alatif             E 89                              Al-Iraqi, Riyad                C 12, E 46
Al- Nujiban, Asma Abd-Allah        C 17                              Al-Isaac, Elias                V 13
Al-Rehiayani, Suloiman.            M 10                              Al-Isawi, Sameer Abed Ali      PHP 1
Al Saidi, Khalil                   W 18                              Al-Jabor, Khaldoun             V 32
Al Sayed, M. Ezziddin              IPM 18                            Al-Jalili, Anfal M.            BC 83
Al Shayef, Hadi                    E 106                             Al-Jallal, H.M.                E2
Al Talip, Ahmed A. Talip Ali       GT 2                              Al-Jamali, Nassir A.           E 14
Alabdalla, Nael                    B 12                              Al-Jameel, Sahil K.            C 8, IPM 14
Al-Abdulsalam, Khaled              E9                                Al-Janabi, Rajaa G.            IPM 11
Al-Adil, Khalid                    C 15, M 6                         Al-Jassani, Radih              C 15, BC 72
Alahmad, Samir                     RO 2                              Al-Jboory, Muna H.             N 6, BC 68, F 13
Al-Ajlan, A.M.A.                   E 21                              Aljibouri, Abed-Aljasim M.     PHP 3
Al-Ajlan, Abdulaziz                E9                                Al-Jorany, R.S.                E 70
Alalees, Safaa                     BC 73                             Al-Juboori, I.M.A.             BI 9
Alali, Moin                        E 10                              Al-Kai, Bassel                 V 13
Al-Allan, Mohammad A.              E 82                              Al-Kalifah, M.S.               E 12
Al-Amry, S.                        EX 4                              Al-Karboli, Hameed H.          R 17
Al-Ani, Luaay K.Khalaf             R 24                              Alkassis, Wajih                BC 56, E 103, E 104, E 42,
Alani, Rakib Akif                  F 17, B 5, V 1                                                   R 30
Al-Antary, Tawfiq Mustafa          E 1, E 67                         Al-Katib, Mira U.              EX 23
Al-Ashkar, Kamal                   N 14                              Al-Khafaji, Abbas M.           R 17
Al-Ashqar, Farhaat                 E 87                              Alkhalaf, M.                   R 22
Al-Assas, Khaled                   N 14, N 27, BC 59                 Al-Khatib, Kassim              W 32
Al-Attar, Hani J.                  EX 23                             Alkhider, Zainab               BC 73
Alawami, Azzeddin M. Y.            IPM 2, R 21, B 1, B 8, B 9        Allache, F.                    E 24
Al-Ayedh, H.Y.                     E 12                              Al-Lashi, Najwa Bashir         F 51
Al-Azawi, A.                       EX 4                              Allawi, Thabet                 BC 55
Al-Banna, Lama                     N 30                              Allouf, Nada                   IPM 16
Al-Barhawi, Riyadh K.              F 27                              Al-Maamaar, Anwar              W4
Alberto, Ronaldo T.                F 40                              Al-Maaroof, Emad               R5
Alburaki, Ali                      BI 12                             Almabrok, Asma S.W.            IPM 2
Al-Chaabi, Salah                   R 22, R 25, F 44, V 19, V         Al-Mallah, Adnan Mahmood       C 21
                                   2, V 32, V 41                     Al-Mallah, Nezar M.            C 3, E 2, E 68
Al-Dankali, Azzarok                E 18                              Al-Mallah,, Nabil M.           E2
Al-Daoude, Antonus                 B3                                Almanoufi, Adel                BC 14, E 76
Aldoss, Abdulla A.                 N 9, N 10                         Almaroof, Ismail N.            E 58
Al-Dulaimy, F.                     EX 4                              Almatni, Wa’el                 NE 1, NE 4
Al-Ebadi, Emad Q.M.                C 11                              Al-Mayr, Mohamed A.            E 81
Al-Fartoosy, Alaa H.               P 11                              Al-Mesmari, Fathi S.           V 38, V 45
Al-Fatlawy, M.K.                   E 70                              Almitewty, Momtaz Isaak        W 22
Alfawwer, Muna Salem               E 67                              Al-Mohammedi, Omar H.M.        PHP 8
Al-Gammudi, Hania                  R 20, V 23                        Al-Momany, Ahmad               F4
Al-Ghadhban, Zahraa A.             C 15                              Al-Mosawi, Karim A.            F 67
Al-Gorane, R.S.                    BI 3, PHP 4                       Al-Mosuly, Mothafer Ahmed      GT 7
Al-Hadeethy, Oadi N.               W 19                              Al-Muallem, Rasmia             BC 24
Al-Hafidh, Emad M. T.              C 5, E 50, E 51, R 16             Al-Murad, Nehil Y.             V 37, F 79
Al-Haj, Shadi Ibrahim              BC 15, E 23                       Al-Nadaawi, Bashier A.         W 19
Al-Hajjar, Mohamed Jamal           P2                                Al-Nadary, Saleh, N.           N 11
Al-Hashemi, Rawda                  BC 66                             Al-Nasir, Farah                N 23
Alhassan, K.K.                     F 94                              Al-Neami, Ismail               M6
Alhawamdeh, Ashraf Saber           IPM 3                             Al-Noaimee, T.M.               F 94
Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S.                 N 11, N 9, N 10                   Al-Nsour, Ayda                 V 25
Al-Hudaib, Khalid                  E 9, V 50                         Alobaidi, Sh. H.               BC 50
Al-Hweati, Mahmoud K.              EX 9                              Al-Obaidy, Doha Ismaeel        F7
Al- Saed, Haitham                  R 27                              Al-Qasim, M.                   N 16, N 30
Ali, Abdul-Sattar Arif             E 7, BC 7, M 3                    Al-Qurashi, Turkia K.          E 17



E-2      Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Name                           Abstract No.                        Name                          Abstract No.
Al-Rajabo, Saad Abdul Jabbar   W 22                                Arifi, Taha                   BC 73
Al-Ramadany, M. Rawdha         B4                                  Asaad, Mohamad                RO 5
Alrashidi, Salih M.            E 52                                Asaad, Nader Y.               V 19
Al-Rawi, Ali Abed              PHP 10                              Asaad, Siham                  F 23, F 28
Al-Rehiayani, Suloiman         N 26                                Asgari, Shahriyar             R 29
Al-Rouz, Hisham A.             E 82                                Askarianzadeh, Alireza        E 93, PHP 5, R 29
Al-Rubaye, Jawad Kadhim        E 55                                Aslaan, Louai                 BC 56, E 103, E 42, R 30,
Alrubeai, Hussain F.           PHP 3                                                             BC 66, BC 15, E 23, E 73,
Al-Saady, Majedah H.M.         F 17                                                              E 87
Alsafadi, Faten                R4                                  Asmar, J.                     R 25
Al-Salami, M.                  P3                                  Asran, Amal A.                F 80
Alsaleh, Ebtisam               BC 73                               Assaf , Samyr                 BC 58
Al-Saleh, Hana S.              EX 23, P 9                          Assaf, Lazkin Hagy            BC 6, E 53, E 54
Al-Saleh, Mohammed A.          V 10                                Assaf, Sameer                 C 23, E 19
Al-Salhi, M.A.A.               BC 72                               Assas, K.                     N 16, N 30
Alsalti, M. Nayef              BC 31, F 9, E 92, F 26              Assol, M.M.                   E 105
Al-Sanusi,Omar Mousa           V3                                  Atamian, Hagop                V 22
Al-Saoud, Ahmad Hussen         BC 21                               Ateyyat, Mazen A.             E1
Alshahwan, Ibrahim M.          V 10                                Atia, Zaki M.                 E 18
Al-Shamaa, Sarab D.            EX 7                                Attar, Nouran                 V 18, V 46, V 53, V 54
Alska, Z.H.                    BI 8                                Attia, Angel R.               BC 13
Al-Taae, A.K.                  F 3, F 79, F 45                     Awad, H.A.                    IPM 4, P 7
Al-Taae, Huda Hazim Wafi       F 45                                Azar, Yagoub                  E 22, R 7
Al-Taee, Warka S.              F 27                                Azim Khan, Muhammad           W 13
Al-Tai, Abdusatar Omar O.      GT 2                                Azmeh, Fawaz                  V 17, F 32, F 9
Al-Tai, Salah M. Saied         W7                                  Ba M'hamed, Touria            BC 86
Al-Taie, Faiz A.               C3                                  Ba-Angood, Saeed A.           E 36
Altalib, Layth Hamd Abdulla    BC 60                               Bachrouch, Olfa               EX 13
Al-Tamimi, Naser               V 52, V 55                          Badary, Hoda                  BC 43
Al-Taweil, Hayyan Ismaeil      BC 40                               Badi, Aida Adel               E 105
Al-Tmeme, H.J.                 BC 10                               Bagdash, Ebtessam             BC 37
Al-Turaihi, Emad Hussain       IPM 1                               Bahareth, O.M.                E 17
Al-Twajrrey, Hind              N 26                                Bahjat, Shababa Abdul Latif   EX 7
Alwan, Usama A.                BC 85                               Baker, S.Z.                   E 71
Al-Waneen, W.S.                E 12                                Bakhshi, Akram,               E 94
Al-Yahya, F. A.                N 11                                Bakhwar, Abdulla Omer         C1
Al-Yaseri, I.I.                F 43, F 94, P 7                     Baniadami, Yekta              E 99
Al-Zubaidi, Fawzi S.           P3                                  Baoum, Ali Abdulla            C1
Al-Zubaidy, H.K.               E 71                                Barakat, Bassam               BI 5
Ameen, Hoda H.                 N4                                  Barari, H.                    C 18
Amen, Adel H.                  E 29, E 31                          Barhoum, Basima               W4
Amer, A. Mahmoud               V 10                                Baroudy, Farah                BC 23
Amer, Fayadh Mohammed          BC 10                               Basati, Jahanshah             F 66
Amer, Hosam                    NE 5, F 96                          Basher, Abd Alnabi            BC 35, BC 80, E 38, BC
Ami, Sulaiman N.               N 28, N 29                                                        61, BC 15, E 23, E 73, BC
Amin, Abdul bast Muhamad       GT 8                                                              59
Amini, Jahanger                BC 62                               Bashir, El-Sadik Awad         RO 1
Amirkiaei, Ghodsialsadat       E 66                                Bashour, Issam                BC 87
Ammouneh, Hassan               B 10, B 3                           Basij, Moslem                 BC 34, BC 79, R 29, E 95
Amr, Zuhair                    RO 5                                Baum, Micheal                 F 23, R 27, E 92
Amran, Zaidan Kailf            F 13                                Bayaa, Bassam                 F 23, F 29, F 46
Amri, A.                       R 10                                Bayati, Shirin                V 44
Amro, Mohamed A.               E 61                                Begam, W.                     EX 11
Antonelli, Mariagrazia         F 73                                Bekheet, Fawziya M.           F 47
Antoon, Bassima G.             N6                                  Bekheet, Shawky A.            R 19
Anttwan, Bssima J.             V 51                                Belabid Lakhdar               F 29, BC 22, F 70, F 75
Aobad, Heshim Mohammed         F 58                                Belal, Elsadig Masoud         E 34
Aouali, Souhila                W8                                  Belal, Medhat                 N 26
Aoudi, Bassam                  E 107, R 14                         Bellahcene, Miloud            F 29
Aoumria, Merzoug               F 75                                Bellatar, Nouredine           F 36
Aquino, Vermando M.            F 40                                Ben Chalbi, Wissal            V 59
Arab, Atie                     R7                                  Ben Ghanem, Hajar             R 27
Arab, Joanna                   GT 3                                Ben Nafeh, Fatema             PHP 6
Arab, R.                       EX 11                               Benabdelkader, Messaouda      F 41
Arabi, Mohammad Imad           B3                                  Benali, Setti                 F 64
Arif, Mokhtar A.               E7                                  Benbouaza, Abdellatif         B6



                                                        2009   /                            27                         E-3
Name                               Abstract No.                      Name                        Abstract No.
Bencheikh, Mohamed                 F 16, F 64                        Dababat, A.A.               F 63
Benfekih, Leïla Allal              E 41, BI 10                       Dabaj, Khalifa H.           BC 18
Benfreha, Faouzia                  F 75                              Dabbous, A.                 R 10
Benhouhou, S.                      W 14                              Dabob, Hanan                V 3, V 48
Benkenana, Naima                   E 39, E 98                        Daden, Monia                V 62
Benkohila, Hafidha Sabah           R9                                Dagher, Rachel              V 22
Benmahammed, K.                    F 10                              Dahan, Rachid               IPM 5
Benrima Guendouz, Atika            N 15                              Dahi, Hassan F.             R 11
Bensaci, Messaoud Bachagha         BC 51                             Dahroug, Saied              P 10, IPM 17
Bensoltane, Ahmed                  B2                                Darazy, Dalida              E 74, M 4
Benyan, Layla A.                   BC 10                             Dawabah, Ahmed A.M.         N 11, N 10, N 9
Benzara, Abdelmadjid               BC 74                             Dawod, Khalid Mohammad      E 53
Berraf, Akila                      F 30                              Dawood, Heba Esam           F 51
Biche, Mohamed Rabih               C2                                Dawood, Mona G.             N 22
Billal, Elsadig M.                 EX 21                             Ddhbi, Abdallah             BC 33
Bin Osman, Mohammad                BC 40                             De Lillo, Enrico            BC 14, E 76
Birka, Mohamed                     F 69                              Debs, Backri                F 26
Bishaw, Zewdie                     F 46                              Desuk,y, W.M.H.             M2
Bisheya, Fauzi A.                  BC 39, E 105, F 93                Deylami, Ali                BC 76
Bissaad, Fatima Zohra              N 15, E 59, E 60                  Dhileepan, Kunjitapatham    W 17
Blais, Catherine                   E 72                              Digiaro, Michele            V 28, V 61
Blée, Elizabeth                    R 23                              Dimashqi, Marwan            P8
Blok, Vivian C.                    N 13                              Djazouli, Zahreddine        E 41
Botros, S.E.                       F 47                              Djelouah, Khaled            V 57, V 58, V 60, V 62, V
Bouazza, Karma                     B 11                                                          63, V 64
Boudjeniba, M.                     V 33                              Djemai, Amina               E 59, E 60, N 15
Bouhrathi, S.                      F 10                              D'Onghia, Anna M.           V 20
Boukef, Sameh                      F 33                              Doumaindji-Mitiche, Bahia   E 59, E 60, N 15, E 72, E
Boukhalfa,H. Benmessaoud           P 15                                                          88
Boukhalfa, S.                      V 33                              Doumandji, S.               E 24, EX 20, BI 10, E 25
Boulay, Raphaal                    BC 33                             Durgham, A. Elham           F 56
Boumédiène,Nadra                   F 65                              Ebadi, Rahim                BI 2
Bounaceur, Farid                   E 59, E 60, N 15                  Edakhli, Othman Salem       EX 3
Bouneb, Mabrouk                    V 60                              Edan, Muhammad Efraeah      M1
Bounechada, Mustapha               EX 11                             Edriss, Osama               E 10
Bounguab, Karima                   F 74                              Eftayeh, Muhammad Adel      E 67
Bouras, Abdelhak                   R9                                Ehwaeti, Mahmoud E.M.       IPM 2
Boureghda, Houda                   F 48, F 5                         Eid, Ahmed M.E.             V 35
Bouznad, Zouaoui                   F 14, F 5, F 65                   Eid, Sahar                  V9
Brahim, Wassila Aissa              RO 6                              Eissa, M.A.                 E 11
Braneci, S.                        V 33                              Ejjalti, Z.                 F 89
Brari, Atefe                       E 66                              Ekesi, Sunday               EX 21
Brunner, Patrick                   F 33                              Ekzayez, Ahmed              V 54
Buonaurio, Roberto                 B 12                              El Abbassi, T.S.            E 27
Burcklen, Michel                   R 23                              El Androusse, A.            F 89
Cariddi, Corrado                   P 13                              El Aossami, Aicha           F 89
Carimi, F.                         V 33                              EL-Beasiony, M.M.           IPM 4
Carra, A.                          V 33                              El Bella, Mustafa M.        IPM 12
Carvajal, Ana                      BC 33                             El Bouhssini, Mustapha      BC 31, R 10, IPM 5, BC
Cerda, Xim                         BC 33                                                         69, E 92
Chaker, Adel Nadjib                W 25                              El Deeb, Hassen I.          P 10
Chalak, Lamis                      V 29                              El Hakim, Aida M.           E 27
Chammem, Nadia                     V 59                              El-Keroumi, Abderahim       BC 33
Chatilam Randa                     W 27                              El Kolli, Meriem            EX 12
Chebouti, Yahia                    E 25                              El Messoussi, S.            E 21, BC 30
Chebouti-Meziou, Nadjiba           E 25                              El Sebay, Y.                E 69
Chehade, Ali                       V 29                              El Zammar, Souheir          V 31
Cheke, Bob                         E 16, E 65                        El-Abbasi, I.H.             F 47
Cherif, Mahamed                    F 85, V 36                        El-Ahmed, Ahmed             F 21, F 22, F 44, F 68
Chilosi, Gabriele                  F 73                              El-Ammari, Salah S.         F 82, F 83
Chnais, Elias                      B 11                              El-Arnaouty, S.A.           BC 13
Choueiri, Elia                     V 29, V 31, V 61                  El-Awady, Shalaby M.        BC 1
Cocquempot, C.                     E 43                              Elbakosh, Faraj             BC 53
D’Onghia, A.M.                     V 33, V 63, V 64, BC 36, F        Elbeaino, Toufic            V 28, V 29, V 61
                                   73, F 84, F 85, V 58, V 60        Elbermawy, Zeinab A.        C7
Daaloul, Abderrazak                R 27                              Elbitar, Ahmad              V 29



E-4      Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Name                               Abstract No.                   Name                         Abstract No.
El-Dawwi, Hamdy N.                 BC 1                           Farag, S.Y.                  F 20,
El-Deeb, Hasan.I.                  RO 3, RO 7                     Farahani, Samira             C 13
El-Dessouky, M.M.                  BC 11                          Farawati, Faissal            N7
El-Dogdog, Khalid                  R 20, V 23, V 49, V 8          Fares, Salah                 BC 38
El-Erksousy, Mohamed Hassan        M9                             Farhan, Hammad Nawaf         F 58
El-Faham, Yehia                    V 15                           Farrag, Eman S.H.            F 59
El-Fakharany, E.M.                 V 40                           Farrag, Ramadan M.           EX 14
Elfandary, Ola O.                  E 61                           Faskha, Shadi                IPM 17
El-far, E.M.                       F 55                           Fath-Alla, Mervat            V 16
El-Gali, Z.I.                      F2                             Fathipour, Yaghoub           E 40
Elgarguotee, Abubaker              E 16                           Fathipour, Yaghoub           E 94
El-Gendi, Seham S.                 BC 2                           Fatiha, Lazreg               BC 22
El-Gepaly, Hossam M. K. H.         E 13                           Fatmi, M’Barek               B 12
El-Ghariani, Ibrahim M.            E 29, E 80                     Fattal, Tala                 V 29
El-Heneidy, Ahmed H.               E 11, BC 1, BC 5               Fayad, Yahia Hussein         W3
Elias, Chnais                      F 49                           Fayez, Khalaf A.             V 27
El-Kawas, H.M.G.                   M2                             Fegla, Gaber                 V 15, V 16
El-Khalifeh, Mohammad              F 21, R 26, R 6                Fenii, Mohamed               W 25
El-khateeb, Ali                    V 57                           Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A.      BC 2, E 49
El-Kholi, Mostafa Ashour           F 24                           Fiahd, Faris                 R5
Ellaithy, Mohamed Elamin           EX 19                          Flayeh, Khawla A.            B4
El-Mandarawy, Mona B. R.           E 13                           Flenet, Martine              R 23
El-Maraghy, Saad S.                C 14, C 6                      Fortas, Zohra                F 74
El-Massaad, Hashim Ahmed           E 100                          Fouly, Ahmed                 M 10
El-Mazaty, Mahmoud A.              V 35                           Frasheri, D.                 V 33
El-Meghrabi, Moftah Soliman        E 86                           Frerot, Brigitte             E 84
El-Messoussi, S.                   BC 70, BC 71                   Futuwi, Amir Ibrahim         EX 19
El-Metwally, Asmaa E. A.           BC 13                          Galal, Anwar A.              B 12
El-Mohtar, Choaa                   V 22                           Galalay, Ali Mala Khedir     W 20
El-Mowafy, Hala E.A.               EX 8                           Garibaldi, Angelo            F1
El-Muadhidi, Mothana E.            V 51, V 14                     Garin, Jérôme                R 23
El-Nabi, Heba M.                   F 55                           Garjan, A. Shikhi            C 18
El-Nagar, M.E.                     BC 11                          Gasim, Sindab Sami           M3
El-Nagdi, Wafaa M.A.               N 19, N 2, N 3                 Gauthier, Nathalie           V 39
El-Neshawy, Saneya Aly             PHP 2                          Gaweesh, Salwa S. Mohamed    W5
El-Qasem, Sarab Yahya              P1                             Gazal, Kais                  E 97, F 15, BC 16, BC 37
El-Rahban, B.                      BC 32, W 30, W 15, BC 65       Genena, Marwa A. M.          NE 3
El-Rawy, A.M.                      EX 16, EX 6                    Gerges, Elvis                V 22
El-Saiedy, E.M.A.                  E 77                           Ghadirirad, S.               C 18
Elsaiegh, Muzahim, A.              M1                             Ghahari, Hassan              E 101, E 102, M 12
El-Sanady, Mariam A.               M5                             Ghahfarokhy, Mojgan Rabiey   BC 84
Elsanousi, Omar M.                 V 38, V 45                     Ghakakna, Y.                 C2
El-Sayed, Abd El Ganeey M.         BC 44                          Ghali, Rawda Sukar           E 28
El-Sayed, M.                       V 20                           Ghaneie, Azadeh              F 95, R 15
El-Sayed, M.E.O.,                  P6                             Ghanem, Gamal                V 50
El-Sayed, Maha I.                  E 108                          Ghannam, Mahabba             N7
El-Serwy, Samir A.                 E 56, E 8                      Ghariani, Ibrahim M. El-     E 81
El-Sharkawy, Hamza                 E 35                           Gharib, Adel H.              E 13
El-Sherif, A.G.                    IPM 7, N 1                     Gharib, Chady                W 11
Elsherif, M.                       C 22                           Ghiat, Nawel                 F 65
Elwan, E.A.                        E 108                          Gleo, Hashmi A.              E 80
El-Zemaity, Mohamed El-Said        EX 5, IPM 17                   Goltapeh, E. Mohammadi       BC 84
El-Zoghby, Amal A.                 BC 9                           Grando, Stephania            R 27, V 60
Esmailzadeh-Hosseini, S. Alireza   F 18                           Guechi, Abdelhadi            V 21, F 34, F 41
Ezzedine, Sarah                    E 84                           Guenaoui, Yamina             F 70
Fadhel, Israa                      BC 38                          Guendouz, Atika Benrima      E 59, E 60
Fadhil, Nameer N.                  GT 5                           Gullino, Maria Lodovica      F1
Fahmy, Hesham                      V 62                           Habak, Hanan                 BC 32
Faic, A.                           EX 4                           Habakm H.                    W 30
Faleiro, Romeno                    E9                             Habash, Samer                N 24
Falk, Bryce                        V 11                           Habchi, Rosine               W 10
Farag, Aly I.                      BC 45                          Habib, Showkat A.            W 21
Farag, El Sayed M.                 BC 4                           Hadad, Zenab                 PHP 6
Farag, F.M.                        E 26                           Hadarbach, Driss             IPM 5
Farag, Issa Saleh                  F 25, F 69                     Haddad, Atef                 W 18, W 28
Farag, Nabil S.                    B 12                           Haddad, N.                   V 33



                                                       2009   /                       27                             E-5
Name                               Abstract No.                      Name                      Abstract No.
Hadj Sadouk, Dahouia Nebih         N 15                              Hourieh, Adel             IPM 16
Hafez, Abdul Hamid                 IPM 15                            Huass, Husain Mustafa     BI 7
Hafez, Saad L.                     N 17, N 31, N 32, N 33, N         Hussain, Hatem Motaab     BC 7
                                   34, N 35                          Hussein, Azhar            R5
Hafud, Hamdia Z.                   BC 85                             Hussein, Khalid A.        C 14, C 6
Haggag, Wafaa M.                   BC 25                             Hussein, M.A.M.           F 31
Haidar, Asma                       N 14, N 27                        Hyani, M.                 F 28
Haidar, Mustapha                   W 10, W 11, W 26, W 27,           Ibade, K.W.               W 21
                                   F 11                              Ibrahem, M.K.             BI 8
Haj Hasan, Amal                    BC 16, BC 37, F 15                Ibrahem, M.Y.             EX 25, E 44, E 107, R 14,
Haj Kasem, Amin Amer               R 22, V 17, V 2, V 41, V                                    C 23
                                   19, V 7                           Ibrahim, Amira A.         BC 9
Hajjar, M. Jamal                   BC 57, P 8                        Ibrahim, Faozia A.A.      EX 1
Hakim, Mohammad Shafik             F 21                              Ibrahim, Jounar           F 15, BC 15, E 73
Halloum, M.                        BC 75, M 11, M 6                  Ibrahim, Kadhim M.        GT 4
Halwani, Mosab                     R 13                              Ibrahim, Suliman A.       C 19
Hamad, Samir Abdul-Razzak          V1                                Ibraihm, I.K.             RO 7
Hamada, Walid                      R8                                Idlbi, Ahmed              E 45
Hamadi, Ali Ibrahim                F 12                              Idris, Mohamed O.         IPM 12
Hamadi, Kadim J.                   BC 48                             Impeglia, Alfredo         IPM 3, IPM 18
Hamal, Hamid                       IPM 5                             Ippolito, Antonio         BC 36, F 84, F 85, P 13, P
Hamd, B.Sh.                        E 57                                                        14
Hamdi, Mokhtar                     V 59                              Iqbal, Z.                 F 11
Hameed, Ashwaq Talip               F 58                              Ismaeil, Faiz             V2
Hamid, Mohamed Taleb               F 58                              Ismael, A.M.              F 47
Hamieh, Sereen                     V 31                              Ismael, Hasan             R5
Hamza, Meriem                      R9                                Ismail, Ahmed Mahmoud     F 84
Hanafi, M.                         BI 5                              Ismail, Hany E. M.        IPM 9
Hanano, Abdulsamie                 R 23                              Ismail, Imad              R 13, V 54, V 32
Hani, Meriem                       W 25                              Ismail, Ismail Ahmed      F 53
Hanna, Lucia                       B 11, BC 23                       Ismail, Shafiaa           E 47
Hannou, Najat                      B6                                Ivancich, Anabella        R 23
Harazallah, D.                     F 10                              Izzo, Yousif              V 18, V 47
Haroun, Omar                       F 69                              Jaber, Nagi               BC 38
Harrat, A.                         E 39, E 98                        Jamal, Majd               BC 14, BC 57, BC 58, BC
Harzallah, Daoud                   EX 12                                                       69, E 19, E 76, V 57, V 58,
Harzallah, H.                      EX 20                                                       V 64
Hasabo, Susan A.                   N 21                              Jankir, Mona Husein       P1
Hashem, Mustapha                   E 35                              Jarjees, Mysire Majeed    EX 4
Hashim, Abdelrahman Hamed          P 4, W 12, E 75                   Jarjees, Salim J.         C 8, BI 11, BI 1, BC 60
Hashim, Ahmed                      V4                                Jasim, Abdulrazzak A.     W 23
Hassan, Alaa Khudair               F 53                              Jassim, Hana Kadhm        BC 12
Hassan, B. H.                      E 57                              Jawiish, Amani            BC 59
Hassan, Feyroz R.                  E3                                Jbail, Farg               C9
Hassan, M.H.A.                     F 31, F 71                        Jéribi, Chokri            V 59
Hassan, Mahmoud                    F 46                              Jreijiri, Fouad           V 31
Hassan, Marwan Abduo               F 26                              Juber, Kamil S.           IPM 11
Hassan, N.                         F 23                              Kabakebji, M.             F 39
Hassan, Wazeer A.                  F8                                Kabbabeh, S.              F 23, F 35, F 86, F 39
Hassan,,Hassan F.                  IPM 13                            Kaddissi, Georges         E 74
Hassanein, Ahmed M.                F 60                              Kaddour, Zilal            W 18
Hatoum, Abdallah                   BI 5                              Kafo, Ali A.A.            E 18
Havey, Michael                     V9                                Kakar, M. Siraj           W 13
Hegazy, G.M.                       E 20                              Kambal, Mohammed          EX 21, E 34
Heikal,.H.                         BC 42                             Kamel, Feliachi           W8
Henni, Jamel                       F 16, F 64                        Kamran, M.                F 11
Hilali, Hamida                     IPM 5                             Karajeh, Muwaffaq         N 23
Hjaij, Nouraldin Y. Daher          BI 12                             Karaman, Gamal            E 32, E 13
Hobeika, Charbel                   V 29, V 31                        Karami-Osboo, Rouhollah   BC 47, EX 24, EX 15, F 52
Hocine, Laouer                     F 14                              Karimi, Elham             F 92, F 42
Hokan, Khloud                      E 22, R 7                         Karma, Bouazza            F 49
Homam, Homam B.                    EX 8                              Karso, Batool A.          E 63
Hosinpour, Mohammadhosin           BC 34, BC 79, E 95                Kasem, Khaled K.          F 80
Hosni, Taha                        B 12                              Kasim, Ali A.             BC 48
Hosseinpour, Mohammad H.           PHP 5                             Kasim, Nabil Aziz         V 12
Hosseny, Maher H.                  F 59                              Kasir, Walid Aboodi J.    PHP 7



E-6      Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Name                      Abstract No.                      Name                         Abstract No.
Kassem, Mohammad          F 21                              Lopez, A.M.                  PHP 4
Kassem, W. S.             EX 2                              Louadi, Kamal                BI 10, BI 4
Kasses, W.                E 28                              Louleh, Joumah               F9
Katbeh, Ahmad             E 5, E 89, E 90, E 91, GT 1       Louwagie, Mathilde           R 23
Katmeesh, Abdu-Alrahman   BC 24                             Lucia, Hanna                 F 49
Kattar, Mireille          B 11                              Luque, Isabel                BC 33
Kawanna, Maha             V 15                              Lysandrou, Mike              W 29, W 9
Kawas, Houda              V 24, V 52, V 55, V 56            M. Mairy, Faiza              E 20
Kawroo, Bahaa             R7                                Maalouf, F.                  F 39
Kehail, Sara A. A.        BC 20                             Maauf, M.M.                  BC 39, F 93
Kenawy, W.T.              F 71                              Mahamad, Eiad                BC 35, BC 80, E 38, E 97
Kerra, Halluma            PHP 6, E 18                       Mahdi, Majda Hadi            B 5, F 12
Kershner, Kellan          W 32                              Mahi, M.                     B2
Kesdek, Memis             E 102                             Mahiaoui, Nassima            BC 74
Keutgen, A.               P6                                Mahmalje, Muhamed            BC 61, E 82
Keyhanian, A.A.           C 18, E 30                        Mahmood, Khalid              V 43
Khabbaz, Salaheddin       BC 27                             Mahmoud, Maha F.             RO 4
Khafateh, Abdul Rahman    F 91                              Mahmoud, Mohammed E. E.      C 20, C 19, E 34, EX 21
Khalaf, Mohammed Z.       E 57                              Mahmoud, Sabry Y.M.          V 27
Khalifa, Awad K.          E7                                Mahmoud, Talal T.            E 3, E 63
Khalifa, Maher.H.         RO 3                              Mahmoudvand, Mohammad        BC 76
Khalil, A.E.              N 18                              Makhlouf, Mahfoudh           R9
Khalil, A.E.M.            N1                                Makkar, M.W.                 E 27
Khalil, E.                V6                                Makkouk, K.M.                R 22
Khalil, Hassan            F 26                              Malhotra, Rajendra           F 35
Khalil, Jabr              R 20, V 18, V 23, V 3, V          Mallory-Smith, C.            W 14
                          47, V 48, V 49, V 8               Mando, M. Jamal              V 41
Khalil, Nazir             E 79, NE1                         Mansfield, John              B 10
Khalil, Yassen            W 18                              Mansour, Akel                V 25, V 30, V 52, V 55
Khalled, Abdulla          BC 61                             Mansour, Rita                P2
Khamis, Youssef           F 85, P 13, P 14                  Maoka, Tetsuo                V 36
Khan, M. A.               F 11                              Mardini, Khaled Mohamed      E 106, E 43
Kharazi- Pakdel, A.       BC 77                             Mari, J.M.                   C 10
Kharoob, Salim            BC 73                             Martelli, Giovanni P.        V 28
Kharouf, Shoula           F 32                              Martinez, Michel             E 43
Khater, Carla             NE 2                              Marusik, Yuri M.             M 12
Khaznawi, M. Maher        P8                                Marwat, Khan Bahadar         W 31
Kher Beck, Abeer          BC 37                             Marzouk, Brahim              EX 13
Khidr, A.A.               E 11, E 62                        Massuod, Milad A.            BC 18
Khlaif, Hamed             B7                                Matalah, Rafika              RO 6
Khodabendeh,Mahvash       BC 41                             Matar, Mohamed               F 81
Khoja, Salim              E 22                              Matny, Oadi N.               F 50
Khudir, A.A.              W2                                Matrod, L.                   R 25
Kodsiye, Samir            W 18                              Matter, Ali M.               E 11
Kolahdooz, Jalal          BC 34, BC 79, E 95                Maxwell, Douglas             V 22
Kolaib, Mohamed O.        BC 45                             Mazhar, Seyedeh Felour       EX 15, BC 47, EX 24
Korayem, A.M.             N 20, N 22, GT 6                  Mazyad, H.M.                 V6
Koutti, Amina             E 41                              McDonald, Bruce A.           F 33
Kumari, Safaa             R 22, V 18, R 13, V 13, V         Mead, Hala M.I.              M2
                          17, V 41, V 46, V 53, V           Mebarkia, Abdelkrim          R9
                          54, R 27, V 19                    Mebrek, Naima                E 59, E 60
Kutaefani, Y.             R 25                              Mediouni-Ben Jemâa, Jouda    EX 13
Kyali, Mayada              F 44                             Medjahed, Khaldia            V 34
Lababidi, Mahmoud S.      BC 17                             Mehrabi, R.                  F 95, R 15
Ladhalakshmi, D.          BC 27                             Mehrez, E.A.                 E 44
Lahrouni, A.              E 21                              Mersal, Rukaya A.            BI 13, E 85
Lakhdar, Belabid          F 74                              Messaoudia, H.               E 24
Lamamra, Mebarka          EX 12                             Meziane, Malika              V 33
Langen, G.                R2                                Mhemid, A.                   W 15
Laouer, Hocine            EX 12                             Mhemid, K.                   W 15
Larous, Larbi             F 14                              Mikhail, Maurice S.          F 80
Lebaili, Nemcha           RO 6                              Miloud, Bellahcene           F 70
Lehr, Pavel A.            E 101                             Minaeimoghadam, Mehrnoosh    E 93
Lhaloui, Saadia           IPM 5                             Mir Ali, Nizar               F 26
Ligorio, Angela           F 85, P 14                        Mir Hoseini, Seyed Zialdin   BI 2
Lohar, M.K.               C 10                              Mirabolfathy, Mansoureh      F 52



                                                2009    /                       27                             E-7
Name                               Abstract No.                      Name                        Abstract No.
Mireille, Kattar                   F 49                              Naasan, Yaseen              V 17
Mnari-Hattab, Monia                V 39                              Nachit, Miloudi             F 21, F 22, F 44, F 68, R
Moamen, S.                         F 37                                                          26, R 6
Mofleh, M.                         BC 75, M 11, M 6                  Nadimi, Ahmad               E 66
Mofrad, Nasrin Nooras              F 77, F 78                        Naffaa, Walid               F 96
Mohajeri, Mohammadebrahim          BC 79                             Nagi, Siham Kamil           BI 6
Mohamad, Anwar Nouri               F 87                              Nagi, Thawya                BC 38
Mohamed, Abdin Elhadi              EX 19                             Naher, F.H.                 E 57
Mohamed, Chemseddine               BC 86                             Nair, G. Achuthan           BI 13
Mohamed, Ensaf S.I.                E 15, IPM 12                      Najar, Asma                 R 27, V 59
Mohamed, H.A.                      E 62, C 19                        Najat, A.                   F 43
Mohamed, Haitham Mohie Al-         E 48                              Namoor, Dumar               E 107, R 14, E 10
Ddeen                                                                Namouchi-Kachouri, Najoua   N 12
Mohamed, M.M.M.                    N 20, N 22                        Naser, Wafa’a               E 91
Mohamed, Magedy A.                 IPM 8                             Nasir Eddeen, Lubna         GT 1
Mohamed, N. Ali                    F 88                              Nasir, Wafa                 E5
Mohamed, Nawara                    EX 1                              Nasr, Osman Elhaj,          EX 18
Mohamed, Samira A.                 C 20                              Natsuaki, Keiko T.          V 36
Mohamed, Samy Hussein              E4                                Natsuaki, Tomohide          V 36
Mohamed, W.S.                      E 20                              Nauen, R.                   C 22
Mohamedm N. Ali                    F 37                              Neema, Claire               F 16, F 64
Mohammad Havaskary                 E 101                             Nemer, Nabil                BC 23, E 84
Mohammad, O.S.                     EX 17                             Ng, James                   V 11
Mohammadi, Abbas                   F 77, F 78                        Niane, Abdul Aziz           F 46, W 4
Mohammed, Falah K.                 PHP 3                             Nigro, Franco               BC 36, F 84, P 14
Mohammed, Fayadh A.                F 54                              Nikkhah, M. Javan           BC 49, BC 8
Mohammed, Hana H.                  E 31                              Nikooei, Mehrnoosh          BC 81, BC 82
Mohammed, Jasim Khalaf             BC 7                              Nizamani, S.M.              C 10
Mohammed, Moawed M.M.              N4                                Noujeim, Elise              NE 2
Mohammed, Mushtak T.               P 12                              Nour El-Deen, Ahmad H.      IPM 7
Mohammed, S. Abuegasem             E 78                              Noweer, Ezzat M.A.          N 25
Moharamipour, Saeid                E 96, E 40, EX 22, EX 10,         O’Donnell, Chris            W 17
                                   BC 41, BC 81, BC 82, C            Ogbonnaya, F.C.             R 10
                                   13, PHP 5, R 29                   Oji, Francis Leju           BC 64, C 19
Mohsen, Najeeb Ahmad               F 19                              Omaima, M.H.A.              N3
Mona, Sobhi                        W 28                              Omar, Moawad R.             F 80
Monera, E.                         E 77                              Omar, Mohammed A.           F 83
Moretti, Chiaraluce                B 12                              Omar, Ngaat I.              B 1, B 9
Morsy, S.M.                        F 56                              Omran, A.                   R 10
Mortada, Christina                 V 61                              Osman, Entisar A.           BC 64, E 33
Mosallam, A.M.Z.                   E 27                              Osman, Soad M.              EX 16
Moshksar, Mozhdeh                  R 28                              Ostovan, Hadi               E 101, M 12
Mostafa, Fatma A. M.               NE 3, IPM 7                       Othman, Nada S.             E 64
Mostafa, Khaled A.                 N 10                              Ouabbou, Hassan             IPM 5
Mouhanna, A.M.                     F 9, R 2, BC 65                   Ouallah, M.Y.               W 14
Mourad, Abd El Raoof A.            RO 7, P 10                        Oufdou, K.                  BC 30, BC 70, BC 71
Mourad, Ahmad E.A.A.               EX 6                              Oumran, M.                  BI 5
Mousa, Gehad M.                    BC 4, BC 54                       Parker, Bruce L.            BC 69
Moustfa, Mona                      BC 43                             Pawelzik, E.                P6
Mozaik, Mohamed Faez               E 22, R 7                         Peterschmitt, Michel        V4
Muhamad, Eiad                      BC 37                             Phillips, Alan J.L.         F 30
Muhammad, Imtiaz                   F 35                              Phillips, Mark S.           N 13
Muhammed, Sarkaut H.               E 46                              Pierre, E.                  E 43
Muhsin, Tawfik M.                  BC 48                             Porcheron, Patrick          E 72
Mukhtar, Sana K.                   R 12, V 4                         Purjam, E.                  BC 84
Mulla Abid, Fatin N.               PHP 9                             Qaem, F.                    R 25
Murad, S.                          F 23                              Qasem, Jamal R.             W1
Musallam, Zakaria                  IPM 16                            Qasseer, Waleed A.          E 68
Mustafa, Hanan S. A.               R 21, B 8                         Radjabi, Rouhollah          BI 2, E 66
Mustafa, Khaled A.                  N9                               Rafezi, Ramin               R 29
Mustafa, Shahin A.                 E 68                              Ragab, M.E.                 BC 11
Mustafayev, Eldar                  V 53                              Ragaei, Mohamed             BC 19
Muttardy, Farag A.                 BI 13                             Rahman, Hidayat             IPM 6
Muzher, Bayan                      F 96                              Rahmoun, Brakat             F 46
Myrta, Arben                       V 21, P 13                        Rajab, K.I.                 BI 8
Naamani, Khaled                    BC 33



E-8      Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Name                           Abstract No.                     Name                         Abstract No.
Ramadan, Nadeem A.             B 4, V 37, F 51, V 43, PHP       Sati, Ali A.                 E 85
                               9                                Satti, Abdalla Abdelrahim    BI 6, E 75, EX 18, EX 19,
Ramdani, Hamid                 IPM 5                                                         P 4, E 100, W 12
Rashki, Maryam                 BC 77                            Sayadi, Z.                   BC 31, BC 69
Rasmy, Mohamed R.              V 35                             Schnorbach, H. J.            C 22
Rastegar, Fahimeh              EX 22                            Schouten, A.                 F 63, N 5
Reckmann, U.                   C 22                             Sebaaly, Claudine            F 73
Refaei, A.R.                   IPM 7, N 1                       Sedaghat, Roshanak           E 96
Rekad, Fatima Zohra            F 70                             Sedra, My Hassan             F 90, F 38
Renane, Rachida                F 48                             Seed, M.A.                   EX 25
Rezgui, Salah                  F 33, R 27                       Selim, Mohamed E.            F 63, N 5
Rezk, A.                       V6                               Sendi, Jalal Jalali          PHP 5
Rifai, Om Eltuka Ghufran       V7                               Senossi, Zakia M.            EX 1
Rihawi, F.                     R 10                             Setti, Benali                F 16
Rostom, Ghassan                BC 58, E 19, NE 5                Seyedi, Alireza              BC 76
Rouag, Noureddine              V 21                             Shaabow, Alisar              F 15, BC 16
Rouissi, Wafa                  F 85                             Shaar, M.A.                  F9
Rowaished, Ali Khamis          F 19, F 57                       Sha'ban ,Mahmoud             V 64
Rudhan, Saif A.                W 23                             Shabbir, Asad                W 17
Saad, A.A.                     IPM 4, B 11, BC 87               Shafiezadeh, Shaban          F 18
Saadatabadi, Asghar Shirvani   BC 78, E 37                      Shaher, K.W.                 BI 3
Saadedin, S.M.K.               W 19                             Shairra, Souad A.            BC 46
Saadeh, Dua'                   E 89                             Shalaby, A.A.                V 20
Saadi, Leila                   RO 6                             Shalaby, Fawzy               BC 58, E 19
Sabatinelli, Guido             E5                               Shalbak, Ola                 GT 1
Sabbour, Magda                 BC 19                            Shamkhi, H.                  P7
Sabet, Kamel K.                F 80                             Shamsbakhsh, M.              F 42, F 92, V 42, V 5, V 44
Sabr, Saadi H.                 BI 9                             Shamsi, Roula                F 22, F 68
Sadik, Zineb                   F 69                             Shamsin, Fidaa               NE 6
Sadreddine, Kallel             N 12                             Shapoo, Alisar               BC 37
Sa'eed, Janan A.               W 24                             Sharaby, Aziza mohammed      C 17
Saeed, Mahdi M. Salih          BI 11                            Sharaf, Na’im sa’id          E6
Saeidi, Ghodratollah           R 28                             Shareef, Adeeba Y.           B 4, EX 7
Saeidi, Mahdieh                C 13                             Sharif, Shukri               BC 53
Safadi, Nour                   E 89                             Sharifi-Zarchi, Azadeh       F 18
Safaei, Darioush               F 66                             Sharifnabi, Bahram           F 18
Safaie, N.                     F 42, F 92, F 95, R 15           Sharkawy, Asma El-Z.         EX 8
Saffour, Kaddour               IPM 5                            Shawky, Samaa M.             N 18
Safiddine, Fadhila             N 15                             Shedeed, Mohamed I.          BC 44, BC 45
Sahaf, Bibi Zahra              EX 10                            Shehab, Adwan                RO 2, RO 5
Sahli, Farida                  EX 12                            Sheikholeslami, Mahyar       F 66
Sahraoui, Lounes               BC 74                            Sherif, Mohammed Said Zaki   V 62
Said, Falih H.                 BC 85                            Sherlala, S.A.               E 105
Saidi, A.                      F 95, R 15                       Shiekhmous, Sultan           R3
Saidi, N.                      B2                               Shirvani, A.                 BC 77
Sakenin, Hamid                 E 101, E 102                     Shlallo, Amanni              BC 56, E 103, E 42, R 30
Saki, Ali Julazade             E 66                             Shoaib, Amina                B3
Sakr, Hamed                    IPM 17                           Shojaaddini, Mohammad        BC 41
Salah, Yeihia A.               E 14, F 54                       Shojai, M.                   EX 22
Salame, Mehdi                  E 47                             Sholla, Salwa M.E.           E 77
Salem, Nida’                   V 11                             Shraif, Shukri               E 16, E 65
Salimi, Misha                  V5                               Shunxiang, Ren               BC 22
Sallo,Muhammad Hassan          M1                               Si Moussa, Leila             F 29
Salman, Ahmed M.               E 32, E 57, IPM 10, IPM 8        Siafa , A. Siafa             C2
Salman, Fargel A.              IPM 8                            Sidawi, Amal                 BC 24, BC 73
Salmon, E.                     C 22                             Sikora, Richard A.           F 63, N 5
Samar, Fawzi                   RO 2, E 19, BC 58                Skinner, Margaret            BC 69
Sameer, Saleh Hasan            M3                               Sleiman, Fouak               W 11
Samey, Rasha                   BC 19                            Sllam, Najeeb Ahmed Mohsen   F 57
Samir, Saleh H.                W 21, BC 50                      Slman, Fargel A.             IPM 10
Sanavy, S.A.M. Modarres        BC 84                            Sobh, Hana                   V 42, V 9
Santoro, Franco                V 60                             Soldati, Laurent             E 43
Sanzani, Simona Marianna       F 85                             Soleimannejad, Safieh        E 40
Saponari, Maria                V 57, V 58                       Solh, Mahmoud                KN 1
Sarani, S.                     BC 49, BC 8                      Soliman, Ahmad M.            RO 4
Sarmamy, Abdul-Ghany O.I.      F 61, W 20                       Soliman, Mohamed H.          BC 4, BC 44, IPM 9



                                                     2009   /                         27                            E-9
Name                               Abstract No.                      Name                        Abstract No.
Soliman, Naglaa M.                 EX 5                              Varma, A.                   BC 84
Stephan, Z.A.                      N6                                Varvaro, Leonardo           F 73
Strange, Richard N.                F 14                              Waada, R. Waada             C2
Street, K.                         F 39, R 10                        Wagih, El-Sayed             V 15
Sulaiman, Dawood Esam              F7                                Waheish, Kamela A.          E 29
Suliman, Idres A.                  EX 9                              Wahib, J.F.                 P7
Sultan, A.M.                       W2                                Wan Yussof, Wan Mohtar      BC 40
Sunaid, Nasir Kh.                  E 36                              Wilson, Magdy               RO 3, RO 4
Sundararaj, P.                     N 17, N 31, N 32, N 33, N         Yahyaoui, Amor              F 22, F 32, F 33, F 44, F
                                   34, N 35                                                      68, IPM 5
Sydawi, Amal                       NE 5                              Yakoub, Wafaa               BI 5
Tabak, S.                          B2                                Yaqub Yousuf, Hala Muzhir   W7
Tabarestani, A. Zahedi             V 42                              Yaseen, Thaer               BC 36, BC 14, F 84, F 85,
Tabari, Mehrdad                    E 102, M 12                                                   P 14
Tabbache, Samir                    W 16                              Yau, S.K.                   W 26
Tadjeddine, Aicha                  F 29                              Yokomi, Raymond K.          V 57
Taghaddosi, M.A.                   E 30                              Yossef, Esam Kamal Fahmi    V 26
Taha, Khaled Hassan                F 87, PHP 7                       Younes, A.                  B 9, E 32
Taha, Khawla                       M6                                Younes, Gaidaa              BC 28, BC 29
Tail,Ghania                        E 72                              Younes, Hatem Mostafa       F 25
Takerkert, Z.                      EX 11                             Younes, Hosny A.            V 45
Taleb, Malika                      F 75                              Younessi, Hassan,           F 66
Talebi, Ali Asghar                 BC 41, BC 81, BC 82, C            Younis, Hosny               V3
                                   13, E 94, E 96                    Yousef, Abdalhakim          BC 73
Talhouk, Rasha                     V 22                              Yousef, Adel G.             C7
Tamimi, Nasser                     V 30                              Youssef, Haleem             R3
Tarai, N.                          E 24, EX 20                       Youssef, M.M.A.             N 19, N 2, N 3
Tarasco, Eustachio                 BC 14, E 76                       Youssef, Omran              F 76, R 3
Tartoura, Kamel A.H.               F 72                              Youssef, Sahar A.           F 72, V 20, V 40
Taxanna, Abdellaziz                F 36                              Zabi, Abdessalem            E 59, E 60
Tehrani, A. Sharifi                BC 49, BC 8                       Zadeh, M. Ahmad             BC 49, BC 8
Temerak, S.                        W 29                              Zaid, K.                    F 43
Thabet, Fuad Abdullah              BI 1                              Zalook, Ashraf              P5
Thaler, Olivier                    NE 2                              Zantuti, M.M.               BC 39, F 93
Theer, Rashid M.                   E7                                Zeidan, Halmey A.           EX 8
Thielert, W.                       C 22                              Zermane, N.                 W 14
Traboulsi, Abdallah                M4                                Zerroug, Mohamed M.         EX 12, F 14
Trissi, A.N.                       BC 31                             Zgheb, Ehab                 E 104
Tuinstra, Mitch                    W 32                              Zhar, Naoual                F 90
Turina, Massimo                    V 41                              Zhian, K.S.                 F 61
Tzanetakis, Ioannis                V 11                              Ziani, Stefano              E5
Udupa, Sripada                     E 92                              Zimmermann, O.              BC 20
Valentini, Franco                  B 12                              Ziveh, P. Sharifi           C 18
Valluvaparidasan, V.               BC 27                             Zouba, Ali                  V 39
                                                                     Zouid, Rania                R8




E-10     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
KEYNOTE ADDRESS                                                       SYMPOSIA
KN 1                                                                  Symposium I:          New      Developments        in   Pest
THE ROLE OF PLANT PROTECTION IN MEETING                               Management
FOOD SECURITY NEEDS IN THE ARAB REGION.
Mahmoud Solh, Director General, International Center for              S1
Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O.                 NEW         DEVELOPMENTS              IN        NEMATODE
Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email: m.solh@cgiar.org                      MANGEMENT. Saad L Hafez and P. Sundararaj,
        Food security is a concern throughout the                     University of Idaho, Parma Research and Extension Center,
developing world, and particularly in the Arab region.                29603 U of I Ln, Parma, Idaho 83660, USA, Email:
Almost all Arab countries are net importers of food. Some             shafez@uidaho.edu
countries produce most of their needs of fresh vegetables                     Idaho is the largest potato producer in the United
and fruits, but still import a large portion of their grain,          States, growing about one-third of the country’s potato
pulse and meat needs. The Arab region was the world’s                 production (12.5 billion pounds), which paid farmers about
largest importer of cereals in 2007 in which 58.2 million             $700 million and worth about $2 billion to the state.
tons of cereals were imported. FAO projections for the year           Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in quality
2030 indicate that West Asia and North Africa region will             potato production, causing economic loss to the industry in
continue to have the world’s largest gap between cereal               Idaho. More than 68 species of plant parasitic nematodes
production and consumption. This is largely due to the                belonging to 24 genera are associated with potato fields
severe constraints to agriculture in the dry, the harsh agro-         from different parts of the world. Major nematode pests on
ecosystems predominating in the Arab world, the depleted              potato in Idaho are root knot nematode, Meloidogyne;
natural resource base, especially acute scarcity of water, a          lesion nematode Pratylenchus; stubby root nematode
range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and lack of improved            Trichodorus and Paratrichodorus and stem nematode
technologies. Food security has multiple dimensions,                  Ditylenchus. Other than these, the potato cyst nematode
encompassing not only production, but also availability,              Globodera pallida is also in limited acreage. Chemical
access, utilization and stability of supplies. To address these       management tactics and the recent non-chemical novel
challenges, we will need concerted efforts in research,               practices developed by the University of Idaho nematology
transfer of improved technology and institutional and                 lab considerably reduced the nematode damage potential on
human capacity development. One key area is plant                     potato. In addition to commercially available fumigant and
protection which is critical both to enhance productivity             non fumigant chemicals several other less toxic chemical
and production stability. It is estimated that 25-35% of the          nematicides have been developed. These include Dimethyl
already low crop yields in the Arab region is lost due to             di-sulphide, two forms of biopesticide active ingredient
attacks by different pests. The major pests are weeds,                Chancellor and WD, AdmirePro, BioNem, SYT-100 and
insects and nematodes followed by viruses, bacteria and               Movento. Non chemical nematode management strategies
phyto-plasmas. Reducing pest-related losses will                      include the development of new oilradish varieties colonel,
significantly improve food security in the region. Given the          defender, commodore; mustard varieties comet, luna,
need to increase food production without causing damage               accent; rape varieties and other crops like cahaba vetch,
to the environment, ICARDA and its partners have focused              pea, cabbage, arugula and lentil. As a component of
on integrated pest management (IPM) methods that require              integrated nematode management system in potato the
little or no use of chemical pesticides. For many pests, the          resistant cultivars of economically important crops also
backbone of IPM strategies is the development of varieties            developed. These includes lesion nematode resistant alfalfa
with durable resistance/tolerance to biotic stresses. Most            cultivar ZC 0257A and TS5000, M. chitwoodi resistant
pests do not respect political borders, and occur and spread          bean germplasm apore, M. hapla resistant bean germplasm
across region or even beyond. Effective control of such               rosalle to mention a few. Along with these practices,
trans-boundary pests requires that national efforts be                selection of high-quality seed is essential for the production
supplemented by regional and international initiatives, such          of a profitable potato crop. Idaho law requires that every
as regional networks to coordinate multi-country, multi-              field under the seed program should be free of major
partner efforts. Good examples are the Sunn pest on wheat,            nematodes and the seed stock planted by the grower must
desert locust and Ug99, the new race of wheat black stem              be approved by the ICIA. Such a development of reliable
rust. In all these cases, regional networks are playing a key         nematode management tactics reduces the damage caused
role in establishing effective, sustainable solutions. This           by the nematodes and allows Idaho potatoes to be exported
paper presents several examples where ICARDA and FAO,                 to other countries.
in collaboration with partners, have helped diagnose,
monitor and control diseases and insect pests of economic
importance. To ensure food security in the future, the Arab
region needs to invest much more in IPM research and
technology transfer.




                                                          2009    /                         27                                E-11
S2                                                                   pressure, hot water, modified atmosphere storage and
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT                                   packaging, and integrated control, represent some of the
OF VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES WHICH                               approaches recently evaluated, and to some extend already
AFFECT FRUIT TREE CROPS. Anna Maria D’Onghia                         applied, to ensure top fruit quality. This review deals with
and Khaled Djelouah, Centre International de Hautes                  the substantial progress obtained by researchers in the use
Etudes            Agronomiques             Méditerranéennes          of alterative control means, also taking into account
(CIHEAM/MAIB), Via Ceglie 9, 70010 Valenzano, Bari,                  constraints and obstacles still making difficult their large
Italy, Email: djelouah@iamb.it                                       diffusion and practical application.
        In    the    last   thirty   years,     identification,
characterization and control of virus and virus-like diseases        S4
of fruit tree crops has revolutionary changed. Though                RECENT ADVANCES IN WEED MANAGEMENT.
symptoms are still the first and major approach for the viral        Barakat Abu Irmaileh, Department of Plant Protection,
disease identification, early and accurate agent/vector              Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman
monitoring and diagnosis through recent developed                    11942, Jordan. Email: Barakat@ju.edu.jo
techniques become essential in the framework of an                           A wide range of advances in various weed
integrated pest management programme of fruit tree crops.            management processes have taken place. Some advances
However, more convenient, effective, and sensitive field             are already commercialized, and others are in the process of
(i.e. hierarchical sampling, remote sensing, improved                development. Vision guided machines have been developed
biological indexing) and laboratory (real-time and                   to selectively target weeds; such as the light beam hoe,
multiplex PCR, microarray, Dot blot) techniques are now              robotic hoe, computerized laser weeder and the
supporting detection and identification of fruit tree viruses        computerized flame weeder. Super-heated water, ultra
in breeding and quarantine programmes. New perspectives              violet and infra red radiations have been implied in non-
have also been achieved to sanitize infected fruit tree plants       selective weed control. Advances in herbicide applications
by the use of somatic embryos. The use of plant derived              included the development of air inclusion nozzles to reduce
transgenes, allowing the introduction of natural resistance          application volume besides reducing drift. Herbicide
genes from one plant species to another, has many                    formulation technologies are advancing towards improving
advantages, since in the public perception it is more readily        herbicide efficiency with lower doses; and making
accepted than moving genes from other organisms; work                formulations more water-based with little hydrocarbon
towards the isolation of candidate genes from relatives of           solvents. Robotic sprayer which recognizes weed images
Prunus spp. are in progress. Due to the considerable                 selectively spray the weeds saving much of the herbicide.
differences in transmission modes (grafting, nematode and            Searching for new genes to develop herbicide tolerant
insects vectors, pollen), host resistance is still the most          /resistant crops is underway. The human gene CYP1A1,
attractive and sustainable approach to control virus diseases        coding for cytochrome monoxegenases, have been inserted
in long-lived horticultural crops such as fruit trees, where         in rice in order to metabolize foreign materials including
short-term measures may not give any benefit.                        several herbicides. Stacked crops are expected to be
                                                                     released in the near future. Biotech maize with eight genes,
S3                                                                   Smartstax™, with eight different genes coding for several
INNOVATIONS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF                                     pest resistant and herbicide tolerant traits is expected to be
POSTHARVEST DISEASES. Antonio Ippolito and                           commercialized in the near future. Genes that improve crop
Franco Nigro. Department of Plant Protection and Applied             allelopathy and/or crop competition, or genes that code for
Microbiology, University of Bari, Via G. Amendola 165/A,             allelochemicals that will serve as templates are also being
70126, Bari, Italy, Email: ippolito@agr.uniba.it                     investigated. .
         The establishment of Euro-Mediterranean Free
Trade Area (EMFTA) in 2010 is expected to accelerate                 Symposium II: Novel teaching and training
trade growth in different fields, including the market in            methodologies in plant protection for professional
fresh fruit and vegetables from south, south-east                    practitioners and farmers
Mediterranean countries to foreign markets. In this context,
effective cold chain and management practices of fresh               S5
produce are required, also considering that safety is an
                                                                     TEACHING           PLANT         PROTECTION            FOR
additional prerequisite for market entry. Traditionally,             UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. Maria Lodovica Gullino,
chemical fungicides have been used effectively by                    AGROINNOVA, University of Torino and International
exporters to ensure high quality of fruit and vegetables over        Society for Plant Pathology (ISSP), Via Leonardo da Vinci,
extended periods of storage or transportation. However, the          44,       10095,       Grugliasco,        Italy,     Email:
increased global chemophobia and the reduced efficacy of             marialodovica.gullino@unito.it
chemicals due to pathogen resistant strains, have forced                  Specific courses in Plant Protection are in place in
producers to evaluate more safe alternatives to control              most Agricultural Universities around the world. They are
postharvest diseases in a context of sustainable agriculture.        generally given at the MS level, after the concepts of plant
Several means, such as natural compounds of animal and               protection have been introduced to students in Plant
plant origin, organic and inorganic salts, antagonistic              Pathology and Agricultural Entomology courses offered at
microorganisms, elicitors to induce natural host defences,           the BS level. Plant protection, with very few exceptions, is
physical means like ultraviolet illumination, hypobaric

E-12     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
thought worldwide in integrated courses, which combine              fresh fruits, vegetables and herbs encouraged other farmers
the expertise of plant pathologists, entomologists and, less        to cooperate. Since its start SEKEM has been growing
frequently, weed scientists. Such fragmentation represents          locally, regionally and internationally on one hand and on
one of the problems encountered, mostly at the student              the other hand expanding holistically to involve economic,
level, because a split view of the different topics, that           social and culture dimensions. At the moment SEKEM
generally need a holistic approach, is often given. Plant           farms amounts to 4500 acres and cooperating farmers
Protection is also the topic of MS courses and Ph.D.                cultivate another 7000 acres, in addition to SEKEM farms
programmes. The changing role and importance of courses             in Sudan and Uganda. All the products are of
on plant protection in agricultural curricula, the need of          organic/biodynamic system and all processed at SEKEM
such course also in food technology and agricultural                for local market and for export. In 2007, the total revenue
biotechnology curricula are critically discussed. The               was 166 m LE and total cost was 94 m LE. The backbone
importance of a good balance between theory and practical           behind this success has been the continuous efforts to
activities as well as the need of life-long learning in such        establish healthy soil and healthy crops. In 1996 the
field is discussed, together with the possible innovations in       Egyptian biodynamic association, EBDA, was established
teaching methodologies.                                             as an NGO to promote, and apply biodynamic farming
                                                                    system in Egypt and in the region. Biodynamic farming is a
S6                                                                  super organic system. In this paper the role of organic
PLANT PROTECTION THROUGH FARMERS’                                   agriculture organizations in training facilitators and farmers
FIELD SCHOOLS IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Alfredo                           in soil and crop health management will be described.
Impiglia, IPM Regional Coordinator for the Near East,
FAO, P.O. Box 10709, Damascus, Syria, Email:                        S8
alfredo.impiglia@fao.org                                            PLANT PROTECTION TRAINING NEEDS FROM
          The FAO Project GTFS/REM/070/ITA–“Regional                THE INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVE. Keith Jones and Ali
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programme in the Near              Mohamed Ali, Crop Life International.
East”, funded by the Italian Government, operates in Egypt,         (No Abstract)
Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria; recently the
project expanded geographically to Algeria, Morocco and             Symposium III: Invasive Pest Species: Importance
Tunisia. The project, through consolidation and                     in the Arab Region and Risks Associated With
strengthening of a community based IPM agricultural                 Their Spread
development, aims to improve food security in the region.
Farmer Field School (FFS) is used as participatory                  S9
extension methodology to promote local adoption of IPM              EMERGING RACES OF WHEAT RUSTS: A
strategies, building on farmer participation and                    GLOBAL THREAT TO WHEAT PRODUCTION AND
understanding of local ecosystems. The goals of the project         FOOD SECURITY IN THE WORLD WITH SPECIAL
are often beyond simple reduction of use of pesticides.             EMPHASIS ON WEST ASIA AND NORTH AFRICA.
Looking at the broader agro-ecosystem also address                  Amor Yahyaoui, ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat improvement
production issues besides plant protection. Most IPM/FFS            coordinator, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email:
aim at farmers becoming better field decision makers, and           a.yahyaoui@cgiar.org
taking a more active role in organizing local activities to                   Rust diseases of wheat (stem, stripe and leaf rusts)
promote efficient and environmentally friendly crop                 are among the oldest plant diseases known to man. Rusts
production and protection solutions. Besides the farmer             are caused by versatile fungal pathogens able to destroy
education component, the project ensures that policy                entire wheat crops. Dr. Norman E. Borlaug refers to rusts as
makers are informed about field results, and interacts with         “bush fire” that’s when it starts it’s very difficult to stop.
them on how supportive policy frameworks can be put in              Wheat is constantly at risk of new virulent rust races that
place to promote IPM and farmer education. This paper will          can overcome the resistant genes or genes; hence wheat
present a brief overview of the project’s achievements on           rusts present a clear danger to global wheat production and
plant protection tactics introduced to farmers through FFS          a potential threat to food security that the world is not well
as alternatives to chemical pesticides.                             prepared to face. Over the years, intensive breeding work
                                                                    has been undertaken on breeding for resistance to rusts by
S7                                                                  major International and National research Institutions and
ROLE         OF       ORGANIC          AGRICULTURE                  Universities. Resistant cultivars have been developed and
ORGANIZATIONS IN TRAINING FACILITATORS                              spread world wide. Since 1970’s stem rust has been put to
AND FARMERS IN SOIL AND CROP HEALTH                                 rest, leaf rust has been effectively controlled, and yellow
MANAGEMENT;            EGYPTIAN       CASE      STUDY:              has become sporadic due the exploitation of effective
EBDA OF SEKEM. Zakaria Abdel Rahman                                 resistance genes in different forms and combination.
El-Haddad, Banha University, Director of the                        Durable resistance has been linked to a number of
Egyptian Biodynamic Association, Egypt, Email:                      resistance genes such as Sr2 for stem rust, Lr34 for leaf rust
zakaria.haddad@heliopolisacademy.org                                and Yr18 for yellow rust; coupled with some major
         In 1977 SEKEM initiative was founded 50 km in              effective genes such as Sr31, Sr24, Yr 9, Yr27; Yr1 these
the north-eastern desert of Egypt on 220 acres.The initial          genes were associated with good combiner parental lines
success of the SEKEM biodynamic farm in cultivating                 such as veery’s and hence were extensively used by


                                                        2009    /                         27                                E-13
breeding programs globally. In early 1980’s virulent race            soil drenching nor trunk soaking is useful as a RPW control
affecting the Yr9 resistance gene occurred in East Africa            techniques. Biological control agents against RPW seems
and spread Eastward through the Gulf of Aden/Red Sea to              today negligible, a new parasitoid, EPF or EPN will
Yemen and beyond causing heavy cop losses on wheat that              increase an effectual IPM. The key mortality factor in Red
amounted to 100’s of millions of dollars incurred in major           Palm Weevil life table is the failure to reach a susceptible
wheat producing countries such as Egypt, Syria, Turkey,              host plant during adult spreading; managing to increase this
Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and India. Recent epidemics caused by          factor will greatly help the IPM control program.
the emerging new stem rust race known as Ug99 and
referred to as “time bomb” by Borlaug who managed at the             S 11
age of 91 to establish a global consortium on wheat rusts            FRUIT FLIES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND
known as Borlaug Global Rust initiative (BGRI). While                ARAB WORLD: HOW SERIOUS A THREAT ARE
global efforts are being deployed to development of durable          THEY AND HOW CAN WE MINIMIZE THEIR
resistance and accelerated seed multiplication system, the           IMPACT. Mike Lysandrou, Dow AgroSciences, Athens
rusts kept changing. Ug99 scientifically known as TTKS               Greece, Email: MLYSANDROU@dow.com
race has developed new variants that were able overcome                       Tephritid Fruit flies are found distributed
more resistance genes. Yellow rust has provided new                  throughout the Mediterranean and Arab world and cause
virulent races defeating widely used resistance genes such           considerable economic damage to fruit and vegetable crops.
as Yr1, Yr27, and Yr18 causing unprecedented yield losses            With increasing emphasis on quality of fruit and vegetable
in many countries from Morocco to Pakistan. The potential            produce and with the expansion of trade in horticultural
of wheat rust epidemics from Ug99 under favorable                    commodities, the importance of good fly management
weather conditions as well as from new emerging virulent             policies is vital. Phytosanitary measures and quarantine
yellow rust races remains a real threat to most wheat                checks are increasingly necessary to prevent transport to
producing countries in the world.                                    areas free of the infestation. It is fortunate that there are a
                                                                     range of effective control measures that can be employed
S 10                                                                 alone and/or in combination and new techniques are being
INFESTATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE RED                                sought. Corporation across countries/region is also
PALM        WEEVIL         IN     THE       ARAB        AND          increasingly essential to combat the threat of fruit flies.
MEDITERRANEAN REGION. Francesco Porcelli1,
Ibrahim Al Jboory2, Hasanein Yousif Abdul Raheem3,                   S 12
Anna Maria D’Onghia4. (1) DiBCA Sez Entomologia e                    TOMATO BORER (TUTA ABSOLUTA), A SERIOUS
Zoologia, Università degli Studi di Bari; (2)University of           THREAT TO VEGETABLE CROPS IN THE ARAB
Baghdad,College of Agriculture,Baghdad,Iraq((3) State                AND MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES. Khaled
Board for Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture,Iraq; (4)        Alrouechdi, FAO Office for North Africa (SNE), 43,
Coordinator IPM Division, CIHEAM Istituto Agronomico                 avenue Kheirddine Pacha, 1002, B.P.300, cité Mahrajène
Mediterraneo di Bari. Email: porcelli@agr.uniba.it;                  1082 Tunis,Tunisie, Email: Khaled.Alrouechdi@Fao.org
francescoporcelli@alice.it                                                     The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Lep.
        The inexorable spreading of Rhynchophorus                    Gelechiidae), is a new pest in the Mediterranean region
ferrugineus Olivier 1790 from the area of origin to the              including North Africa. The pest’s origin is South of
Mediterranean across the Arab area forces us to manage its           America. It attacks principally tomato but also other crops
infestations both in palm orchards and urban areas. The              (potato, egg-plant, pepper and weeds of the family of
weevil biology, ethology and consequent damages differ on            Solanaceae. The pest feeds on the different airy parts of the
Phoenix dactylifera and canariensis and thus the                     plant: stems, leaves, and fruits, causing very important
management in urban area and in orchards. Early detection            damages by its large mines. The threat of a widespread
of the RPW infestation and the remote sensing of infested            invasion of the pest in the Med region is extremely high,
palms are now promising tools to detect pest occurrence              similarly to the case of Citrus Leaf Miner (Phyllocnitis
before the broods’ dispersion and for the pest wide area             citrella Stainton) in the 90th. Bio-ecological data as well as
survey and infestation forecast. These techniques make it            IPM strategy will be presented.
possible the use of immediate palm cutting down and
disposal as eradication measures. Tree surgery is also useful        Symposium IV: Systems, standards                          and
to cure urban palms of value because of their historical or          information sharing in Plant Protection
landscape value but an IPM program focused on chemical
control must manage the bulk of the plants. The very first           S 13
step in IPM should be phytosanitary inspection at palm               SURVEILLANCE, INFORMATION SHARING AND
trade coupled with preventive chemical control. Cultural             EARLY           WARNING            SYSTEMS           FOR
control, as a proper timing of the leaves-cut and stipe/trunk        TRANSBOUNDARY PLANT PESTS AND DISEASES:
wound prevention and care, can play its role in urban palm           THE FAO EXPERIENCE. Keith Cressman, AGP
management mainly. Preventive chemical control by trunk              Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
injection considered as the main pest control step. New              Nations, viale delle terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy,
modifications in the conventional injectors were made                Email: keith.cressman@fao.org
describing some application modalities and features of it.                    The Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål)
Due to the pesticide environmental pollution risk ,neither           is probably the oldest and most dangerous migratory pest in


E-14     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
the world. The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization                S 15
(FAO) has been operating a surveillance and early warning            IMPLEMENTATION                    OF          PESTICIDES
system for the past 30 years. The system incorporates the            INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND THE
collection, transmission and analysis of locust and                  CODE OF CONDUCT IN THE ARAB REGION. Taher
ecological field data with models, meteorological data and           El Azzabi, FAO Regional Office for the Near East Cairo,
remote sensing imagery to assess current conditions and              Egypt, Email: Taher.ElAzzabi@fao.org
forecast the scale, timing and location of locust breeding                     Dependence on pesticides as a major means of pest
and migration. A variety of information products are                 management in recent decades has created a range of
disseminated to warn affected countries and donors so that           problems including disruption of agro-ecosystems and
early action can be taken to avoid the development of locust         negative effects on environment and public health. The
plagues and protect crops and food security. Lessons                 continuing globalization of the world economy increases
learned in the Desert Locust system can be applied to other          potential for the spread of plant pests and diseases between
surveillance and monitoring systems. This paper provides             regions including the Arab region requires increasing
an overview of the Desert Locust early warning system and            attention and action from countries. Quality controls such
its current application to other transboundary plant pests           as standards for pesticide residues are becoming more
and diseases, such as wheat rusts.                                   stringent for both domestic consumption and for export,
                                                                     particularly for Western markets. Most of Arab countries
S 14                                                                 are still facing many constraints to the effective
PESTICIDE STOCK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND                                enforcement of their pesticides regulatory systems. A broad
TRIANGULATION                 OF       PESTICIDES          IN        range of international instruments has been developed in
EMERGENCIES.                Mohamed Ammati, Pesticide                response to the international health and environmental
management officer FAO, Rome, Italy, Email:                          concerns about pesticide use. Through ratifications of the
Mohamed.Ammati@fao.org                                               international conventions, governments accept obligations
          The current strategy adopted by countries to               to incorporate the objectives of the international polices
manage Desert Locusts in Africa, the Near East and                   into their national polices. The most directly relevant
Southwest Asia is that of prevention – to take action before         instruments to use of pesticides; the Rotterdam Convention
the problem becomes too big. The 2003-05 upsurge that                on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain
developed in West Africa because of four outbreaks that              Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in the International
were not stopped is a good example of a failure in                   Trade (about 90% of the Arab region countries are parties ,
preventive control. It took more than US$300 million and             all parties has developed national action plans for
the treatment of 13 million hectares to stop the upsurge. An         implementation in collaboration with the Convention
estimated US$137 million was spent on pesticide and its              Secretariat), Basel Convention on the Control of
application. Nevertheless, crop losses were up to 100                Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their
percent, up to 60 percent of the household heads in affected         Disposal (most of the Arab region countries are parties to
countries became indebted, and some US$90 million was                this Convention), the Stockholm Convention on Persistent
required in food aid. After the upsurge ended, more than 8           Organic Pollutants (approx. 70% of the Arab region
million litres of pesticides and a large quantity of empty           countries are parties to the Convention), and the Montreal
pesticide containers remained which constitute a real and            Protocol for on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
potential threat for becoming obsolete. This paper presents          The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and
recent achievements, after the 2003-05 upsurges, in West             Use of Pesticides, is another important instrument on
Africa, on the management of pesticides used in Desert               pesticide management, it sets voluntarily standards for the
Locust control and an outline of Global Programme for                management of pesticides. For many countries in the
effective and safe management of pesticides used in Desert           region, the Code of Conduct has provided guidance for the
Locust and related Transboundary pests. These include                pesticide management aspects. The Code articles
denvelopment and deployment of Pesticide Stock                       Implementation survey in the Near East Region including
Management System (PSMS), a transparent tool that                    Arab countries shown that testing of pesticide and reducing
updates information related to pesticide stocks, their               health and environmental risks were the lowest. This paper
locations, the recommended shelf-life and registration               presents the role of the International Conventions and the
status in all affected countries to allow easy and early             Code of Conduct in pesticide management in order to
access to certified pesticides and bio-pesticides in the             minimize risks on human health and environment, the paper
region. It is a tool for national and regional coordination of       will focus on the levels of the Code of Conduct articles
pesticide management, to prevent creation of new obsolete            implementation, and actions taken by the region countries
stocks and to support urgent and safe control of Desert              regarding     the    related    International    Conventions
Locust and other trans-boundary pests. Other related                 implementation.
achievements such as triangulation of pesticides in
emergencies for Desert Locust and Red Locust control and
remediation of heavy contaminated soils posing high risk to
public health and environment will be presented.




                                                         2009    /                        27                               E-15
S 16                                                                 benefits of that new field, that caused different opinions
IPM SYSTEMS IN INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND                                  among the scientists and public. In order to overcome these
TRADE:          CAMPBELL           SOUP        COMPANY’S             controversies; G.M. is needed to be evaluated in an
EXAMPLE. Hasan Bolkan, Davis Research and                            approach that conceders all the environmental, agricultural
Development, 28605 County Road 104, Davis, California                and social ethics. The Arab region in recent era has no
95618, USA, Email: hasan_bolkan@campbellsoup.com                     noticeable contribution in science and technology, in
          Campbell Soup Company is no stranger to                    general, due to several factors, even though, the recent
sustainable agriculture practices. The company has been              global communication and close international relations
working with its growers to promote sustainable practices            have opened a wide opportunities to the Arab region to join
since 1987. Today, Campbell tomato growers use: (a) cover            the developed countries and be a part in the overall world
cropping such as sudan grass, cow peas, faba beans, vetch,           development. Arab region would like to improve their
and mustard to improve soil texture and soil fertility; (b)          capability to enable it to share in the genetic engineering
two to three year crop rotation which includes tomatoes,             technology. It needs to concentrate on the following 1-
safflower, dry beans, wheat, corn and others to reduce               Scientific capacity: the Arab region have several internal
disease pressure and minimize pesticide use; (c)                     potentialities that provide remarkable opportunities to be a
conservation tillage which is often done in conjunction with         part of the world development, unfortunately, the region
the cover crop to reduce fuel, dust, emission, water runoff,         have no strategic policies to maintain and sustain the local
and soil erosion; (d) transplants to reduce herbicide and            education systems and scientific research policies. 2-
water usage; (e) better water management practices which             Individual capacity: It seems clearly that no individual Arab
include instruments to monitor moisture to irrigate only             country has the self-capability to run, maintain and sustain
when needed, drip irrigation to reduce herbicides,                   genetic engineering programs (scientists, financial and
fertilizers, and fuel, and holding ponds to reduce runoff and        technology), so the regional collective work, is the more
to conserve water; (f) disease resistant varieties to eliminate      acceptable and rationale way to overcome the obstacles. 3-
pesticide usage; (g) habitat management by replanting                Joint work: The genetic engineering technologies have
ditches with native grasses and vegetation and preservation          generated totally in the developed world and run mainly by
of wetlands; and (h) integrated pest management (IPM)                giant firms, so to improve the Arabs sharing in G.E. it
practices to reduce synthetic pesticide usage.          In fact,     seems quite logic to create joint venture projects with those
Campbell Soup Company has a history of leadership in                 firms and the international genetic engineering institutes. 4-
environmental stewardship by developing and helping its              Under the recent international food demand and global
growers implement IPM practices in tomatoes, celery,                 trading legislations, which assist the distribution of
Jalapeno peppers, and carrots for the last 20 years. The IPM         Genetically Modified Organs (GMOs) in the world market,
program has been implemented across a number of                      so that the Arab countries need to implement relative
locations in the United States and Mexico. The program               legislations with no confrontation with the trade
involves development and implementation of strategies that           international laws and comply with the local ethics (social,
reduce the need for synthetic pesticides, taking advantage           religion and economic). 5- The decision whether to accept
of such innovative techniques as control with augmentative           or reject the genetically modified crops and foods in the
releases of beneficial insects, insect mating confusion,             Arabian markets, should rely on a realistic evaluation and
computer disease forecasting, and virus risk assessment              strengthened by scientific justification and concentrate on
coupled with GPS mapping.                                            risk-benefits, risk-risk characterizations and local ethics. 6-
                                                                     The Arabs need to learn from the past and harness the
S 17                                                                 benefits of G.M. technology to avoid being by-passed, as
THE ROLE OF THE POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR                               they had lost the previous opportunities. Generally, the
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF IPM. Peter Kenmore,                            Arabian region recently is an applicator of the science and
FAO, Rome, Italy.                                                    technology and not a creator. The region needs hard work
(No Abstract )                                                       to develop ways of thinking to integrate rapidly with the
                                                                     fast scientific development.
Symposium V: Biotechnology and Plant Protection
                                                                     S 19
S 18                                                                 BT     COTTON         AND      MAIZE:      ASSOCIATED
IS ARAB REGION PREPARED TO DEAL WITH                                 BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPING
GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS? Adnan I. Al-                             WORLD. Rory Hillocks, Natural Resources Institute,
Samarrie, Abu Dhabi Agricultural and Food Safety                     University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4
Authority, P.O. Box 52150, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Email:                    4TB, UK, Email: r.j.hillocks@gre.ac.uk
adnan_ibraham@yahoo.com; adnan.alsamarrie@adfca.ae                            Insect resistant genetically modified [Gm] crops
         Genetic Engineering is a reality that have been             containing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis [Bt] have been
considered as one of the most important scientific                   grown commercially for 15 years. Bt cotton and maize are
revolution in the world now a days, it have been caused              the two Gm crops most widely grown in developing
dramatic changes in the organ bio-characteristics and it may         countries. Bt technology was developed by multinational
create a lot of new varieties of fauna and flora in to the           seed companies for the benefit of large-scale commercial
ecosystem. Due to the wide spectrum approach of G.M.,                farming, where it has provided effective control of certain
more awareness have been raised; concerning the risk and             Lepidopteran insect pests and decreased insecticide use.


E-16     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
The benefits of adoption are more controversial for                       reached 47.77 and 89.09, respectively, while the larva
smallholders and a mixed picture emerges. South Africa                    reared on sugar beet showed a higher average value of AD
has grown Bt crops since 1994 but until 2008, no Gm crops                 and RGR.
were grown in the rest of Africa. In 2008 Burkina Faso
introduced Bt cotton and Egypt introduced Bt Maize.                       E3
Several other African countries have enacted the necessary                DESCRIPTION AND BIOLOGY OF THE POPLAR
biosafety legislation and plan to introduce Gm crops over                 LEAF BEETLE MELASOMA POPULI L. IN IRAQ.
the next few years. This paper examines the evidence for                  Feyroz R. Hassan, Talal T. Mahmoud, Plant Protection
the success or failure of Bt cotton and maize in developing               Department, Agricultural College, Dohuk University, Iraq,
economies and reflects on the lessons for their wider                     Email: feyrozrh77@yahoo.com
adoption in Africa.                                                               The eggs of Melasoma populi L. were oval in shape
                                                                          with length and width of 1.96±0.03 mm. and 0.81±0.03
ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY                                                       mm. respectively. The larvae were from carabiform type,
                                                                          posses many tubercles on their bodies which release
E1                                                                        chemical materials when disturbed, and their measurements
FLIGHT ACTIVITY AND POPULATION TRENDS                                     were 2.42±0.09, 4.65±0.13 and 10.12±0.17 mm. in length,
OF THE SMALL RED-BELTED CLEAR WING                                        0.93±0.03, 1.19±0.05 and 4.0±0.05 mm. in width for the
BORER,          SYNANTHEDON                  MYOPAEFORMIS                 first, second and third instars larvae, respectively. The
(BBORKH) IN APPLE ORCHARDS IN JORDAN.                                     pupae were of the free type, similar to larva in feature and
Tawfiq Mustafa Al-Antary and Mazen A. Ateyyat,                            measured 9.02±0.17mm in length and 4.99±0.06 mm in
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,                   width. The adult's head and legs were greenish in colour
Amman,         Jordan,        Email       tawfiqm@yahoo.com;              with red elytra. The male was smaller than the female, the
t.antary@ju.edu.jo                                                        diameter of male was 8.44±0.18 mm in length and
      Experiments were conducted in Ash-Shoubak area in                   4.5±0.47mm in width while that of the female was
Jordan from June 2003 to May 2005 on apple trees, to study                10.13±0.03mm in length and 6.7±0.21 mm. in width. The
the trends of eggs and immatures of the small red-belted                  biology of the poplar leaf beetle was studied in the
clearwing borer (RBB) Synanthedon myopaeformis                            laboratory. It was found that the mean incubation period
(Lepidoptera: Sesiidea). The moth flight activities were also             was 4.89 days and the egg hatching rate was 98.31% and
studied from October 2004 to September 2005 using four                    74.80% for the first and second generations, respectively.
phermone dispensers brought from different companies.                     The larvae completed their development after three instars.
The life cycle of this pest was observed: two generations                 The mean period of each instar was 2.62, 2.71, and 4.57
per year, individual eggs laying under the bark, and six                  days for the three instars, respectively. The mean natural
larval instars were recorded. Overwintering period was                    mortality rate in the larval stage was 18.11%, and was
realized by the 4th, the 5th, and the 6th larval instars. The first       found mainly among the third instar larvae. The mature
pupation (first generation) was observed in spring while the              larvae entered the pre-pupa stage in one day. The pupal
second pupation (2nd generation) in summer. The phermone                  stage lasted a mean period of 5.87 days. The natural
dispenser brought from Agrisense Company (UK) showed                      mortality of pupa was 6.69% and 44.43% for the first and
more efficacy in capturing adults than the others. However,               second generations, respectively. The mean pre-oviposition
the adult flight activity of this insect was observed from                period was 13.65 days. This beetle had two generations
May to September with a peak of adult populations in June.                within a year, the duration range was 26-49 days. The
                                                                          oviposition period range was 43-71 days. Eggs were usually
E2                                                                        deposited in masses of 2-58 egg each. The mean number of
THE EFFECT OF LARVAL INSTARS AND HOST                                     total eggs laid by a single female was 1370.17±116 eggs
ON SOME NUTRITIONAL PARAMETERS OF                                         throughout their life with a mean of 43.67 eggs per day.
AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFN.). Nabil M. Al-Mallah, Nazar                        The longevity of males and females range was 48-54 and
M. Al-Mallah and H.M. Al-Jallal, Deparment of Plant                       50-73 days, respectively. The general sex ratio was 1:1.9.
Protection, College of Agriclture and Forestry, Mousl
University, Iraq, Email: nbl_mstf@yahoo.com                               E4
        The results of the present study showed significant               STUDIES        ON     THE      PEACH       FRUIT        FLY
effect of the host (corn and sugar beet) and larval instars on            BACTROCERA ZONZTA (SAUNDERS) AND ITS
some nutritional parameters of Agrotis ipsilon under                      CONTROL IN FRUIT ORCHARDS IN ASSIUT
laboratory conditions (28±1 ºC and 65±5% R.H). The 1st                    GOVERNORATE, EGYPT. Samy Hussein Mohamed,
instar had higher average values of efficiency of consumed                Department of plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture,
diet (ECD) and efficiency of conversion of infested food                  Assiut      University,      Assiut,     Egypt,        Email:
(ECI) and relative growth rate (RGR) which reached 85.51,                 samy_hussein@Yaho.com
170.55 and 0.294, respectively and the 2nd, 4th and 5th                            Peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata is considered
instars showed a higher average values of approximate                     one of the most dangerous pests infesting fruits in Assiut
digestibility (AD) and reached 82.76, 82.95 and 83.21,                    governorate. The fly infest peach, guava, mango, citrus and
respectively. The results also showed that the larva reared               apricot and causes great loss in fruit production. The
on corn had a higher average values of ECD and ECI and                    reduction in yield may reach 30%. The fluctuation of the
                                                                          pest density showed that the pest has two peaks, first during

                                                             2009     /                        27                                E-17
March and April which infest citrus fruits and the second            infested only 3 trees (0.04% infestation). Trees infested by
during August and September which infest guava, peach                C. dux was not infested by C. tenebrionis. Both borers are
and mango fruits. Biological studies of peach fruit fly on           strong competitors and can't co-exist together. C. dux and S.
natural hosts showed that shortest life cycle period was             exitosa can be found in the same infested tree, but they
recorded for insects bred on peach (38.65 days), whereas             partition their feeding guild. S. exitosa inhabit the lowest
the longest period was noticed on insects bred on balady             trunk while C. dux inhabit the upper trunk. Young trees less
orange. Use of prominal (degenerated protein) + Malathion            than 5-years old were not infested with woodborers,
57% in addition to the blocks saturated with the sexual              because their trunk diameter was not thick enough to
attractant (methyl Eugenol) + Malathion 98% reduced the              accommodate the large grown larvae. C. dux overwinters as
population density of the pest by 88%. Studies showed also           partial-grown larvae, pupae, and adults. Adults emerge at
that the bio-product Vertemic reduced the infestation rate           the time of blooming of each host, feed on nectar of
by 89.14%. The number of peach fruit fly trapped by six-             herbaceous plants, disperse locally or migrate, sometimes
pheromone traps was higher in areas cultivated by many               aided by wind, to other sites. Adult males emerge first, wait
kinds of its hosts than that cultivated by one host only.            for females to emerge, and then they mate. Mated females
Balanced nutrition, fertilization specially with potassium,          land on selected host trees and begin depositing eggs in
removal of weeds and controlled irrigation, also elimination         bark crevices. Selection of preferred trees depends on bark
of infested fruits may reduce the infestation by 21.44%.             color and structure and chemical defense system of the tree.
                                                                     Plums were more susceptible to infestation by C. dux than
E5                                                                   peaches. Almonds were the least susceptible host. Eggs
SCARABAEOIDEA (COLEOPTERA) OF JORDAN.                                develop in short time. Hatched larvae move downward,
Ahmad Katbeh-Bader1, Guido Sabatinelli2, Wafa Nasir1 and             locate suitable entry point, and start boring in the bark. As
Stefano Ziani3. (1) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty          they grow, they bore deep in sapwood and heartwood
of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, 11942,                  creating tunnels full of tight or loose sawdust. Tunnels
Jordan, Email: Ahmadk@ju.edu.jo; (2) P.O. Box 140157,                resembled in shape and size their own larval instars. Full-
Amman,             11814,           Jordan,          Email:          grown larvae pupate in cells below bark surface. Adults
G.Sabatinelli@hotmail.com; (3) via S. Giovanni, 41/a, I-             emerge when favorable environmental conditions prevail,
47014 Meldola (FC), Italy, Email: stefanoziani@alice.it              and the life cycle was repeated. Recommendations for
          Specimens    of     Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera)             management of C. dux will be presented.
conserved at the University of Jordan Insects Museum
which were collected from different localities in Jordan             E7
since 1973 till 2009 were studied. A total of 24 species             THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON
were recorded for the first time from Jordan. A species list         THE RECENT SPREAD OF DUBASS BUG
of Scarabaeoidea was prepared based on this study and on             OMMATISSUE LYBICUS (DEBERGEVIN) ON DATE
data from literature. For each species, the geographical             PALM TREES IN SOME UPPER EUPHRATES
distribution in Jordan, available biological or ecological           REGIONS OF AL-ANBAR PROVINCE IN IRAQ.
data, taxonomical remarks and color photographs were                 Abdul-Sattar Arif Ali1, Mokhtar A. Arif2, Rashid M. Theer3
assembled.                                                           and Awad K.Khalifa3. (1) Department of Plant Protection,
                                                                     College of Agriculture, Al–Anbar University, Al–Anbar,
E6                                                                   Iraq; Email: abdulsattararif@yahoo.com; (2) State Board of
COLONIZATION              OF        CERAMBYX            DUX          Plant Protection, Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad, Iraq; (3) Al-Anbar
FALDERMANN)             IN      STONE-FRUIT           TREE           Agriculture Division , Al- Anbar, Iraq.
ORCHARDS IN FUHEIS DIRECTORATE, JORDAN.                                       The dubass bug Ommatissus lybicus (Debergevin)
Na’im sa’id Sharaf, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty          (Homoptera: Tropiduchidae) is considered as one of the
of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman 11942,                   most important pests on date palm trees mostly in the
Jordan, Email: n.sharaf@ju.edu.jo                                    middle of Iraq. This pest was almost absent in Al–Anbar
     A field study was conducted in five locations in Fuheis         province during the past years, however, field survey
Directorate, Jordan, during the period from January 1, 2008          conducted in different regions of the province during 2007
to June 30, 2009 to identify woodborers attacking stone-             indicated the presence of dubass bug on date palm trees in
fruit trees based on damage symptoms, to determine the               some orchards toward the east of Hit city. Infestation was
economic status of identified species based on their spatial         too high in term of affected trees and accumulation of
and temporal distribution and their infestation rates, and to        honey dew. Scattered infestations were also observed in
investigate the way woodborers colonize host trees. Three            some orchards west of Hit city and around the cities of
woodborers were identified: the roundheaded cerambycid               Haditha, Rawa, and Al–Kaim. The severe winter of 2008 in
borer,     Cerambyx     dux     Faldermann      (Coleoptera:         which the minimum temperature dropped below the zero
Cerambycidae, the flatheaded buprestid borer, Capnodis               for several days caused the complete or partial death for the
tenebrionis L., and the peach tree borer, Synanthedon                date palm leaves in many orchards and resulted in harmful
exitosa Say. Of these three species, C. dux was the most             effects on dubass eggs inserted in the tissue of these leaves.
economically important borer as it damaged about one                 The continuous occurrence of dust storms during spring and
fourth (23.77 %) of cultivated trees in infested locations           autumn was another harmful factor causing reduction of
(Um-Na’ag; Hommar, and Ferdoos). C. tenebrionis                      moving stages. Infestation was reduced to about 1–5
attacked only 5 trees (0.07% infestation), and S. exitosa            nymphs/leaflet at the third week of May 2008 compared to


E-18     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
an average of 40 nymphs/leaflet recorded during the last            the red palm weevil web site was created to cover the
week of April and early May. Results also indicated that the        information needed for interested researchers in red palm
spread of the pest occurred in a discontinuous manner with          weevil (www.redpalmweevil.com). This site focuses on the
no correlation to infestation in close-by provinces                 red palm weevil in both Arabic and English languages
indicating that pest spread happened in a way other than the        describing the seriousness, the infestation parts of the palm
normal spread. Therefore, this pest may not persist in date         and RPW geographical distribution. On the global level, it
palm orchards in Al–Anbar province. The population might            became a source of information to interested workers
be reduced to non damaging levels or even disappear from            around the world. Through the site the infestation of red
the region during the next generation or at least during the        palm weevil was confirmed in Japan, Turkey, Cyprus, Italy
few coming years.                                                   and others. The RPW site held together with the ESA in
                                                                    2008 the first symposium on the RPW during ESA 56th
E8                                                                  annual meeting in USA. Anyone interested in the red palm
A     NEW        RECORD          OF     ELACHISTA         SP.       weevil can find information during his visit to the site in 60
(LEPIDOPTERA:                 ELACHISTIDAE)               ON        seconds.
SUGARCANE IN EGYPT. Samir A. El-Serwy, Ministry
of Agriculture, Plant Protection Research Institute, 7 Nadi         E 10
El-Seid Street, Dokki, P.O. Box 12618, Giza, Egypt, Email:          THE EFFECT OF SOME OLIVE FRUIT
samirelserwy@hotmail.com.                                           CHARACTERISTICS ON INFESTATION RATE OF
        The leafminer Elachista sp. (Lepidoptera:                   OLIVE FRUIT FLY BACTROCERA OLEAE GEMLIN.
Elachistidae) is a new record pest species inhabiting               Dummar Namoor1, Osama Edriss1 and Moin Alali2. (1)
sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., and stain tail,                Department of plant protection, Faculty of agriculture,
Imperta cylindrica L., in Egypt. Samples were collected             University of Albbath; Homs, Syria; (2) Plant Protection
weekly from untreated sugarcane fields at Al-Aiat region in         Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Homs, Syria, Email:
Giza governorate from February 2001 to August 2003.                 osamaedriss@hotmail.com
Eggs were laid singly on the leaf upper surface near the                      The results of two season (2007 and 2008) showed
margin. The initial mine was longitudinal and narrow and            that olive fruit qualities ( weight, oil content) had an
became a blotch by feeding larvae. Pupation took place              influence on the infestation date and rate with Bactrocera
outside the mine. Infestation levels were 1- 46% (mean,             oleae (Diptera:Tephritidae). Eggs were laid on Aldebly
18.4%) in 2001, 2-45% (mean, 14.1%) in 2002 and 1-54%               olive variety when the average fruit weight was over 0.8 g,
(mean, 20.4%) in 2003 with a general mean of 17.8%.                 and on Aljalt variety when the average fruit weight was
Number of mines were 1-4 per infested leaf and majority (>          over 2.4 g. Whereas, it layed eggs on Kudiery variety fruit
91%) of infested leaves had a single mine. Generally,               when the average fruit weight was 1.22 g.The correlation
occurrence of live larvae started in November and                   coefficient between infestation rate and both fruit weight
continued until August and peaked in February, whereas the          and oil content was positive and high in the studied
emergence of adults was from December to July and                   varieties. Infestation appeared first on Aldebly variety then
peaked in March during the period of this study. Larval             on Aljalt variety in June in both seasons, and the average
parasitism by the abundant parasitoid Chrysocharis sp. and          fruit weight of Aljalt variety was larger than that of Aldebly
Pnigalio sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) varied between               variety. The infestation rate wasc higher on Aldebly variety
13.2% in 2003 and 19.2% in 2002 with a peak about 30%               than on Aljalt variety, which was associated with a higher
recorded in 2001, with a general mean of 20.7%.                     oil content in the Aldebly variety fruit compared to Aljalt
Parasitoids activity started with low rates about 17 and 14%        variety. The average weight of Kudiery variety fruit was
in January and February and continued until December and            very low at the beginning of the two seasons, and
reached the highest rate of about 38 and 42% in May and             infestation was only noticed in September when fruit
July 2002 and 2001, respectively. In 2003, parasitism               weight and oil content increased.
ranged from about 9% in January to 25% in May, but
declined to about 4% in July. Parasitoids generally emerged         E 11
from December to July with a population peak in occurred            EFFICIENCY OF THE EGG PARASITOID,
in April.                                                           TRICHOGRAMMA              EVANESCENS           WEST.        IN
                                                                    COMPARISON            WITH        THE       INSECTICIDAL
E9                                                                  APPLICATIONS             AGAINST         THE       COTTON
RED PALM WEEVIL IN 60 SECONDS. Khalid                               BOLLWORMS IN EGYPTIAN COTTON FIELDS.
Alhudaib1, Abdulaziz Al-Ajlan1, Romeno Faleiro2 and                 A.A. Khidr, A.H. El-Heneidy, A. Abdel-Halim, M.A. Eissa
Khaled Al-Abdulsalam1. (1) Department of Arid Land                  and Ali M. Matter, Plant Protection Research Institute,
Agriculture (Plant Protection Science Program), College of          Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt, Email:
Agricultural and Food Sciences; (2) Date Palm Center,               prof.abdelaziz.abouelela@gmail.com
King Faisal University, King Faisal University, Al Hasa,                     Experimental trials to compare the efficiency of
Saudi Arabia, Email: aajlan@hotmail.com                             the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma evanescens West with
         The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus,            the insecticidal applications on the infestation with the pink
is one of the most important insect pests that destroy palm         bollworm, pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) and the spiny
and lead to its death. In the mid eighties, it entered to the       bollworm, Earias insulana (Boisd.) in cotton fields were
Gulf area and began to spread to other countries. In 1998,          carried out at Quesna district, Menoufia Governorqate for

                                                        2009    /                         27                                E-19
two successive seasons 2002 and 2003. Three to four                  Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University,
parasitoid releases were conducted during the growth,                Egypt; (2) Biological Control Department, Plant Protection
flowering and boll formation stages. Generally, the                  Research Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt, Email:
parasitoid releases showed higher reduction in both                  Melmandarawy@gmail.com
infestations compared with the insecticidal treatments.                        Ten predaceous insect species were collected from
Reduction rates were 55% and 17% when the parasitoid                 maize (Zea maize L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)
was released early during the flowering stage and few                fields at Shandaweel Research Station, Sohag Governorate,
weeks later during boll formation, respectively. In the              during two planting dates and two successive growing
parasitoid release areas, number of insecticidal applications        seasons 2004 and 2005. The predatory species were: four
was reduced to almost half and consequently, the cost was            coleopterous [Coccinella undecimpunctata, Scymnus
dropped by 2 – 2.5 folds. In addition, cotton boll weight            pallidivestis Muls. and Scymnus gilvifrons Muls.
averaged 3.14 and 2.82 grams in the Trichogramma                     (Coccinellidae)     and     Paederus      alfierii    Koch.
evanescens treated and insecticide treated areas,                    (Staphylinidae)]; two hemipterous [Orius albidipennis
respectively.                                                        Reut. and Orius laevigatus Fieb. (Anthocoridae)], two
                                                                     dipterous [Xanthogramma aegyptium Weid. and
E 12                                                                 Sphaerophoria flavicauda Zett. (Syrphidae)] and a
EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON THE                                     neuropteran [Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Chrysopidae)].
HISTOLOGY OF THE TESTIS OF RED DATE PALM                             Population densities of each predator were determined in
WEEVILS,         RHYNCHOPHORUS FERRUGINEUS                           the two planting dates and two seasons. Also, seasonal
(OLIVIER). W.S. Al-Waneen1, M.S. Al-Kalifah2 and H.Y.                fluctuations of collected predators in relation to some
Al-Ayedh1. (1) Natural Resources and Environment                     weather factors as daily maximum and minimum
Research Institute (NRERI), King Abdulaziz City for                  temperatures and the mean relative humidity were
Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh                calculated.
11442, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; (2) Zoology Department,
College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi              E 14
Arabia, Email: alwaneen@kacst.edu.sa                                 PRELIMINARY STUDY ON COLORADO POTATO
          The efficacy of different doses of Gamma                   BEETLE LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA (SAY)
radiation was evaluated to determine the optimal sterilizing         APPEARING FOR THE FIRST TIME IN NORTH OF
dosage for red date palm weevil (RDPW) Rhynchophorus                 IRAQ AND ITS CONTROL. Nassir A. Al-Jamali1, A.
ferrugineus Oliv. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Five gamma            Salah2 and C. Abdul-Alkareem2. (1) Plant Protection
radiation doses 10, 12, 15, 17 and 20-Gy were tested and             Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Karbala,
compared to a control group. The treatments were                     Iraq; (2) Directory of Agriculture at Nineveh, Iraq, Email:
replicated three times. Each replicate consisted of one week         nassir_aljamali@yahoo.com
old 5-males and 5-females. The weevils were obtained from                      A survey was conducted in potato fields at
RDPW colony at the Natural Resources and Environmental               Nineveh and Dhouk governorates during 2005, to evaluate
Research Institute (NRERI), King Abdul-Aziz City for                 spread of Colorado beetle L. decemlineata (Coleoptera:
Science and Technology (KACST). The results indicated                Chrysomelidae) and its infestation severity, in addition to
that Gamma irradiations caused significant changes in the            testing different insecticides for its control. Results showed
histology of testis. There was no apparent change in apical          that infestation severity differed between low as was found
germarium region. However, major changes in the                      in the Rabeah, Baashiqa, Al-qush and Telkef at Nineveh
histology of irradiated growth zone of spermatic tubules in          governorate, where 0.4 egg mass/plant, 1.0 larvae/plant and
terms of lysed spermatic cyst without boundaries were                0.01 adult/plant were found, as compared to high
observed. Studies of the middle region of the normal                 infestation in Al-shekhan/Nineveh and Qasrouk/Dhouk,
spermatic tubules revealed intact spermatic tubules with             where 0.2 egg mass/plant, 4.6 larvae/plant and 0.04
cyst cells with clear boundaries, whereas, in irradiated             adult/plant, and 0.03 egg mass/plant, 5.8 larvae/plant and
males the ruptured spermatic tubules were clearly visible            0.07 adult/plant, were observed. Results also revealed that
with scattered lysed cyst cells. Cross section of the testis of      Desiree potato variety was most commonly planted in these
irradiated males also revealed prominent breakage of the             regions and the imported potato from Turkey was the
spermatozoa tubes at the junction of sperm tube and vasa             source of infestation by this insect. The results showed that
defferentia. This breakage had disconnected the normal               the insecticides Thiamethoxam 25 WG, Lambdacyhalothrin
pathway of the mature sperm flow towards vas deferens.               5% EC and Sevin 85% WP were the most effective against
The results of the study indicated that the sterilization insect     larvae and adults, gave a killing rate of 99.38, 99.31 and
technique (SIT) might be a potential component of                    97.59 %, and 100, 96.56 and 94.84%, respectively. The
integrated pest management designed for the efficient and            insecticides Cypermethrin 10% EC and Lufenuron 5% EC
effective control of red date palm weevil.                           gave on the other hand a killing rate of 58.56 and 62.7%,
                                                                     and 90.4 and 84.16% against larvae and adults,
E 13                                                                 respectively. All above insecticides were less effective
STUDIES ON PREDATORY INSECTS IN MAIZE                                against eggs.
AND SORGHUM FIELDS IN UPPER EGYPT. Gamal
A. Karaman1, Mona B. R. El-Mandarawy2, Adel H. Gharib1
and Hossam M. K. H. El-Gepaly2. (1) Plant Protection


E-20     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
E 15                                                               University,      Makkah,      Saudi     Arabia,       Email:
EVALUATION            OF     THE       EFFICACY          OF        turkiak2009@hotmail.com
PYRETHROIDS            INSECTICIDES         AND        BIO-                 In this study, 612 insects of Liriomyza congesta
INSECTICIDE (AGERIN) FOR THE CONTROL OF                            (Agromyzidae) on Alfalfa were collected in Hoda A-Sham
BLACK         CUTWORM             AGROTIS         IPSILON          by using sweeping nets and yellow sticky traps. By
(HUFENGED). Ensaf S.I. Mohamed, Agricultural                       monitoring population dynamics, insects were found on
Agricultural Research Corporation, Shambat Research                alfalfa during the year and two peaks appeared in January
Station, Kh. North, P.O. 30, Sudan, Email:                         and March when sweeping nets were used, with
ensaf11@hotmail.com                                                temperature average of 26.6°C, 27.2°C, for the two peaks,
        Field experiments were conducted at Elsheikh               respectively. Relative humidity was 62.7% and 51.7%, for
Eltayeb, Northern Umdorman, Sudan, on commercial                   the two peaks, respectively. However, two activity peaks
potato production fields during 2005/2006, 2006/207 and            were observed in March and May when yellow sticky traps
2007/2008 winter seasons. The performance of four                  were used, with temperatures of 23.03°C and 26.6°C, for
pyrethroid insecticides, namely Karate, Kung Fu, Talstar           the two peaks, respectively. Relative humidity was 35.4%
and Force in addition to Agerin (Bacillus thuringiensis)           and 62.7%, for the two peaks, respectively. The highest
against black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon were evaluated. All          peaks in both traps were in March. In addition, the effect of
insecticides tested were significantly effective in                nitrogen level on alfalfa plant and spread of insect was
controlling cutworm and increased potato yield as                  made.
compared with the untreated control. Results of the study
showed that foliar applied pyrethroids (Karate 10%, Kung           E 18
Fu 5% and Talstar 2.5%) gave superior protection at all            ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON
dosages applied compared with the untreated control.               PALM FROND BORER, PHONAPATE FRONTALES
However, the soil applied pyrethroid, Force and the                F., IN THE WESTERN COASTAL REGIONS OF
bacterial insecticide, Agerin resulted in a significantly          LIBYA. Zaki M. Atia1, Haloma Kara2, Azzarok Al-
lower tuber yield compared with the other insecticides             Dankali2 and Ali A.A. Kafo3. (1) Department of Biology,
tested. Force applied late at hilling had better effect than       Faculty of Teachers Training at Kasr Bin Ghasher, Al-Fateh
when applied early at planting.                                    University, Libya; (2) Department of Plant Protection,
                                                                   College of Agriculture, Al-Fateh University, Libya; (3)
E 16                                                               Agriculture       Research       Center,    Libya,      Email:
EFFECTS         OF      BIOLOGICAL           INSECTICIDE           zekooz2001@yahoo.com
(SPINOSAD GF-120) ON THE GREATER MELON                                      Palm frond borer, Phonapate frontales F.
FLY DACUS FRONTALIS (BECKER). Shukri Shraif1,                      (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) is one of the important pests
Abubaker Elgarguotee1 and Bob Cheke2. (1) Biotechnology            infesting date palms in Libya, especially at oasis (Alwahat)
Research Centre (BTRC), P.O. Box 30313, Tajora, Libya,             regions; (Galo, Ogla and Egkhara) and the central regions.
Email: shokre2005@hotmail.co.uk; (2) Natural Resources,            Its spread increased recently to the western coastal region.
Greenwich University, UK.                                          The investigation aimed to study the biology of this insect
         Spinosad GF-120 is a new product which was                pest under laboratory conditions at 27±1ºC and to study
registered as a reduced risk product by the US EPA in              some related ecological aspects of the insect. Results
1997. Spinosad is a combination of spinosyn A and                  showed that the average number of eggs was 70 eggs/
spinosyn B, which are naturally occurring compounds                female, the average durations of egg incubation was 12-17
derived from the soil-dwelling actinomycete bacteria               days, the larval stage duration was 90-120 days, through 5
Saccharopoyspora spinosa This experiment was conducted             larval phases, the pupal duration was 19-25 days and the
to investigate the toxicity of the new Spinosad product            total life cycle ranged between 121 and 162 days.
(biological insecticide) on adults of the Greater melon fly        Longevity of males averaged 35 days and of females 30
Dacus frontalis (Becker) and Spinosad showed high impact           days. Ecological aspects of the insect showed that it is
on the females of the Greater melon fly. It showed mortality       nocturnal in activity and avoids light. The insect pest was
in just 12 hours after the treatment in concentration of 1:1       entrapped by light traps placed on an elevation of 4 m. The
(Spinosad: distilled water). Mortality was 100 % after 48          insect and its infestation injuries were found on an elevation
hours in concentrations of 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5, 1:3, and        of 5.5 m. It pored a hole of 9-15 cm long inside frond's
1:3.5. Mortality was 90% after 48 hours when                       blade. Seasonal activity of the pest using light traps showed
concentrations of 1:4 and 1:4.5 were applied. The mortality        that the insect population started to increase in April,
was 80% after 48 hours when concentration of 1:5 was               reached its peak in July then declined up to October and
added.                                                             disappeared indicating that the insect had only one
                                                                   generation per year. The pest was recorded on different
E 17
                                                                   hosts, date palm was a major host and the other two tree
ECOLOGICAL         A    STUDY      OF    LIRIOMYZA
                                                                   species were Tamarix aphylla and T. arborea. The pest was
CONGESTA (AGROMYZIDAE) ON ALFALFA
                                                                   recorded for the first time in Libya on the pomegranate,
PLANT IN HADA ASH SHAM REGION (MAKKAH
                                                                   Punica granatum and Casurina trees Casurina sp.
ALMUKARAMAH) IN SAUDI ARABIA. O.M.
Bahareth and Turkia K. Al–Qurashi, Biological
Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al–Qura


                                                       2009    /                         27                                E-21
E 19                                                                 Considering reproductive capacity of emerged female
TEMPERATURE                EFFECT           ON         THE           moths treated as 2nd instar larvae with either of the two
DEVELOPMENTAL PERIOD OF BEMISIA TABACI,                              tested compounds, the number of oocytes in the ovaries as
AND ITS TWO PARASITOIDS ERETMOCERUS                                  well as female fecundity was drastically reduced as
NUNDUS AND ENCARSIA FORMOSA IN SYRIAN                                compared with the check. Generally, tebufenozide proved
ENVIRONMENT. Randa Abou-Tara¹, Fawzy Samara²,                        more effective on reducing reproductive capacity of S.
Majd Jamal², Fawzy Shalaby³, Samyr Assaf¹ and Ghassan                littoralis than Dibenzoyl hydrazine.
Rostom¹. (1) General Commission of Scientific
Agricultural Research, P.O. Box 113, Douma, Damascus,                E 21
Syria, Email: randaaboutara@hotmail.com; (2) Faculty of              MODELLING OF POPULATION DYNAMICS OF
Agriculture, University of Damascus, Syria; Banha                    FRUIT FLY INSECT. S. El Messoussi1, A. Lahrouni2, M.
University, Egypt.                                                   Afif3 and A.M.A. Al-Ajlan4. (1) Department of Biology; (2)
      Temperature effect on the developmental periods of             Department of Physics; (3) Department of Math., Faculty of
Bemisia tabaci, and its two parasitoid species, Eretmocerus          Science Semlalia, Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad,
nundus and Encarsia formosa was studied under laboratory             Morocco, Email: saidsaid8@ucam.ac.ma; (4) Department
conditions; temperatures 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC, daily             of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture & Food
light and dark periods were constant at 16 and 8hr and the           Sciences, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 55009, Hofuf,
relative humidity ranged between 50 and 70%. Eggplant                Al-Hasa 31982, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
was the plant hosted B. tabaci. Average developmental                Modeling of population dynamics is an essential part of
periods of the local offsprings of the whitefly, from egg to         both research and management of pest insects. A
adult were 14, 16, 20, 32, and 66 days, respectively.                population dynamic model for the complete life cycle of
Thermal day degree (DD) constant attained was 344.82 K.              fruit fly pest (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described. Adult
Lowest thermal threshold of the developmental period                 population dynamics from emergence to oviposition are
reached 9.27ºC. The developmental periods of E. mundus at            based on biotic and abiotic factors. These factor-dependent
15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC averaged 15, 19, 30 and 66 days,                development and age-dependent advancement determines
respectively, while the DD thermal constant attained was             adult population dynamics and oviposition. The model
333.333 K. The lowest development thermal threshold                  determines an optimal behavior of different system
attained was 12ºC. Average developmental periods of E.               components during the life cycle with an adjustment by
formosa were 14, 18, 28, and 54 days, respectively. The DD           limiting factors like; temperature, humidity, parasitism, and
thermal constant attained was 250 K. The lowest                      predation. Abundance of fruit fly under a natural
development thermal threshold reached 9ºC. None of the               temperature change and under a constant effect of
two parasitoid species was able to complete its                      parasitoids and predators in optimal food conditions was
development at 35 ºC.                                                estimated. These associations permit real-time monitoring
                                                                     and forecasting the pest at high spatial and temporal
E 20                                                                 resolution. These predictions will enable public to institute
OVICIDAL AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF TWO                              control measures before fruit fly emerge as adults. The
NONSTERIODAL               ECDYSONE           AGONISTS               value of this kind of models is the development of
AGAINST           THE       COTTON         LEAFWORM,                 technology that can handle spatial information.
SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.). M.I. Abdel-
Megeed, Faiza M. Mairy, G.M. Hegazy and W.S.                         E 22
Mohamed, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of                     PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE PISTACHIO TWIG
Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Shoubra El-Khemia,                BORER MOTH, KERMANIA PISTACIELLA AMSEL
Cairo, Egypt, Email: m_mgeed@yahoo.com                               IN ALEPPO GOVERNORATE. Salim Khoja, Mohamed
          The ovicidal and larvicidal activity of                    Faez Mozaik, Yagoub Azar and Khloud Hokan, General
Tebufenozide and Dibenzoyl hydrazine against the cotton              Commission of Agricultural Scientific Research,
leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) was tested. The              Agricultural Scientific Research Centre in Aleppo, P.O.
larval duration, the rate of pupation, moth emergence and            Box 4195, Aleppo, Syria, Email: khoja90@maktoob.com.
reproductive capacity of produced moths were also                             The Pistachio tree (Pistacia vera L.) are attacked
considered. Egg hatchability rate was greatly reduced and            by many insect pests, and pistachio twig borer moth,
also delayed when the eggs were treated with the higher              Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), is one
concentration of two nonsteriodal ecdysone agonists.                 of the most important pests of pistachio trees. The study
Newly laid eggs proved to be more sensitive than older               was carried out during 2007 and 2008 in Aleppo
ones, and Tebufenozide was more effective than Dibenzoyl             Governorate in the northern part of Syria. A Survey was
hydrazine on three days old eggs. The toxic effect of two            conducted in the pistachio growing areas to determine
tested compounds were more potent on the 4th instar than             damages caused by this pest. In addition, some biological
2nd instar larvae. Dibenzoyl hydrazine was markedly less             characteristics of this insect were studied. The results
toxic than Tebufenozide and the ovicidal and larvicidal              showed that this pest was wide-spread in the region in
activities of both compounds were concentration dependent.           Aleppo, causing considerable damage and infestation rate
The rate of pupation and moth emergence were markedly                of orchards reached 96%, whereas twig infestation rate
reduced with the increase of the concentration used.                 ranged from 7.5 to 90%. Results showed that this insect
                                                                     attacked flowers, fruits, clusters and twigs. Emergence from

E-22     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
diapause was observed in the second half of March to the             M’hamed Bougara, P.O. Box 35000, Boumerdes, Algeria;
second week of April, and signaled by larvae activity and            (2) Institute national d’agronomie, Algeria; (3) National
pupation. Results showed that adult emergence was                    Institute of Research Forrester, Bainem, Algeria, Email:
observed on the first week of April till the first week of           chnadjiba@yahoo.fr
May. This study indicated that this insect has one                             Pistachios, Pistacia vera cultivation is rare in
generation per year.                                                 Algeria. Lack of knowledge on reproduction techniques led
                                                                     to low yield which does not exceed 0.75 tons / hectare. In
E 23                                                                 addition, insect pests Chaetoptelius vestitus has led to poor
SEASONAL ACTIVITY OF THE CODLING MOTH,                               production. Total production of a healthy tree is 25 kg,
CYDIA POMONELLA L. IN SOME APPLE                                     while the infested tree produces about 15 kg only, about
ORCHARDS AT LATTAKIA GOVERNORATE,                                    40% reduction. This is mainly due to infestation with C.
SYRIA. Abdulnabi Mohamed Basher1, Louai Hafez Aslan1                 vestitus which spends its aestivation in the young twigs of
and Shadi Ibrahim Al-Haj2. (1) Department of Plant                   the healthy trees, boring in them, making tunnels in the
Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University,             newly formed branches, which leads to such yield loss.
Damascus, Syria; (2) Lattakia Center for Insectary Natural
Enemies, Agriculture Department of Lattakia, Lattakia,               E 26
Syria, Email: shadi_alhajj@hotmail.com                               SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GRAPE TREES VARIETIES
        The aim of this research is to study seasonal activity       TO       INFESTATION            WITH        THE       GRAPE
of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera:                LEAFHOPPER, EURYTHRONEURA SPP. AND
Tortricidae) and its different stages and to determine               UNDERSTANDING                   MECHANISIMS                OF
number of generations and thermal requirements by using              RESISTANCE. M.A.M. AI-Hayalee and F.M. Farag,
the pheromone traps at apple orchards in two regions                 College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul,
(Eramo and Rabiha) of Lattakia Governorate, Syria. Results           Iraq; Email: semad82@yahoo.com
indicated that the insect had three generations per year at                  The study was conducted on the grape leafhopper,
Rabiha region. The duration of the first, second and third           Eurythroneura spp. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) which was
generations were 70, 43 and 28 days, respectively with               abundant in grape orchard of horticulture station at
cumulative temperatures of 672.75, 783.25 and 583.7                  Sulaimani a governorate, Iraq, to determine susceptibility of
degree-days (dd), respectively. However, this pest had two           ten grape varieties to infestation with the insect and identify
generations per year at Eramo region. The duration of the            mechanism of resistance. The results showed that the
first and two generations were 80 and 63 days, respectively          infestation with insect eggs on grape leaves of some
with cumulative temperatures of 731.5 and 1062.25 dd.                varieties began in the second week of June, with a few
                                                                     numbers on Sarkulah and Sadani Spi, then the numbers
E 24                                                                 increased gradually and fluctuated until reaching the peak
STUDY OF TUTTA ABSOLUTA ON TOMATO                                    (696 eggs) during the last week of September for all
PROTECTED CROPS, AT MZERAA, BISKRA                                   varieties, Suraw variety was the least variety infestated or
OASIS, ALGERIA. N. Tarai1, S. Doumandji2, H.                         preferred by the insect for egg laying. Statistical analysis
Messaoudia1, B. Abdelli1 and F. Allache1. (1) Département            showed that there were significant differences at 5%
d’Agronomie, Université Mohamed Khider, Biskra,                      probability of the population density of the eggs among the
Algeria, Email: tarai_nc@yahoo.fr; (2) Département de                ten varieties. It was found that Sadani variety was the much
Zoologie, Institut National Agronomique, Elharrach,                  susceptible with a population density of (602 insects) but
Algeria.                                                             the Sar variety was less susceptible with a low population
         A survey on the Tutta absoluta (Lepidoptera:                density (146 insects). In addition, there was a significant
Gelechiidae), newly introduced in the oasis of Biskra, was           negative correlation (-0.63 and -0.85) between population
carried out on tomato greenhouse crop at Mzeraa, Biskra              density of nymphs and adults and length and density of
oasis, which produce more than 20% of the national                   trichomes of grape leaf varieties, respectively.
production. This survey was based on TUTASON traps
with the sexual pheromone PHERODIS, installed in 20                  E 27
greenhouses according to direction (North, South, East,              ECONOMIC           INJURY        LEVELS        OF     THE
West). The highest number of males caught was recorded               MEDITERRANEAN               FRUIT–FLY,         CERATITIS
during the end of March, whereas the lowest number was               CAPITATA (WIED.) ON NAVAL ORANGE (CITRUS)
recorded during the month of November. Temperature                   ORCHARDS IN EGYPT. Aida M. El Hakim, M.W.
recorded was in the range of 20-25°C. The yield loss in the          Makkar, A.M.Z. Mosallam and T.S. El Abbassi, Plant
greenhouses without pheromone traps was 60%, whereas it              Protection Research Institute, ARC, Dokki, Giza, Egypt,
was only 10% in greenhouses with pheromone traps.                    Email: hadia.hamdy@gmail.com
                                                                              Very low, low, medium, and high infestation
E 25                                                                 levels of the Mediterranean fruit-fly (Medfly), Ceratitis
EFFECT OF CHAETOPTELIUS VESTITUS ON THE                              capitata (Wied.) (Tephritidae: Diptera) were chosen at 5
PRODUCTIVITY         OF   THE      FRUIT-BEARING                     naturally infested sites (naval orange orchards) in Fayoum
PISTACHIO TREES IN ALGERIA. Nadjiba Chebouti-                        and the same in Sharkia Governorates, Egypt. Infestation
Meziou1, Salah Eddine Doumandji2, Yahia Chebouti3. (1)               levels were evaluated weekly during September, October,
Department of Biology, Faculty of Siences, University                November and December in 2008, to develop economic

                                                         2009    /                         27                                 E-23
injury levels of the (Medfly). Adult fly densities were              E 30
monitored weekly using pheromone sticky traps and                    DURATION OF INJURIOUS GENERATIONS OF
correlation between catch per trap and infestation level was         BACTEROCERA OLEAE GMEL. IN TAROM CITY
foun positive. Fruits were rated for (Medfly) damage using           OF ZANDJAN PROVINCE (IRAN). A.A. Keyhanian1
4 damage scales. F1 = no infestation or sound fruits, F2 =           and M.A. Taghaddosi2. (1) Iranian Research Institute of
fruits with false stings, F3 = fruits with true stings, and F4 =     Plant Protection, Iran; (2) Agricultural and Natural
fruits with larvae. Economic injury levels were 3.3 and              Resources Research Center of Zandjan, Iran, Email:
4.12% infestation in Fayoum and Sharkia and                          akeyhanian@yahoo.com
corresponding fly daily counts were 1.0 and 1.2 male adult                    Olive fruit fly, Bacterocera oleae Gmel. (Dip.:
fly/day/trap, respectively.                                          Tephritidae) is one of the most important tephritid flies
                                                                     damaging olive orchards throughout the world. Although
E 28                                                                 main damage occurs by larvae which feed exclusively on
BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE ALMOND SEED                                  mesocarp of the olive fruits but adults' damage may be
WASP, EURYTOMA AMYGDALI END IN MIDDLE                                observed on other fruits too. This insect is a multivoltine
SYRIA AND ITS CONTROL. W. Kasses and Rawda                           pest and its damage happens from late October till late
Sukar Ghali, Entomology Lab, Plant Protection                        November over the region. To determine damaging
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University,             generation, this study was conducted in 2007 by using the
P.O. Box 31738, Syria, Email: rawdaghali@gmail.com                   following method, in late July, months before infestation,
          Almond seed wasp, Eurytoma amygdali End                    20 branches, each covering 15 olive fruits were randomly
(Eurytomidae: Hymenoptera) is a serious pest of almond               selected and enclosed in cage (40×15 cm). To obtain adult
trees all over the world. It is a monophagous insect and             flies, on October 7th, infested olives were collected from
causes a great reduction in yield. Biology of this insect was        olive growing area of Ghazvin province, Iran and
studied in Homs city (Syria), the largest province of almond         transferred to the laboratory. On October 26th, five healthy
production. The insect overwinters as matured larva inside           female adults were released into each cage for egg laying
the seed for six months. Larvae had a grey colour at the             for 24 hours. On Nov. 20th, first 3rd instar larvae of the pest
beginning of diapause which turns gradually into white               came out of the fruit and this process lasted up to December
colour. Pupation took place at the end of February, and              12th. Based on this finding, it could be concluded that
emergence of adults was observed at the end of March.                damage in the last egg-larval generation needed 35.8 days
Some chemical insecticides such as Karate Zeon and                   to be completed.
Concord super were tested and proved to be very effective
for controlling this pest.                                           E 31
                                                                     SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF GREEN PEACH
E 29                                                                 APHID, MYZUS PERSICAE SULZER ON SOME
BIOLOGY OF THE TENT CATERPILLAR MOTH                                 WILD PLANTS IN ERBIL CITY, KURDISTAN
MALACOSOMA NEUSTRIA L. IN AL-GABAL AL-                               REGION, IRAQ. Adil H. Amin1 and Hana H.
AKHDAR REGION, LIBYA. Kamela A. Waheish, Adel                        Mohammed2. (1) Department of Plant Protection, College
H. Amen and Ibrahim M. El-Ghariani, Plant Protection                 of Agriculture, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Kurdistan
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar                  Region, Iraq; (2) Department of Biology, College of
University, P.O. Box 919, El-Beida, Libya, Email:                    Science, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Kurdistan region,
ghariani99@yahoo.com                                                 Iraq, Email: ahkorachi@yahoo.com
         The tent caterpillar Malacosoma neustria L.                           Myzus persicae Sulzer was recorded on 16 species
(Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is a common pest throughout             of wild plants belonging to 9 plant families, including 5
Al-Gabal Al-Akhdar region. It is a leaf feeder on oak,               species of composite, 3 species of Brassicaceae, 2 species
almond and apple trees. The present study provides a                 of Fabaceae, while one species was recorded for each of the
general account of the morphology of different stages of the         families, Convolvulaceae, Umbelliferae, Malvaceae,
insect and the most important biological indicators. The             Rutaceae, Solanaceae and Fumariaceae. The seasonal
adults began to emerge from late May and mating occurred             abundance of M. persicae on 6 wild plant species showed
in early June. The females layed their eggs within several           that the aphid stayed on Aster squamatus (Spring) for 8
hours after emergence. Adults died within few days.                  weeks, from early November to late December, and reached
Females layed eggs in band-like masses on small twigs.               its peak in early December; on Convolvulus arvensis L., for
Embryos developed to first-stage larvae within three weeks.          18 weeks, from mid September to mid January, with a peak
Larvae entered diapause and remained dormant within egg              in late November. The insect was also found on Capsella
shells throughout summer, fall, and winter. Hatching                 bursa-pastoris L. for 9 weeks, from early March to early
usually occured during late March and early April, during            May, with a peak in mid March; on Hirschfeldia incana L.
leaf development. Caterpillars constructed webs and fed for          for 14 weeks, from mid February to late May, with a peak
about eight weeks. Pupation occured in silk cocoons during           in early March; on Sisymbrium irio L. for 13 weeks, from
mid-May to early June. Adults emerged within two weeks               mid February to early May, with a peak in mid March; and
to begin a new cycle. Only one generation per year was               on Sonchus oleraceus L. for 7 weeks, from late January to
observed.                                                            early March, with a peak in late January. The temperature
                                                                     and relative humidity had a significant effect on the number
                                                                     of insects on C. arvensis, C. bursa-pastoris and S. irio and


E-24     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
without a significant effect on A. squamatus, H. incana and          and adoption of annual pruning, hedging and pruning
S. oleraceus.                                                        practices, particularly on narrowly spaced trees.

E 32                                                                 E 34
SURVEY OF ARTHROPODS ASSOCIATED WITH                                 FRUIT FLIES IN SUDAN: THEIR SPECIES
CANOLA PLANT (RAPESEED) BRASSICA NAPUS L.                            COMPOSITION, HOST RANGE AND FIELD
IN SOHAG GOVERNORATE, UPPER EGYPT,                                   RESPONSE TO FOOD-BASED AND MALE LURES
EGYPT. Gamal Karaman, A. Younis, A. Salman and A.                    ATTRACTANTS. Mohammed E.E. Mahmoud1, Sumia
Ahmed, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of                       Abukashwa2, Mohammed A. Kambal2 and Elsadig Masoud
Agriculture, Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt, Email:               Belal1. (1) ARC, Sudan; (2) University of Khartoum,
radwakaraman@yahoo.com                                               Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Khartoum,
         Canola Plant (oilseed rape), nowadays became one            Sudan, Email: nazeiro@maktoob.com
of the most important oil crops all over the world. It was                    Fruit flies (Tephritidae: Diptera) are notorious
recently introduced for cultivating in Egypt in order to             pests of horticultural crops in Sudan. This study was
bridge part of the gap between production and consumption            conducted to find out species composition of fruit flies at
of edible oils. Due to lack of information on certain                Khartoum and Kassala during 2007-2009, determine host
arthropods associated with the crop under local conditions           range and asses their field response to protein hydrolaste
of Upper Egypt, the present work was undertaken, in order            (Nulure, Torula yeast, AFFI and GF-120) and male lures
to shed light on this new crop. Results revealed the                 (Methyl Eugenol, Terpinyl Acetate, Culure, and
occurrence of 29 species of arthropodes related to 24                Trimedlure). More than 10 species from 3 genera were
families, belonging to 13 orders. Phytophagous species               recorded. Mango and Guava were found attacked by
were represented by 6 important economic species                     Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera. invadens, C. cosyra and C.
(20.69%), 7 species as non pests (24.14%) and 4 species              quinaria. Grape fruit, orange, mandarin and banana were
(13.79%) were classified as pollinators and visitors.                found infested by B.invadens. Lemon and bananna were
However, natural enemies, pasasitiods and predators, were            recorded as new hosts for B. invadens at Kassala.
represented by 12 species (41.38%).                                  Cucumber, water melon, musk melon were found infested
                                                                     by Dacus ciliatus, Dacus sp and B. cucurbitae while Sidir
E 33                                                                 Zizyphus spinacristi and Juba juba were found infested by
ABUNDANCE OF THE CITRUS MEALYBUG,                                    Paradalopsis incomplete. Usher Calotropis procera was
PLANOCOCCUS CITRI (RISSO) ON SOME CITRUS                             attacked by B. longistylus. Torula yeast for two consecutive
SPECIES, IN THE GEZIRA STATE (SUDAN) AND                             seasons was the best attractant to C. capitata, B. invadens,
THE EFFICACY OF THE PETROLEUM OIL SPRAY                              C. cosyra, C. quinaria, B. cucurbitae while Nulure efficacy
"D-C TRON® PLUS" IN ITS CONTROL. Tag Elsir E.                        was decreased conspicuously in the second season. B.
Abdalla and Entisar A. Osman, Agricultural Research                  invadens responded to Methyl Eugenol, while C. capitata,
Corporation, Gezira Research Station, P.O. Box 126, Wad              C. cosyra and C. quinaria responded to Terpinyl Acetate
Medani, Sudan, Email tagelsirr@yahoo.com                             and C. capitata alone was attracted to Trimedlure.
        This study was conducted during 2004 and 2005
seasons, to quantify the abundance of the citrus mealybug,           E 35
Planococcus citri (Risso) on lemon (Citrus aurantifolia)             SURVEY AND SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF
and grapefruit (C. paradisi) trees in the existing orchards of       CERTAIN HOMOPTEROUS INSECTS INFESTING
the Gezira State (Sudan) and to determine the efficacy of            BROCCOLI PLANTS AT MENIA EL-KAMH
the petroleum oil spray oil "D-C Tron Plus" in its control.          REGION, SHARKIA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT.
The results showed that, the pest was widely distributed             Mustapha Hashem1, Hamza El-sharkawy2 and Abdallah
throughout the Gezira State. Infestation on lemon trees              Abd-El-Samed1. (1) Department of Plant Protection,
ranged between 6.2% and 81.4%, and on grapefruit                     Institute of Efficient Productivity, Zagazig University,
between 25% and 100%. The infestation was higher in the              Egypt; (2) Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture
southern compared to northern Gezira. The important                  Research, Centre, Egypt, E mail: Hamzash@hotmail.com
factors determining the intensity of P. citri incidence were                  Survey and seasonal abundance of certain
found to be climatic conditions, diversification of plant            homopterous insects (aphids, leafhoppers and white flies)
species within an orchard, plant spacing, management and             infesting broccoli plants were carried out under field
age of the trees. The tested doses of the "D-C Tron Plus"            conditions at Menia El-Kamh region, Sharkia Governorate,
0.375%, 0.5% and 0.625% product (v/v) (product/water)                Egypt during the two growing seasons of 2006/07 and
were highly effective in controlling the pest and                    2007/08. The effect of some climatic factors on the
significantly increased the marketable yield in terms of             population density of the dominant insects was also studied.
fruits number and weight per tree as compared with the               Results obtained could be summarized as follow: a)
control. The highest dose, 0.625%, consistently and                  surveyed aphid species were: Brevicoryne brassicae
significantly gave the best results compared with the two            (Linnaeus), Myzus persicae (Sulz) and Lipaphis erysimi
lower doses. The study recommended the "D-C Tron Plus"               (Davis). b) surveyed leafhopper species were: Empoasca
at 0.625% for the control of the citrus mealybug,                    decipiens (Paoli), Empoasca decedens (Paoli) and
diversification of plant species in an orchard, spacing of           Balclutha hortensis (Linds.), c) surveyed white fly species
citrus trees at 8 x 8 m, as earlier recommended by ARC,              was only Bemisia tabaci (Genn.). Seasonal abundances of


                                                         2009    /                        27                                E-25
the dominant insects species can be summarized as follow:            Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of
a) for aphid species, three peaks for B. brassicae were              Kerman,        76169-133       Kerman,       Iran,    Email:
noticed on broccoli by mid-October, end November and                 shirvani@mail.uk.ac.ir
end March, three peaks for M. persicae were recorded on                       In a faunistic survey during 2006-2008, fauna of
broccoli plants by mid-October, end November and end                 Noctuidae family of Kerman was investigated. Different
March. b) for leafhoppers species, two peaks for E.                  locations of various geographical coordinates and altitudes
decipiens were found on broccoli by end October, and end             were chosen and sampling was done using light traps of
March, one peak for E. decedens was recorded on broccoli             different intervals. The relationships between geographical
by mid-November, B. hortensis population occurred with               coordinate, altitude, season, and vegetation with species
only one peak by end of October, c) white fly population             were evaluated. In total, 104 species of 51 genera belonging
density of immature stages of B. tabaci occurred with two            to 14 subfamilies from 500 to 3000 metres altitudes were
peaks by the end of September and the end of March,                  collected and identified. Of these, 53 species are a first
whereas there were two peaks for the adult stage by mid-             record for the fauna of Kerman. Noctuinae subfamily with
October and mid-March. On the other hand, results of the             42 species had the highest number of species while
effects of temperature and relative humidity on the                  Psaphidinae, Acronictinae and Amphipyrinae each had one
population fluctuations of the aphids, leafhoppers and white         species. Most species of Xyleninae showed either late or
fly species revealed that the correlation coefficient was            early flying pattern. Those of other subfamilies evenly
significant with some insects and insignificant with the             differed through the seasons. The dominant vegetation of
others. Also, path coefficient between the temperature and           the locations was Artemisia species except for saline
relative humidity showed that temperature seemed to affect           habitats where Salsola species dominated.
the population of insects first followed by relative humidity.
                                                                     E 38
E 36                                                                 ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF LEPIDOSAPHES BECKII
ECOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE PEACH/MANGO                                  (NEWMAN) AND ITS PARASITOIDS IN CITRUS
FRUIT FLY BACTROCERA ZONATA (SAUNDERS)                               ORCHARDS AT LATTAKIA GOVERNORATE,
IN LAHIJ GOVERNORATE, REPUBLIC OF                                    SYRIA. Nabil Abokaf1 , Eiad Mahamad2 and Abd Alnabi
YEMEN. Saeed A. Ba-Angood and Nasir Kh. Sunaid,                      Basher3. (1) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of
Department of Plant Protection, Nasir’s College of                   Agriculture, Tishreen University, P.O. Box 1446, Lattakia,
Agriculture, University of Aden, P.O. Box 6172,                      Syria; (2) Centre of Biological Enemies Rearing, AlHanadi,
Khormaksar, Aden, Republic of Yemen, Email:                          Syria; (3) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of
baangood@yemen.net.ye                                                Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria, Email:
          The peach/mango fruit fly Bactrocera zonata                n.abokaf@scs-net.org
(Saunders) (Tephritidae: Diptera) is a quarantine pest that                   The research was carried out to study the ecology
has been spread during the past few years causing economic           of the purple scale insect, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman)
damages to mango, peach, guava and other crops.                      and to determine parasitoid species associated with the pest
Pheromone traps using methyl eugenol, were used to                   at Lattakia Governorate, Syria during 2005-2007. Samples
monitor the population of the pest in mango and guava                were collected from citrus orchards at Alhinadi, Stamo,
fields in 2006/2007. The results have shown that the pest is         Tergano, Hmemim, Lattakia governorate. During this
present almost all the year around, but it reached its peak in       study, three generations of the pest, on all citrus varieties,
September, where the mean pheromone trap catch was 2278              and seven parasitoid species were found associated with it.
males. The number declined when the temperature                      These parasitoids belonged to order Hymenoptera:
decreased reaching its minimum (196 males) in January and            superfamily Calcidoidea and family Aphelinidae. Four of
March. It has been noticed that the number of males caught           them were ectoparasitoids (genus Aphytis) and two were
in pheromone traps were higher in the morning compared to            endoparasitoids (genus Encarsia).
that in the evening. The preferred color of the pheromone
trap that attracts more males was the white color, followed          E 39
by yellow; the least attraction was by the black color. A            INVENTORY OF THE TYPES OF LOCUSTS AND
positive correlation was found between the increase in               HOPPERS IN SEMI-ARID REGION IN THE
temperature and the number of adults caught in the                   EASTERN REGION OF ALGERIA. Naima Benkenana
pheromone traps (r=0.85). Rainfall has little effect on insect       and A. Harrat, Arthropods Systematic and Ecology
numbers, while the effect of winds was not clear. Field food         Laboratory, Science Faculty, Mentouri University,
preference trials, as well as fruit juices, showed that the          Contantine, Algeria, Email: naima_benkenana@yahoo.fr
insect prefers mango compared to other fruit trees available                  Inventory of the locust fauna in a semi-arid zone in
in the area. This information is important for developing an         the eastern region of Algeria, revealed the presence of 35
integrated pest management (IPM) program for the pest in             locust species, belonged to four families: Acrididae,
the area.                                                            Pyrgomorphidae, Pamphagidae and Acrydiidae. Family
                                                                     Acrididae was represented by 9 subfamilies. Subfamily
E 37                                                                 Oedipodinae was the largest with 8 species. The
NOCTUIDAE         (LEPIDOPTERA)        MATERIALS                     subfamilies; Cyrtacanthacridinae, Catantopinae and
COLLECTED FROM KERMAN, IRAN. Asghar                                  Truxalinae were represented only by one species each.
Shirvani Saadatabadi, Department of Plant Protection,                Species: Anacridium eagyptium (Linné, 1764), Acrotylus


E-26     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
patruelis patruelis (Herrich-schaeffer, 1884), Pezotettix           appearance of phytophagous which settles and evolves in
giornii (Rossi, 1794) and Ocneridia volxemii (Bolivar,              April, followed by predators towards the end of this month.
1878) appeared to have economic importance in the area of           The predatory insects were dominant compared to
study.                                                              parasitoids, and the coccinellid beetles were more abundant.
                                                                    Ladybirds were represented especially by the species
E 40                                                                Chilocorus bipunctatus, Chilocorus bipustulatus, Pullus
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOYBEAN CULTIVARS                               suturalis and Scymnus (Mimopullus) mediterraneus.
ON       REPRODUCTION             OF       HELICOVERPA              Correlation regression analysis, a multivariate analysis
ARMIGERA HB. Safieh Soleimannejad, Yaghoub                          based on Detrended Correspondance Analysis, as well as
Fathipour and Saeid Moharramipour, Department of                    the barycenter of the functional groups were used in the
Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares                 analysis.
University, P.O. Box 14115-336, Tehran, Iran Email:
soleimannejad2009@gmail.com                                         E 42
         Reducing usage of chemicals for control of                 BIOLOGY OF APORIA CRATAEGI L AND ITS
Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) was the main purpose of               ECONOMIC THRESHOLD LEVEL IN CENTRAL
this study. Demographic and reproductive responses of H.            AND SOUTHERN-SYRIA. Amanni shlallo, Louai Aslaan
armigera to 10 soybean cultivars (Clark, M4, M9, M7,                and Wajih Alkassis, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus
Sahar, L17, Tellar, Gorgan3, Sari and Zane) were                    University,          Damascus,          Syria,        Email:
evaluated. All experiments were conducted at 25± 1ºC,               amannishllalo@yahoo.com
60±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D). Results                             In Syria, almond plantations are located mainly in
demonstrated significant differences in life expectancy of          central area. Aporia crataegi attacks almond, apple, azarole,
immature stages raised on different soybean cultivars.              mahlab and it became the most important insect pest. This
Adults emerged from these larvae showed various                     study was conducted during 2003 – 2009 in central Syria
reproductive ability as gross fecundity rate varied from            and 2008-2009 in southern Syria. Third instar larvae enter
2558.4 eggs on Sari to 589.67 eggs on Sahar. Gross fertility        into diapause in winter nests started their reactivation
rate varied from 1458.01 eggs on Clark to 132.1 eggs on             according to the place and host. In central Syria, larval
L17. The highest amount of gross reproductive rate was              activity started in early February on early maturing almond,
observed on Clark (2103.53 eggs) and the lowest was on              and later on late maturing almonds. The activity of the
Sahar (626.29 eggs). These results suggest that the                 larvae on early maturing cvs. was delayed till March in
suppression of moths reproductive activity by Sahar and             southern Syria. Apantales sp. was noted to attack larvae,
L17 cultivars had a good potential for a pest control.              with parasitism rate of 29, 21, 41, 18, 3% in 2004, 2005,
                                                                    2006, 2008 and 2009, in central Syria, and 19 and 20% in
E 41                                                                2008- 2009 in southern-Syria. ETL study was conducted
CONTRIBUTION             TO       THE       FUNCTIONAL              according to nets number, host age and host productivity.
DIVERSITY STUDY OF THE INSECTS FAUNA                                Three different host ages (5, 8 and 10 years) and different
ASSOCIATED WITH OLIVE-TREE FOR THE                                  number of nests (3, 4 and 5) were maintained on different
MODULATION OF THE PESTS-AUXILIARY-                                  hosts to determine the highest number of nests on a host
PLANT HOST RELATIONS, IN CENTRAL MITIDJA                            with no significant effect on productivity. Ten years old
REGION (ALGERIA). Amina Koutti, Leïla Allal                         trees performed the best. Total fecundity, daily fecundity,
Benfekih and Zahreddine Djazouli, Laboratory of Zoology,            mortality and survival rate, reproductive rate, the mean
Department of Agonomic Sciences, Saad Dahleb                        generation time and sex ratio were investigated.
University, Blida, Algeria. Email: acrido@yahoo.fr
         The insects fauna associated with the olive-tree           E 43
was studied in two orchards of different age: one young             REGISTRATION OF 11 NEW SPECIES OF INSECTS
plantation of olive table variety and an old one of olive oil       IN QATAR. Khaled Mohamed Mardini1, Laurent Soldati2,
variety, located in Central Mitidja region (Algeria). Some          Michel Martinez3, E. Pierre3, and C. Cocquempot3. (1)
parameters of the functionnal biodiversity are illustrated in       Qatar insects Project, Friends of the Environment Center,
the framework of this study, the presence and the                   P.O.Box      1822,    Doha,    Qatar,;    Email:    khaled-
abundance of the insect pests and random visitors of the            m92@hotmail.com; (2) Centre de Biologie et de Gestion
crops need to be analyzed in a context of crop protection.          des populations (CBGP), Montpellier, France ; (3) National
We examined the structure of the settlements of the                 Institute of Agronomic Researches (INRA), Montpellier,
functional groups in the olive grove, on the seasonal level.        France.
Two groups seem correlated well at the season: that of the                    In a recent insects survey in Qatar, 7 species
predatory and flower-dwelling visitors which are entering           belong to the order Coleoptera, 3 Diptera and one belong to
in diapause to spend the winter and which feed from the             Homoptera. Cardiophorus sp. (Eleteridae) were found in
weak populations of Saissetia olea present at this period;          Doha, Acmaeodera sp. (Buprestidae) found in Traina area,
the other gathers the opophagous lecanidae and psyllidae            Phtora sp. (Tenebrionidae) found in Doha and Umsht
which will multiply because of the increase in the                  Island, Trachyscelis sp. (Tenebrionidae) found in Madinat
temperatures during the spring period. By considering their         Al Shamal and Al- Ghariyah, Apsheronellus sp.
ecological succession, the phytophagous insects and                 (Tenebrionidae) found in Umm said area, Ammogiton sp.
random visitors appear during the same month, with early            (Tenebrionidae) found in Umm said area, Mesostena sp.

                                                        2009    /                        27                                E-27
(Tenebrionidae) found in Al Wakra, Al Jamailiya and Dahl             the pest lifecycle and reducing the pest population. The
Al hamam area, Afrotethina sp.(Tethinidae) found in Umm              benefits of Adress are: (i) Very safe technology making its
said area, Xanthocanace sp. (Canacidae) found in Al Khor             way to Syria and the Middle East for the first time; (ii) The
area, Calliardia sp. (Psyllidae) found in Umm said area.             compatibility of this system with the Syrian Ministry of
Through this project 11 new insect species were recorded             Agriculture policy for IPM and biological control of citrus
from Qatar.                                                          pests; (iii) Unique features and benefits compared to the
                                                                     conventional pheromone traps such as ease of application
E 44                                                                 and placement at the start of the crop season with no need
ECOLOGICAL STUDY ON BEET FLEA BEETLE,                                for repetition, thus saving time and Money. This approach
CHAETOCNEMA                   TIBIALIS            (ILLIGER).         permits farmers to keep fruits on the tree at will without
(CHRYSOMELIDAE: COLEOPTERA) AND ITS                                  having to harvest until such time as the crop price becomes
CONTROL AT HOMS GOVERNORATE, SYRIA.                                  more attractive.
M.Y. Ibrahim, E.A. Mehrez and F. Abass, GCSAR,
Agricultural Scientific Research Center at Homs,                     E 46
Department of Plant Protection Research, Homs, Syria,                BIO-ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF APODIPHUS
Email: mohamedkozii@yahoo.com                                        AMYGDALI                       (GERMAR)(HEMIPTERA:
          The seasonal activity of beet flea beetle adults,          PENTATOMIDAE) ON SOME FRUIT TREES IN
Chaetocnema tibialis (Illiger), was studied on sugar beet            ERBIL GOVERNORATE. Sarkaut H. Muhammed1 and
varieties at Homs Region during 2007 season. Results                 Riyad A. Al-Iraqi2. (1) Department of Biology, College of
obtained indicated that adults activity was started at the 2nd       Science, Salahaddin University, Arbil, Iraq; (2) Department
week of May on all varieties in the January and February             of Biology, College of Science, Mosul University, Iraq,
planting dates. The number tended to increase gradually,             Email: sarkawt_zanko@yahoo.com
starting from early June, and reaching a peak, 65.9 and 97.9                 This study was carried out in May 2007. Five
holes/25 leaves, for the two planting dates, respectively.           species of Pentatomide stink bugs were recorded on many
The 2nd peak occurred in the 4th week of July, with 118.42           fruit and non-fruit trees in four locations (Shaqlawa, Kark
and 364.14 holes/25 leaves, for both planting dates,                 village, Qusthapa and city center). These stink bugs were:
respectively. Vico variety was the most susceptible (48.53           Apodiphus amygdali (Germar), Mustha spinulosa
and 109.48 holes/25 leaves for the two planting dates,               (Lefebvre), Mustha sp., Carcenoplistus acutus (Signoret)
respectively), meanwhile, Ramona and Prognos were the                and Rhaphigaster nebulosa (Poda), the last three species
least infested varieties. Infestation started however with           were recorded for the first time in Iraq. It has been found
quite low holes (2.49 holes/25 leaves) at the 3rd week of            that the hibernated stink bugs A. amygdali began their
May and increased gradually at the 4th week of June with             activity during the end of May 2007, while the new
23.15 holes/leaf, and arrived at the end of season to (159.95        emerged adults appeared at the beginning of July. The bug
holes/25 leaves). Moreover, infestation rate was increased           was present in the field for about five months. The stink
by that insect at the 2nd planting date (1st week of February)       bug was found on the following trees: Plum, Apricot,
and doubled at the 1st planting date (the 1st half of January).      Apple, Olive, Almond, Peach, Pear, Grape, Pomegranate,
Six pesticides were evaluated against beet flea beetle;              Loquat, Citrus, Fig, Sumaq, Juglanus, Mulberry, Poplar,
results showed that Saprino and Cypermethrin pesticide               Planetree, Willow and Robinia. A. amygdali was found on
gave the highest effective rate (90.88% and 90.69%),                 the three fruit trees apricot, pear and apple.The mean egg
compared with Nimadol pesticide (49.35%), two weeks                  incubation period was 3.75 days and the egg hatching rates
after treatment.                                                     were 89.29 and 100.0% for apricot, 96.94and 92.86% for
                                                                     pear and 100.0 and 100.0% on apple trees, for the two
E 45                                                                 generations, respectively. The nymphs completed their
ADRESS: A NEW FUTURE SAFETY INTEGRATED                               development after five instars, the mean period of each was
TECHNOLOGY TO CONTROL MEDITERRANEAN                                  4.0, 7.7, 7.8, 8.7 and 9.3 days for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th
FRUIT FLY. Ahmed Idlbi, Syngenta Agro Services, Syria,               instar, respectively. The mean natural mortality among the
Email: Ahmed.idlbi@syngenta.com                                      nymphal stages was 73.49%, and the majority of which
          The Mediterranean fruit fly is one of the pests            occurred among the fifth instar nymph. The pre-oviposition
which causes losses in the fruit sector worldwide. There are         period was in the range of 3-6 days for the first generation,
19 million hectares of fruit trees in the world attacked by          but the overwintered females of the second generation had a
this pest, from which 7 million hectares are Citrus. In the          long pre-oviposition period and began to lay their eggs after
Mediterranean countries such as Syria, Lebanon and other             hibernation. The stink bug A. amygdali had two generations
Middle Eastern countries where Citrus is an important crop,          throughout the year, the first one began in the fourth week
this pest represent a threat over the entire citrus sector.          of June while the second began in the second week of
Adress is a Fruit fly chemosterilant system which includes:          August, and the emerged adult entered hibernation from
3 kinds of pheromones and unique gel formulation                     mid October until the fourth week of May of the next year.
containing the active ingredient lufenuron with feeding              The hibernating sites were in the Safeen Mountain. The
stimulant for Mediterranean fruit-flies (Ceratitis capitata)         general sex ratio was 1:1. The average body lengths and
as a bait. Male and female fruit flies which ingest the bait         widths of each of the five nymphal instars were: 2.76-2.84
are irreversibly sterilized by the lufenuron and Such flies          and 2.20-2.24; 4.00-4.72 and 3.00-3.44; 5.98-6.23 and 3.74-
may continue to lay eggs which do not hatch, thus breaking           4.15; 9.96-10.79 and 5.64-6.39; 11.20-13.60 and 6.24-7.84


E-28     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
mm, respectively. The adult measurements were: 13.60-              E 49
15.36 mm long and 7.20-8.00 mm wide for males and                  MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF SOME FRUIT FLIES
15.36-17.60 mm long and 8.00-8.64 mm wide for females.             FOUND RECENTLY IN EGYPT. Badr El-Sabah A.
                                                                   Fetoh, Plant Protection Research Institute, ARC, Dokki,
E 47                                                               Giza, Egypt, Email: badrelsabah@yahoo.com
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ECOLOGICAL                                         In Egypt the cucurbit fly, Dacus ciliatus (Loew) and
STUDIES OF THE APPLE FRUIT WORM (CYDIA                             the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders)
POMONELLA) AND ASSESSMENT OF YIELD                                 (Tephritidae: Diptera) were found infesting some
LOSSES CAUSED BY IT IN AIN EL-TOUTE                                horticultural fruits such as guava, mango, peach and orange
REGION IN BATNA GOVERNORATE, ALGERIA.                              in addition to some cucurbitaceous and solanaceous
Shafiaa Ismail and Mehdi Salame, National Institute for            vegetables. Both flies resemble each other in infestation
Agricultural Sciences, 16200 El-Harrash, Algeria, Email:           symptoms and in all immature stages. Furthermore, adults
mergueb2002@yahoo.fr                                               have the same shape, size and color. Morphological
          In Algeria, the apple fruit worm (Cydia                  differences appear in the thorax, wings and abdomen.
pomonella) has 2-4 generations/year according to the               Electrophrosis of total protein (SDS-PAGE) in all stages of
location and host. To develop a forcasting system and to           both species indicated the presence of 10 protein bands in
improve control strategy of the apple fruit worm in the El-        D. ciliatus and 11 protein bands in B. zonata ranging
Toute region, studies were conducted in three experiment           between 151.17 kDa and 19.72 kDa with common major
stations. In one station the apple variety Star Crimson was        protein bands of 20.67 kDa. Similarity level was 72.92%,
planted, whereas in the other two stations, the variety            similarity coefficient was 0.90 and commonality level was
Golden Delicious was planted. The use of male pheromone            9.52%. Esterase isoenzyme pattern after electrophroesis
traps indicated the presence of three generations during the       showed the presence of 5 bands in both species ranging in
growing season. The use of cardboard traps next to the             size from 59.34 kDa to 169.24 kDa with a common major
roots indicated the presence of large number of larvae             band of 97.17 kDa. Similarity level was 16.03%, similarity
which intered diapause during winter. The pest damage on           coefficient was 0.80 and commonality level was 22.22%.
the fruits still on the tree or those dropped on the ground        This could provide an effective tool for the identification of
was variable among the stations. The calculation of the            any stage of the insect (egg, larva, pupa and/or adult) in an
cumulative temperature enabled the determination of                easy and quick manner, thus help in agricultural quarantine
number of days required for appluing appropriate                   and controlling both D. ciliatus and B. zonata when newly
international.                                                     appear as serious pests in Egypt.

E 48                                                               E 50
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF                             ECOLOGY OF DATE STEM BORER (JABUSAEA
TWO         INSECT        GROWTH          REGULATORS               HAMMERSCHMIDTII) AND THE USE OF THE
CONCENTRATIONS, DIMILIN AND TRIGARD, ON                            ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA
SOME NUTRITIONAL PARAMETERS OF COTTON                              BASSIANA FOR ITS CONTROL. Emad M. T. Al-
LEAF WORM, SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD).                          Hafidh, Private Trading Company, P.O. Box 27492, Abu
Haitham Mohie Al-Ddeen Mohamed, Plant Protection                   Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Email: emmothi@yahoo.com
Department, Agriculture College, Mosul University, Iraq,                     Jabusaea hammerschmidtii is the most important
Email: d.haitham@yahoo.com                                         pest on date palms trees in Iraq and Arab Gulf states. The
      The effect three concentrations 150ml/l, 250ml/l, and        results identified the duration of differentlife stages (egg,
350ml/l, of the insect Growth Regulators (IGR) Trigard and         larvae, pupa, and adult) during the year, the time table of
Dimilin on some nutritional parameters of leaf cotton              each stage in the field, and the effect of some ecological
worm, Spodoptera littoralis, under laboratory conditions           conditions on the infestation with this insect in date palm
(28±1°C and 65±5% RH) were made. Trigard exhibited                 orchards. The effect of the fungus Beauvaria bassiana were
higher average values of approximate digestibility (AD),           studied on different stages of the stem borer and the best
efficiency conversion of feed digestibility (ECD), and             time for effective application of B. bassiana in the field for
efficiency conversion of feed Intake (ECI) which reached           pest management was determined.
93.29, 3.127 and 2.905, respectively. Dimilin showed a
higher average value of rate growth regulators (RGR) that          E 51
reached 0.139. The results revealed lower average values of        BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON
RGR, ECI and ECD at 250 ml/l concentration, for both               OMMATISSUS BINOTATUS LYBICUS IN U.A.E. Emad
gfowth regulators and reached 0.119, 1.65 and 1.82 for             M. T. Al-Hafidh, Private Trading Company, P.O. Box
Dimilin, and 0.018, 0.43 and 0.46 for Trigard, respectively.       27492, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Email:
The concentration 150 ml/l for the two growth regulators           emmothi@yahoo.com
showed high AD values which reached 95.32 and 94.00 for                     The insect Ommatissus binotatus lybicus is one of
Trigard and Dimilian respectively as compared to 92.75 for         the most important pests on date palm trees in U.A.E. The
the control treatment.                                             life cycle and the population density of two generations
                                                                   were studied in the field during the year. The results
                                                                   showed that the population density of the first generation
                                                                   was higher than the second generation of this insect and

                                                       2009    /                         27                                E-29
such difference may be due to the temperature and relative           yield with characteristics related to Sunn Pest infestation
humidity variability during the year in U.A.E. A large               (Sunn Pest mature adults, percent of infested grain per
proportion of eggs (53.4%) were laid on the lower leaves,            spike, nymphes and adults of Sunn Pest, number of infested
suggesting that thinning of lower leaves can reduce the              leaves/m2, percent of infested non carrier tillers and percent
damage caused by this peast.                                         of infested spikes/m2), and then partitioning the correlation
                                                                     coefficients to direct and indirect effects through path
E 52                                                                 analysis, to get information about the higher effect of its
EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND THREE                              characters on grain yield. Stepwise regression procedure
VARIETIES OF SUGAR BEET ON APHIDS INSECT                             was used to identify the best regression equation for
AND RELATION TO ITS YIELD AND QUALITY.                               predicting the grain yield related to the characters of the
Salih M. Alrashidi, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq, Email:            Sunn Pest infestation. The results are summarized as
sa53mah@gmail.com.                                                   follows: (1) Significant negative correlation was found
          A Field experiment was carried out at the site of          between the grain yield and Sunn Pest mature adults during
Hawija, famous for sugar beet cultivation. Five levels of            the two seasons, (2) Sunn Pest mature adults had significant
nitrogen fertilizer (0, 20, 160, 200 and 240 kg Urea/ha)             positive correlations with number of infested leaves/m2,
were used and of beet cvs. (Rosa, Jetan, Triple), over an            percent of infested non carrier tillers and the percentage of
experimental area of 6 hectares. The nitrogenous fertilizers         infested spikes/m2, during the two seasons, and with the
were added at two times: the first at sowing seeds an April          adults of Sunn Pest during the first season and the
5th, the second was after thinning. Super phosphate                  percentage of infested grain per spike during the second
fertilizer 45% P2O5 was also added with at 150 kg/ha. The            season, (3) The percentage of infested grain per spike had a
experiment was executed according to a randomized                    significant negative correlation using 1000 grains weight
complete block design with factorial treatments in three             during the first season and a germination rate during the
replicates. A follow-up experiment from the seedling date            second season, (4) Path analysis results showed the high
in April, to the harvest time at the end of September. The           importance of mature adults of Sunn Pest, the direct effect
last three leaves were used for one week (from 5 to 12th             on the grain yield and its indirect effect through most other
May) for observation of aphid population. Results showed             characters during the two seasons, indicating that mature
that there was a significant positive relationship between           adults of Sunn Pest had a strong passive effect on the
aphid attack and amount of nitrogen fertilization, and also          reduction of the grain yield in the bread wheat followed by
between the fresh weight of root/plant and root yield. The           a percentage of infested non carrier tillers and Sunn Pest
four nitrogen levels applied as mentioned above were                 nymphs, (5) It was shown from stepwise regression
accompanied by an increase in yield of 36.12, 50.89, 56.58           procedure that the best regression equation is the one which
and 65.09%, respectively, compared to the control                    contained mature adults of Sunn Pest and could be used for
treatment. The sugar content has also increased compared             the prediction of grain yield.
with the control treatment. Results indicated that aphid
infestation of sugar beet crop increased with the increase of        E 54
nitrogen fertilizer.The “Tetan” monoembryonic cv. was the            THE HIDING PLANTS FOR THE DORMANCY
best, with low aphid indestation level. This study indicated         PHASE OF THE SUNN PEST (EURYGASTER
that nitrogen fertilizer increased the total yield and               INTEGRICEPS PUT.) ATGARA MOUNTAIN IN
decreased slightly the sugar content under high levels of            DOHUK PROVINCE. Suaad Irdeny Abdullah1 Suaad
nitrogen, while the infestaion with aphids increased with            Irdeny Abdullah1 and Lazkin Hagy Assaf2. (1) Plant
nitrogen fertilizer increase.                                        Protection Departmant, College of Agriculture & Forestry,
                                                                     Mosul University, Iraq; (2) Plant Protection Department,
E 53                                                                 College of Agriculture, Duhok University, Iraq, Email:
RELATIVE            IMPORTANCE            OF        SOME             lazgeenassaf@yahoo.com
CHARACTERISTICS RELATED TO SUNN PEST                                          Adults of Sunn Pest Eurygaster integriceps Put.
INFESTATION ON GRAIN YIELD OF BREAD                                  hide beneath different plants and weeds in overwintering
WHEAT. Suaad Irdeny Abdullah1, Khalid Mohammad                       locations (Gara mountain) in Dohuk province to escape
Dawod2 and Lazkin Hagy Assaf3. (1) Field Crops                       adverse conditions. 26 plant species were identified, 18 of
Department, College of Agriculture & Forestry, Mosul                 them were registered for the first time during this study.
University, Iraq; (2) Plant Protection Department, College           The highest average number of alive adults (64.67
of Agriculture & Forestry, Mosul University, Iraq; (3) Plant         insects/plant) were found under Acantholimon acerosum
Protection Department, College of Agriculture, Duhok                 (Willd.) Bioss, while total number of alive and dead insects
University, Iraq, Email: khalddawod@yahoo.com                        were 74.67 insects/plant, followed by Cruianella gilanica
         The experiment was conducted at the Research                Tirn., Astragulus octopus Tonw., Marrubium vulgare L.,
Station of the Faculty of Agronomy, Duhok University                 Teucrium chamaedrys, Astragulus gossypinus Fisch.ex Hor.
(Duhok Governorate, Iraq), during 2004/2005 and                      with an average of 29.67, 26.33, 27.67, 27.00, 24.67 and
2005/2006 seasons. Bread wheat varieties (Sham 6, Tamoze             36.67 insects/plant for each plant species, respectively.
2, IPA 99, Iraq, Noor, Az, Door 85, Door 29, IPA 95, Abo-            Meanwhile the total number of insects were 36.33, 36.33,
Graib, Mexiback, Araz and Waha) were planted under                   31.00 and 27.33 insects per plant under each plant species,
rainfed conditions using randomized complete block design            respectively.
with three replications, to study the correlations of grain


E-30     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
E 55                                                                 parasitized larvae decreased from about 39% to 30% during
EFFECTS          OF      FOUR       INSECT        GROWTH             the same period.
REGULATORS               ON         THE         PREDATOR
CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA. Jawad Kadhim Al-Rubaye,                          E 57
Plant Protection Department, Agriculture College, Baghdad            HOST PREFERENCE OF JASMINE WHITEFLY
University,          Abu-Ghraib,          Iraq,       Email:         ALEUROCLAVA                                        JASMINI
jwd_kadhim@yahoo.com                                                 (HOMOPTERA:ALEYRODIDAE)ON CITRUS IN
        The biological effects of four insect growth                 SOUTH BAGHDAD ORCHARDS IN IRAQ.
regulators (IGR); Insegar 25 wp (125, 250 and 500 ppm),              Mohammed Z. Khalaf, B.Sh. Hamd, B.H. Hassan, A.H.
Admiral 10 EC (50,100, and 200 ppm), Cascade 50 EC                   Salman and F.H. Naher, Integrated Pest Control Research
(250, 500, and 1000 ppm), and Trigards 75 wp (375, 750,              Center, Ministry of Science & Technology, P.O. Box 765,
and 1500 ppm) were studied on Chrysoperla carnea. The                Baghdad, Iraq, Email: mzkhalaf2007@yahoo.com
results showed that the effect of the Trigard treatment at all                Field and laboratory studies were conducted in
concentrations was high on the eggs hatchability of the              south Baghdad orchards aiming at determining population
predator which was registered 0%, while the highest                  dynamics and host preference of jasmine whitefly
percentage of hatching egg was 72% when Admiral was                  Aleuroclava jasmini on Orange (Citrus sinensis), Mandarin
used. Treatment of the first larval instar with Cascade              (C. reticulata), Lemon (C. limon) and Bergamot (C.
indicated that this stage will survive and can grow and              aurantiom) during the 2007 season. Results of biological
complete its development. Meanwhile in the treatments of             studies revealed that this insect laid its eggs on the under
the third larval instar with IGR’s the lowest and the highest        surface of the leaves. It was apparent from the results of
percentages of development to pupal stage were 41.7% and             field sampling that the insect preferred mandarin trees more
84.9% when Trigard and Admiral were used, respectively.              than orange, lemon and bergamot trees, respectively, for
This result means that the first instar of this predator is          both feeding, egg laying and development of the immature
more sensitive to IGR than the third instar. The fecundity           stages. The adult numerical density was 66.6, 59.1, 25.5
and fertility of females feeding on treated food with the            and 16.1 insect per leaf on mandarin, orange, lemon and
IGRs were significantly affected.                                    bergamot, respectively. Meanwhile the eggs population
                                                                     density was 341.1, 293.1, 232.3 and 193.4 egg per cm leaf
E 56                                                                 respectively and 176.7, 134.4, 112.2 and 63.3 nymph per
A      NEW         RECORD          OF       CERODONTHA               cm leaf, respectively. The results of this study can be used
(CERODONTHA)             PHRAGMITOPHILA            HERING            in developing practical biological and chemical control
(DIPTERA: AGROMYZIDAE) ON OBOE CANE,                                 applications for this pest.
ARUNDO DONAX L. IN EGYPT. Samir A. El-Serwy,
Ministry of Agriculture, Plant Protection Research Institute,        E 58
7 Nadi El-Seid Street, Dokki, P.O. Box 12618, Giza, Egypt,           BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF
Email: samirelserwy@hotmail.com.                                     IRAQI BEETLE ADORETUS IRAKANUS OHS. Ismail
      The      leafminer,     Cerodontha       (Cerodontha)          N. Almaroof, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul
phragmitophila Hering, is recorded for the first time on             University, Iraq, Email: ismail_najim@yahoo.com
oboe cane, Arundo donax L. plants grown in or on the                        The life cycle of Adoretus irakanus Ohs.
banks of the irrigation canals at Al-Aiat region in Giza             (Coleoptera: Rutelidae) which attack poplar species was
governorate. The Cerodontha Rondani (Agromyzidae)                    studied in Iraq in 2007 under laboratory conditions (30.5 C°
fauna of Egypt includes now 3 species. Females laid their            and 25.5%). The study showed that the mean length of egg
eggs singly near the margin on lower surface of the leaf             incubation, eggs hatchability and larval stages length were
blade. The initial mine of the newly hatched larvae was              7.51 days, 82% and 432.8 days, respectively. Larval stages
linear and became widen corridor by vertical feeding of              lived underground and fed on the decayed material and
larvae on the blade leaf tissue and pupation of the full-            roots of different plants present in the soil. The mean period
grown larvae within the mine. Infestation started in late            of pupa was 7.1 days. After the emergence of adults, it laid
August and continued until late October 2003 and during              the eggs in the soil singly and dispersed. The study also
the last three weeks of September 2008 with general mean             indicated that the mean number of eggs laid by a single
infestation levels of 3 and 8%, respectively. Larvae produce         female were 106.5. The sex ratio of male to female was
between 1-3 mines/infested leaf. Two larval and pupal                1.1:1. The longevity of adults, males and females were
parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) i.e.             27.35, 30.75 days, respectively. Also it was found that this
Diglyphus isaea Walker (new record) and Chrysocharis sp.             species of insect had one generation per year. The
(new record) were identified. Pupal was generally higher             hibernation appeared in the second larval instar. Ecological
than larval parasitism with rates of 64 and 34%,                     study has shown that damage started with the primary
respectively. Both parasitoids started their activity in late        appearance of the Iraqi beetle adults, at the beginning of
August and continued until the third week of October 2003            April. The increase of insects number caused an increase in
including the last three weeks of September 2008. It                 the area and percentage of damage, which reached their
fluctuated greatly with rates of pupal parasitism increased          maximum means (16.20, 12.11, 10.7 cm2) (44.87, 17.35,
from about 48% in 2003 to 80% in 2008, whilst rates of               41.07%) for Populus nigra, P. deltoides and P. euphratica,
                                                                     respectively. This happened when the insects number


                                                         2009    /                         27                                E-31
means reached the maximum (2.81, 2.31 and 2.0                        locations were visited namely Tolga and Felliache. Around
insects/leaf) for the above mentioned poplar species at              15 samples of date fruits were collected in each location
mean temperature of 27.42°C and 34.5% R.H..The                       and for all the seasons studied “winter, spring and
statistical analysis showed that there was a significant             summer”; 5 samples per season and per location were
correlation between the mean insect number and mean of               collected. In this survey 6 species of insects from different
area and percentage of damage in the 3 poplar species, with          families were identified. Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis
r values of 90.64, 93.05 and 89.62 for damaged area, and             capitata, family Tephritidae was found during spring and
90.31, 88.32 and 89.49 for damage percentage,                        summer season. Dried fruit beetles Carpophilus hemipterus
respectively.                                                        (family Nitidulidae) was found in damaged date fruits. Two
                                                                     species of angoumois grain moth Plodia interpunctella and
E 59                                                                 Ephestia calidella (family, Pyralidae) and one species of
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THREE                     DATE PALM                date moth Ectomyelois ceratoniea were found in all seasons
VARIETIES TO ECTOMYELOIS CERATONIEA IN                               under storage conditions. Two species Phanerotoma
TWO OASIS WAD RIGH AND BISKRA SOUTH-                                 flavitestacea    and     Habrobracon      hebetor    (family
EAST OF ALGERIA. Farid Bounaceur1, Naima M ebrek2,                   Braconidae) were found to be principal parasitoids of
Abdessalem Zabi1, Bahia Doumaindji-Mitiche3, Fatma                   Ectomyelois ceratoniea.
Zohra Bissaad3, Atika Benrima Guendouz4 and Amina
Djemai4. (1) Departement of Biology, University Ibn                  E 61
Khaldoun Tiaret, Algeria; (2) Departement of Agronomy,               POPULATION FLUCTUATIONS AND INTER-
Faculty of Sciensce, University Mohamed Khieder Biskra,              SPECIFIC COMPOSITION BETWEEN TEPHRITID
Algeria, Email: mebrekn@yahoo.fr; (3) Departement of                 FLIES ATTACKING FRUIT CROPS IN THE NEW
Zoology, National Institut of Agronomy, Algiers, Algeria;            VALLEY OASES, EGYPT. Farouk A. Abdel-Galil1,
(4) Departement of Agronomy, Faculty Agro-veto,                      Mohamed A. Amro2, Abdellah S.H. Abdel-Moniem3 and
University Saâd Dehleb, Blida, Algeria.                              Ola O. Elfandary3. (1) Plant Protection Department, Faculty
          Ectomyelois ceratoniea is known to cause a                 of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; (2) Plant
considerable damage to date fruits in Algeria; infestation           Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center,
affecting date production was estimated between 10 to 40%            Dokki, Giza, Egypt; (3) Department of Pests and Plant
which constitue a permanent danger to production and                 Protection, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt,
export of date fruits. The objective of the study was to             Email: address: raoof_amro@yahoo.com
determine the susceptibility of three varieties of date fruits                 Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit
in two oasis in south-east of Algeria: Wad Righ and Biskra.          fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and the peach fly
The study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006               Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) was monitored with lure trap
in three stations of el Wad governorate; Djamâa,El Maghier           collections in three provinces in the New Valley oases,
and Sidi Khellil, and three stations in Biskra governorate           Western Desert, Egypt. Results showed marked temporal
namely; Tolga, Sidi Okba and Felliache. Infestation levels           differences in peak trap catches of the two flies in the
of three varieties of date fruits “Deglet Nour, Mech Degla           selected sites all over the entire studied area. One annual
and Ghars” were investigated. Results indicated large                peak of C. capitata was recorded during both October 2005
differences in infestation by Ectomyelois ceratoniea                 and February 2006 and coincided with the ripening period
occurred, with differences based on varieties, regions and           of citrus trees in Kharga oases. However, two annual peaks
storage area. The highest infestation level of 15-25% was            were recorded during June and September 2005 in
registered at Wad Righ Oasis. However, Deglet Nour                   Bodkholow province and coincided with the ripening
variety showed susceptibility to this insect under storage           period of apple and mango. On the other hand, two annual
conditions.                                                          peaks of B. zonata were recorded in Kharga oases
                                                                     throughout May and September and coincided with the
E 60                                                                 ripening periods of apricot, mango and guava. One annual
SURVEY OF DATE FRUIT INSECTS UNDER                                   peak only was recorded around September and/or October
TRADITIONAL STORAGE CONDITIONS AT                                    in both of Moot and Bodkholow in Dakhla oases and
BISKRA OASIS IN ALGERIA. Farid Bounaceur1, Naima                     coincided with the ripening period of mango, guava and
M ebrek2, Abdessalem Zabi1, Bahia Doumaindji-Mitiche3,               citrus. Occurrence of C. capitata was very limited in
Fatma Zohra Bissaad3, Atika Benrima Guendouz4 and                    comparison with B. zonata. Population fluctuations of the
Amina Djemai4. (1) Department of Biology, University Ibn             two pests in the studied sites were significantly different.
Khaldoun Tiaret, Algeria; (2) Department of Agronomy,                The ability of the used traps in capturing both C. capitata
Faculty of Sciensce, University Mohamed Khieder Biskra,              and B. zonata indicated that the yellow sticky trap was
Algeria, Email: mebrekn@yahoo.fr; (3) Department of                  more effective in capturing C. capitata. However, Abdel-
Zoology, National Institut of Agronomy, Algiers, Algeria;            Kawi trap was efficient in trapping B. zonata. Occurrence
(4) Department of Agronomy, Faculty Agro-veterinary,                 of B. zontata in higher numbers than C. capitata during the
University Saâd Dehleb, Blida, Algeria.                              study period was considered as an indicator that this
         A survey for stored date fruits insects was carried         invading fly might be an aggressive tephritid fly competitor
out during the period from January to August 2006, to                to the native fly C. capitata.
identify insect species at Biskra Oasis in Algeria. Two


E-32     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
E 62                                                                the trunk, excavating S-shaped fumels just under the bark,
EVALUATING THE TOXICITY AND LATE                                    and continue until autumn. Pupal stage was observed from
EFFICIENCY OF BIOPESTICIDE SPINOSAD                                 mid to late of spring. The life cycle of C. miliaris took two
AGAINST           THE         COTTON         LEAFWORM,              years while that of M. picta was one year.
SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.). A.A. Khidr,
H.A. Mohamed and M.A. Ahmed, Plant Protection                       E 64
Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki,            A SURVEY AND IDENTIFICATON OF ANTS AND
Giza, Egypt, Email: prof.abdelaziz.abouelela@gmail.com              SOIL PROPERTIES ASSOCIATED WITH SOME
          Spinosad is an insect control agents derived from         SPECIES IN MOSUL. Nada S. Othman and Suaad I.
the metabolites of the naturally occurring bacteria,                Abdullah, Plant Protection Department, College of
Saccharopolyspora spinosa. The objective of this study is           Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq,
to evaluate the toxicity as well as the late efficiency of          Email: nadaaltayar@yahoo.com
spinosad against the 4th instar larvae of the cotton leaf                     In a survey of ants widely spread in Mosul, Iraq,
worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Dipping, contact to a         workers and queens of the following species were
surface film and immersion techniques were used in this             identified: Messor rufitarsis (Fab.), Cataglyphus bicolor
investigation. The highest toxicity of spinosad was noticed         (Fab.), Cataglyphus nodus (Brulle), Camponotus xerxes
96 hours after treatment. Results illustrated the superiority       Forel, Pheidole sinaitica (Mayr), Tetramorium meridionale
of dipping techniques for 4th instar larvae to the biocidal         Emery, Monomorium sp., Tapinoma simrothi Krausse,
action of spinosad. The efficiency of the bioassay                  Paratrechina jaegerskioeldi Mayr, Crematogaster aubrti
techniques was in a decreasing order as follows: dipping,           Emery. Humidity had a significant and positive effect on
immersion and contact to a surface film. The corresponding          the distance between one opening and the other in the first
LC50 and LC90 values against the tested larvae 96 hours             four previous mentioned ant species. There was a
after treatment with the three techniques were 122.85 and           significant relationship between the organic content and the
518.61, 129.90 and 608.78, and 141.34 and 978.38 ppm,               number of the nests and the distance between one opening
respectively. The 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis        and the other and the mounds soil weight for Cataglyphus
(Boisd.) showed moderate susceptibility to the biocidal             nodus and Camponotus xerxes. The data showed that the
action of spinosad as demonstrated by the toxicity ratios.          same four species were widespread in mixed soils, and the
The toxicity ratios of all bioassay techniques were less than       ant’s soil mounds were characterized by their high content
1.00. The susceptibility index as well as the potency level         of organic matter in comparison with the soils near the nest
expressed as number of folds at both LC50 and LC90 values           opening.
increased with increasing the period of determination. The
latent effects of spinosad on the pupation as well as the           E 65
adult emergence were determined. The corresponding EC50             EFFECT OF INCUBATION TEMPERATURES ON
and EC90 values associated with quintal scoring of pupation         THE DEVELOPMENT OF EGGS AND PUPAL
due to dipping, immersion and contact to a surface film of          STAGE OF THE GREATER MELON FLY, DACUS
bioassays were 36.24 and 251.95, 50.02 and 549.34, and              FRONTALIS (BECKER). Shukri Shraif1 and Bob Cheke2.
63.57 and 711.97 ppm, respectively. Whereas, the                    (1) Biotechnology Research Centre (BTRC), P.O. Box
corresponding IC50 and IC90 values associated with                  30313, Tajora, Libya, Email: shokre2005@hotmail.co.uk;
inhibition of the adult emergence were 7.28 and 215.44,             (2) Natural Resources, Greenwich University, UK.
43.52 and 291.42, and 54.12 and 386.07 ppm, respectively.                  The Greater melon fly Dacus frontalis is considered
                                                                    to be the most dangerous pest of cucurbits and causes a
E 63                                                                great yield loss to these crops in Libya This study was
DISTRIBUTION OF POPLAR STEM BORERS IN                               conducted to test the effects of different incubation
KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ. Talal T. Mahmoud and                        temperatures on the development of egg and pupal stages of
Batool A. Karso, Department of Plant Protection, College            the Greater melon fly. The results showed that the optimum
of Agriculture, University of Dohuk, Iraq, Email:                   temperature for egg hatching was in the range 30-33 °C,
taherm47@yahoo.com                                                  while the lethal temperatures were < 10 and >39 °C. Pupal
         Survey results indicated that there were three main        development was strongly affected by changing of
species of borers associated with poplar and willow trees in        incubation temperature. Increasing temperature reduced the
Kurdistan region, north of Iraq. Two of them belong to              time required for the pupa to develop; no flies emerged at
buprestidae; Capnodis milliaris Klug. and Melanophila               temperature of <15°C and >33°C and the optimum
picta Pall. in dry and warm regions, while the third one was        temperature was at 30°C.
related to Lepidoptera Aegeriidae, found associated with
the wet areas and identified as Parathrene (Sciapteron)             E 66
tabaniformis Rott. The above-mentioned species were                 DOMINANT WEEDS FOR RICE STEM BORER,
spread in Dohuk, Erbel and Sulaymania provinces. Eleven             CHILLO SUPRESSALIS OVERWINTERING IN
other species were recorded, three of them were a first             PADDY RICE OF SOUTH OF CASPIAN SEA.
record in Iraq. The adult borer appeared at the 1st week of         Rouhollah Radjabi1, Ahmad Nadimi2, Ghodsialsadat
June, feeding, flying and mating at range of 20.9-34.3°C            Amirkiaei3, Atefe Brari3 and Ali Julazade Saki4. (1) Islamic
and 29-51%.R.H where it starts laying the eggs inside bark          Azad University, Dezful Branch, Dezful, Iran, Email:
cracks of the trunk. The larvae make feeding tunnel inside          Radjabi1360@gmail.com; (2) Tabiat Modares University,

                                                        2009    /                        27                                E-33
Agricultural Faculty, Department of Entomology, Tehran,
Iran; (3) Plant Protection Clinic, Astane ahrafie, Guilan            E 68
Province, Iran; (4) Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch,          ATTRACTION AND REPELLENCY EFFECTS OF
Dezful, Iran.                                                        SAP AND HEARTWOOD OF SOME FOREST TREES
          Overwintering sites of rice stem borer, Chillo             ON       THE       TERMITE         MICROCEROTERMES
supressalis (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) in Astane ashrafie              DIVERSUS SILV. Nazar M. Al–Mallah1, Shahin A.
(Guilan province, Iran) were studied to determine suitable           Mustafa2 and Waleed A. Qasseer3. (1) Department of Plant
and dominant weeds. Sampling of overwintering larvae was             Protection, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University
carried out during 2 month in late winter. For weed                  of Musol, Iraq; (2) Department of Forestry, College of
sampling (Coix lacrima, Artemisia spp., Cyperus spp.,                Agriculture, University of Koya, Erbil, Iraq, Email:
Xanthium strumarium and Erigeron Canadensis) four sites              shahinkifre@yahoo.com; (3) Department of Plant
were selected and number of dead and alive larvae were               Protection, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University
recorded. The sample size was 20 larvae. The maximum                 of Mosul, Iraq.
number of dead and alive larvae was recorded in Xanthium                      Attraction and repellency effects of phenols,
strumarium and Coix lacrima (92 and 47 total alive and               alkaloids, terpens, fixed and volatile oils of sap and
dead larvae, respectively). Results showed that among four           heartwood of Platanus orientalis, Populus nigra, Cupressus
weeds, Xanthium strumarium was the main weed for pest                sempervirens, Pinus brutia, Salix acmophylla and
during diapause followed by Coix lacrima. Perhaps                    Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the termite Microcerotermes
abundance of these two weeds affects on results of our               diversus Silv. (Isoptera: Termitidae) workers showed
investigation. Multiplication rate for the weeds Coix                significant differences according to the type of extract,
lacrima, Artemisia spp., Cyperus spp., Xanthium                      chemical compound, wood type and tree species. The
strumarium and Erigeron canadensis was more or less                  results showed that the repellent effect of phenols extracts
similar. It seems that rice stem borer select for                    of sapwood on the termite workers ranged from 5 to 40%,
overwintering, places with appropriate weeds based on                whereas attraction rates ranged from 35 to 80%, repellent
different ecologies.                                                 rate in case of the sapwood extracted by alkaloids ranged
                                                                     between 30 and 50%, while attraction rates were 50-85%.
E 67                                                                 Repellent rates of Terpens extract of sapwood were 10–
FIELD          EVALUATION             OF        CERTAIN              46%, while attraction rates were 35-80%. For Sapwood
ATTRACTANTS OF MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT                                   extracted by volatile oils, repellent rates were 10–45%
FLY CERATITIS CAPITATA WIEDMANN IN                                   while attraction percent was 35-75%. Repellent rates
CENTRAL JORDAN VALLEY. Muna Salem                                    ranged between 5 and 45% and attraction rates were
Alfawwer1, Muhammad Adel Eftayeh2 and Tawfiq Mustafa                 between 10 and 75% for fixed oils extract. Heart wood
Al-Antary3.(1) National Center for Agricultural Research             extracts of the six tree species showed less attraction
and Extension (NCARE), Amman, Jordan, Email:                         compared with the sapwood.
muna13001@yahoo.com; muna@ncare.gov.jo; (2) Faculty
of Agriculture, Damascus University, Syria; (3) Faculty of           E 69
Agriculture, Jordan University, Amman, Jordan.                       STUDIES OF SUGARCANE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
         Field trial was conducted in Central Jordan valley,         INFESTATION WITH THE RED PALM WEEVIL,
to compare captures of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis         RHYNHOPHORUS FERRUGINEUS OLV. Y. El Sebay
capitata Wiedmann (Diptera: Tephritidae) traps baited with           and M.K. Abbas, Plant Protection Research Institute, ARC,
female and male targeted lures. Several types of traps were          Dokki, Giza, Egypt, Email: mohamed.kmal55@yahoo.com
used; traps consisted of food synthetic attractants of three                  The present work dealt with studying the
component lures (ammonium acetate, putreseine and                    susceptibility of sugarcane plants to infestation with the red
trimethylamine) tested in MacPhail type traps with                   palm weevil, Rhynhophorus Ferrugineus (Coleoptera:
Dichloro divenyl phosphate (DDVP) and water,                         Curlionidae) in the field. Results obtained showed that the
additionally dome traps baited with diammonium phosphate             female adults could not infest the stalks of sugarcane plants
(DAP) + yeast and protein hydrolsate+ borax, vertical                due to the adults' inability to lay their eggs on the external
yellow sticky traps alone or with solid diammonium                   hard layer of the plants can not feed or lay eggs, and
phosphate, ovoid yellow sticky traps alone or with soluble           consequently the insects were found dead in the green
trimedlure and finally Jackson trap with TML. Jackson and            house. The results were confirmed in the laboratory, where
ovoid yellow sticky traps baited with male specific                  the pest could only attack wounded stalks and females
trimedlure captured more males than traps baited with                could lay their eggs inside the stalks. Newly hatching larvae
female attractants. However, the total capture of medfly             were found boring into the stalks forming tunnels. Also,
was highest in Jackson trap than in McPhail traps baited             mechanical infestation could be achieved by both eggs and
with the three component synthetic lures. More females               different larval instars. Studies showed that the life cycle
were captured in traps baited with the three component               was completed within 3 months, egg hatching during on 3-5
lures than in traps baited with other female targeted lures.         days, larval duration 40-73 days, pupal stage duration 16-27
Moderate numbers were obtained from dome trap with                   days, weevils' adult duration was 40-70 days and number of
protein hydrolsate and borax. The lowest efficient traps             eggs laid/female was 130-220 eggs at 29ºC.
were both vertical yellow sticky traps and dome traps with
DAP.

E-34     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
E 70                                                                UPMC-INRA- AgroParis Tech Physiologie de l’Insecte,
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLD AND DEGREE                                  Signalisation et Communication, UPMC, 7, quai Saint
DAYS OF THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE,                                 Bernard 75005 Paris , France; (3) Département de Zoologie
LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA (SAY.). R.S. Al-                          Agricole et Forestière, Institut National Agronomique,
Jorany and M.K. Al-Fatlawy, Department of Plant                     16200 El-Harrach, Alger, Algérie ; (4) FRE2852 UPMC-
Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad,          CNRS, Groupe Biogenèse des stéroïdes, UPMC, case 29, 7
Iraq, Email: redha_aljorany@yahoo.com                               quai St Bernard 75005 Paris, France.
         Results of the laboratory study showed that all                      The insecticide Diflubenzuron (DFB), a
biological aspects of the Colorado potato beetle                    benzoylphenyl urea derivative (BPU), was tested on newly
Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say.) were affected when it was          5th instar larvae of Schistocerca gregaria. Treatment was
reared on different host plants (potato, eggplant and tomato)       carried out at concentration of 30 mg per ml for 24h. The
and at different temperatures (20, 25, and 30ºC) with               compound exhibited an insecticidal activity and larval
constant relative humidity (70±5%). Shortest life cycle of          mortality occurred after earlier inhibition of their
the insect (19.9 days) was at 30ºC on potato. The results           development or by their inability to complete their ecdysis.
also showed that the developmental threshold of the pest            Treatment resulted in a significant larvicidal effect and in
was 9.04, 10.72 and 9.62ºC on potato, eggplant and tomato,          an inhibition of adult emergence. Moreover, the compound
respectively and the degree days required for development           disturbed growth and development when several
to adult stage were 416.76, 400 and 476.19 on the three             morphogical types were compared to control. In a second
host plants, respectively. These temperature units                  series of experiments, the effect of DFB applied for 24h at a
requirements are satisfied by early February; therefore, the        30 mg/ml, was evaluated on hemolymph ecdysteroid levels
time of adult appearance in the field could be predicted. It        in 5e instar larvae of S. gregaria. Results showed that the
was also found that the correlation among temperature               lowest ecdysteroid levels correlated with ecdysis in larvae.
degrees, plant hosts and daily developmental rate was               Following DFB treatment in S. gregaria, ecdysteroid titres
significant and positive as R= 0.99, 0.99 and 0.96 on potato,       in hemolymph were reduced as they remained low
eggplant and tomato, respectively.                                  throughout the larval cycle.

E 71                                                                E 73
FACTORS         AFFECTING            THE    POPULATION              DETERMINATION OF LARVAL INSTARS OF
DYNAMICS OF THE APPLE LEAF-MINER,                                   LEOPARD MOTH, ZEUZERA PYRINA (L.) BY
PHYLLONORYCTER BLANCARDELLA (HÜB.) AND                              USING THE BROOKS-DYAR RULE. Abdulnabi
THE IMPORTANCE OF ITS PARASITOIDS IN                                Mohamed Basher1, Louai Hafez Aslan1 and Jounar Aziz
SALAHDIN PROVINCE, IRAQ. H.K. Al-Zubaidy1 and                       Ibrahim2. (1) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of
S.Z. Baker2. (1) College of Agriculture, Baghdad                    Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria; (2)
University, Iraq; (2) College of Agriculture, Tekrit                Lattakia Center for Natural Enemies Rearing, Lattakia,
University, Iraq, Email: alzubaidybio@yahoo.com                     Syria, Email: Jounar@aloola.sy
          Nine hymenopterous parasitoids were recorded on                   This study was conducted in two apple orchards in
the immature stages of the apple leaf-miner,Phyllonorycter          two regions (Aramo and Rabiia) of Lattakia governorate,
blancardella (Hüb.). Six were ectoparasitoids and three             Syria. The main objective of this study was to identify
were endoparasitoids. Rate of parasitism varied, being 1.5–         larval instars of the Leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina L.
10.6% on the first 3 larval instars, 28.1–35% on the last two       (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) by using Brooks-Dyar Rule. Data
instars as well the pupa. Parasitism rate was highest on            obtained from measuring head-capsule were demonstrated
newly hatched larvae, reaching 49%, while it was 2.3–               by having capsule width placed on x-axis and class
23.9% for the last two instars and the pupa. Abiotic factors        frequency on the y-axis. The results showed eight larval
particularly, adverse weather conditions through summer             instars and a constant geometric increase (1.3) in size range
season played a major role in the population dynamics of            of the head-capsule among instars.
the first three larval instars, when 12.5–69.6% mortality
was recorded. Life cycle data revealed that fifth larval            E 74
instar was the most affected, as K-value recorded ranged             THE EFFICIENCY OF MOLTING HORMONE (20-
between 0.08 and 0.7. The trend index (TI) indicated simple         HYDROXYECDYSONE) AGAINST OLIVE FRUIT
increase in the insect population ranged between 0.59 and           FLY BACTROCERA (DACUS) OLEA GMEL. IN
1.73.                                                               LEBANON. Dalida Darazy1 and Georges Kaddissi2. (1)
                                                                    Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,
E 72                                                                Lebanese University, Dekwaneh, Lebanon, Email:
ACTIVITY           OF       DIFLUBENZURON              ON           dchoubaya_darazy@hotmail.com;          (2)    Faculty      of
HEMOLYMPH ECDYSTEROID LEVELS IN THE                                 Agricultural Sciences, Holy Spirit University, Kaslik,
LARVAE OF SCHISTOCERCA GREGARIA. Ghania                             Lebanon.
Tail1, Patrick Porcheron2, Bahia Doumandji-Mitiche3 and                      The olive fruit fly is the most serious pest
Catherine Blais4. (1) Département de Biologie, Faculté des          attacking olive groves in Lebanon and the Mediterranean
Sciences Agro-Vétérinaire, Université Saad Dahleb, 09000            basin affecting the quality and the quantity of oil and table
Blida, Algérie, Email: ghaniatail@yahoo.fr; (2) UMR 1272            olive. Current control measures rely heavily on the use of


                                                        2009    /                        27                                E-35
chemical pesticides, with its adverse effects on the olive           E 76
ecosystem and on the environment. The aim of this work               EFFECIENCY           OF      DIFFERENT         TRAPS        IN
was to examine the anti-feedant effects and bioactivity of           CATCHING ZEUZERA PYRINA (L.) IN APPLE
the molting hormone 20- Hydroxyecdysone (20E) on olive               ORCHARDS IN SOUTHERN SYRIA. Adel Al-
fruit fly and its possible use in integrated pest management         Manoufi1, Majd Jamal2, Enrico de Lillo3 and Eustachio
(IPM) as an alternative to the traditional chemical control          Tarasco3. (1) Administration of Plant Protection research,
methods of the pest. In fact, there is a vast amount of              General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research
knowledge showing that many plant species synthesize                 (GCSAR), P.O. Box 113, Douma, Damascus, Syria, Email:
such hormone as a defense chemical and as an antifeedant.            adel-agro@hotmail.com; (2) Department of Plant
The molting hormone 20-E was extracted from spinach                  Protection, Agriculture College, Damascus University,
seeds. A field strain of olive fruit flies was collected and         Damascus, Syria; (3) Department of Agricultural and
reared artificially in the Lab. Three concentrations of the          Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Section of
extracted hormone 1, 5, 10 μg/ μl respectively were added            Entomology and Zoology (DIBCA), Agriculture College,
to the dietary intake of 2-3 days old olive fruit flies. Results     University of Bari. Bari, Italy.
obtained were compared with those obtained from untreated                      The leopard moth borer, Zeuzera pyrina L., is a
flies to 20E media. Results showed that 66% of the insects           cossid moth whose larvae bore into twigs, branches and
during in the first 72 hours due to the dietary intake of 10         trunks of various woody species, weakening and sometimes
μg/μl of the 20E spinach seed extract. On the other hand,            killing trees or shrubs. Recently it caused serious losses of
the bio-activity was reduced to 26% mortality in olive fruit         apple trees in Syria. This study was carried out in
flies for a similar concentration of technical 20E after the         Damascus countryside and Qunaytirah provinces during
same period.                                                         2008. Population dynamics of Z. pyrina was monitored by
                                                                     different types of traps (pheromone traps and light trap).
E 75                                                                 Pest moths occurrence started by mid-May in Damascus
VARIATION IN DISTRIBUTION MAP OF MAJOR                               countryside province and by early June in Qunaytirah
AGRICULTURAL INSECT PESTS BASED ON                                   province. Highest numbers of caught adults (the peak) was
DIFFERENT ECO-GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS OF                                recorded by late July in Damascus countryside, whereas in
THE SUDAN. Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti and Abdelrahman                  Qunaytirah province there were small peaks found by mid-
Hamed Ahdelrahman Hashim, Environment and Natural                    June and mid-July. Experiments were conducted to evaluate
Resources Research Institute (ENRRI), National Centre for            capture efficiency in relation to two different types of traps.
Research,           Khartoum,          Sudan,           Email:       Statistical analysis showed that there was a highly
satisattisat@yahoo.com                                               significant difference (p <0.01) between the two types.
          Sudan is characterized by its vast geographical            Capta trap showed best results and caught more males than
area of about one million square miles, lies between 4-22°N          the others.
and 22-38°E, with variable climatic conditions ranged from
very arid desert in the north to semi-arid, semi-humid and           E 77
humid in the south. The variations particularly appear in the        OCCURRENCE OF TETRANYCHUS URTICAE,
average annual temperatures and rainfalls (ranged from               THRIPS TABACI, BEMISIA TABACI AND APHIS
<20ml to >800ml) which contribute to a wide diversity in             GOSSYPII ON THREE DIFFERENT SQUASH
species and density of plants and coexisting fauna including         CULTIVARS            IN      RELATION            TO        THE
insect populations. Therefore, agriculture varied from one           PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENTS. A.A. Abdallah1,
area to another especially in cultivation systems, types and         E.M.A. El-Saiedy2, Salwa M.E. Sholla3 and E. Monera3. (1)
seasonality of crops, and associated pests. For instance, rain       Agriculture Zoology and Nematology Department, Faculty
fed, irrigated, flooding and basin agricultural practices were       of Agriculture, Al–Azhar University, Egypt; (2) Plant
known in their different locations and times. Thus, field            Protection Department, National Research Centre, Dokki,
studies reflected numerous primary economical or                     Egypt; (3) Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural
secondary insect pests, whether they are polyphagous                 Research        Center,       Dokki,        Egypt,        Email:
species attacking various hosts or specialized on few                salwasholla@yahoo.com
closely related plant species. The latter generally showed                    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to
their population buildup in certain ecosystems. The current          estimate the population fluctuations of the two spotted
paper deals with the above mentioned aspects concerning              spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Thrips tabaci Lind.,
the nature of the country, kinds of crops and their growing          Aphis gossypii (Glov.) and Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) on three
areas and major pest species. Moreover, results identified           squash cultivars (American, Hitec and Eskandarani) in
important insect pests in the country and their reported host        Qalubiea Governorate, Egypt during a single growing
plants, together with breeding and resting sites for some            season. Also, analyses of some specific chemical
insects of seasonal appearance or of narrow host range such          constituents of the leaves and its relation to the resistance of
as locusts in eastern and western Sudan. Andat bug in Blue           the pest infestations were carried out. Results obtained
Nile and kordofan, and melon bug in the latter region.etc,           indicated that the infestation by phytophagous mite species
threaten crops in these areas.                                       T. urticae was significantly different among the three
                                                                     different squash cultivars. It was highest in case of
                                                                     Eskandarani cultivar, which was the most susceptible
                                                                     cultivar as its leaves harbored the highest average number


E-36     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
of spider mite stages (609.90 individuals /leaf). Hetic               methyl-eugenol as an attractant and 1 part of Malathion as
cultivar (483.62 individuals /leaf) was moderate. The                 killing agent.
lowest average number of spider mite infestations was
recorded in case of American cultivar which was the most              E 79
resistant to spider mite infestation (308.76 individuals/leaf).       A     SURVEY        OF     NEPHUS        (COLEOPTERA:
The results showed that significant difference was recorded           COCCINELLIDAE) SPECIES IN SOUTHERN
on the leaves of different squash cultivars among the three           SYRIA. Nazir Khalil, Department of Animal Biology,
phytophagous insect species. A. gossypii reached highest              Faculty of Sciences, Damascus University, Syria, Email:
number of individuals per/leaf on all three squash cultivars,         khalil-n@scs-net.org
being highest on Eskandarani (12.61) and Hitec (11.86)                        A survey for ladybird beetles (Coleoptera:
followed by American (11.21), followed by T. tabaci on                Coccinellidae) in southern Syria was conducted during the
Eskandarani (10.72), Hitec (9.45) and American (8.04)                 period of August 2001 to the end of July 2003. Results
individuals/leaf; while the population of B. tabaci was the           revealed the presence of 8 Nephus species: N. bipunctatus,
lowest on all squash cultivars (Eskandarani (1.24), Hitec             N. caucasicus, N. hiekei, N. includens, N. kreissli, N. ludyi,
(0.72) and American (0.16) individuals/leaf). However,                N. merkli and N. quadrimaculatus pictus. This investigation
there were no significant differences among the three                 showed the importatance, host plants, months of collection,
different squash cultivars leaf infestation by phytophagous           and distribution of these species in southern Syria. The
insect species. The data obtained indicated that there were           most abundant species was N. quadrimaculatus, witha wide
correlations between the phytochemical contents and the               distribution in southern Syria. All of the listed species are
rate of mite infestation. There was a negative relationship           predatory beetles and important nautral enemies that could
between the infestation rate and the total phenol as well as          attack arthropod pests including aphids, scale insects and
the free amino acids contents in the squash cultivars, while          mealybugs.
there was a positive relationship between the infestation
levels and the total sugar contents in each cultivar. The             E 80
American cultivar showed a lowest sugar content (12.02%),             BIOLOGY OF THE LONG HORNED BORER
followed by Hitec (12.95%), whereas, the Eskandarani cv.              TRICHOFERUS GRISEUS (F.) IN AL-BATTNAN
had the highest content (16.55%), while the correlation of            REGION, LIBYA. Aiad M. Abdunabi1, Ibrahim M. El-
infestation rate with total phenol (0.35, 0.28 and 0.23% for          Ghariani2 and Hashmi A. Gleo2. (1) Faculty of Science,
American, Hitec and Eskandarani, respectively) was                    Tubruk, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Libya; (2) Plant
negative. The total free amino acids content had a positive           Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-
correlation with the infestation rate for American (37.34%),          Mukhtar University, P.O. Box 919, El-Beida, Libya, Email:
Hitec (27.75%) and Eskandarani (22.43%). On the other                 ghariani99@yahoo.com
hand, there were no correlations between the phytochemical                    Various aspects of the biology of the fig longhorned
contents and the level of insect infestations.                        borer Trichoferus griseus (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
                                                                      were investigated. The results revealed that the total life-
E 78                                                                  cycle of T. griseus under laboratory conditions reached
DETECTION AND MONITORING OF SOME FRUIT                                325.25 days indicating that there was only one generation
FLIES SPECIES AND THEIR HOST RANGE IN                                 per year, and the sex ratio(females : male) was about
ABUGUBEIHA, SOUTH KORDOFAN STATE,                                     1:1.04, and a gravid female of T. griseus showed a high
SUDAN. Suliman Abdalla Ibrahim Ali1 and Samira                        propensity to ovipositor on fig branches when compared
Abuegasem Mohammed2. (1) Agricultural Research                        with two other hosts namly pomegranate and acacia the
Corporation, Hudieba Research Station, Eddamer, Sudan;                mean number of eggs was 40.2 on fig, 4.8 on pomegranate
(2) International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology,           and 7.8 on acacia. The data indicated that there were
Nairobi, Kenya. Email: sulamonti@yahoo.com.                           significant effect for the kind of food on age and fertility of
         The present study was carried out in South                   adults; the honey feeding had significant effect on age of
Kordofan State, particularly in Abugubeiha in Sudan to                females and the age period compared to that fed on
identify fruit fly species prevailing in the area and to              desiccated fig fruits and fig phloem; the mean age was
determine their host range and their infestation levels.              42.75, 23.75 and 18.75 days for the three feeding types,
Monitoring of tephritid fruit fly species, using Nulure as            respectively. The results showed also an effect of honey
food attractant in Abugubeiha area revealed the presence of           feeding on fertility of females and hatching which reached
three species namely Mango fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra,               40.45% as compared to 96.28% and 96.11% for feeding on
dominant species in the region, Melon fly, Bactrocera                 dessicated fruit and fig phloem, respectively.
cucurbitae and Asian fly, Bactrocera invadens. Ten plant
species out of 24 were identified as hosts for the three              E 81
mentioned species. Infestation's level caused by the fruit fly        ECOLOGY        OF    CODLING        MOTH    CYDIA
in Abugubeiha area was much higher (67%) in Guava in the              POMONELLA (L.) IN AL-JABAL AL-AKHDAR
second season. While in first season, the highest was                 REGION, LIBYA. Mohamed A. Al-Mayr, Ibrahim M. El-
recorded in Guava (51%) followed by mango (31%) and                   Ghariani and Omran A. Abugela, Plant Protection
grapefruit (18%). B. invadens was detected along the Rahad            Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar
River near Sudanese-Ethiopian borders for the first time by           University, P.O. Box, 919, El-Beida, Libya, Email:
using Lynnfield trap baited with mixture of 4 parts of                ghariani99@yahoo.com

                                                          2009    /                         27                                 E-37
          An ecological study for Codling moth Cydia                 E 83
pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was conducted at           REVIEW OF FRUIT FLIES STATUS IN THE
AL-Jabal AL-Akhdar region, Libya by using pheromone                  SUDAN. Tag Elsir E. Abdalla, Agricultural Research
traps at three locations of different environmental and              Corporation, Gezira Research Station, P.O. Box 126, Wad
topographical conditions. Results showed that the pest               Medani, Sudan, Email tagelsirr@yahoo.com
appeared during the 1st week of May. The mean number of                       The review summarizes the scientific efforts done
trapped insects was 24.67, 4.33 and 13.67 for coastal,               in the Sudan on fruit flies and comprises an introduction on
middle and mountain areas, respectively. The data revealed           their economic importance, areas under fruit trees, yield,
that the highest pest number was during the end of May and           production, and export worldwide and in the Sudan with
August, and the lowest number was during October at the 3            special emphasis on mango (Mangifera indica), banana
locations. Three generations were found in the region of the         (Musa sapentium) and guava (Psidium guajava). It also
study. The 1st one was through June and the 1st week of              elucidates the current situation of fruit flies in the major
July, the 2nd from the 4th week of July until the end of             fruit producing states of Sudan, their species composition,
August, and the 3rd was from the beginning of September              host range and preferences; the seasonal distribution of the
until the 1st week of October. Results also indicated that           most prevailing species Bactrocera invadens, Ceratitis
there were relationship between insect population and some           capitata and C. cosyra, the promising control measures and
environmental factors such as temperature, relative                  research activities in progress at present in the Sudan.
humidity and wind volicity. The Statistical analysis of the
results showed that there was a positive correlaion between          E 84
the population density and temperature in the areas of the           IDENTIFICATION OF THE SEX PHEROMONE AND
study in general and within each location of the study.              MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE
There were significat differences at all locations. There was        LEBANESE CEDAR PROCESSIONARY MOTH,
a weak insignificant negative correlation between the                THAUMETOPOEA LIBANOTICA. Sarah Ezzedine1,
population density of the moth and the relative humidity in          Nabil Nemer1,2, Brigitte Frerot3 and Youssef Abou
the area of the study. There was no significant relation             Jawdah1. (1) Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences,
between the population density and relative humidity in the          American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 110236, Lebanon;
coastal area, whereas, there was a negative significant              (2) Ecole Supérieure des Ingénieurs d’Agronomie
correlation with relative humidity in the middle area, and           Méditerranéenne, Ubiversity Saint Joseph, P.O. Box 159,
no significat correlation between relative humidity and              Taanayel, Lebanon; (3) Institut National de la Recherche
population density in the mountain area. In addition, there          Agronomique INRA, 78026, Versailles Cedex, France,
wasa positive weak correlation in the three areas between            Email: nabil.nemer@gmail.com
wind velocity and population density of the pest.                              The cedar processionary moth, Thaumetopoea
                                                                     libanotica     Kiriakoff   and     Talhouk      (Lepidoptera:
E 82                                                                 Thaumetopoeidae) is an endemic defoliator of the cedar
EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON FIELD                                  forests in Lebanon. The present study aimed at identifying
POPULATION DENSITY OF CORN STEM BORER                                the sex pheromone of T. libanotica, and determine the
SESAMIA CRETICA LEDERER. Mohammad A. Al-                             phylogenetic relationship of this insect species. Two
Allan1, Mohammad Z. Mahmalji2 and Hisham A. Al-Rouz2.                methods of pheromone extraction were used: trapping the
(1) Department of Entomology, Administration of Plant                volatiles on SPME fiber and the excision of the pheromonal
Protection, General Commission of Scientific Agricultural            gland and its extraction by solvent. The results of the GC-
Research, P.O. Box 113, Damascus, Syria; (2) Plant                   MS analysis indicated the presence of two major
Protection Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University,              compounds: (Z,Z)-11, 13-hexadecadienal and (Z,Z)-11, 13-
P.O.     Box      30621,     Damascus,      Syria;     Email:        hexadecadienol. The biological activity of the pheromone
allanmhd@gmail.com                                                   formulations were also tested in different cedar forest
          The research was carried out at General                    stands for the determination of their attractiveness to
Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research (1st of May           Thaumetopoea libanotica males. Results showed that the
station – Khrabo) during 2004-2005 to study the effect of            most effective formulation that attracted the highest number
ecological factors on population of corn stem borer Sesamia          of males contained 20 % Z11, Z13-16OH: 80% Z11, Z13-
cretica (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Light traps were used for          16Al followed by 40% Z11, Z13-16OH: 60% Z11, Z13-
this study to catch the moths. The weather data were taken           16Al. These findings would contribute to the use of
from climatic station in the assay area. Regression lines and        pheromones in monitoring the insect abundance in the
equations for the correlation between moth number and                Lebanese cedar forests and subsequently to be used as a
climatic factors has been established. Results showed that           control measure by mass trapping of males leading to a
there were significant positive correlations with mean               reduced number of eggs laid by females. Amplified DNA
temperature, evaporation ratio and sun light, and a negative         fragments from the ITS1 region of three Thaumetopoea
correlation with relative humidity.                                  species, T. libanotica, T. wilkinsoni and T. solitaria, were
                                                                     sequenced. Blast analysis did not show a high nucleotide
                                                                     sequence homology with any reported Thaumetopoea
                                                                     species.




E-38     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
E 85                                                                 Farhaat Al-ashqar1 and Luaai Aslan2. (1) Commission of
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON DEVELOPMENT,                                Scientific Agricultural Research, Homs Branch, Syria; (2)
SURVIVAL AND LONGEVITY OF BACTROCERA                                 Biological Studies and Research Center, Faculty of
UMBROSA (FABRICIUS) IN THE LABORATORY.                               agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria, Email:
Ali A. Sati and Rukaya A. Mersal, Zoology Department                 m.dakdak@gmail.com
Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Benghazi, Libya,                     Grape is among the most important fruit trees in
Email: Hamzash@hotmail.com.                                          Syria especially in Homs. The solitary carpenter worm,
         Development and survival of the immature stages             Paropta paradoxa H.-Schaeff. (Lep., Cossidae) is a serious
as well as the longevity of the adults of Bacrocera umbrosa          pest in grape orchards in Homs governorate. Larvae make
(Fabricius) were studied in the laboratory at six constant           small excavations under the bark and longitudinal tunnels
temperatures of 23, 25, 27, 30, 32 and 35°C and a                    through the stem and the branches, causing weakness, and
photoperiod of 12 L: 12 D. The development of the                    eventually might cause the death of infected trees;
different immature stages accelerated with increasing                especially the old ones. The study was conducted in Homs
temperature up to 32°C. The shortest period of egg                   at Al-moushrifeh district on Al-bayadi cultivar (widespread
development (2.5 days) was at 32°C, while the slowest egg            cultivar in Homs) during two successive seasons (2006-
development (5.1 days) occurred at 23°C. Larval                      2007). The laboratory part of the study was done at the
                                                                     Biological Studies and Research Center at the faculty of
development periods decreased from 12.1 days at 23°C to
                                                                     Agriculture, Damascus University. Reduction in trees
10.1 days at 32°C. High temperatures accelerated the                 productivity and increasing number of trees with drought
development of larvae, except at 35°C where the first instar         symptoms were more observed in the second year
larvae died. Optimum developmental time of pupae (10.6               compared to the first year of the study. AThe ratio between
days) was recorded when pupae were exposed at a                      the width of the head capsule and the length of the larval
temperature of 32°C, while there was no pupal development            stage individuals was 5.765±0.8. A significant correlation
and no adults emerged at 35°C; this being the most lethal            (P=0.01) between the width of the head capsule and the
temperature. However, egg hatching continued at this                 length of the larval stage was found (+0.94). The larval
temperature but at a low rate. The longest total                     stage of the insect had five instars. The measurement of the
development period of immatures occurred at 23°C (33.4               head capsule width and the length of the five instars were
days) and was shortest at 32°C (23.2 days). Adults exposed           determined to be for the first, second, third, forth, and fifth
to the different temperature regimes lived much longer at            instar     1.225±0.1387       mm,      6.716±1.0242       mm,
lower temperatures than at high temperatures. These                  1.6733±0.1444 mm, 9.8±0.9996 mm, 2.1909±0.269 mm,
findings are important to optimize laboratory rearing                13.9±0.7867 mm, 3.027±0.1677 mm, 17.54±1.5435 mm,
procedures for maximum egg production in mass rearing                5.25±0.3533 mm, 33 ±1.4124 mm, respectively. A
programs using sterile insect techniques. In addition, it help       significant differences (P=0.01) was found between instar
understand the biology and ecology of B. umbrosa and                 groups. Pest infestation was mainly on the trunk and main
predict its geographical distribution for pest management            branches and much less was less on the two years old twigs
purposes.                                                            and rare on the one year old twigs and young shoots.

E 86                                                                 E 88
A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF INSECT SPECIES                               TEFLUBENZURON EFFECTS ON REPRODUCTION
AT EL KUFRA AND JABEL ELUWEINAT IN                                   OF FEMALE LOCUSTS LOCUSTA MIGRETORIA.
LIBYA. Moftah Soliman El-Meghrabi, Zoology                           Fatma Acheuk1 and Bahia Doumandji–Mitiche2. (1)
Department, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University,                Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of
Benghazi, Libya, Email: Hamzash@hotmail.com                          Boumereds, Algeria, Email: criquet72@yahoo.fr; (2)
A preliminary survey of insect species, covered a wide               Department of agricultural and forest zoology, Agronomic
range of ecological habitats in El Kufra Oasis (a flat plateau       National Institute of El harrach, Algeria.
with numerous closed in depressions) and Jabel El Uweinat                     The migratory locust Locusta migratoria occupies
(the mountain area at the borders of Libya, Sudan and                a particular place in Agriculture. It constitutes a permanent
Egypt). During the period from May 2005 to April 2006, 42            threat for the crops and pastures. The current methods of
insect species were collected and identified. The insects            control employmainly insecticidal liquid products whose
belonged to orders: Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera,              active ingrediant belong to different chemical groups.
Odonata, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera. The study revealed             These preparations appeared to be effective on the locust
presence of seven new species recorded in Libya for the              but also harmful to other animal species in the
first time. In addition to insects, some species of ticks and        environmentand cause an accumulation of toxic compounds
mites (Class: Arachida) were also recorded.                          in the treated ecosystems. For these reasons current
                                                                     research was directed towards the search for safer effective
E 87                                                                 molecules that are less toxic to the environment. Among
PRELIMINARY FIELD STUDY OF THE SOLITARY                              these products are growth regulators. In a laboratory study,
CARPENTER WORM (PAROPTA PARADOXA. S) ON                              the impact of teflubenzuron insecticide on the reproduction
GRAPE ORCHARDS IN HOMS GOVERNARATE                                   of the migratory locust was evaluated. Results showed that
AND EVALUATION OF DAMAGE CAUSED BY IT.                               this product delayed the maturation of the females and



                                                         2009    /                         27                                 E-39
reduced egg production in treated females compared to the            level. Most specimens belonged to Lepidoptera, Coleoptera,
control                                                              and Diptera. Pest and beneficial species were mentioned.
                                                                     Common and rare species will be discussed.
E 89
IDENTIFICATION OF BUTTERFLIES through                                E 92
wingEYESPOTS USING COMPUTER. Dua' Saadeh1,                           GENETIC VARIATION AMONG SUNN PEST,
Abd Alatif Al Hashash1, Nour Safadi1 and Katbeh-Bader,               EURYGASTER INTEGRICEPS PUT. POPULATIONS
Ahmad2. (1) Computer Science Department, King Abdulla                OF WEST AND CENTRAL ASIA. Lina Ali1, Mustapha
II School for IT, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; (2)           El-Bouhssini2, Sripada Udupa2, Michel Baum2 and
Plants Protection Department, Agriculture College,                   Mohammad Nayef Al-Salti1. (1) Plant protection section,
University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, Email:                          Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo,
doaa.saadah@ju.edu.jo                                                Syria, Email: Lina7755@hotmail.com; (2) ICARDA, P.O.
          Butterflies in nature, differ in wing pattern, colors,     Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email: M.Bohssini@cgiar.org
and number of eyespots on their wings. Using such                          The objective of this study was to study genetic
information to identify the family and species of the                variation of Sunn pest populations collected from six
butterfly will be an effective tool. The goal of this research       countries (Iraq, Iran, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkey and
was to develop a useful and an easy way to use computer              Syria). The 19 populations of Sunn pest collected were
program, to help in the process of identifying three species         studied using the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length
of Jordan’s butterflies: Ypthima, Temissa, and Colias                Polymorphisms) technique. The Nei’s measures of genetic
croceus. The program was developed using Matlab                      distance ranged from 0.428 (between Andijan from
program to detect eyespots on wings surface and its                  Uzbekistan and Varamin from Iran) to 0.029 (between
numbers, and then identify colors of the butterfly’s wings.          Kermanshah and Marvdasht in Iran). There was no
The program will analyze the data to identify the butterfly          significant correlation between genetic distance and
species. The eyespots detection program can be used with             geographic distance (R=0.27). Genetic differentiation (Gst)
any butterflies species, but in this research focus was made         was small in all countries, with the highest genetic
only on the above mentioned species, which can be easily             differentiation found in Uzbekistan (Gst=0.26). The rate of
extended to other. The success rate of the program is 82%.           gene flow between countries was high (Nm=3.9034),
                                                                     indicating a high rate of migration between countries.
E 90                                                                 Based on cluster analysis, the highest genetic diversity was
THE NOCTUIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA) OF JORDAN, A                             observed in Uzbekistan; indicating that the center of origin
SECOND LIST. Ahmad Katbeh-Bader. Department of                       of Sunn pest may be in or near this country.
Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of
Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan. Email: Ahmadk@ju.edu.jo                 E 93
          This study is part of a research project sponsored         COMPARISON OF FEEDING INDEXES OF STEM
by the Deanship of Scientific Research, University of                BORER SESAMIA NONAGRIOIDES LEF. ON
Jordan which aimed to study the moths of Jordan. UV-                 DIFFERENT SUGARCANE CULTIVARS IN IRAN.
Light traps were placed at several sites in Jordan in order to       Mehrnoosh Minaeimoghadam and Alireza Askarianzadeh,
collect moths from the family Noctuidae. Specimens were              Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural
sorted; representative samples for each species were pinned          Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran, Email:
and then identified. A list of more than 200 species is              askarianzadeh@shahed.ac.ir; hoseinpur181@yahoo.com
presented which contain species reported in this study in                     Stem borers, Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. and
addition to those reported earlier. Some of the report               Sesamia cretica Led. are important pests of sugarcane and
species are common plant pests, others are occasional pest           annually cause considerable injury in the Khuzestan
and some are relatively rare. Brief available biological or          province of Iran. An important strategy for borers control in
ecological data and photographs for selected species will be         sugarcane fields is the use of resistant cultivars. To study
presented.                                                           antibiosis resistance of sugarcane cultivars to Sesamia
                                                                     nonagrioides, feeding indexes on five cultivars (CP48-103,
E 91                                                                 CP69-1062, CP57-614, NCO-310 and SP70-1143) were
INSECT DIVERSITY IN THE CENTRAL JORDAN                               determined. Larvae (2 and 3 instars) were fed on the
VALLY. Ahmad Katbeh-Bader and Wafa’a Naser,                          cultivars for five days and then feeding indexes including
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,              consumption index (CI), approximate digestibility (AD),
University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan. Email:                    efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) and
Ahmadk@ju.edu.jo;                      nsr_wf@yahoo.com;             efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) were
nsr_wf@hotmail.com                                                   calculated. The trials were replicated six times. Data were
         A UV light trap was placed at the University of             analized by Kruskal-Wallis Test with SPSS 11.5 software.
Jordan Farm (central Jordan Valley) during 2008-2009 in              The results showed that CI, AD and ECD indexes were not
order to study the diversity of insects present in this area.        significant among five cultivars but ECI index was
Specimens were sorted and few individuals from most                  significant. Comparison of means with Duncan's test
species were pinned. All specimens were identified to order          showed that ECI index on NCO-310 and SP70-1143
level. Most specimens were identified to family level.               cultivars was more than CP69-1062, CP57-614 and CP48-
Many specimens were identified to the genera or species


E-40     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
103 cultivars. Therefore based on ECI index CP69-1062,               lettuce cultivars (Great lacks and Conquistador) were
CP57-614 and CP48-103 cultivars can be considered as                 investigated to evaluate their resistance to N. ribisnigri.
resistant to Sesamia nonagrioides.                                   Lettuce genotypes were planted in a randomized complete
                                                                     design in a greenhouse, with 15 replications (pots) during
E 94                                                                 2008. After 3 weeks, 10 wingless adult aphids were put on
EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION ON                                 each pot. Number of aphids was counted after 7, 14 and 21
EGG MORTALITY OF PLODIA INTERPUNCTELLA                               days after treatment. Results showed significant differences
(HUBNER.). Akram Bakhshi, Ali Asghar Talebi and                      among treatments (genotypes) and sampling times.
Yaghoub Fathipour, Department of Entomology, Faculty of              According to means comparison by Duncan’s test, land race
Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, P. O. Box 14115-            Sefid was the most fertile for aphids (180.7 aphids) and
336, Tehran, Iran. Email: akrambakhshi63@yahoo.com                   Great lakes cultivar (170.4 aphids) was susceptible to the
        The Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella                   aphid and ranked in group A and land race Shiraz was the
(Hubner) (Lepidopter: Pyralidae) is a polyphagous,                   least fertile for aphids (48.40 aphid) and land race Siah
monotypic and cosmopolitan species.         This species is          (50.33 aphid) were resistant and placed in group D.
distributed in Iran and all over the World. In this research,
the effect of ultraviolet irradiation (UV) on egg mortality of       E 96
P. interpunctella was evaluated at 25±5 ºC and a                     EFFECT          OF         ULTRAVIOLET              (254NM)
photoperiod of 10:14 (L:D), without humidity control.                IRRADIATION            ON        LIFE      CYCLE        AND
Three age groups of eggs (1-, 2- and 3-days old eggs), were          REPRODUCTIVE                    PARAMETERS                OF
exposed to UV-irradiation (254nm wavelength). In each                CALLOSOBRUCHUS                 MACULATUS.           Roshanak
group 120 eggs were irradiated for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 16,         Sedaghat, Ali Asghar Talebi, and Saeid Moharamipour,
24, 32, 40 min. The results indicated that all exposure              Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat
periods of UV-irradiation increased the mortality of eggs in         Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-336, Tehran, Iran,
comparison to control. An increase in time of exposure to            Email: sedaghatbaf@modares.ac.ir
irradiation caused a gradual increase in percentage of                         The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus
mortality of eggs in all age groups of eggs. However, for            (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is a serious cosmopolitan pest
each duration exposure, the mortality rate increased as the          of stored products, especially seeds of Leguminosae, and is
age of irradiated eggs increased from 1 to 3 days. The eggs          prevalent throughout the tropics and subtropics. In this
mortality rate was 5.4% in the control treatment. In one-            research, life cycle and reproductive parameters of C.
day-old eggs, mortality rates were 27.46 %, 62.68 %,                 maculatus (F.) were investigated at a mean room
53.52%, 78.87%, 97.89% and 99.29% at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8            temperature of 25±5 ºC and a photoperiod of 10 hr of light
min of irradiation, respectively. The egg mortality rate was         and 14 hr of darkness without humidity control. Eggs were
100% following 16, 24, 32 and 40 min exposure. Irradiation           irradiated at 24h after laying for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40
of 2-day-old eggs at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 4 min exposure               minutes. An increase in time of exposure of UV-rays
duration resulted in 72.53%, 78.87%, 73.23%, 93.66% and              caused a gradual increase in eggs mortality rate. Thus, egg
98.59% mortality, respectively. Egg hatching was inhibited           mortality was 6.67, 37.5, 40, 68.34, 72.5, 81.67, 90 and
up to 100% by 8 to 40 min exposure. Irradiation of 3 day             93.33% for the eight exposure durations, respectively. The
old eggs at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 min exposure duration resulted            results indicated that life expectancy of one-day-old eggs
in76.06%, 97.18%, 97.89% and 99.29% mortality,                       was estimated to be 48.2, 36.6, 33.4, 20.7, 17.1, 14.1, 9.5
respectively. No eggs hatched following 4 to 40 min                  and 8.5 days for the eight exposure durations,, respectively.
exposure. The 1 day old eggs were less sensitive to                  Survival rate of the first instar larvae was 0.95, 0.68, 0.62,
irradiation than 2 and 3 day old eggs. It may be concluded           0.28, 0.23, 0.10, and 0.08% for the eight exposure
that UV-irradiation is a safe and clean method for stored            durations, respectively. In reproductive tests, eggs were
product preservation and pest control.                               irradiated at 24h after laying for 2 and 4 minutes. After
                                                                     adults emergence, 30 pairs (male and female) were selected
E 95                                                                 and experiments continued until the death of the last
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE                                 female. The reproduction data were analyzed according to
OF LETTUCE GENOTYPES TO LETTUCE APHID                                jackknife method and with MINITAB ver. 14 statistical soft
NASONOVIA RIBISNIGRI (MOSLEY) UNDER                                  ware. The gross fecundity rates of C. maculatus in control,
GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS. Jalal Kolahdooz,                              2 and 4 min exposure were 99.68±8.50, 101.63±2.00,
Moslem Basij and Mohammadhosin Hosinpour, Faculty of                 100.27±7.54 eggs, respectively. The gross fertility rates
Agricultural Science, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran,               were 94.64±8.08, 68.49±1.35, 60.24±4.53 eggs,
Email: moslembasij@yahoo.com                                         respectively following 0, 2 and 4 min exposure. The net
         A relatively new aphid species, the currant-lettuce         fecundity rates and the net fertility rates were 87.25±7.61,
aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), has been creating              60.08±1.31, 52.93±5.08 and 82.92±7.22, 40.49±0.88,
problems for lettuce growers throughout the Tehran                   34.64±2.72 eggs in control, 2 and 4 min exposure durations.
province of Iran. Lettuce aphid has a very short life cycle          It may be concluded that irradiation is a very safe and clean
and population can build up rapidly. In this study, 8 lettuce        method for food preservation and pest control. However,
genotypes including 5 land races (Shiraz, Jahrom, Siah,              much more comprehensive research is still needed.
Sefid and Zireie), one promising line of lettuce and 2


                                                         2009    /                         27                                E-41
E 97                                                                 developmental duration of both sexes of the predator was
SURVEY OF SCALE INSECTS (HOMOPTERA:                                  not significantly different in indoxacarb, pirimicarb and
COCCOIDEA)           AND        THEIR       ASSOCIATED               control treatments, while the total mortality of nymphal
PARASITOIDS IN CITRUS ORCHARDS IN THE                                instars, longevity of sexes, fertility and fecundity of females
SYRIAN COST. Kais Gazal and Eiad Mahamad, Centre of                  of the predator were affected by indoxacarb when
Biological Enemies Rearing, Al Hanadi, Syria, Email:                 compared with pirimicarb and control treatments.
Kaisgazalbc@shuf.com.
          Scale insects are considered the most important            E 100
insect pests which attack citrus and cause serious economic          BIO-ECOLOGICAL STUDIES PERTAINED TO THE
damages in different areas of the world, icluding Syria.             ACTIVE AND RESTING PHASES OF THE ADULT
Survey of Coccoidea scale insects which attack citrus trees          SORGHUM BUG, AGONOSCELIS PUBESCENS
in the Syrian cost was conducted during the period 2005 -            (THUNBERG) (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) IN
2008. Four species belonged to family Diaspididae were               SUDAN. Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti and Hashim Ahmed El-
identified. The most important were Parlatoria pergandii,            Massaad, Environment and Natural Resources Research
Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), Lepidosaphes beckii                   Institute (ENRRI), National Centre for Research,
(Newman, 1869), Chrysomphalusa onidum. In addition,                  Khartoum, Sudan, Email: dahamy2002@yahoo.com
four species belonged to family Coccidae were also                              Sorghum bug Agonoscelis pubescens (Thunberg)
identified; Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), Saissetia             is one of the important economic national pests in Sudan,
oleae (Olivier, 1791), Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus, 1758,             causing considerable damage to several host plants,
Ceroplastes floridensis( Comstock, 1881). Parasitoids                particularly sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sesame
found associated with the pests were recorded.                       (Sesamum indicum). It is distributed in vast areas in the
                                                                     central belt of the country north of latitude 11°N. However,
E 98                                                                 the pest usually passes through two distinct active and
BIO-ECOLOGICAL              STUDY          OF       FAMILY           passive periods throughout the year, the first being from
PAMPHAGIDAE (ORDER: ORTHOPTERA) IN                                   August to October after which the adults enter a resting
EASTERN ALGERIA. Naima Benkenana and A. Harrat,                      period from November to July. Adults coming from resting
Arthropods Systematic and Ecology Laboratory, Science                sites firstly feed and breed on weeds which germinate as a
Faculty, Mentouri University, Contantine, Algeria, Email:            result of the rainy season and then the later generation
naima_benkenana@yahoo.fr                                             attacks the cultivated crops during October. In this study,
         Family Pamphagidae belongs to Order Orthoptera              some biological aspects were compared among the first
which includes several species of locusts causing serious            generation produced after resting period and the last
damages to cereal crops in arid and semi-arid regions of             generation, including fecundity, egg hatchability, and
Algeria. The species identified so far in the east of Algeria,       survival and nymphs development. Significantly high levels
were divided into two sub-families (Akicerinae and                   were obtained by the last generation regarding all biological
Pamphaginae) and six genra. Subfamily Pamphaginae was                aspects, as compared with the first generation. This
the richest in number of species. A systematic and ecology           revealed the critical role of the first generation in pest
study was conducted. The Ocneridia species were the most             multiplication and subsequent crop damage. Moreover, the
abundant in the study area, including O. volxemii (Bolivar,          distribution areas, resting locations and host plants utilized
1878).                                                               for resting, feeding and/or breeding purposes were
                                                                     computed from the field data of bug surveys recorded for
E 99                                                                 the previous six years. The important bug areas and
SIDE       EFFECT         OF      INDOXACARB            AND          preferred host plants were then indicated from their serial
PIRIMICARB            ON        SOME         BIOLOGICAL              rankings based on population levels of the bug. The area
CHARACTERISTICS OF ORIUS NIGER. Kamal                                lies east of the Blue Nile River including parts of the
Ahmadi and Yekta Baniadami, Department of Entomology                 Gezira, Gedarif, Sennar and Blue Nile States and was
and Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid                 ranked first in infestation level, followed by Darfur and
Bahonar University of Kerman, 22 Bahman Blvd, Kerman,                lastly Kordofan States. Data obtained emphasized the
76169-133, IRAN, Email: kahmadi@mail.uk.ac.ir                        importance of controlling the first generation before their
          Orius niger (Wolff) is an important predator of            breeding time, so as to cut the way for the second
several economic pests in Iran. One of the challenges of             generation which cause damage to the sorghum crop.
insect control with pesticides is achieving selection and kill
of target pests while minimizing mortality to beneficial             E 101
insects. Indoxacarb and pirimicarb had low toxicity to O.            A CONTRIBUTION TO THE RUBBER FLIES
niger in the Petri dish bioassay. It is apparent that some           (DIPTERA: ASILIDAE) FROM ARASBARAN
investigation should be conducted to evaluate the effects of         REGION AND VICINITY, NORTHWESTERN IRAN.
these pesticides on biological parameters of the predator.           H. Sakenin1, Hassan Ghahari1, Pavel A. Lehr2, Hadi
Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the                   Ostovan3 and Mohammad Havaskary4. (1) Department of
influence of indoxacarb and pirimicarb with the highest              Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahre Rey Branch,
label-recommended         concentration      on      nymphal         Tehran, Iran, Email: h_ghahhari@yahoo.com; (2) Institute
development, mortality, longevity and fecundity of the               of Biology and Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences,
predator at 25±1°C. The result showed that the nymphal               Vladivostok-22, 690022, Russia; (3) Department of


E-42     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Entomology, Islamic Azad University, Fars Science and               menetriesi menetriesi, Carabus roseni, Chlaenius steveni,
Research Branch, Iran, Email: ostovan2001@yahoo.com;                Corysa carinifrons, Merizomena grandella and Nebria
(4) Department of Plant Protection, Science and Research            wiedemanni) are new records for Iran. The survey indicated
Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, Email:               that the highest species diversity was observed in Amol and
h_havaskary@yahoo.com                                               Ghaemshahr, and the lowest was observed in Babolsar. The
          The rubber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) are an               highest population density was observed in Ghaemshahr
abundant and diverse family that are known for their                and Behshahr, and the lowest one in Babolsar and Noor.
predatory behavior. Asilidae diversity can be attributed to         Among the studied species, Harpalus griseus had the
their broad distribution and most species tend to occupy a          highest distribution and Acinopus megacephalus,
selective niche. As their common name implies, rubber flies         Bembidion menetriesi, Carabus roseni, Chlaenius steveni
have voracious appetite and feed on a vast array of other           and Merizomena grandella had the lowest. The highest
arthropods, which may help to maintain a healthy balance            population density was observed for H. griseus and
between insect populations in various habitats. Asilidae            Harpalus fuscicornis and the lowest population density for
adults attack wasps, bees, dragonflies, grasshoppers, other         A. megacephalus, B. menetriesi, C. steveni, Cicindela
flies, and some spiders. Rubber flies are particularly              rhodoterena, M. grandella and Zabrus spectabilis,
abundant in arid and sunny habitats, which are optimal              respectively. The results indicated that Harpalus griseus
conditions in which to observe their many morphs and                and H. fuscicornis were the dominant species in orchards of
behavior. Asilidae is known to have 1634 species at                 Mazandaran province.
Palearctic region (Geller Grimm, 2005). The fauna of
Iranian Asilidae was studied during the period 2000-2004.           E 103
In Arasbaran region (northwestern Iran), a total of 27 asilid       BIOLOGICAL STUDY ON RED PLUM MOTH,
species were collected, of which 7 species including                GRAPHOLITHA             FUNEBRANA            TR.       AND
Ancylorhynchus glaucius (Rossi, 1790), Choerades fulva              PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF ITS NATURAL
(Meigen, 1804), Holopogon albosetosus Schiner, 1867,                ENEMIES ON ALMOND IN MID-SYRIA. Amanni
Lasiopogon pilosellus Loew, 1847, Pegesimallus                      Shlallo, Louai Aslaan and Wajih Alkassis, Faculty of
mesasiaticus (Lehr, 1958), Saropogon dasynotus Loew,                Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria, Email:
1871 and Tolmerus fuscus (Macquart, 1839) were new                  amannishllalo@yahoo.com
records for Iran. In addition to the fauna of rubber flies in                Grapholitha funebrana is the most important
Arasbaran region, the preys of these beneficial flies were          insect pest on almond, apple, causes damage to fruits and
also collected and identified as Aphodius foetidus (Herbst)         makes it drop before ripening but the most important
(Mashhad)      (Scarabaeidae),     Ctenisomorphus      major        damage occurs in stores. In Syria, almond plantations are
(Raffray) (Staphylinidae), Taphaeus hiator (Thunberg)               located mainly in central area. This study was carried out in
(Braconidae), Copris hispanus (Linnaeus) (Scarabaeidae),            almond orchards in cages contained fruits infested by G.
Schizoprymnus terebralis (Šnoflák) (Braconidae), Rugilus            funebrana during 2004–2008. G. funebrana had two
similis (Erichson) (Staphylinidae) and Protaetia excavaata          generations annually, but in 2008, it had a third generation
Gomy & Percheron (Scarabaeidae). Since the rubber flies             that entered in diapause by the end of the year. Date
have efficient role in control of several agricultural pests,       showed that the first peak of the pest was in late May, the
their conservation can be an effective pest management              second was by early July. However, the third peak was
strattegy.                                                          noted in mid-August in 2008. First, second and third
                                                                    generations lasted for 84, 74 and 44 days, respectively.
E 102                                                               Survey of the parasitoids revealed the presence of two egg–
FAUNA AND DOMINANT SPECIES OF GROUND                                larval parasitoid species of the family Chalcidoidea, with
BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CARABIDAE) IN                                  parasitism rate of 1.0 and 2.0%; two larval parasitoids of
ORCHARDS OF MAZANDARAN, NORTHERN                                    the family Ichenumonidea with parasitism rate of 11 and
IRAN. Hassan Ghahari1, Memis Kesdek2, Hamid Sakenin3                13%; two larval parasitoids of the family Chalcidoidea with
and Mehrdad Tabari4. (1) Department of Agriculture,                 parasitism rate of 52 and 25%; a larval-pupal parasitoid of
Islamic Azad University, Shahre Rey Branch, Tehran, Iran,           the family Ichenumonidea with parasitism rate of 3%; and
Email: h_ghahhari@yahoo.com; (2) Ministry of Agriculture            three pupal parasitoids of the family Chalcidoidea with
and Village Affairs, Head of District Agriculture, Turkey;          parasitism rate 2.0 and 2.4%.
Email: mekesdek@hotmail.com; (3) College of Agriculture
and Natural Resources, Ghaemshahr Islamic Azad                      E 104
University,         Mazandaran,         Iran,        Email:         SURVEY OF APPLE CODLING MOTH (CYDIA
hchelave@yahoo.com; (4) Iran Rice Research Institute,               POMONELLA) FLYING CURVE IN HERMON
Mazandaran, Iran, Email: ma_tabari@yahoo.com                        AREA (SYRIA). Ehab Zgheb and Wajih Alkassis, Faculty
         The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are             of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria,
powerful predators and have important role in biological            Email: szgheb@yahoo.com
control of agricultural pests. The fauna of these beneficial                 Apple trees are considered one of the
insects was studied in fruit orchards of Mazandaran                 economically important fruit trees in Syria. The most
province through 2004 - 2006. A total of 23 species from            damaging pest that infects apples is the apple codling moth,
17 genera were identified in different regions which of             Cydia pomonella, which affects also walnut and many
these seven species (Acinopus megacephalus, Bembidion               Amygdalaceae trees. This insect has two or three

                                                        2009    /                        27                                E-43
generations per year and spends the winter in the form of a          E 107
fifth-instar larva selecting safe locations on the tree.             WEATHER FACTORS EFFECT ON LIFE CYCLE
Monitoring the flying of the first generation and                    STAGES OF PEAR PSYLLA, CACOPSYLLA PYRI (L.)
determining the start period of egg-laying are considered            IN HOMS GOVERNORATE, SYRIA, Dumar Namoor1,
the most effective method to select the date of treatment.           Mohamed Ibrahim2 and Bassam Aoudi2, (1) Plant
This study was conducted in 2008 in Arné, Hermon area,               Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Baath
Rīf Dimašq, southern-Syria, by using sticky pheromone                University, Syria; (2) GCSAR, Agricultural scientific
traps. Frequent observations were made to these traps with           Research      Center     at     Homs,      Syria,     Email:
continuous monitoring of trapped moth numbers. The                   B_oudee@Gawab.com
flying peak of the first and second generations was                           The correlation between weather fluctuations
compared with minimal and maximal temperatures                       (temperature,, R.H., wind speed and sun shine duration) and
registered in surveyed areas.                                        population density of pear psylla (eggs, nymphs and adults)
                                                                     were studied. Results indicated that correlation between
E 105                                                                pest population s and maximum/ minimum temperatures
SURVEY OF POTATO INSECT PESTS IN THE                                 and sun shine duration was positive and highly significant,
WESTERN AREA OF LIBYA. Fauzi A.Bisheya, Aida                         wehereas withrelative humidity and rainfall was negative
Adel Badi, S.A. Sherlala and M.M. Assol, Agricultural                and highly significant. However, the correlation with wind
Research       Center,     Tripoli,      Libya,      Email:          speed during a period of two years was insignificant.
bisheya@yahoo.com
         Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the                    E 108
important vegetable crops in Libya. Potato crop is affected          BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON PARLATORIA DATE
by infestation with some agricultural pests which cause              SCALE, PARLATORIA BLANCHARDI (TARG. -
directly or indirectly economic losses. Field survey was             TOZZ.) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS. E.A.
conducted during spring 2007, to identify insect pests               Elwan and Maha I. El-Sayed, Plant Protection Research
associated with potato crop at some provinces in western             Institute, Agriculture Research Center, 7 Nady El-Seid
Libya. The objectives of this work is to determine the               Streat, Dokki, P.O. Box 12311, Giza, Egypt, Email:
important insect pests, their distribution, and natural              ssechem@hotmail.com; drsayedelwan@yahoo.com
enemies. Results indicated the presence of 70 different                        Parlatoria date scale, Parlatoria blanchardi (Targ.-
species which belong to 8 insect orders which are                    Tozz.) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was reared on date palm
Hemiptera,     Thysanoptera,    Orthoptera,     Coleoptera,          seedlings cultivated in black plastic bags for one year under
Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera based on                laboratory conditions. The results obtained revealed that P.
morphological and anatomical characteristics. Four insect            blanchardi completed four successive overlapping
species were identified as Liriomyza huidobrenses,                   generations a year; two generations in summer, one
Empoasca fabae, Lygus hesperus, Lygus elisus. There were             generation in autumn and one generation in winter. The 1st
variation in their occurence from 0%-45.1%. Results also             generation started from mid-May, 2008 to late September
indicated the presence of two different species of parasites         with average duration of 69.7 days at 23.3 ºC and 77% R.H.
and predators which are Diglyphus isaea, Diglyphus                   The 2nd generation started from early July to early
crassinervis, Hippodemia convergence and Hippodemia sp.              November with duration of 76.1days at 22.5ºC and 81%
                                                                     R.H. The 3rd generation occurred in autumn from mid-
E 106                                                                August to early February, 2009 with duration of 153.2 days
SURVEY OF INSECT PESTS WHICH ATTACK                                  at 19.7 ºC and 78% R.H., whereas the prolonged generation
ACACIA SP. ESPECIALLY A. EHRENBERGIANA IN                            occurred in winter from early October to late March or
QATAR. Khaled Mohamed Mardini1 and Hadi Al Shayef2.                  early April, 2009 with average duration of 198.5 days at
(1) Qatar Insects Project, Friends of the Environment                18.5 ºC & 76% R.H. The eggs incubation period was
Center, P.O.Box 1822, Doha, Qatar, Email: khaled-                    relatively shorter in summer and autumn generations (6-11
m92@hotmail.com; (2) Ministry of Environment, Doha –                 days) than winter generation (10-13 days). The duration of
Qatar.                                                               the 1st instar female nymph was 7-18 days in summer and
         A. ehrenbergiana is a perennial tree with many              autumn generations and 15-18 days in winter generation,
branches and tall thorns, and grows in the deep clay sandy           whereas the duration of the 1st instar male nymph was 6-11
and stony soils. It spreads in the valleys, especially in the        days in summer and autumn generations and was prolonged
south-western areas. The tender leaves, flowers and fruits           to 11-19 days in winter generation. The duration of the 2nd
are important food for camels and goats. Some species of             instar female nymph was 9-13 days in summer and autumn
Bruchidae attack the pods and damage the seeds. Some                 generations and increased to 21-26 days in winter
species of Acmaeodera sp. attack branches and roots. Field           generation while the duration of the 2nd instar male nymph
trips were made to collect insects in September 2007 from            was 7-14 days in summer and autumn generations and
three areas; Al Shahannia in the west, Al Wakra and Traina           prolonged to 14-22 days in winter generation. Duration of
in the south. Samples of infected pods collected from Al             the nymphal female stage was 16 - 41 days compared with
Wakra and Al Shahannia areas were infested by Bruchidius             19-47 days for male nymphal stage in the four generations.
sp., while branches were infested with two Acmaeodera sp.            The pre-oviposition period was 8-18 days in summer and
                                                                     autumn generations and prolonged to 102-120 days in
                                                                     winter generation. The oviposition period varied among the


E-44     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
four generations; it was 45-85 days in summer and autumn           M2
generations and increased to 203-227 days in winter                EFFECT OF CERTAIN CHITIN SYNTHESIS
generation. Whereas, the post-oviposition period was               INHIBITORS AGAINST TETRANYCHYS URTICAE
shorter (4-20 days) in the four generations. The adult             KOCH. AND THEIR SIDE EFFECTS ON SOME
female longevity was shorter in summer generations (64.6-          COMMON PREDATORS IN EGYPTIAN COTTON
75.3 days) and was prolonged to 228.2 and 184.1 days in            FIELDS. H.M.G. El-Kawas, Hala M.I. Mead and W.M.H.
autumn and winter generations, respectively. The fecundity         Desuky, Plant Protection Research Institute, Dokki, Giza,
of females was 28-59 eggs/female in the four generations.          Egypt, Email: dr.hanyelkawas@yahoo.com
                                                                             Field experiments were carried out to evaluate
MITES                                                              effects of three chitin synthesis inhibitors, Chlorfluazuron,
                                                                   Hexaflumuron, and Diflubenzuron compared to,
M1                                                                 Chlorfenapyr against the two-spotted spider mite,
EFFICACY OF APIGAURD (THYMOL) IN                                   Tetranychus urticae Koch immature stages and their side
CONTROLLING              VARROA        MITE       VARROA           effects on some common predators in Egyptian cotton
DESTRUCTOR ANDERSON & TRUEMAN AND ITS                              fields during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons at Zagazig
EFFECT ON HONEYBEES APIS MELLIFERA L.                              district, Sharquia Governorate. Results showed that,
Muzahim, A. Elsaiegh 1, Muhammad Hassan Sallo2 and                 Chlorfenapyr had the highest significant initial and residual
Muhammad Efraeah Edan1. (1) Plant Protection                       effects on T. urticae immature stages during the two
Department, College of Agriculture & Forestry, Mosul               successive seasons, followed by Chlorfluazuron,
University, Iraq; (2) Plant Protection Department, College         Hexaflumuron, and Diflubenzuron. However, Chlorfenapyr
of Agriculture, Sallahu EldeenUniversity, Iraq, Email:             was the most toxic and gave the highest significant
muz_bees@yahoo.com                                                 reduction in the predator numbers recorded (83.88±2.56,
           The study was conducted to evaluate the treatment       80.27±4.94%) in 2007 and (86.13±2.05, 74.99±2.97%) in
by Apigaurd against Varooa mite during autumn 2002                 2008 as initial and residual effects, respectively. In
season. The concentration 25% and 50% thymol                       addition, the changes in the activities of some enzymes of
concentrations showed a toxic effect, means of mite number         T. urticae as affected by tested treatments were also
on pupae significantly decreased to 3.93, 4.23 mites/pupa,         determined.
respectively, compared with 14.95 mites/pupa for the
control treatment. The treatments also significantly               M3
(P<0.05) reduced infestation severity, number of pupae             FEEDING PREFERENCE AND THE INFLUENCE
infested and infestation rate (0.16, 3.00, 12% and 0.15,           OF PREY STAGE OF TETANYCHUS URTICAE
3.60, 4.20 for the thymol treatments, respectively),               KOCH. ON CONSUMPTION TIME AND SOME
compared with the control treatment (0.6, 9.4, 37.6%). Both        OTHER BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
treatments of 25% and 50% thymol were significantly                THE PREDATOR SCOLOTHRIPS SEXAMCULATUS
effective on worker bee mite number (7.8, 6.6 mite) and            (PERG.) Sindab Sami Gasim1, Abdul–Sattar Arif Ali2 and
significantly reduced infestation severity and rate to a low       Saleh Hasan Sameer1. (1) Department of Plant Protection,
level (0.08, 0.07, 6.93, 5.5%, respectively), compared with        College of Agriculture, Abu–Ghraib, Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
untreated control (0.25 and 20.62 mites, respectively). The        sindab_aldahwi@yahoo.com; (2) Department of Plant
50% thymol treatment was significantly more effective than         Protection, College of Agriculture, Al–Anbar University,
the 25% treatment , as the number of mites dropped on the          Al-Anbar, Iraq, Email: abdulsattararif@yahoo.com
hive base were 159 and 116.9 mites, respectively, compared                  The sex spotted thrips Scolothrips sexmaculatus
to thev control treatment (23.3 mites).These results               (Perg.) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is considered as an
correlated well with the relative efficacy rate of the             effective predator against small insects and spider mites.
treatments with an average of 77.27 and 78.52%,                    Several laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate
respectively compared with 40.79% for the control                  the feeding preference of this predator for the different
treatment. There were no significant differences in                stages of the two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae
treatment efficacy between the 25% and 50% thymol                  Koch. The influence of mite stage on some biological
treatments (18.84 and 25.26, respectively), but they were          characteristics and consumption time were also
significantly lower than the control treatment (6.44).             investigated. Results showed that the predator larvae
Statistical analysis did not show significant differences          preferred spider mite egg for feeding and development.
between treatments on the number of mites dropped on the           Spider mite larvae and nymphs became second and third
hive base. The 50% thymol treatment was significantly              respectively in the preference of the predator while mite
more effective in mean number of mites dropped (15903)             adults were the least preferred host. Females of the predator
than the 25% thymol and control treatments (11687 and              preferred feeding on mite larvae in the first place fallowed
2331, respectively). Based on these results it is                  by eggs and adults, while mite nymphs were the last in the
recommended to the beekeepers to use the 25% or 50%                female preference. The predator males followed the same
thymol applications depending on the ambient temperature.          trend of the larvae in their preference. Time of prey
Further more, the miticide treatments did not have any side        consumption was reduced as the predator larvae increased
effect on queen and worker honeybees.                              in size and was increased with increasing developmental
                                                                   stages of the mite. Results have also indicated that the kind
                                                                   of food had significant influence on larvae development

                                                       2009    /                        27                                E-45
and adults performance of Scolothrips sexmaculatus. The              peanut, respectively. On the other hand, female longevity
best larvae performance was obtained when fed on                     and fecundity were affected by hosts whereas the
combination of all mite stages. Mean development time and            ovipositional period lasted 6.7, 6.8 and 7.2 days. The same
survival rate were 7.2 days and 93.1%, respectively. The             pattern, females affirmatived the relationship between
longest duration and lowest survival rates were 11.3 days            number of eggs deposited and host plant, whereas, the
and 82.7%, respectively, recorded for individuals fed on             number of eggs on soybean was about 40.5 times greater
just eggs and adults mite. Adult longevity and female                than that obtained on cotton and pea-nut (31.6 and 26.5
fecundity were improved when the predator fed on mixed               eggs). The obtained results also predicated that net
food of all mite stages. Therefore, results of this study            reproductive rates (Ro) were 25.92, 17.6 and 14.84
would be of benefit for the future application of the                females/female at constant of 25±2°C and 60±5% R.H.
predator against spider mites under field conditions.                when it fed on three different host plants, while generation
                                                                     times (T) were 15, 16.4 and 20.2 days, the intrinsic rates of
M4                                                                   natural increase (rm) were 21, 19 and 13 times/female/day,
THE BIOACTIVITY OF PINE OIL AGAINST                                  finite rates of increase (erm) were 1.24, 1.19 and 1.14
PHYTOPHAGOUS                MITES         IN      ORGANIC            times/female/day, respectively.
CUCUMBER PRODUCTION. Dalida Darazy and
Abdallah Traboulsi, Department of Plant Protection,                  M6
Faculty of Agriculture, Lebanese University, Dekwaneh,               BIOLOGY OF TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE,
Lebanon, Email: dchoubaya_darazy@hotmail.com                         TETRANYCHUS URTICAE KOCH AND ITS
          Among phytophagous mites especially on                     PREDATORS             PHYTOSEIULUS            PERSIMILIS
cucumber, two mite species are considered potential pests:           ATHIAS-HENRIOT AND STETHORUS GILVIFRONS
Tetranychus urticae Koch. and Tetranychus cinnabarinus               MULSANT IN THE LABORATORY. M. Mofleh1, M.
Boisduval. With the considerable new interest in                     Halloum2 and M. Ahmad2. (1) Faculty of Agriculture,
developing safer, environmentally friendlier control                 Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria; (2) Agricultural
alternatives the present work aims to explore the bioactivity        Research Center in Lattakia, Lattakia, Syria, Email:
of pine oil against phytophagous mites in organic cucumber           magda_mofleh@yahoo.com
production in open field conditions. The bioactivity of the                   Biology of Tetranychus urticae Koch and two of
pine oil was investigated through three replicates of field          its predators, at two different temperature (25 ±2°C) and
trials with five different oil concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%,         (30 ±2°C) were investigated. The ages of individuals
4%, and 6%) were tested. Control treatment without pine              reached 23 and 18 days for T. urticae female, and 22 and 21
oil was included for each test. Mortality was recorded 24,           days for Phytoseiulus persimilis female on Phaseolus
48 and 72 hr after treatment. Results showed that the 6%             vulgaris leaf disk, and 29 and 36 days for female Stethorus
concentration was the most effective with 97. 5% mortality           gilvifrons on two hosts (Ricinus communis, eggplant) leaf
for the two species after 48-72 h, followed by 86.3%,                disks at the two different temperatures, respectively. T.
88.5%, 89.9%, 91.9% mortality for the concentrations of              urticae Gross reproductive rates (GRR) were 143.6 and
0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4%, respectively. In addition, these                120.5 eggs, and the net reproduction rates (R0) was 108.96
results revealed that pine oil is highly effective against the       and 98.46 eggs, and the doubling time of population (T,
above phytophagous mites and of great importance in                  DT) was 10.96 and 1.65 days, and 8 and 1.2 days at the two
organic cucumber production under field conditions and in            different temperature, respectively. The GRR for P.
biological control systems.                                          persimilis was 48.35 and 42.91 eggs, and R0 was 44.88 and
                                                                     39.09 eggs, while (T, DT) was 9.79 and 1.82 days, and 10
M5                                                                   and 1.87 days at the two temperatures respectively. The
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PLANT HOSTS ON                                   GRR for S. gilvifrons was 127.46 and 212.5 eggs, and the
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS, FECUNDITY AND LIFE                               R0 was 122.23 and 195.207 eggs, while T, DT was 13.03
TABLE PARAMETERS OF THE TWO SPOTTED                                  and 1.88 days on R. communis, and 14.75 and 1.94 days on
SPIDER MITE TETRANYCHUS URTICAE KOCH.                                eggplant.
Mariam A. El-Sanady, Plant Protection Research Institute,
Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, Email:             M7
marim_elsanady@yahoo.com                                             LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE RELATION
       Biological studies were carried out on the two                BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF "NEONICOTINOID"
spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari:                 INSECTICIDES AND THE "HORMOLIGOSIS"
Tetranychidea: Actenididea), when it fed on three different          HYPOTHESIS ON THE BIOLOGY OF THE TWO
host plants: soybean (Glycine max L.), cotton (Gossypium             SPOTTED MITE. Khawla Taha Ismail Al-Neami and Dr.
sp.) and peatnut, (Arachis hypogaea L.) under the                    Khalid M. Al-Adil, Plant Protection Department, College of
laboratory conditions of 25±2°C and 60±5% R.H. Data                  Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
obtained and statistical analysis showed that the                    ktalneami@yahoo.com
developmental stages and fecundity were affected by                           Two methods were used for treatment with
different host plants, whereas, soybean was highly preferred         Neonicotinoid insecticides. The first method was to treat
for spider mites followed by cotton, while peanut was the            the female of phytophagous two spotted mite directly with
lowest. Therefore, total immature stages lasted 6.3, 7.5 and         three sprays of different concentrations (recommended rate,
10.25 days for female, when it fed on soybean, cotton and            half the rate and quarter the rate). Confidor caused an


E-46     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
increase in the number of eggs laid by the female to 8.30,           days after application (at P=0.05). Fenbotatin oxide 550g/l
7.54, 9.37 eggs/day for the three used concentrations,               was least harmful to the predators, whereas Amitras was the
respectively. Actara treatments gave 7.64, 7.12, 7.75                most harmful acaricide, 10 and 15 days after application.
eggs/dayfor the same concentiations, respectively, as
compared to 3.81, 4.70, 5.45 eggs/day for the control                M9
treatment.Similarly, the Confidor treatment had an obvious           BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SPIDER
effect on the longevity (11.3 days) followed by Actara (9.70         CRSCOLINA CONSPICUS (CAMBRIDGE, 872)
days), then the control (8.00 days). The differences between         FEEDING ON WHEAT APHID SCHIZAPHIS
the treatments were highly significant.The second method             GRAMINUM (RONDANI). Mohamed Hassan El-
used to treat the mite females was by dipping discs of               Erksousy, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural
cotton leaf in solutions containing different concentration of       Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, Email:
the used insecticides. The results showed that Confidor              el_erksousy10@yahoo.com
treatments had the highest effect on the fecundity with                       The life cycle of spider Crscolina conspicus
means of 8.90, 7.05, 9.15 eggs/day for the three                     (Cambridge, 872) (Araneida: Theridiidae) feeding on
concentrations, followed by Actara treatments with means             nymphs of the aphid species Schizaphis graminum
of 6.84, 6.57, 7.14 eggs/day while the control treatment             (Rondani) (Homoptera: Aphididae) was investigated under
showed a mean of 4.60, 4.58, 5.31 eggs/day. Confidor                 laboratory conditions; 26ºC and 60-70% RH. In this study,
treatment increased female life span to 11.00 days                   the life spam was 169.8 and 135.7 days, for female and
compared to that for Actara (9.33 days) and control (7.66            male, respectively. Food consumption of both female and
days). Finally, the feeding of different stages of mite on           male was 261.1 and 256.4 nymphs at the same conditions,
seedlings treated with Neonicotinoid insecticides, indicated         respectively. Description of some biological aspects;
that Actara had the most visible effect compared to other            mating, feeding behaviors and ovipositor were recorded.
treatments. Survival rate of juvenile stage larvae following
Actara treatment was 46.67%, whereas it was 26.67% for               M 10
both Confidor and control treatments, and the differences            PREDACEOUS MITES IN AL-QASSIM REGION,
were not significant.In contrast the effect of Confidor on           SAUDI ARABIA, WITH DESCRIPTION OF TWO
fecundity and longevity was high with a mean of 51.36 and            NEW SPECIES HYPOASPIS ZAHERI AND H.
10.00, respectively; followed by Actara with means of                DACTYLIFERA. Ahmed Fouly and Suloiman. Al –
42.36 and 8.33, respectively. The mean for the control               Rehiayani, Plant Production and Protection Department,
treatment was 24.66 and 6.00, respectively. In conclusion,           College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Al-
the increased effects occurred when nicotinoid insecticides          Qassim University, 51452 Buraydah, P.O. Box 6622, Saudi
were used can be explained by the hypothesis of                      Arabia, Email: Alreh@Yahoo.com.
"Hormoligosis", based on decreases or unbanlance of                           Survey study was conducted to determine
hormones.                                                            predaceous mites attacking different agricultural pests
                                                                     which inhabiting different habitats during 2007-2008 in Al-
M8                                                                   Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Predaceous mites living on
A SURVEY OF THE PREDATORY MITES                                      plant cnopy and root systems of cultivated plants, debris
ASSOCIATED WITH SPIDER MITES IN AS-                                  and organic manure reached more than 30 species
SWIEDA, SYRIA APPLE ORCHARDES AND THE                                belonging to three suborders, 17 families and 28 genera. All
SIDE EFFECTS OF SOME ACARICIDES ON THESE                             collected predaceous mite species are considered as first
PREDATORS. Jihan Al Abdullah, Division of Agricultural               records in Saudi Arabia, of which Hypoaspis zaheri; H.
Researchs in As-Sweida, General Commission of Scientific             dactylifera (family Laelapidae), Parasitus saifii (family
Agricultural          Research,         Syria.        Email:         Parasitidae); Sessiluncus qassimi (family Ologamasidae);
jihan_na@hotmail.com                                                 Platyseius denmarki; Neojordensia qassimi (family
          A survey for the predatory mite species associated         Ascidae); and Mycetoglyphus qassimi (family Acaridae) are
with spider mites in As-Swieda apple orchards in southern            considered new species. The present study aims to
Syria was carried out. The following species were recorded:          summarize their occurrence and relative abundance in
Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten), Typhlodromus cotoneaster               different habitats. Illustration and description of the two
(Wainstein) (Fam.: Phytoseiidae), Zetzellia mali (Ewing)             new species Hypoaspis zaheri; H. dactylifera are also
(Fam.: Stigmaidae) and unidentified species from Tydidae             included.
were found in very few numbers. All mentioned species are
new for the Spiders' fauna of Southern Syria. The side               M 11
effects of some acaricides on the predatory mite were                POPULATION           DYNAMICS          AND       MOST
tested. Those were: Mitac (Amitras 20%), Envidor                     IMPORTANT HOST PLANTS OF THE TWO-
(Spirodiclofen 240 g/l), mite clean (Pyrimidifen 4%), Turk           SPOTTED SPIDER MITE, TETRANYCHUS URTICAE
(Fenbotatin oxide 550 g/l) and ReBack (Fenbotatin oxide              KOCH AND ITS PREDATORS IN THE SYRIAN
                                                                                                        1           1
550 g/l). No significant differences were found among these          COASTAL REGION. M. Halloum , M. Ahmad and M.
                                                                            2
acaricides in their effect on the spider mites (Tetranychus          Mofleh . (1) Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University,
urticae (Koch) and Panonychus ulmi (Koch), 15 days after             Lattakia, Syria; (2) Agricultural Research Center in
application. Significant differences among these acaricides          Lattakia,        Lattakia,         Syria,         Email:
in their effect on the predatory mites were found, 10 and 15         magda_mofleh@yahoo.com

                                                         2009    /                        27                                E-47
        A study on the population dynamics of Tetranychus            Babol, Fereydon-Kenar, Sari, Nour, Amol. The highest
urticae Koch was conducted through two seasons 2007-                 population density was observed in Sari and Amol and the
2008, in Syrian coastal region. It was found that the activity       lowest density in Nour regions. The results of population
started on Ricinus communis plants and reached the highest           fluctuations of spiders in paddy fields indicated that the
peak in the first week of May (930 adults/30 leaves), then           population density was increased through the crop season
the population decreased on the same host plant at the end           (April-August), but insecticides’ application and probably
of May (33 adults/30leaves). In June, the population rose            climatic factors decrease the population density severely
again on Phaseolus vulgaris (136 adults/30 leaves) in the            after August. Furthermore, the population dynamics of
same region during 2007, and reached the peak in July (556           spiders was significantly different through different hours
adult/30 leaves) on the same host plant. In middle of                of the day. The highest density was obtained at 10 am and
August, the numbers of T. urticae started to decline and             18 pm and the lowest density was observed at noon because
disappeared in late November in the study region. The                of warm climate conditions.
activity and numbers of associated predators wer dependent
on the presence of the prey. Many predators of T. urticae            FUNGAL DISEASES
were found in the coastal region. They were Phytoseiulus
persimilis and Amblyseius sp. (Phytoseiidae), Stethorus              F1
gilvifrons Mulsant and Scymnus frontales (Coccinellidae),            EMERGING PLANT DISEASES IN VEGETABLE
Feltiella acarisuga (Cecidomyiidae), Orius sp. and                   AND ORNAMENTAL CROPS IN ITALY. Maria
Geocoris sp. (Anthocoridae), Nabis sp. (Nabidae),                    Lodovica Gullino and Angelo Garibaldi, AGROINNOVA,
Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande (Thripidae) and                    University of Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci, 44, 10095,
Chrysoperla carnea (Chrysopidae). The most important                 Grugliasco, Italy, Email: marialodovica.gullino@unito.it
host ten plants were determined for the predators of T.                    Vegetable and ornamental crops are economically
urticae in the coastal region.                                       important in Italy and share some common features, such as
                                                                     their high value, continuous intensification and innovation
M 12                                                                 in their production systems, presence of a high number of
FAUNA AND POPULATION FLUCTUATIONS OF                                 crops and varieties, limitations in the use of chemicals,
SPIDERS (ARTHROPODA: ARANEI) IN RICE                                 …etc. During the past few years many new diseases,
FIELDS          OF        MAZANDARAN           PROVINCE,             mainly caused by soilborne pathogens (such as different
NORTHERN IRAN. Hassan Ghahari1, Mehrdad Tabari2,                     formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotinia
Yuri M. Marusik3 and Hadi Ostovan4. (1) Department of                sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophtthora spp.) as
Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahre Rey Branch,             well as by foliar pathogens (mostly causal agents of
Tehran, Iran, Email: h_ghahhari@yahoo.com; (2) Iran Rice             powdery mildews, Alternaria sp., …) have been detected in
Research       Institute,    Mazandaran,     Iran,   Email:          north-western Italy. The phytopathological situations of
ma_tabari@yahoo.com; (3) Zoological Museum, University               leafy vegetables as well as new ornamental crops will be
of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland, Email:                           presented and the evolution of some diseases as a possible
yurmar@mail.ru; (4) Department of Entomology, Islamic                consequence of the globalization of the markets and/or of
Azad University, Fars Science and Research Branch, Iran,             climate change will be critically discussed. Moreover, the
Email: ostovan2002@yahoo.com                                         emerging problems in the management of the new diseases
          Spiders are one of the eleven orders of the class          will be presented.
Arachnida, which also includes groups such as harvestmen
(Opiliones), ticks and mites (Acari), scorpions                      F2
(Scorpiones),      false    scorpions    (Pseudoscorpiones),         EFFECT OF SEED INFECTION WITH FUNGI ON
windscorpions (Solifugae), and vinegaroons (Uropygi).                PHENOL LEVEL               AND      DEFENSE-RELATED
Spiders are the powerful and efficient predators in                  ENZYMES ACTIVITY IN BEAN SEEDS. Z.I. El-Gali,
ecosystems which have effective role in pest control. The            Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Omer Al-Mukhtar
fauna population fluctuations and activities of these                University, P.O. 919, El-Beida, Libya, Email:
arthropods were studied in Mazandaran province during                Z_elgali@yahoo.com
2005-2009. A total of 41 spider species of 37 genera were                   Bean seeds, local variety and Giza-6 cultivars were
collected and identified from the paddy fields of                    inoculated with Botrytis cinerea and Macrophomina
Mazandaran. Of these, eight species including, Agalenatea            phaseolina and stored for different periods. Seeds
redii, Cheiracanthium erraticum, Phlegra bresnieri,                  inoculated with both fungi had higher total phenol content
Allohogna singoriensis, Steatoda paykulliana, Tegenaria              as compared to control seeds and the concentration
domestica, Neoscona subfusca and Scotophaeus scutulatus              increased until 20 days of storage after inoculation and
are new records for Iranian fauna. The results of                    thereafter started to decline. The activity of peroxidase,
determining the egg masses' densities on different rice              polyphenol      oxidase,    phenylalanine    oxidase     and
varieties (including, Tarom, Fajr, Khazar, Shafagh, Tabesh,          phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was higher in inoculated
Sahel, Neda, Pouya, and Kadus) indicated that the highest            seeds as compared to the control, but as the days of storage
egg density was obtained on the varieties Tarom, Fajr, and           after inoculation increased the enzyme activities decreased.
Khazar, respectively and the lowest on Tabesh. Also, the             When inoculated seeds were incubated at different
egg masses' density was significantly different in various           temperatures for 10, 20 and 30 days, and examined for their
locations including, Savadkooh, Babolsar, Mahmood-Abad,


E-48     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
impact on the total content of reduced and non-reduced              fingerprinting between isolates no. 1, 4 and 2, 3 and 5
sudars, total protein, soluble protein, amino acids and             showed that these isolates constitute two separate clusters
nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), results showed variability             with a low value of genotype similarity (40% and 60%,
in changes according to pathogen incubation temperature             respectively). There were identical bands for isolates No. 1,
and duration. Both pathogens have affected biochemical              2, 3a, 3b and different bands for isolate 4. This suggested
changes in the infected seeds and were directly proportional        that there was two different species among the studied
with incubation period compared to the control seeds. B.            isolates. Isolate 4 was identified according to ascospore
cinerea caused maximum reduction in seed quality at 20              formation as Eutypa maura while the other four isolates
°C, whereas M. phaseolina was most effective at 25°C. A             were identified as Eutypa lata.
negative correlation was observed between incubation
period and seed contents.                                           F5
                                                                    MORPHOLOGICAL                    AND         MOLECULAR
F3                                                                  IDENTIFICATION OF SOME IISOLATES OF THE
EFFECT OF CONTROL ELEMENTS ON THE                                   GENUS TRICHODERMA. Houda Boureghda and
CONTROL OF FUSARIUM WILT OF KOCHIA. A.K.                            Zouaoui Bouznad, Département de botanique, Institut
Al-Taae and T.M. Al Dujaly, Department of Plant                     National Agronomique (INA), El-Harrach, Algiers, Algeria,
Protection, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University         Email: hou.boureghda@gmail.com
of Mosul, Iraq, Email aaltaae@yahoo.co.uk                                 Species identification of 18 isolates of Trichoderma
      The results of a survey carried out in Mosul university       spp. revealed that classical approaches based on
gardens during the years 2006 and 2007 showed that                  morphological criteria are not enough to determine species.
disease incidence and severity of kochia wilt were                  Based on morphological characteristic two groups were
gradually increased by age of plant from July until October.        distinguished among the 18 isolates obtained. The first
Disease incidence and severity for two years were 85.6%,            group was made of 10 isolates: T1, T2, T4, T5, T8, T9,
0.35 during 2006 and 97.2% and 0.41 during 2007. Results            T10, T11, T14 and T17 of which the conidiophore
of isolation and diagnosis showed that the Kochia wilt was          morphology, as well as the ramifications and phialides
caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht emend Snyder &                morphology correspond to the Longibrachiatum section.
Hansen. This is the first record of F. oxysporum on Kochia          The isolates of the first group presented conidia with
in Iraq. The following treatments were used in this study to        different measurements intervals which overlap with those
control the disease: Alsa, Topsin, Techazole, Swich,                of several species of the Longibrachiatum section, and
Bettanol, Halex and Trichoderma. The most effective                 exhibit variability in the form, which made the
fungicides were Topsin and Alsa which reduced disease               identification of their species very fastidious. The second
incidence to 61.67 and 61.67%, respectively compared with           group: T3, T6, T7, T12, T13, T15, T16 and T18 was made
100% in the control treatment. On the other hand Techazole          of isolates with inflated phialides disposed in pair or virticil
and Halex were the best in increasing plant height, number          like of Pachybasum section. All the isolates presented
of branches and fresh and dry weight of vegetative parts.           conidia of globulous form. The conidia sizes subdivide
The root dipping of plant seedlings in fungicide solution           them in two sub-groups. The first one includes the isolates:
was more efficient than fungicide drenching of seedlings to         T6, T12, T15, T16, and T18 and the second one includes
control the disease.                                                the isolates: T3, T7, and T13. The first sub-group has
                                                                    conidiophore with short branches like Pachybasum section,
F4                                                                  while the second one had long branches like Trichoderma
IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT EUTYPA                                  section. The sequencing of internal transcribed spacer
ISOLATES FROM GRAPEVINE BY USING                                    (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) of rDNA of the 18 isolates revealed that
PLOYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. Ahmad Al-                                the 10 isolates of the first group corresponding to the
Momany, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of                  Longibrachiatum section had identical sequences (100% of
Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, Email:            similarity) with those of several isolates of the species T.
momanyah @ju.edu.jo.                                                longibrachiatum and Hypocrea shwenitzii. Within the
      Eutypa dieback is a serious disease of grapevine in           second group of isolates, those of the first sub-group T6,
Jordan. E maura was reported for the first time in Jordan           T12, T15 and T16 presented identical sequences with those
based on morphological features of ascospores obtained              of T. harzianum species and its teleomorphe H. lixii, but the
from remnants of pruned branches in vineyards. The                  T18 isolate presented a sequence with the highest
purpose of this study was to identify the fingerprints of           homology with T. harzianum and T. inhamatum species
Eutypa isolates to be sure if there were more than one              sequences. The isolates of the second sub-group presented
species and if there were differences among isolates of the         identical sequences with T. atroviride isolates only. The
same species. Isolates were obtained from different                 sequencing of the elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF-1 α)
locations in the studied area. Five pure isolates were              showed that the ten isolates of the first group presented
obtained during June 2005 from different infected                   sequences with the highest homology (99%) with those of
vineyards in Ajloon province in Jordan.There was 30%                the species T. longibrachiatum, thus confirming their
genetic relatedness among isolates no 1 and 4 and 35%               membership to this species. Isolates identified as T.
between isolates 2 and 3b. However, a high degree of                atroviride by the sequencing of ITS had sequences with the
similarity (32%) was found among isolates no. 1, 4 and 2,           highest homology with those isolates belonging to the
3b, 3a. On the other hand, comparison of BOX PCR                    species T. atroviride and its teleomorphe H. atroviridis,

                                                        2009    /                         27                                  E-49
which confirm that they belong to this species. The isolates:        F8
T6, T12, T15, T16 and T18 had sequences with the highest             PREDICTION SYSTEM FOR PHOMOPSIS CANE
homology with those of H. lixii teleomorphe of T.                    AND LEAF SPOT OF GRAPE CAUSED BY
harzianum confirming their membership to the species T.              PHOMOPSIS VITICOLA (SACC.). Wazeer A. Hassan,
harzianum. The results of DNA sequencing confirmed that              Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture,
the morphological characters have a great plasticity at the          University         of       Duhok,        Iraq,       Email:
Trichodemra genus, and that the ITS sequencing of this               wazerhassan@yahoo.com
group is still confusing due to the presence of more than                   A disease prediction model was developed based on
two species which may have identical sequences, but the              temperature and wetness-duration requirements for
ambiguity of the species identity determination can be               infection of grape leaves and canes by Phomopsis viticola.
resolved by sequencing the EF-1α gene.                               Field evaluations were conducted in 2007 and more
                                                                     extensively, in 2008. The study consist of spraying vines
F6                                                                   with fungicides (benomyl in 2007 and thiophanate-methyl
SURVEY        OF      FUNGI ASSOCIATED                WITH           (Topsin) or mancozeb in 2008 ) according to a 7 day
CEREALS. Taher Ahmed Abuhligha, Faculty of                           protecting program or when environmental conditions were
Agriculture, Alfateh University, Gafara, Libya, Email:               favorable for infection. For prediction-model-based
taher_ahmed156@yahoo.com                                             treatments, fungicides were mixed with an adjuvant, the
         The aim of this study was to isolate and identify           wash liquid (Zahi) 0.5 and 1%, the spray program started at
fungi associated with cereals and covered 14 different               12 cm shoot growth and treatments were applied 2 weeks
cereals and other crops (wheat, barely, oat, peanut,                 after flowering; three applications were made in response to
chickpea, lentil, bean, pea, fenugreek, broadbean, rice, corn,       predicted infection periods, while four applications were
sugar cane. Corn). The results revealed the presence of nine         made with the calendar-based protection program in 2007.
different fungal genera: Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp.,            A total of four applications were made in response to
Penicillium spp., Helminthosporium spp., Chaetomium                  predicted infection compared to five with the protection
spp., Epicoccum spp., Acremonium spp., Alternaria spp.,              program in 2008. Vines sprayed with mixed benomyl
Tricothecium spp. The results obtained and methods used              (Zahi) and mancozeb plus Zahi in response to predicted
will be presented                                                    infection periods produced significantly less disease
                                                                     severity and incidence than the control and similar to that in
F7                                                                   the calendar-based fungicide schedule. Results indicated
EFFICIENCY            IMPROVEMENT              OF      THE           that disease forecasting will lead to better control of the
BIOCONTROL AGENT TRICHODERMA VIRIDE BY                               disease.
USING THE MICROBIAL POLYSACCHARIDE FOR
CONTROLLING OKRA SEED-BORNE FUNGI.                                   F9
Sulaiman Dawood Esam and Doha Ismaeel Al-Obaidy,                     GENETIC        DIVERSITY          OF      VERTICILLIUM
Department of Biology- College of Education- University              DAHLIAE KLEB CAUSING COTTON WILT
of Mosul, Iraq, Email: is_alr@yahoo.com                              DISEASE IN SYRIA USING RADP-PCR. Louleh
              The antagonistic ability evaluation of the             Joumah1, A.M. Mouhanna2, M.N. Al-Salti1, M.F. Azmeh2
biocontrol agent Trichoderma viride against pathogenic               and M.A. Shaar3. (1) Cotten Research Ademenstration,
fungi, indicated a strong inhibiting effect on the growth of         General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research,
two isolates of Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani               Aleppo, Syria, Email: jlouleh78@gmail.com; (2) General
with moderate degree of antagonism, but weak effect on               Commission for Biotechnology and University of
Macrophomina phasealina. The effect of the fungal                    Damascus, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus, Syria; (3)
polysaccharide produced by Alternaria alternata on the               Facylty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Syria.
radial growth of both pathogenic fungi and biocontrol                      Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the most
agent, showed that the relatively high concentrations (i.e. 4        important fiber crops in the world, and it has a big
and 5 gm/l) reduced their growth slightly, but                       economical importance in Syria.Cotton growing area
simultaneously stimulated the development of spores                  reached 205,000 ha in Syria. Cotton in Syria is infected
Trichioderma viride spores, and increased their numbers.             with several diseases, the most important is vascular wilt
Seed treatment with spore suspension of T. viride revealed           caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Lands adjacent to
significant reduction in infection rate and disease severity         Euphrates, Orantes and Khabour rivers are the most
of both pre- and post- emergence seedlings damping-off,              contaminated areas with Verticillium dahliae. 17 samples of
and led to an increase in seedling length, and dry weight of         cotton plants showing symptoms of vascular wilt were
seedlings in pot. The use of adhesive materials (i.e. fungal         collected from 17 different locations in Hama, Aleppo,
polysaccharide or Arabic gum) to seeds reduced further the           Raqqa, Dier-Ezzor and Al-Hasakeh. Morphological
infection rate and disease severity, and increased seedling          variation between the 17 samples was studied in vitro on
length and dry weight. Although no significant differences           potato dextrose agar medium. DNA was isolated and
were recorded, the microbial polysaccharide was found to             analyzed by using 12 different primers and RAPD-PCR to
be better than Arabic gum for disease control, and it                study the genetic diversity of the 17 samples. The results
improved plant growth.                                               showed morphological variation and genetic diversity
                                                                     within the populations of V. dahliae from cotton in Syria.



E-50     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
F 10                                                                 study may be helpful in the future to develop predictive
HANDLING OF CLIMATE CHANGE DATA AND                                  model to forecast the stripe rust disease which is an
ITS IMPACT ON PLANT DISEASES USING THE                               economical tool in the management of this disease.
TECHNIQUE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. S.
Bouhrathi1.2, D. Harazallah1 and K. Benmahammed2.(1)                 F 12
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Biology,                   BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WILT AND ROOT
Faculty of Sciences, University of Ferhat Abbas, Sétif,              ROT OF SOYBEAN PLANTS CAUSED BY
Algeria; (2) Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Department of           FUSARIUM          SOLANI      AND       MACROPHOMINA
Electronics, Faculty of Engineer Sciences, University of             PHASEOLINA. Majda Hadi Mahdi1, Hadi Mahdi Abbod2
Ferhat       Abbas,      Sétif–19000,     Algeria,      Email:       and Ali Ibrahim Hamadi3. Department of Biological
sbouharati@yahoo.fr                                                  Science, College of Science, University of Baghdad; (2)
      It is noticed that climate changes are going to increase       Ministry of Sci. & Tech.; (3) Department of Plant
the main temperature in the world with increased frequency           Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad,
of climatic extremes, such as drought, floods, and storms in         Iraq,            Email:            alsaady_mh@yahoo.com;
some regions. Climatic factors that could greatly influence          s_mouyed@yahoo.com
plant health should be carefully evaluated. Several fungal                    Isolation and identification of fungal pathogens
diseases of plants may become more devastating because of            associated with root rot and wilt of Soybean plants, showed
abiotic stresses, such as drought and flooding, are known to         the dominance of Fusarium solani and Macrophomina
predispose plants to several pathogens; temperature and              phaseolina in all samples tested. Both fungi have shown
moisture affect pathogen dispersal, and changes in climatic          high pathogensity, with seed germination rate of 36.6, 46.6
conditions are likely to favor certain pathogenic fungi.             and 50% for the two fungi, separately and combined,
Migration of fungi triggered by climatic changes may                 compared with 83.3% for the control. It was found that the
increase disease incidence or geographic range. Accurate             growth rate of the two fungi, on the Potato Sucrose Agar
prediction of the climate change on plant pathogens is               (PSA), was 1.0 which indicate neutral relationships. The
uncertain because the climate variability is not stable. The         isolate T28 of Trichoderma sp. showed antagonistic rates
use of artificial intelligence and exactly the fuzzy logic           1.5 and 1.7 against the two fungi, respectively, compared
principels, is very adequate in uncertain environment. The           with T21, T26 and Tm. Under greenhouse conditions, same
fuzzy program was done for predicting the nature and                 isolate significantly increased seed germination rate by
effects of plant diseases according to specific environment.         86.6% compared with 43.3, 50.0 and 53.33%, and
                                                                     significantly decreased infection severity of root and
F 11                                                                 foliage 44.4 ,41.36%, 42.2, 33.3% and 42.2, 47.16%
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON PUCCINIA                                  compared to 82.2, 83.2%, 62.2, 74.96% and 68.87, 77.76%
STRIIFORMIS CAUSING STRIPE RUST OF WHEAT                             for the two fungi individually and their interaction,
IN FAISALABAD (PAKISTAN). S. Ahmad1, M. A.                           respectively.
Khan2, M.M. Haider2, Z. Iqbal1, M. Kamran1 and N.
Akhtar1. (1) University college of Agriculture, University           F 13
of Sargodha, Pakistan; (2) Department of Plant pathology             EVALUATION OF EPIDEMIC AND CONTROL OF
Agriculture University Faisalabad, Pakistan, Email:                  MAGNAPORTHE GRISEA (HEBERT) BARR. ON
ahmadyarsalman@gmail.com                                             YIELD OF FOUR RICE CULTIVARS UNDER
          Fifty genotypes of wheat were screened against             DIFFERENT            LEVELS           OF        NITROGEN
yellow (stripe) rust to determine its ecology. Among these           FERTILIZATION. Mona Hamody Al-Jubouri1 and
genotypes 36 showed visible symptoms of yellow rust. Out             Zaidan Kailf Amran2. (1) College of Science, Baghdad
of these, 18 were found susceptible, 6 were moderately               University, Iraq; (2) College of Science, Babylon
susceptible to susceptible, 7 were moderately resistant to           University, Iraq, Email: mustaffal_taie@yahoo.com
moderately susceptible and 5 genotypes remained resistant                      This study was carried out to evaluate the
against yellow rust. All other genotypes showed no                   epidemic and chemical control of rice blast disease under
response or remained asymptomatic against yellow rust.               field conditions and by using four rice cultivars (Anber 33,
For the epidemiological study of stripe rust, environmental          Anber local, Mishkab1 and Hageen 2) in a factorial
factors including maximum and minimum temperatures,                  experiment with complete randomized block design with
rainfall, relative humidity, sunshine radiations and wind            three levels of nitrogen fertilization 0, 160 and 320 g/plot
speed data were collected. The correlation between stripe            and two fungicides Benomyl and Mancozeb in Mishkhab
rust severity and environmental factors were then                    Rice Research Station in the Najaf governorate in middle of
determined       through     correlation    analysis.     Four       Iraq. Results showed that Anber 33, and Anber local
environmental factors including maximum and minimum                  cultivars were more susceptible to infection by
temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed were found            Magnaporthe grisea, while Mishkhab 1 and Hageen 2 were
significant in causing stripe rust disease while the other two       more resistant against M. grisea. Fertilization by 3 levels of
including rainfall and sunshine radiations had no significant        nitrogen increased the blast disease on Anber 33, and Anber
effect. It was found that three environmental factors like           local cultivars while Mishkhab 1 and Hageen 2 were more
maximum temperature, relative humidity and wind speed                resistant against M. grisea. Chemical control by Benomyl
were positively correlated with disease severity while               and Mancozeb in fertilized plots reduced disease effect and
minimum temperature showed negative correlation. This

                                                         2009    /                         27                                E-51
increased yield of Anber 33 and Anber local as compared              Claire Neema3. (1) Institut de Biologie, Université de Chlef,
with Mishkhab 1 and Hageen 2.                                        BP151, 02000 Chlef, Algérie, Email: benseti@yahoo.fr;
                                                                     bencheikdz@yahoo.fr; (2) Institut des Sciences, Université
F 14                                                                 d’Es Senia, Oran, Algérie, Email: hennijamel@hotmail.fr;
PRODUCTION OF SOLANAPYRONE A AND                                     (3) UMR de Pathologie Végétale, INRA/INA-
TRANSFORMATION OF ASCOCHYTA RABIEI.                                  PG/Université Paris VI, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75231
Mohamed Mihoub Zerroug1, Zouaoui Bouznad2, Larbi                     Paris Cedex, France.
Larous1, Richard N. Strange3 and Laouer Hocine4. (1)                            Mycosphaerella blight caused by Mycosphaerella
Laboratoire de Microbiologie Appliquée, Université de                pinodes (Berk& Blox) Vestergr. is now recognized as one
Sétif, Sétif, 19000, ALGERIA; (2) Ecole Nationale                    of the major problems limiting pea yield in Algeria. The
Supérieure d’Agronomie; El-Harrach; Alger; ALGERIE;                  present work was carried out to study the aggressiveness of
(3) School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Birkbeck             75 M. pinodes isolates collected from different peas
College, University of London, WC1E7HX, UK; (4)                      growing areas forming four population groups representing
Laboratoire de Valorisation des produits naturels,                   four geographic areas in western Algeria. Latent period,
Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université            incubation period and disease severity were measured in the
Ferhat       Abbes       Setif,    ALGERIE.          Email:          greenhouse for each of the isolate x cultivar combination.
med.zerroug@gmail.com                                                The results showed highly significant differences between
         Isolate Tk21 of Ascochyta rabiei started producing          isolates and between cultivars for all three aggressiveness
solanapyrone A toxin from the 6th day of incubation                  components. No significant interaction, however, was noted
(2.84±0.6µg/ml), reaching 22.29±4.37 µg/ml at 14 days.               between isolates and cultivars. Both the principal
There was no significant difference in the production of             components analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical cluster
Solanapyrone A from the 10th to the 14th day of incubation.          analysis (HCA) were employed to analyze the variation
The transformation of Ascochyta rabiei, using                        pattern within and among population group. The cluster
Agrobacterium tumefaciems, gave rise to 498 colonies                 analysis summarized the relationship among the isolates
which grew on media supplemented with the selective                  according to their distance of similarity while the isolates
agent; hygromycin B. The 30 transformants that sporulated            were sorted into six distinct aggressiveness groups, AG1
were grown on a defined medium conducive to the                      was the most represented with 34% of total isolates. Both
production of solanapyrone toxins. Solanapyrone A                    the PCA and the cluster analysis revealed that many isolates
production, as demonstrated by the absorption of light at            were closely related irrespective of the geographic or the
327 nm, the λmax of the compound, varied from 2.11±0.10              host cultivar from which they were collected. On the other
µg/ml to 4.32±1.93 µg/ml, representing a reduction of                hand, and based on the same aggressiveness components,
74.11% to 46.99% in comparison with the wild type                    the cultivars Onward, Lucy and DP were found to be the
(8.15±2.99 µg/ml).                                                   most susceptible, whereas the cvs Rondo and MK were
                                                                     partially resistant.
F 15
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ISOLATES OF                                   F 17
TRICHODERMA SP. ON THE GROWTH AND                                    INTEGRATED CONTROL OF SOYBEAN ROOT
PRODUCTION              OF        TOMATO            UNDER            ROT CAUSED BY MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA
GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS. Amal Haj Hasan, Kais                          AND FUSARIUM SOLANI. Hadi M. Aboud1, Majedah
Ggaza1, Jounar Ibrahim and Alisar Shaabow, Lattakia                  H.M. Al-Saady2 and R.A.Alani2. (1) Ministry of Science
Center for Rearing Natural Enemies, Lattakia, Syria, Email:          and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq; (2) Agriculture College,
amal.haj@gmail.com.                                                  Baghdad University, Ministry of High Education, Iraq,
         Trichoderma sp is one of the biological control             Email: hadimahdiaboud@yahoo.com
agents for controlling wilt diseases and also has good                         This study was carried out to evaluate the
effects on plants by stimulating plant growth. To this end,          integrated activity of two biocontrol agents: Trichoderman
comparison tests between five local isolates of Trichoderma          harzianum and Rhizobium japonicum with chemical
sp. (T1, T2, T3, T5, T9) and an isolate from the commercial          fungicide Tecto in controlling soybean root rot caused by
product Biocont (Tbio) were carried out to study the                 Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani. Results
influence of those isolates on the growth and production of          revealed that the use of two biocontrol agents separatly or
tomato. Results showed that there were significant                   together with the chemical fungicide Tecto induced
differences between the control and that treated with                significant reduction in disease severity and induced
isolates T1, T2, T5, T9 and Tbio, and no significant                 significant increment in growth and crop productivity. The
differences among the isolates themselves (T1, T2, T5, T9            mean number of emerged plants and disease severity of root
and Tbio) for growth and for yield. The use of T1 and T3             system in biocontrol agents with Tecto treatment was
gave the highest yield among all isolates and control.               63.16% and 33.3%, as compared to infected untreated
                                                                     control which recorded 38.2% with disease severity of
F 16                                                                 72.7%. This treatment also significantly increased the shoot
COMPARATIVE            AGGRESSIVENESS           OF                   dry weight, root dry weight, number of branches and plant
MYCOSPHAERELLA PINODES ON PEAS FROM                                  productivity of 100.3 gr, 36.3 gr, 8 branches and 81.3
DIFFERENT REGIONS IN WESTERN ALGERIA.                                gr/plant compared to 61.6 gr, 28.3 gr, 5.6 branches and 46.0
Benali Setti1, Mohamed Bencheikh1, Jamel Henni2 and                  gr/plant in infected untreated control.


E-52     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
F 18                                                              isolates, some other biological tests were carried out. The
USE OF MOLECULAR AND BIOLOGICAL                                   effect of temperature on the growth and sporulation of
CHARACTERISTICS                TO        DIFFERENTIATE            isolates was studied with increasing temperature. The
PHYTOPHTHORA                 SPECIES           ATTACKING          mycelium growth increased when the temperature increased
CUCURBITS UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS.                            between 10-30 ºC, while the mycelium growth decreased at
Bahram Sharifnabi1, Azadeh Sharifi-Zarchi1, Shaban                temperatures between 30-35ºC. The mycelium growth
Shafiezadeh2 and Seyed Alireza Esmailzadeh-Hosseini3. (1)         completely stopped at 40 ºC. No mycelial growth was
Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture,              noticeable at 10ºC. Conidiospores also germinated and
Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111,            reached 3850 conidia/ml. at 30 ºC with Alhodiada isolate
Iran; (2) Plant Protection Research Department, Isfahan           (SR). Less spore germination occurred (3420 conidia / ml)
Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Iran;         with isolate from Lahag (LH) 15 days after inoculation. The
(3) Plant Protection Research Dept., Yazd Agricultural and        growth rates of the four isolates under 27–30 ºC was
Natural Resources Research Center, Iran, Email:                   variable where SR was more virulent followed by AB, AL
sharifna@cc.iut.ac.ir                                             and LA, where colony diameter reached 62.4 , 61.0, 58.4
          Phytophthora species cause root rot of cucurbits        and 56.6 mm, respectively. Micrometric measurements of
under greenhouse conditions in Iran. Disease losses ranged        the conidia of four isolates with deep brown colour and
from 5 to 75 percent. Diseased samples were collected and         transversal and longitudinal lines ranged between 15- 30 x
sixty isolates of Phytophthora and Pythium specimens were         10 -15 mm.
cultured on different media. Based on morphological and
limited physiological characteristics, 40 isolates were           F 20
identified as Phytophthora melonis. Pathogenicity tests           SAFE CHEMICALS TO OVERCOME PRE- AND
were conducted using all isolates and results revealed that       POST HARVEST FUNGI ATTACKING DATE PALM
all isolates were pathogenic to cucumber. To distinguish P.       FRUITS IN EGYPT. A.M. Abdelmonem and S. Y. Farag,
melonis and P. drechsleri from each other, potato pink rot        Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agricultural Research
and safflower root rot tests were carried out. Genomic DNA        Center, P.O. Box 12619, Giza, Egypt, Email:
was extracted using Silva et al. method and different             dimamt@yahoo.com;                            dimam@link.net;
regions of genomic DNA e.g. ITS, Tef and B-tubulin genes          salahfarag@yahoo.com
were amplified by three sets of primers: ITS1/ITS4,                         Fresh date palm fruits are frequently attacked by a
Tef1/Tef2 and bt1/bt2. PCR-RFLP of ITS region using RsaI,         number of pathogenic fungi. Aspergillus niger and
HinfI, TaqI, HpaII and HaeIII restriction enzymes was             Ceratocystis paradoxa are often common. They infect date
carried out. PCR-RFLP method, potato pink rot test and            fruits leading to considerable losses at both pre and post
safflower damping off test couldn’t distinguish P. melonis        harvest. They bring about serious infection to Samany,
from P. drechsleri. Accordingly, it is necessary to design        Zaghloul and Barhi varieties where they develop causing
species-specific primers to provide informative results.          fruit decay whereas fruits are still on the tree. A. niger was
                                                                  found to develop more on Samani variety while C.
F 19                                                              paradoxa caused higher infection rate on both Zaghlol and
BIOLOGICAL           STUDY      OF     BOTRYDIPLODIA              Barhi varieties, especially in humid areas. After harvest, 3
THEOBROMAE              FUNGUS.        THE       CAUSAL           species belonging to the genera Penicillium, Alternaria and
ORGANISM OF DIE BACK DISEASE OF MANGO                             Cladosporium caused a lot of decay to all varieties tested
IN YEMEN. Ali Khamis Rowaished and Najeeb Ahmad                   during cold storage. To overcome the disease problem,
Mohsen, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of                   preharvest treatments were carried out using some safe
Agriculture,     Aden     University,    Yemen,     Email:        chemicals. Spraying potassium thiosulfate at 1500 ppm,
rowaishedak@hotmail.com                                           sodium carbonate at 3000 ppm and calcium chloride at
          Field survey was carried out in four Yemeni             3000 ppm demonstrated high effects against all fungi tested
governorates where mango trees are densely planted                diminishing their effect at both pre and post harvest cases.
(Lahag, Abyan, Alhodiada, Haja) during 2006/2007 season.          Less cracking and black nose were observed with both
Infected samples were collected from infected branches and        treatments on Zaghlol dates during fruit ripening. On the
kept in polyethylene bags, and were transferred to Plant          other hand, little decay was only observed during rutab
Pathology Laboratory at Faculty of Agriculture. After             stage in the cold storage. Those selected chemical
isolation and purification of the fungus on PDA culture,          treatments safeguarded date palm fruit quality without any
four isolates of the fungus Botrydiplodia theobromae were         adverse impact.
obtained beside other fungi like Fusarium oxysporum,
Alternaria alternata, Colletotricum gloeosporioides and           F 21
Aspergillus niger using pathogencity test for all fungi           VIRULANCE OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA ERIKS,
isolated from mango seedlings of Baladi cultivar. Alhodida        THE CAUSAL AGENT OF WHEAT LEAF RUST IN
isolate (SR) seems to be highly pathogenic and necrotic           SYRIA AND LEBANON. Mohammad Kassem1, Ahmed
area reached 40 mm2 35 days after inoculation, while Haja         El-Ahmed1, Mohammad Shafik Hakim2, Mohammad El-
isolate (AL) was less pathogenic, and the necrotic area           Khalifeh3 and Miloudi Nachit3. (1) Department of Plant
reached 27 mm2. While Lahag isolate (LA) and Abyan                Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo,
isolate (AB) were less virulent and caused necrosis of 28–        Syria, Email: agromohammad@msn.com; agromohd@scs-
32 mm2 respectively. To compare between the four                  net.org; (2) Department of Field Crops, Faculty of

                                                      2009    /                         27                                E-53
Agriculture, University of Aleppo; Syria; (3) ICARDA,                Area (ICARDA), P.O.Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email:
P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria.                                        s.murad@cgiar.org; (2) Faculty of Agriculture, University
         The wheat leaf rust caused by P. triticina Eriks,           of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, Email: b.bayaa@cgiar.org
occurs annually throughout most wheat growing areas                            Ascochyta rabiei is considered to be the most
worldwide and becoming an important disease on durum                 damaging pathogen of chickpea. The disease can cause
and bread wheat in the Mediterranean region, due to                  total yield loss in years of severe epidemic. The pathogen is
increases in wheat irrigated area as well as sowing                  dispersed by water splash in the field and by infected seeds.
susceptible varieties. Consequently, there is an urgent need         Therefore, widespread commercial distribution of plant
to develop durum and bread wheat cultivars with broad                material or seeds can rapidly facilitate its spread.
genetic resistance to leaf rust. This work aimed to                  Development of an effective crop disease management
determine the physiological races of P. triticina occurring          depends on the rapid detection and precise identification of
in wheat fields in Syria during spring; and in Bekaa valley          the pathogen. The objective of the study was to identify
(Terbol, Lebanon) during summer of 2007. The North                   markers that could be used as diagnostic tools, through
American System of Nomenclature for P. triticina was used            identification of a sensitive, specific and rapid PCR-based
to determine the races. Results revealed large variations in         diagnostic method for the identification of A. rabiei on
virulence within races studied, as some of them were able            infected seeds without the presence of disease
to breakdown resistance of Lr gene(s) such as Lr 9. The leaf         symptomology. Seed of four chickpea varieties (Ghab 1,
rust races were grouped into three groups of virulence:              Ghab 2, Ghab 3, and Ghab 4) infected with A. rabiei were
weak, medium and high. The CBRT race, was found to be                collected from ICARDA′ s research fields in Tel Hadia,
virulent on about 50% of the studied resistance genes.               Aleppo, in 2007. Total genomic DNA of the infected seeds
                                                                     was extracted using modified CTAB method. Four DNA
F 22                                                                 samples were used as positive controls for A. rabiei and
DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT METHODOLOGY                                 negative controls for chickpea. PCR amplification with
FOR          PROFUSE            PRODUCTION                OF         ITS4& ITS5 primers with presence of the control produces
CONIDIOSPORES AND PSEUDOTHECIA IN                                    a clear banding pattern as two clear bands of different sizes
PYRENOPHORA TRITICI-REPENTIS THE CAUSAL                              were amplified in each of the infected seeds. The first band
AGENT OF TAN SPOT DISEASE ON WHEAT. Roula                            was the chickpea ITS fragment of ~ 750bp and the second
Shamsi1, Amor Yahyaoui2, Ahmed El-Ahmed1 and Miloudi                 the A. rabiei specific ITS fragment of 565bp. The test could
Nachit2. (1) Plant Protection Department, Faculty of                 be used by regulatory and quarantine authorities to ensure
Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria, Email:                safe and clean seed introduction into countries.
r.shamsi@hotmail.com; (2) ICARDA, P.O. Box 5466,
Aleppo, Syria.                                                       F 24
          Tan spot, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis,          SUGAR BEET DISEASES AND PESTS INCEDENCE
is a common disease on wheat, responsible for economic               AND DAMAGE UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS
losses in some wheat growing areas worldwide. The study              THROUGH 25 YEARS. Mostafa Mohamed Ashour El-
aimed to develop reliable, applicable and economic                   Kholi, Sugar Crops Research Institute, ARC, 12619 Giza,
methods for profuse production of conidio spores as well as          Egypt, Email: mostafa.elkholi@yahoo.com
pseudothecia of Ptr in vitro. Seven nutritious cultures and                    Sugar beet crop has been cultivated as a
two methods of culturing were tested for fungal sporulation          commercial crop in Egypt since 1982, at Kafer El-Sheikh
under different conditions of light with fixed temperature.          Governorate (16,000 feddans), and expanded with time to
Results indicates that the most suitable medium for Ptr              cover about 250,000 acres in 2008 at several governorates
sporulation was the media R-PDA (juice of diferent                   in different areas, i.e. North of Delta: Dakahlia, Domietta,
vegetables – PDA – CaCo3 – Bacto Agar), which was                    Garbia, Sharkia, and Beheira; North West of Delta: Nobaria
inoculated by spreading mycelium suspension of the fungus            region; East of Delta: Sharkia, Port Said, Ismallia; and
on media surface and incubated under constant light for 24           Middle and Upper Egypt: Giza, Fayoumm Bani Sweif, and
hours at 20°C. Meantime, WL-PDA and WS-PDA (wheat                    Minia. Sugar beet plants are attacked by numerous diseases,
leaves or grains – PDA – CaCo3 – Bacto Agar) were the                which have been surveyed during the growing season (210
best for inducing pseudothecia production at 20° C and 16/8          days). Most, but not all, of the major diseases and pests of
hours (light/ dark). These three cultures proved to be the           sugar beet were already well known and some were quite
most efficient for high production of conidia (the first) and        understood, many have been identified. Under Egyptian
pseudothecia (the second and the third). Therefore, it is            conditions, seedling and root rot diseases, foliage diseases
advisable to use these three media in breeding programs              (leaf spot, powdery mildew, rust and virus diseases) are
oriented to produce wheat cultivars resistant to tan spot            recorded. Also, nematode diseases are becoming a serious
disease on wheat.                                                    problem in the newly reclaimed soil which is located in
                                                                     West of Nobaria. Post harvest - root diseases caused by a
F 23                                                                 number of pathogenic and saprophytic fungi were also
MOLECULAR DETECTION OF ASCOCHYTA                                     recorded. Generally, some of these diseases seriously affect
RABIEI IN INFECTED CHICKPEA SEEDS USING                              the total quantity of beet root and subsequently cause
ITS MARKER. N. Hassan1, S. Murad1, B. Bayaa2, S.                     considerable economic losses on total sugar production, and
Asaad1, S. Kabbabeh1, M. Abang1 and M. Baum1. (1)                    this may threaten sugar beet plantation in the near future.
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry            Therefore, safe and effective control methodologies should


E-54     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
be found in order to minimize losses caused by such serious         of 101-102B line under greenhouse conditions where SM1
diseases.                                                           overcame all differentials. Similarly, the bacterium was
                                                                    able to infect all cultivars under field conditions. The
F 25                                                                results also showed a bacterial genetic flexibility when
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE                                 confronted with resistant cultivars under favorable
FUNGUS CAUSING WILT AND DEATH OF CITRUS                             conditions, and no correlation was found between the
TREES IN THE WESTERN REGION OF LIBYA. Issa                          geographical location and pathogen races. Cultivar 101-
Saleh Farag and Hatem Mostafa Younes, Plant Protection              102B was the most resistant unlike Aleppo118 which was
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fateh University,               the most susceptible to the disease compared with the check
Libya, Email: hatem_younes@hotmail.com                              line Acalla44.
         Fusarium was isolated from the roots and soil of
citrus trees that were showing wilting symptoms. The                F 27
results of identification which was carried out at the              IDENTIFICATION            OF      SOME        ALTERNARIA
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-         SPECIES CAUSING LEAF SPOT DISEASE IN
Fateh University and confirmed by the International                 VEGETABLE CROPS IN MOSUL, IRAQ. Warka S. Al-
Mycological Institute, U.K., revealed that the fungus               Taee and Riyadh K. Al-Barhawi, Department of Biology,
species was Fusarium solani, which is well known as the             College of Science, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq,
main cause of dry root rot in citrus trees. The survey              Email: wsqassim2004@yahoo.com
demonstrated that this disease was widespread in all                          Leaves of plants showing leaf spot diseases were
locations of citrus growing areas northwest of Libya within         collected from fourteen different summer and winter
the area extended from Misurata in the east to El-Zawia in          vegetable crops grown in various areas of Mosul city, Iraq.
the west.                                                           Using conventional identification methods and single spore
                                                                    isolation and slide culture method, a total of 150 fungal
F 26                                                                isolates from these leaf spots were assigned to eleven
EFFECT OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND                                 different species of the genus Alternaria, which included:
RESISTANCE GENES ON DEVELOPMENT OF                                  A. alternata, A. brassicae, A. brassicicola, A. cheiranthi, A.
GENETIC STRUCTURE AND PATHOGENICITY OF                              dianthi, A. dianthicola, A. longipes , A. radicina , A.
BACTERIAL POPULATIONS OF XANTHOMONAS                                raphani, A. state of Pleospora infectoria, A. tenuissima and
AXONOPODIS PV. MALVACEARUM CAUSING                                  A. alternata species, were the most common among these
ANGULAR LEAF SPOT OF COTTON IN SYRIA.                               isolates constituting 69.35% from summer crops and
Marwan Abduo Hassan1, Hassan Khalil1, Nizar Mir Ali2,               48.86% from winter crops, and 57.33% from both crops.
Backri Debs3 and Mohammed Nayef Al-Salti4. (1)                      This was followed by two other species A. brassicicola and
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-         A. tenuissima, constituting 12.67% and 10% of the total
Baath        University,       Homs,       Syria,      Email:       isolates respectively. Other Alternaria species appeared at
merarabdohassan@hotmail.com; (2) Department of                      much lower frequencies and varied according to the crop
Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, AECS, Damascus,                examined.
Syria; (3) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of
Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria; (4) General          F 28
Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR),             CEREAL SEED HEALTH TESTING AT THE
Cotton Center, Aleppo, Syria.                                       INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR AGRICULTURAL
       Ten cotton differential lines in addition to a G.            RESEARCH IN THE DRY AREAS: IMPLICATIONS
barbadense line containing B2 B6 resistance genes to black          FOR THE SAFE MOVEMENT OF GERMPLASM.
arm were grown under greenhouse conditions in 2006 and              Siham Asaad and M. Hyani, The International Center for
were artificially inoculated with nine races of the pathogen.       Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P. O.
Cultivars Acalla 44, Stoneville 20, Mebane B-1, 101-102B,           Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email:s.asaad@cgiar.org.
Aleppo 118 (in 2007 only) in addition to G. barbadense                        The seed health and quarantine implications
were also grown under field conditions in six geographical          represent a major concern to international agricultural
locations in three governorates (Aleppo, Idleb and Hama)            research centers (IARCs) and other institutions involved in
(natural infection). Chromosomal DNA of Xam bacteria                genetic resources conservation and germplasm exchange.
causing angular leaf spot of cotton in Syria was extracted          For the period of ten years, the Seed Health Laboratory at
before and after artificial infection, and the PCR based            ICARDA tested all incoming cereal seed (251 seed lots
ISSR technique was employed to determine the degree of              comprising 91,993 samples) to minimize the risk of
bacterial capacity to break resistance under natural and            spreading pests and pests transmitted through seeds. Seed
artificial conditions, to study the development of pathogen         lots were received from 41 countries. All seeds were tested
races under favourable environmental conditions (artificial         using different pest’s detection methods including direct
infection), the evaluation of Aleppo 118 against angular            visual inspection, wash-filter, freezing-blotter, embryo, and
leaf spot under field conditions, and the influence of              seed gall nematode. Results of seed borne pests in seed lots
geographical sites and resistance genes on the development          revealed 20.02% infection with Tilletia caries and/or T.
of genetical and pathogenicitial composition of                     foetida, followed by T. controversa (0.99%), Ustilago tritici
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv malvacearum. Results showed               (0.30%), T. indica (0.27%), Fusarium spp. (0.25%),
that the pathogen was able to overcome the resistance genes         Helminthosporium spp. (0.09%), Ustilago spp. (0.03%),

                                                        2009    /                         27                                E-55
Urocystis agropyri (0.02%), Anguina tritici (0.02 %) and             the woody tissues in grapevine. The etiology of Esca and
Ustilago hordei (0.01 %). The frequency of Tilletia indica-          Eutypa dieback is still partly unknown. The ban of sodium
infection in seed samples from Ethiopia was 13.31%,                  arsenite in European vineyards greatly contributed to the
Azerbaijan (10.20%), Tajikistan (0.64%) and Turkey                   increase of these two diseases. In Algeria apparently, there
(0.22%). Both T. indica and T. controversa do not exist in           has been little research on trunk diseases of grapevine. Esca
Syria and are considered as quarantine fungi with zero               presents two different types of symptoms, one characterized
tolerance. To save valuable or rare genotypes at ICARDA,             by leaf symptoms, the other by sudden death of the plant
a cleaning/disinfection procedure was used to treat seed lots        often called “apoplexy” which is frequent in Mediterranean
carrying non-quarantine pests. Genotypes carrying pests of           regions when a hot dry period is preceded by rainfall. Esca
quarantine significance were incinerated. The implications           can be typically identified by internal wood decay,
of these findings for the safe movement of cereal                    symptoms on leaves and in some cases on berries. The
germplasm will be discussed.                                         internal symptoms can be seen when transverse or
                                                                     longitudinal cuts are made in the trunk and shoots. Surveys
F 29                                                                 in wine growing regions of Algeria revealed high rate of
EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS ON THE                                 dead vines. The most frequent fungi isolated from the
POPULATION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP.                              lesions were Eutypa lata (the causal fungus of dieback),
LENTIS, THE CAUSAL ORGANISM OF LENTIL                                Phaemoniella         chlamydospora,        Phaeoacremonium
WILT. Leila Si Moussa1, Lakhdar Belabid1, Aicha                      aleophilum, Fomitiporia mediterranea and several species
Tadjeddine1, Miloud Bellahcene2 and Bassam Bayaa3. (1)               of Botryosphaeriaceae.
Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Systèmes Biologiques et
la Géomatique, Université de Mascara, BP 763, Mascara,               F 31
29000, Algérie; (2) Laboratoire des Microorganismes,                 STEMPHYLIUM VESICARIUM THE CAUSAL
Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mostaganem Algérie ;             PATHOGEN OF STEMPHYLIUM LEAF BLIGHT
(3) Departement of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,         ON ONION: SURVEY AND SOME BIO AGENTS
Aleppo        University,    Aleppo,       Syria,      Email:        FOR ITS CONTROL. M.A.M. Hussein, M.H.A. Hassan
belabidl@yahoo.fr                                                    and K.A.M. Abou Elyousr, Plant Pathology Department,
         Fusarium lentil wilt caused by Fusarium                     Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut university, 71526, Assiut,
oxysporum Schechet. emend. Snyder & Hansen f. sp. lentis             Egypt, Email: mhasanmha@yahoo.com
Vasudeva and Srinivasan (Fol) is an important disease and                     In the last few years, Stemphylium leaf blight was
is considered as a limiting factor to lentil production in           noticed as common disease, incited by Stemphylium
Algeria. The use of the plant extracts is recently advocated         vesicarium, is one of the serious diseases affecting onion in
as a potential control method of plant diseases. The present         Egypt. The causal pathogen’s pathogenicity to onion plant
work aimed at evaluating the antifungal activity of essential        was confirmed in Egypt. The causal pathogen was isolated
oils and powders of ten medicinal plants (Anacyclus                  and identified as Stemphylium vesicarium (Wallr.)
valentinus L., Artemisia herba alba Asso., Eucalyptus sp,            Simmons and the telemorphic state Pleospora allii
Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton, Laurus nobilis L. , Mentha                 (Rabenh.) Ces. & De Not was observed. During a survey
pepirita L. , Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L.,      for the causal pathogen in Egypt, 32 isolates ere collected.
Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters and Thymus vulgaris            Testing 25 isolates of Stemphylium vesicarium on Giza 6
L.) on Fol microconidia germination, mycelial growth and             onion cultivar under greenhouse conditions revealed that
fungus population in the soil. Results obtained showed that          isolates of the pathogen were able to infect onion plants
treatments with 5 and 10% of the powders of I. viscosa and           with different degrees of disease severity causing typical
M. pepirita and the essential oils formulation in all                symptoms of Stemphylium leaf blight disease. The
treatments have significantly reduced the soil population            antagonistic capability of certain microorganisms was
densities of Fol and the disease incidence on lentil. Results        investigated in-vitro. Data revealed that all microorganisms
obtained highlight the importance of this subject as it can          tested were able to inhibit the mycelial growth of the causal
offer the possibility of using plant derivatives in disease          pathogen with various degrees of growth inhibition. The
management against this soil-borne pathogen.                         highest inhibition was caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens,
                                                                     Bacillus subtilis and Trichoderma harzianum. However,
F 30                                                                 Gliocladium catenulatum and Saccharomyces cervisiea
FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH DECLINE OF                                     showed the lowest mycelial growth inhibition.
GRAPEVINE IN ALGERIA (EUTYPA DIEBACK
AND ESCA). Akila Berraf1 and Alan J.L. Phillips2. (1)                F 32
Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences Agro-                  ISOLATION          AND       DETERMINATION            OF
Vétérinaire, Université Saad Dahleb, 09000 Blida, Algérie,           PHYSIOLOGICAL RACES OF WHEAT YELLOW
Email: berraf.a@hotmail.fr ; (2) Centro de Recursos                  RUST PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS F. SP. TRITICI IN
Microbiologicos, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia,                 SYRIA DURING 2005/2006 AND 2006/ 2007. Amor
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal, Email:                        Yahyaoui1, M, F. Azmeh² and Shoula kharouf2. (1)
alp@unl.fct.pt                                                       International center for Agricultural Research in the Dry
         Grapevine decline has become a limiting factor in           Area (ICARDA) P.O. Box. 5466, Aleppo, Syria; (2)
many grapevine production areas, worldwide. Esca and                 National commission for Biotechnology (NCBT),
Eutypa dieback are two fungal diseases most destructive of           Damascus, Syria, Email: shoulakharouf@yahoo.com


E-56     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
         A number of diseases attack wheat crop in Syria.             that Tunisian population of M. graminicola are random
Yellow rust or stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis West f. sp.          mating and reproduce sexually, indicating that ascospores
tritici) is considered to be the most important rust disease of       are likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of
wheat in cool and humid wheat growing area. The disease               Septoria tritici leaf blotch in Tunisia and probably across
spreads in all wheat growing area in Syria especially in the          north Africa.
irrigated and humid area. To identify the distribution and
severity of the disease during the two seasons (2005/2006             F 34
and 2006/2007), field survey was conducted in 76 fields in            EFFECT OF DRIP AND FARROW IRRIGATION ON
the first season and 73 fields in the second season in                GREY MOULD DEVELOPMENT IN GREEN HOUSE
different wheat growing area in Syria. Surveys included               TOMATOES. Abdelhadi Guechi1 and Kamel Aissat2. (1)
farmer’s fields and the Agriculture Research Centers.                 Laboratory of Microbiology and Hytopathology, Faculty of
Identification of physiologic races was done by evaluating            Sciences, University Ferhat ABBAS, Sétif 19000, Algeria,
the reaction type of seedling of the differential cultivars.          Email: guechibio@yahoo.fr; (2) Laboratory of Applied
Data of races identification showed that a number of                  Microbiology, Faculty of the Sciences of Nature and Life,
physiologic races were spread in wheat field in Syria.                University Mira, Bejaia, 06000, Algeria
Fourteen races have been isolated and identified (0E16,                         A field experiment was conducted in 2007 in five
14E166, 34E20, 36E6, 132E134, 102E130, 14E166, 0E0,                   unheated greenhouses. Plants were examined individually
4E28, 164E22, 128E132, 230E150, 166E150, 38E6). The                   every 8 days and the proportion of plants attacked by grey
race 6E16 was the most frequent in the two seasons. The               mould on leaves, stems or fruits was recorded from the end
race 230E150 was the most virulent race, followed by                  of March until the end of June. Results showed that the
166E150 and the race 0E0 was the most weak race. Study                attack of Botrytis on the stems occurred earlier in arrow
of the physiologic races during two seasons showed five               irrigation, 98 days after planting on average, than in drip
new races (34E20, 36E6, 132E134, 102E130, 14E166) in                  irrigation (106.3 days after planting). The kinetics of plant
Syria; these races were different in their pathogencity on            infection on stems, leaves and fruits were higher under
the differential sets.                                                farrow than under drip irrigation. Disease severity was
                                                                      measured by the average number of stem lesions per plant.
F 33                                                                  Disease severity was higher in plants under farrow than
EVIDENCE OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION AND                                   under drip irrigation, reaching at the end of June 1.32 and
HIGH GENE FLOW BETWEEN MYCOSPHAERELLA                                 0.99, respectively. Plant mortality due to grey mould was
GRAMINICOLA POPULATIONS IN TUNISIA USING                              first recorded at 94 and 110 days after planting,
SSR ANALYSES. Sameh Boukef1, Salah Rezgui1, Amor                      respectively, in the farrow- and in drip- irrigated
Yahyaoui2, Bruce A. McDonald3 and Patrick Brunner3. (1)               greenhouses. These results suggest that drip irrigation could
Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie 43 Av. Charles               be a useful tool for the implementation of integrated
Nicole        Tunis        1082.       Tunisia,       Email:          protection schemes and for reducing the use of pesticides in
samehboukef@yahoo.fr; (2) International Centre for                    unheated tomato greenhouses.
Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Box
5466, Aleppo, Syria; (3) Plant Pathology, Institute of                F 35
Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich,                         EFFECTS         OF     TEMPERATURE            ON     HOST
Switzerland.                                                          RESITANCE AND PATHOGEN VIRUELNCE IN
          Mycosphaerella graminicola is the causal                    CHICKPEA-ASCOCHYTA PATHOSYSTEM. Seid
organism of Septoria tritici leaf blotch on wheat. It causes          Ahmed, Siham Kabbabeh, Imtiaz Muhammad and
significant yield losses on wheat in Tunisia. Previous                Rajendra, Malhotra, Biodiversity and Integrated Gene
studies showed the important effect of sexual reproduction            Management Program, ICARDA, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo,
and long-distance gene flow on the rapid development and              Syria, Email: s.a.kemal@cgiar.org
spread of fungicide resistance in this pathogen. To address                     Ascochyta blight (Didymella rabiei) is one of the
these mechanisms in Tunisian populations of M.                        major production constraints affecting both winter and
graminicola, five field populations were collected from               spring-sown chickpea in different parts of the world. Major
humid and semi-arid zone and from durum and bread wheat               Ascochyta blight control strategy is development of
fields. The distribution of mating types and analyses of              resistant varieties with high yield and acceptable market
microsatellites were used to measure genetic diversity and            classes and especially at locations where weather conditions
to test for random-mating. Mating types ratios did not                are highly favorable for disease development. Strategic
deviate significantly from 1:1 in all populations according           fungicide sprays are used mainly by commercial farmers.
to a χ2 test. High levels of genotypic diversity were found           The durability of chickpea varieties developed and released
within populations. Multilocus association index (IA) and             in different countries is affected by the emergence of new
gametic disequilibrium (GD) tests showed no significant               aggressive pathotypes in the population of D. rabiei.
departure from gametic equilibrium. No significant                    Temperature is known to affect host plant resistance and
differentiation (GST) was found among populations sampled             pathogen aggressiveness in different pathosystems. The
from different climatic regions and from different hosts,             effect of different temperature regimes (10, 15, 20, 25 and
consistent with high gene flow among regions. This was                300C) on six chickpea varieties with varying levels of
confirmed by a high number of migrants per generation                 Ascochyta blight resistance and four pathotypes of D.
(Nem) between fields and regions. These results indicated             rabiei with varying levels of aggressiveness were studied

                                                          2009    /                        27                                E-57
under controlled conditions. Significant interaction effects         in most of the characteristics studies except oil viscosity.
(p<0.001) were observed between temperature and                      Diseased fruits were positive to the Gras test.
chickpea     varieties;    temperature     and     pathotype
aggressiveness indicating that host resistance and pathogen          F 38
aggressiveness were not similar under different temperature          SOIL RECEPTIVITY OF DATE PALM GROVES IN
regimes. The roles of temperature regimes on host                    ARAB COUNTRIES TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.
resistance, pathogen virulence, epidemiological parameters           SP. ALBEDINIS, CAUSAL ORGANISM OF BAYOUD
and implications on resistance screening will be reported.           DISEASE OF DATE PALM. My Hassan Sedra, Arab
                                                                     Organization of Agricultural Development (AOAD),
F 36                                                                 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS                               Régional de la Recherche Agronomique de Marrakech, BP.
ESSENTIAL OIL ON MYCELIAL GROWTH AND                                 533 Marrakech, Morocco, Email: sedramh@hotmail.com
SPORE           GERMINATION                  OF         SOME                  The Bayoud disease caused by Fusarium
PHYTOPATHOGENIC                       AND              FOOD-         oxysporum. f.sp. albedinis of the date palm tree is one of
CONTAMINATING FUNGI. Abdellaziz Taxanna¹ and                         the most dangerous diseases in the world that it is difficult
Nouredine Bellatar². (1) Laboratory of applied mycology,             to control. It is now spread in some countries of North
Biology department, Setif University, Algeria; (2)                   Africa and since its appearance, it caused huge losses in
Laboratory of Biochemestry, Biology department, Setif                Morocco and Algeria and recently discovered in
University, Algeria, Email: Taxanna@yahoo.fr                         Mauritania. The Bayoud disease constitutes a serious threat
      The plant essential oils are for their inhibitory activity     for neighboring countries and other countries that produce
and its antimicrobial effects. The aim of this study was to          dates. In the frame of a regional project on Bayoud disease
investigate the inhibitory effect of two essential oils              of date palm executed by AOAD in 15 Arab countries, this
(Elnada, Surrat) and some essential oil compounds from               paper research aims to evaluate the level of soil receptivity
black cumin seeds (Thymol, Thymoquinone, Carvone,                    in 12 countries, represented by 42 date palm groves, to the
Carvacrol) on mycelial growth and spore germination of               pathogen. Results have permitted to develop simple
Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.               technique to produce fungus chlamydospores and to
albedinis and Mauginiella scaettae. The results showed an            evaluate soil receptivity to the fungus by measuring the
inhibitory effect against all fungi tested. The minimum              spore germination rate using soil and soil extract during 48
inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 6.25-25 µg/ml and the             hours. The results showed significant differences in soil
minimal fungicide concentration (MFC) was 12.50-50                   receptivity to the fungus according to countries and regions
µg/ml. The oil compound from black cumin seeds (Thymol,              in each country. Moreover, the results showed the same
Thymoquinone, Carvacrol) gave total inhibition of all                level of soil receptivity to several strains of the pathogen
fungi tested, and the MIC value was 6.25-25 µg/ml and the            from different origins and presenting different
MFC value was 12.50-50 µg/ml. On the other hand, the                 pathogenicity levels. It has showed that nearly all Arab
Carvone compound did not have an effect on all tested                soils had high to middle level of receptivity to the fungus
fungi.                                                               and some soils are such as Al-Ghamr in Libya and some
                                                                     soils in Syria, Iraq it is important to investigate further.
F 37                                                                 Consequently, it is advised to take precautions to prevent
EFFECT OF OLIVE FRUITS INFECTION WITH                                the entry of the disease in the countries where soils showed
PILOCEAE OLEAGINA ON OLIVE OIL QUALITY. S.                           high receptivity. This research gives an idea, not about the
Moamen1 and N. Ali Mohamed2. (1) Food Science                        disease spread, but it permits to develop a spread risk map
Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar                  for the disease in countries that are still free from the
University, El-Bayda, Libya; (2) Plant Protection                    disease. It is also possible to apply this technique to
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar                  evaluate soil receptivity to other wilt diseases of vegetables
University, P.O. Box 919, El-Bayda, Libya, Email:                    and other crops.
noboshakoa@yahoo.com
          Green olive fruits cv. Shamlawy were collected             F 39
from Ghrayka and Wadi Bilghar in the Bayda region of                 BREEDING FABA BEAN FOR RESISTANCE TO
Jabal Al-Akhdar (Green Mountain). The collected samples              CHOCOLATE SPOT. F. Maalouf, S. Ahmed, M.
included healthy looking fruits as well as fruits with               Kabakebji, S. Kabbabeh and K. Street, Biodiversity and
symptoms of peacock eye spot disease. The samples were               Integrated Gene Management Program, International
split into two parts, one part was used to identify the causal       Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo,
agent of the disease, which proved to be Piloceae oleagina           Syria, Email.: F.Maalouf@cgiar.org
characterized by short and erect conidiophores carrying                     Faba bean (Vicia faba L) is adversely affected by
pear shaped, 1-2 cells conidia; whereas the second part of           numerous fungal diseases and parasitic weeds in different
the sample was used to study the natural, physical and               regions of the world. Chocolate spot caused by Botrytis
chemical characteristics of the oil extracted from healthy           fabae is one of the major diseases that affect faba bean
looking and diseased fruits. There was a significant                 production in many countries. The International Center for
difference between the oil from healthy and diseased fruits          Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) has the
                                                                     world mandate for improving the productivity of faba bean
                                                                     including development of resistance gene pools to


E-58     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Chocolate spot that are suitable for different countries.            carried out to obtain polymorphic bands using 15-bp
Hence, this paper summarizes recent efforts in developing            primers: GACAC3, CAG5, TCC5 and MR. All onion
new sources of resistance to chocolate spot that can be              Colletotrichum isolates were tested positive to C.
utilized for developing high yielding and disease resistant          gloeosporioides species-specific primer (CgInt2) and the
varieties by the national agricultural research systems. Two         pink isolates from onion to C. acutatum species-specific
hundred fifty genotypes obtained from Genetic Resource               primer (CaInt2). Internal transcribed spacer (ITS)
Section at ICARDA were planted in two replications with              sequences and NTSYS dendogram analysis of ten gray
two repetitive checks Rebeya40 (susceptible rating 7 to 9)           white (GW) isolates were grouped into C. gloeosporioides
and Icarus BPL710 (resistant rating 1). The screening was            and the four pink isolates to Gibberella moniliformis.
performed under natural and artificial infections at Lattakia        Analysis of his4 nucleotide sequences showed the groups
Research Station, Syria. The entries were scored for                 were concordant with ITS, but differed on species level.
choclate spot reactions using 1-9 rating scale where 1 is            Arbitrarily Primed-PCR analyses revealed intraspecific
highly resistant and 9 is highly susceptible. Single resistant       subgroups, but neither was useful to decipher species level
plants were selected with a rating scale of 3 and below. The         relationships. Results also indicated the potential of using
progenies of these single plant selections showing                   C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum species-specific
resistance reaction were further evaluated for three                 primers for routine pathogen diagnosis. Arbitrarity Primed
successive generations in Chocolate spot screening nursery.          PCR (AP-PCR) analysis using two repeat sequences
Among the tested genotypes, 18 were found resistance                 primers (TCC5 and CAG5) and two microsatellite derived
(scoring of 1 to 3) with 5 of them showing reaction similar          primers (GACAC3 and MR) demonstrated its potential in
to high resistant check ‘Ascot’ (rating of 1). These resistant       species identification and classification of the unknown
lines were selected from populations of ILB4003 (Spain),             strains of the two plant pathogens. Test for pathogenicity
BPL878 (Canada), ILB1485 (Netherlands), ILB2575                      demonstrated that the two species isolated from onions
(Ukraine), ILB4088 (Turkey) and ILB1864 (Ethiopia). All              were the causal agents of the anthracnose/twister disease
the identified populations showed uniformity and are being           complex. This is the first positive identification of C.
used in the faba bean breeding program as parents to                 gloeosporioides and G. moniliformis infecting onions in the
incorporate resistance genes to high yielding and adapted            Philippine.
genotypes.
                                                                     F 41
F 40                                                                 EFFECT OF SOIL TEXTURE, WATER SURFACE
PCR-BASED DETECTION OF COLLETOTRICHUM                                DISTANCE, WATER GUTTER POSITION AND
GLOEOSPORIOIDES (PENZIG) PENZIG AND SACC.                            GREENHOUSES ORIENTATION ON ROOT AND
(ANTHRACNOSE)                  AND           GIBBERELLA              CROWN ROT AND ON LEAF SPOT NECROSIS OF
MONILIFORMIS              WINELAND             (TWISTER)             SWEET PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM) BY
INFECTING ONIONS IN THE PHILIPPINES.                                 PHYTOPHTHORA                CAPSICI         FUNGI          IN
Ronaldo T. Alberto1 and Vermando M. Aquino2. (1) Natural             GREENHOUSES. Abdelhadi Guechi1 and Messaouda
Sciences Research Institute, University of the Philippines,          Benabdelkader2. (1) Department of Biology, Science
Diliman/ Department of Crop Protection, College of                   Faculty, Ferhat Abbes University, Setif, Algeria; (2)
Agriculture, Central Luzon State University, Munoz, Nueva            Department of Ecology, Science Faculty, Jijel University,
Ecija 3120; (2) National Institute of Molecular Biology and          Algeria , Email: yamina_messaouda@yahoo.fr
Biotechnology, University of the Philippines, Diliman,                         Pepper is an important crop in Jijel town, in
Quezon City, Philippines, Email: ronbert57@hotmail.com               Algeria. It is planted in different greenhouses orientation,
         Anthracnose is a serious problem of onions                  with varying distance from the sea or river, on different soil
(Allium cepa L.) in the Philippines. It can cause huge yield         textures, and are irrigated by water gutter. Phytophthora
losses as high as 80-100% resulting in shortages in both             capsici proved to be a causal agent of root and crown rot,
domestic and export supply, high price, unfair competition           and leaf spot necrosis of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum).
and smuggling of onions to the country. The disease caused           The incidence of root and crown rot was higher in sandy
typical anthracnose/ dieback symptoms on the leaves and              clay (8.2%) than in sandy loam (5.08%), was higher in
anthracnose on bulbs associated with twisting and                    greenhouses located near the sea or the river with an
discoloration of the leaves, neck elongation and non                 incidence of 7.94 and 8.45%, which was higher than in
formation of bulbs which is not typical for a Colletotrichum         greenhouses located away from the water surface (2.25%),
infected plants. Field observations also showed onions               or when the water gutter was near the plant base (6.92%) or
exhibiting anthracnose symptoms alone, twisting alone or             away from plant base (2.91%). However there was no
both symptoms. These observations lead us to examine                 differece in leaf infection by spot necrosis between the two
further the nature and real cause of the disease. Species-           orientations of greenhouses (Vertical or horizontal on the
specific primers CgInt and CgInt in conjunction with                 sea). The vertical greenhouses had 0.32% leaf infection and
conserved primer ITS4 were used to amplify the genomic               7.38% plant infection, whereas horizontal greenhouses had
DNA’s of Colletotrichum isolates from anthracnose                    0.26% leaf infection of and 7.04%, plant infection.
infected onions. The rDNA ITS region was amplified using
primers ITS1Ext and ITS4Ext and Histone (his4) genes
using H4-1a and H4-1b. Arbitrarily primed (AP)-PCR was


                                                         2009    /                         27                                E-59
F 42                                                                 F 44
MYCELIAL COMPATIBILITY GROUPS AND                                    WHEAT COMMON BUNT IN SYRIA: FIELD
PATHOGENIC VARIABILITY OF SCLEROTINIA                                SURVEY,         CAUSAL         AGENTS,        AND       ITS
SCLEROTIORUM POPULATIONS IN IRAN. Elham                              PATHOGENICITY. Mayada Kyali1, Ahmed El-Ahmed1,
Karimi, N. Safaie, M. Shamsbakhsh, Department of Plant               Amor Yahyaoui2, Salah Al-Chaabi3 and Miloudi Nachit2.
Pathology, Agricultural Faculty, Tarbiat Modares                     (1) Plant protection Dpeatrment, Faculty of Agriculture,
University, Tehran, Iran, Email: karimielham@yahoo.com               Aleppo University, Syria, Email: a.el-ahmed@hotmail.com;
           Population structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,         (2) International Center for Agriucltural Research in the
the causal agent of Sclerotinia stem rot of Canola, was              Dry Areas (ICARDA), P. O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria; (3)
examined using mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs).                 General Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research
One hundred and seventy-seven isolates of S. sclerotiorum            (GCSAR), Douma, Syria.
were collected from Canola fields of Kalale (67 isolates),                     A field survey was carried out in the main wheat
Hashem abad (66 isolates) and Ali abad (37 isolates),                growing governorates during 2006 and 2007, and covered
Mazandaran (3 isolates) and Western Azarbaijan (2                    220 and 151 durum, 119 and 80 bread wheat fields,
isolates). Sixty-four isolates were selected for determining         respectively. Results revealed the presence of significant
mycelial compatibility. Among these tested isolates, 37              differences in percentages of infected plants in fileds
MCGs were identified of which 42.1% constituted single               studied. The highest infection rate was recorded in the first
isolate all of which were collected from Ali abad location.          season at Idlib on durum (14.5%) and bread wheat (32.2%),
MCGs frequencies, at Kalale, Ali abad, Hashem abad,                  and the lowest infection rate was obtained in Daraa (3.8 and
Gorgan, Mazandaran and Western Azarbaijan were 23.7,                 8.8%, respectively). In the second season the highest
42.1, 26.4, 2.6, 2.6 and 2.6%, respectively. In Kalale, 9            infection rate was at Aleppo 15.5 and 25.1% on durum and
MCGs were identified each of them were consisted of two              bread wheat respectively, while the lowest infection rate
isolates. Ten MCGs were identified within the Hashem                 was obtained at Hasakah, on durum wheat (3.7%). Results
abad region; 8 of which consisted of two isolates and the            showed that both pathogens (Tilletia carries and T. foetida)
remaining included three isolates. The other locations               were found on wheat in all studied governorates, with
composed of one MCG. Isolate virulence varied within six             variation in prefered hosts. The mean frequencies of T.
locations. The results of this study demonstrated that high          caries and T. foetida teliospores in durum were 87.7 and
level of variation exists in populations of S. sclerotiorum in       12.3%, and in bread wheat 19.1 and 80.9%, respectively.
the North of Iran. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the        Pathogenicity test of 29 combinations (mixtures) consisted
population structure of this pathogen and virulence                  of T. carries and T. foetida (1:1 w:w) teliospores collected
variation of isolates in designing disease management                from different studied fields was tested under artificial
systems at these locations.                                          infection conditions on four durum and four bread wheat
                                                                     cultivars with different reaction types against the disease:
F 43                                                                 VS, S, MR, and R. Results revealed the presence of
ISOLATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF SOME FUNGI                                variation in rate of infected plants according to inoculum
ASSPCIATED WITH DATE NUMBNESS AND THE                                combinations, which ranged between 10 - 43.6% on the VS
EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME FUNGICIDES TO                                  durum cultivar, and 26-80% on the VS bread wheat
CONTROL IT. I.I. Al-Yaseri1, A. Najat2, R. Ahmmed2                   cultivar. Combinations of both pathogens were divided into
and K. Zaid1. (1) State Board for Plant Protection; (2) State        3 levels according to their pathogenicity: weak, moderate
Board for Agricultural research, Ministry of Agriculture,            and highly virulent.
Baghdad, Iraq, Email: ismail_alyaseri@yahoo.com
          Spread of date numbness was increased last year in         F 45
many date orchards and in many varieties in Iraq. In order           GENETIC         VARIATION          OF       VERTICILLIUM
to diagnose the main causes, a study was conducted in an             DAHLIAE KLEB ISOLATES USING RANDOM
orchard in Maysan. The main goal was to isolate and                  AMPLIFIDE POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD). Huda
diagnose the fungi associated with this phenomenon by                Hazim Wafi Al-Taae and Ali Kareem Mohammed Al-Taae,
testing soil, root, stem and frond samples of the Deary              Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture and
variety. The fungi were isolated on PDA media were                   Forestry, Mosul University, Iraq, Email: htaae@yahoo.com
identified. Pathogenicity tests to determine the casual effect             An increasing incidence and distribution of
of the isolated fungi was carried out. Five systemic                 Verticillium wilt has occurred in the last few years in newly
fungicides were applied (Beltanol, Phostrol, proplant,               established olive orchards in Ninavah province, northern
Bavistin and Nando) to evaluate their ability to control this        Iraq. This spread of the disease may result from use of
disease in the field by adding directly to the soil or spraying      Verticillium dahliae infected planting material. In this work
on the foliage. Pathogenic fungi were identified such as             genetic variation among the isolates of V. dahliae from Iraq
Fusarium sp. Bavistin was found highly effective followed            and Jordan were analyzed by using Random Amplified
by Proplant and then Beltanol, and this was based on testing         Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 17 primers (Z1, Z19, T13,
samples, one and two months after application, and                   R10, R15, R16, F5, F6 F10, A15, A19, B12, M1, M2, M3,
determine frequency of fungi recovery and their                      M4 and M5) showed significant results with 30 isolates of
pathogenicity index on the fronds.                                   that pathogen using RAPD. The best results were found
                                                                     with the primers M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 which exhibited
                                                                     a clear difference between isolates. The genetic similarity


E-60     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
between isolates ranged from 5% in the two isolates
Alshallalat/2 and Tomato/Alkerak to 88% for Bashaika 1                  F 48
and 2, while the average genetic variation between all                  STUDY         OF     IN     VITRO       GROWTH           AND
isolates was 58%. This is the first time to use this technique          PATHOGENICITY OF SOME ISOLATES OF
in Iraq.                                                                FUSARIUM SPP. CAUSAL AGENT OF FUSARIUM
                                                                        HEAD SCAB (FHB) OF WHEAT. Houda Boureghda and
F 46                                                                    Rachida Renane, Département de botanique Institut
COMBINED EFFECTS OF FUNGICIDAL SEED                                     national Agronomique (INA), El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria,
TREATMENT           AND       STORAGE         ON     SEED               Email: hou.boureghda@gmail.com
GERMINATION AND SEED VIGOR IN CHICKPEA.                                       The study of the effect of temperature on in vitro
Brakat Rahmoun1, Abdul Aziz Niane2 Bassam Bayaa3,                       growth of Fusarium spp. isolates obtained from wheat spike
Mahmoud Hassan4 and Zewdie Bishaw2. (1) GOSM, Idlib,                    exhibiting typical symptoms of head scab (ear blight)
Syria, Email: b_rahmon@aloola.sy; (2) ICARDA, P.O. Box                  showed that the optimum growth was at 25°C for all
5466, Aleppo, Syria; (3) Department of Plant Protection,                isolates belonging to the four species of the Fusarium
Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria; (4) Tishreen University,              genus. The species were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F.
P.O. Box 2233, Lattakia, Syria.                                         moniliforme and F. solani; with a lack of growth of all
      A trial was conducted to evaluate the combined effect             isolates at 35°C. Among the species studied, the F.
of fungicidal seed treatment and storage of two chickpea                culmorum isolates showed the highest rates of growth at all
varieties on seed germination and seed vigor. Results                   temperatures tested (15, 20, 25 and 30°C). It was also
obtained showed that storage of chickpea seeds for 12                   noticed that the growth rate of the four species studied
months reduced seed germination rate in the Ghab-3 variety              increased between 20 and 25°C, and decreased between 25
when seeds were treated with difenoconazole and reached                 and 30°C. Pathogenicity tests of Fusarium spp. isolates
26, 32 and 26% for the control, recommended and twice                   were carried out in in vitro and in planta. The pathogenicity
recommended doses, respectively. For Ghab 4, the                        test in vitro was assessed by examining the coleoptile
reduction in germination rate following the above                       growth rate of wheat seedlings. The results obtained
treatments were 13, 16 and 6%, respectively. For the                    showed that all Fusarium spp. isolates were pathogenic.
carboxin+ thiram treated seeds, no reduction in germination             These induced retardation in coleoptile growth compared to
rate was observed in any of the treatments. Regardless of               the control at 20, 25 and 30°C. The most pathogenic of the
variety and storage period, the chickpea seeds treated with             four species was F. moniliforme isolates which conferred a
twice the recommended dosage provided the most effective                complete reduction in coleoptile growth (100 %) at 25°C
increase of seedling germination rate compared to the                   and 30°C. For the other isolates the highest rate of
recommended and zero dosages. Moreover, the chickpea                    reduction in coleoptile growth was (95.92 %) for F.
seeds stored under dry conditions maintained higher                     culmorum and 95.26% for F. avenaceum at 25°C, while the
germination rate compared with those stored under humid                 highest rate of reduction 95.28% for F. solani was obtained
conditions.                                                             at 30°C. Pathogenicity carried out by soil inoculation and
                                                                        evaluated by the severity attack at the collar level estimated
F 47                                                                    by a disease scale from 0 to 3 showed that the highest
MOLDS OF GRAIN SORGHUM KERNELS AND                                      disease index (2.58) was conferred by F. avenaceum
FUMONISIN CONTAMINATION IN UPPER EGYPT.                                 isolates, followed by F. moniliforme (1.28), F. solani (1)
S.E. Botros, Fawziya M. Bekheet, A.M. Ismael and I.H. El-               and least by F. culmorum (0.53). Results obtained in this
Abbasi, Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agriculture                 study showed that there is no correlation between in vitro
Research Center, 9 Gamma Street, Giza, Egypt, Email:                    growth and agressiveness of Fusarium isolates used in this
him.basi@gmail.com                                                      study and also between agressiveness assessed by the
      Survey carried out in the fields of grain sorghum in              reduction in coleoptile growth and the attack at the collar
Assiut, Sohag and Qena governorates in 2003 and 2004                    level. Furthermore it was shown that Fusarium isolates
growing seasons revealed that the local cultivars were                  which induced head scab of wheat were also aggressive on
susceptible to infection with grain molds and showed high rate          root and collar of wheat.
of infection severe. Whereas, the hybrids were highly resistant
with low rate of infection. Isolates of Fusarium spp. followed          F 49
by Aspergillus spp. were the most common fungi recovered                CHARACTERIZATION                  AND         GENOMIC
from the discoloured kernels. Sowing seeds taken from                   VARIATIONS              AMONG             VERTICILLIUM
infected heads (discoloured kernels) caused an obvious                  POPULATIONS IN LEBANON. Saad Adib1, Bouazza
reduction in plant stand at different stages of plant growth. The       Karma1, Hanna Lucia1, Kattar Mireille2 and Chnais Elias1.
same trend of susceptibility was observed when plant heads of           (1) American University of Beirut, Agricultural Sciences
different cultivars were artificially inoculated with toothpicks        Department, P.O.Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107
charged with F. proliferatum. Rotted kernels taken from the F.          2020, Lebanon; (2) Pathology Department, Medical Center,
proliferatum-infested heads as well as the apparent healthy             American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El
kernels showed detectable levels of fumonisin. The mycotoxin            Solh,    Beirut      1107    2020,     Lebanon,    Email:
concentrations ranged from 12 ppm in cv. Dorado to 31 ppm               karmabouazza@gmail.com
in the Local cv. 29. The healthy, non-infected grains of the cv.                Verticillium wilt caused by the vascular fungal
Local 29, however, contained 9 ppm of fumonisin.                        pathogens, Verticillium spp., is one of the most important

                                                           2009     /                         27                                E-61
soil-borne diseases which has a very widespread                      respectively, compared with control treatment. The local
geographical distribution and host range. In this study,             variety showed no response to sulfur treatment. Treatment
Verticillium isolates from almond, peach, potato and                 of sulfur + Carbendazin 50% had no effect on Charleston
strawberry, in different regions of Lebanon, were                    and local varieties relation to disease incidence and
characterized, and the genetic variability among the                 severity, while the varieties crimson and charley showed
Verticillium isolates using vegetative compatibility                 significant where incidence was 20, 34.3% disease severity
grouping, serological and molecular techniques were                  was and 8.3 and 25%, respectively, compared with control
determined. Morphological studies revealed three                     treatments. The total dry weight of vegetative part,
Verticillium species; V. dahliae, V. albo-atrum and V.               increased in the Charleston, Crimson and local varieties
tricorpus. Pathogenicity tests on eggplant seedlings showed          with sulfur treatment only, and reached 76.67, 78.34 and 88
different virulence levels within and among Verticillium             g/plant respectively, compared with the control. The dry
species. In the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test,              weight of the root system showed significant response for
86.6%, 29%, 71.4% and 100% of Verticillium isolates from             the control treatment of Charleston and was 3.25 g, sulfur
potato, strawberry, almond and peach, respectively, gave a           treatment only for Crimson (3.4g), and sulfur + fungicide
positive reaction, using the Verticillium ELISA kit. Thirteen        Carbendazin 50% (2 g/L) treatment for charley (4.3g), and
isolates from various geographic regions and host origins            sulfur treatment only for the local variety (5.35g/plant).
were assigned for vegetative compatibility groups (VCG)
based on complementation among nitrate-non-utilizing (nit)           F 51
mutants. The VCG groups were based on distinguishable                EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CRESS
morphological and physiological characteristics. Seven nit           SEEDS AND CULTURE FILTERATE OF BACILLUS
mutants had a positive compatibility reaction among each             CEREUS ON GROWTH OF FUNGI CAUSING ROOT
other and all were grouped as VCG2. Two nit mutants from             ROT OF SESAME. Nadeem Ahmad Ramadan, Najwa
potato showed VCG2 compatibility and one nit mutant                  Bashir Al–Lashi and Heba Esam Dawood, Department of
from potato showed VCG1 compatibility when tested                    Biology College of Science University of Mosul, Iraq,
against tester strains. Among the thirteen nit mutants, two          Email: najwab_2005@yahoo.com
Fusarium isolates were found to be vegetatively compatible                     The effect of different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3
with some Verticillium isolates. Twenty isolates from                and 4 mg/ml) of alcoholic extracts of Cress seeds (Lipidium
different hosts were selected for the Polymerase Chain               sativum) on colony growth and its dry weight of sesame
Reaction and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed                  root–rot pathogens (Pythium aphanidermatum, Fusarium
Region.      Some      isolates    showing    morphological          solani and Macrophomina phaseolina) was studied. Results
characteristics of genus Verticillium, were identified as            indicated high significant inhibitory effect, as compared to
Fusarium after sequencing. This study indicated that the             control. M. phaseolina was the mostly inhibited (86.66 and
Verticillium wilt disease is widespread in Lebanon and a             78.26%) when 4 mg/ml was used, respectively. Culture
genetic relationship may exist between Verticillium and              filtrate of B. cereus was more effective than seed extract in
Fusarium populations that might be due to genetic                    terms of growth inhibition and dry weight biomass of the
mutations, leading to similarities in their morphological            studied fungi, with the gradual concentration increases from
characteristics. The significant overlap among ITS                   10% to 20%, 30% and 40%. The highest inhibition was
sequences of Verticillium and Fusarium identified in this            achieved with the use 4 mg/ml of alcoholic extract of Cress
study necessitates using a multilocus sequence typing                seeds and 40% of cultures filtrate of B. cereus. Also, results
approach to further characterize the phylogenetic                    showed inhibitory synergy effect on studied fungi, which
relationships among species in these two genera.                     exceeds their individual effect separately.

F 50                                                                 F 52
USE OF AGRICULTURAL SULFUR WITH                                      DETERMINATION OF AFLATOXINS, THE MAJOR
CARBENDAZIN FUNGICIDE TO CONTROL                                     TOXIN OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN BLACK TEA
WILTING DISEASE OF WATERMELON UNDER                                  (CAMELLIA SINENSIS). Rouhollah Karami-Osboo and
FIELD CONDITIONS. Oadi N. Matny, Department of                       Mansoureh Mirabolfathy, Mycotoxin Research Lab.,
Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of              Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box
Baghdad, Iraq, Baghdad, Email: Oadi77@yahoo.com;                     19395/1454, Tehran, Iran, Email: karamiosboo@yahoo.ca
Udayal_hadethy@yahoo.com.                                                    Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 molds found all
      Field experiments were carried out in the fields of the        over the world that infect feed and foods. In particular, A.
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture,              flavus is of great importance due to its impact on
University of Baghdad, in 2008 growing season. Results               agriculture and human health and produces several types of
showed significant difference among watermelon varieties,            mycotoxins, the most well known are the aflatoxins and
with the local variety showing resistance to wilt disease            aflatoxin B1 is one of the most mutagenic and carcinogenic
under field conditions. Crimson variety treated with Sulfur          natural compound known. After water, tea is the second
25 g/plant around the region of root and crown showed                most popular beverage in the world and excepting Asia, the
resistance/non-susceptibility. Sulfur treatment gave                 vast majority of the tea consumed is black tea. All tea
significant control of the three varieties Charleston,               comes from the Camellia sinensis plant. Black tea differs
Crimson and charley with disease incidence of 24.6, 8.3%             from green tea and white tea in the way it is processed. In
and 0% and disease severity of 8.3% and 35, 50%,                     this research some samples of imported black tea that was


E-62     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
purchased from retail store in Tehran was analysed for              respectively for 2 dc/m salinity level. It was also found that
determination of aflatoxins. Twenty five gram sample was            C. radicicola had an effect on growth and dry weight of
extracted with methanol: water (80: 20 v/v) for 30 min after        shoot and root increased with increasing water salinity, and
dilution with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), cleaned up via         the infection with C. radicicola was highest in clay soil
immunoaffinity column packed with monoclonal antibody               compared to salty loam and sandy soils.
and 100 µl of extract was injected to HPLC. Results
showed that samples were only contaminated with aflatoxin           F 55
G1 and amount of contamination was higher than 5 ppb.               EFFECT OF SALT SOLUTIONS ON LETTUCE
                                                                    PROTECTION AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC
F 53                                                                FUNGI. Tamader G. Abdel Rahman1, E.M. El-far1 and
FIRST RECORD OF CHARCOAL ROT CAUSED BY                              Heba M. El-Nabi2. (1) Plant Pathology Research Institute,
MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON MELON IN                                 Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt; (2) Suez Canal
IRAQ. Ismail Ahmed Ismail, Alaa Khudair Hassan and                  University, Faculty of Agriculture, Ismailia, Egypt, Email:
Intisar J. Abooud, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of          oheba2004@yahoo.com
Agriculture, Abou-Ghrieb, Baghdad, Iraq, Email:                            Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most
a_khudair@yahoo.com                                                 important leafy vegetables cultivated in Egypt and it is
        Macrophomina phaseolina causing charcoal rot                seriously affected by fungal diseases, like Grey mould
disease on melon was identified for the first time in Iraq.         (Botrytis cinerea) and white mould (Sclerotinia
Pathogencity test was carried out on stems of melon plants          sclerotiorum). Six mineral salts with different
and symptoms developed four days after inoculation. They            concentrations, sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride,
began with the appearance of light brown water lesions in           calcium sulfate, potassium sulfate, mono potassium
the inoculation area at soil level and soon expanded to the         phosphate and potassium phosphate dibasic were evaluated
upper parts of the stem to form a canker with gummy                 for their ability to reduce the severity of both diseases on
secretions in infected areas. The fungus then produced              two different cultivars of lettuce cv1 Roman and cv2 local
small sclerotia inside and outside the infected stem tissues        Balady. Dibasic potassium phosphate 1g/L completely
while the control plants did not show any symptoms.                 inhibited the mycelial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
                                                                    while, sodium bicarbonate showed the least effect at the
F 54                                                                same concentration. All salts slightly affected the mycelial
STUDIES ON DEATH OF DATE PALM OFF                                   growth of B. cinerea at different levels. Calcium chloride
SHOOTS PHENOMENON AND ITS RELATION                                  and sodium bicarbonate gave significant reduction of
WITH SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN                                  disease severity of grey mould on both cultivars of lettuce.
BASRAH. Fayadh A. Mohammed, Yeihia A. Salah and Ali                 Dibasic potassium phosphate was the most efficient to
Nasier Ahmed, Department of Plant Protection, College of            control S. sclerotiorum infection on both cultivars.
Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq, Email:
m_a_fayadh@yahoo.com                                                F 56
         This study was conducted in the laboratories of the        EFFECT OF IRRIGATION AND FERTILIZERS ON
Plant Protection Department at Agriculture College,                 DISEASES         INCIDENCE          AND       AGRONOMIC
University of Basrah during the period of 2007-2008 in              CHARACTERS OF SUNFLOWER IN EL-BEHERA
order to isolate and identify the fungi associated with the         GOVERNORATE, EGYPT. S.M. Morsy1, Elham
death of the date palm off shoots phenomenon in Basrah.             A.Durgham 2 and A.A. Abd–Elbaky1. (1) Plant Path. Res.
The results of the survey indicated that the highest rate of        Inst., Agric. Rec. Center, Giza, Egypt; (2) Field Crops
death and deterioration of date palm off shoots recorded in         Department, Nuclers Research Center, Anshas, Egypt,
Shatt Al-Arab were 71.38 and 18.3%, respectively,                   Email: ahmad_abdelbaky2000@yahoo.com
followed by Harth area 66.51 and 15.15%, respectively,                       Two field experiments were conducted to
while the lowest rate of death and deterioration of off             determine the effect of irrigation intervals combined with
shoots were recorded in Abu-Al-Kasseb where it was 19.05            treatment of different types of fertilizers on the incidence of
and 4%, respectively. The results showed that rate of off           damping–off and charcoal–rot. Occurrence of fungal
shoots death increased as the salinity and pH value                 pathogens in rhizosphere and rhizoplane, yield and oil
increased in soil and irrigation water. The highest death and       content of sunflower. Application of irrigation intervals
deteriorate rate of off shoots was recorded in Hillawi              combined with different types of fertilizers significantly
cultivar which reached 66.84 and 17.41%, respectively,              affected incidence of diseases and density of fungi in the
followed by Sayer, Zahdi, Prem, Khadrawi and Pyarm cvs..            soil. The irrigation at 20 days intervals combined with
Isolation from different parts of dead and deteriorated off         gypsum as a fertilizer, significantly decreased incidence of
shoots revealed the presence of many fungi such as                  damping-off and charcoal–rot diseases by 4.66%, and
Fusarium spp., Chloropsis radicicola, Alternavia alternata          31.66%, respectively, followed by the same irrigation
and Rhizoctonin solani. The fungus C. radicicola was                treatment combined with phosphoren led to disease
frequently encountered. When the effect of some                     reduction of 5.66% and 38.31%, respectively in the two
environmental factors on seedling infection by C.                   successive growing seasons 2007 and 2008. The irrigation
radicicola was studied, it was found that infection rate and        interval treatments combined with farmyard manure
disease severity increased to 80, 71.11% at 12 dc/m salinity        stimulated the growth of some fungi in the rhizosphere and
level, respectively, compared to 40 and 73.33%,                     rhizoplane of sunflower plants, compared to other

                                                        2009    /                         27                                 E-63
fertilizers. Meanwhile, gypsum as fertilizer application             crop from infection with some plant pathogenic fungi like
under the irrigation intervals conducted decreased micro-            Pythium, Alternaria and Fusarium. For this purpose five
organisms level in rhizosphere and rhizoplane by 42.8%               Pseudomonas species were chosen to test their efficiencies
and 40.8%, respectively, compared to other fertilizers.              and to select the best bacterial isolates. Complete
Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp. were the dominant fungi             randomized design (CRD) with three replicates was used.
in all rhizosphere and rihzoplane samples tested. In                 Results showed that Pseudomonas putida2 and
addition, irrigation at 20 days intervals combined with any          Pseudomonas fluorescens3 were the best among the five
fertilizers studied improved sunflower growth, yield and             isolates in their ability to inhibit the growth of the three
increased oil quantity.                                              fungi and were more effective than Dithan fungicide under
                                                                     incubator     conditions.    Under      normal    conditions,
F 57                                                                 Pseudomonas putida2 increased germination rate of sesame
CULTURAL               CHARACTERISTICS                 AND           seeds with Fusarium, Pythium and Alternaria treatments to
MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF BOTRYODIPLODIA                                89.7, 84.0 and 86.7%, respectively, while Pseudomonas
THEOBROMAE THE CAUSAL AGENT OF DIE-                                  fluorescence3 increased germination rate to 70.7, 71.0 and
BACK DISEASE ON MANGO (MANGIFERA                                     80.0%, respectively. Seed germination in the control
INDICA) IN YEMEN. Najeeb Ahmed Mohsen Sllam1 and                     treatment was 52%. Pseudomonas putida2 and
Ali Khamis Rowaished2. (1) Lahegj Agric. Techn.                      Pseudomonas        fluorescens3      treatments    increased
Inst/Saber, Ministry of Techn. Edu & Voc, Yemen, Email:              significantly leaf number per plant, leaf area per plant,
najeebcurd2007@yahoo.com;        (2)     Plant    protection         height of plant, branches number per plant, total dry weight
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aden University,                 of shoot per plant, chlorophyll content, seeds number per
Yemen, Email: Rowaishedak @hotmail.com                               pod per plant, total weight of 1000 seeds per plant, pods
         The present study was conducted on the mango                number per plant and N, P, K in total dry weight of shoot
Die-back disease, caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae,               per plant and oil content in seeds per plant when Fusarium,
which was recently spread in Yemen and considered as one             Pythium and Alternaria treatments were compared with
of the most important and devastating disease on mango in            other and control treatments.
Yemen. Results of field survey carried on certain regions in
some Yemen governorates (Hudeida, Hagah, Lahj and                    F 59
Abian) during the years 2006 and 2007, showed that                   PATHOGENIC FUNGI TRANSMITTED THROUGH
disease incidence in Lahj governorate reached 12% and                CUCUMBER SEEDS AND SAFE ELIMINATION BY
15.8%, with disease severity of 0.08 and 0.10, in both               SOME ESSENTIAL OIL VAPORS. Eman S.H. Farrag1
seasons, respectively. Disease incidence in Hodeida                  and Maher H. Hosseny2. (1) Agricultural Botany
governorate reached 11% and 14.7% and disease severity               Department (Plant Pathology), Faculty of Agriculture,
were 0.07 and 0.08, in both seasons, respectively. The fungi         South Valley University, Qena, Egypt, Email:
were isolated on (PDA) media. (Alternaria alternata,                 eman_farrag@yahoo.com; (2) Horticultural Department,
Fusarium oxysporium, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides,                 Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University, El-Kawtheer-
Aspergillus niger and (4 isolates of Botryodiplodia                  Sohag 82786, Egypt.
theobromae)) were found in all governorates. Pathogens                        Diseases induced by Fusarium (damping-off, root-
were identified using cultural and microscopic                       rot and wilt) on cucumber, are considered a serious problem
characteristics. The 4 isolates of B. theobromae showed              worldwide. Twenty-five samples of cucumber seeds were
high virulence on Balady cv. mango seedling. The                     collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on these isolates was                seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number
carried out in Plant Pathology Research Institute,                   of internal and external seed-borne fungi, blotter, deep
Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt using two                  freezing blotter, agar plate, examination of washing water
specific pairs of primers (OPERON-3-d and OPERON-6-d)                from seeds and growing test methods were used. In
using RAPD technique. The study revealed the role of                 addition, cucumber dissected seeds were incubated on
environment on polymorphism of the isolates as revealed              Komada's selective medium for Fusarium spp. A total of 33
from the linkage distance related to isolates of B.                  Fusarium isolates were obtained: F. oxysporum, F. solani
theobromae.                                                          and F. proliferatum were found to be the most frequent.
                                                                     Pathogenicity test indicated that F. solani isolate No. 4 was
F 58                                                                 the most effective organism causing pre- and post-
THE      BIOLOGICAL        ACTIVITY         OF     SOME              emergence damping off, while F. oxysporum isolate No. 8
BACTERIA AS BIOCIDES TO PROTECT SESAME                               induced wilt disease. F. solani and F. oxysporum occurred
CROP (SESAMUM INDICUM) FROM FUNGAL                                   in all seed parts of tested seed samples. Some inoculated
DISEASES. Hammad Nawaf Farhan, Ashwaq Talip                          seeds could germinate, but they are either rapidly
Hameed, Heshim Mohammed Aobad and Mohamed Taleb                      dominated by the pathogen or they produce diseased
Hamid,      Al-Anbar     University,      Iraq,     Email:           seedlings. When sown in soil, a large portion of diseased
drhammad51@yahoo.com                                                 seedlings died before emergence. Seeds evaporated with
     Many experiments were conducted at Biology                      pepper mint oil (1 ml l-1 air for 24 h in sealed chamber)
Department, College of Scientific Education, Al-Anbar                gave reduction in infection rate, also reduced the seed - to -
University during 2006-2007 to test the biological activity          seedling transmission of concerned fungi. The seedlings
of some Pseudomonas species as biocides to protect sesame            vigor of treated seeds was better compared to seedlings


E-64     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
from the untreated ones. The oil vapors also increased the           fungi and chloroform extract was effective against
germination rate of treated seeds by 23%.                            Aspergillus flavus more than the other extracts.

F 60                                                                 F 62
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF DAMPING–OFF AND                                CHEMICAL CONTROL OF POWDERY MILDEW
STEM ROT DISEASES ON CHICKPEA CAUSED BY                              OF GRAPES IN EGYPT. Mounir A. Abdel–Aziz, Plant
SCLEROTIONIA SCLEROTIORUM IN EGYPT. Ahmed                            Pathology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center,
M. Hassanein, Plant Pathology Research Institute, ARC,               9 El-Gamaa Street, Giza, Postcode 12619, Egypt, Email:
Giza, Egypt, Email: ahmedhassanein48@yahoo.com                       dr.mounirabbas@hotmail.com
          Six biofungicides were tested for antagonistic                      Grape powdery mildew (Uncinular necator (Schw
affects against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (lib) de Bary, the          Burr) is one of the most serious grape diseases occurring in
causal organism of damping off and stem rot disease in               many countries, including Egypt. The present work aimed
chickpea. All biofungicides, used (Biozeid: Trichoderma              to study the efficacy of six fungicides in controlling the
album, Plant Guard: Trichoderma harzianum, Gliomix:                  disease and consequently its effect on grape vines yield.
Gliocladium spp., Bioarc: Bacillus megaterium, Mycostop:             Fungicides Amistar top, Bellis, Topsin- M, Fungshow,
Streptomyces griseoviridis and Rhizo-N: Bacillus subtilis)           Acoidal, and Thiovit Jet, at the recommended rates,
had significantly inhibited mycelial growth of S.                    significantly controlled the disease as compared with the
sclerotiorum on PDA medium. T. album and T. harzianum                control. Amistar top and Bellis were the most effective
suppressed the pathogen growth by 66.7 and 65.6%,                    treatments. Significant increases in grape yield, particularly
respectively. Gliocladium spp., S. griseovirids, B.                  with Amistar top and Bellis treatments were observed.
megaterium and B. subtilis decreased colony growth of the
pathogen by producing a clear inhibitory zone, where                 F 63
colony growth was inhibited by 38.9, 67.8, 62.2 and 64.4%,           INTRODUCING            ENDOPHYTES           IN     NOVEL
respectively. Under greenhouse and field conditions,                 INTEGRATED                PEST           MANAGEMENT
Biozed and Mycostop were the most effective biofungicide,            STRATEGIES. Mohamed E. Selim1, A.A. Dababat2, A.
to control damping off and stem rot diseases in chickpea,            Schouten1 and Richard A. Sikora1. (1) Soil-Ecosystem
followed by Rhizo-N, Bioarc, Plant guard and Gliomix.                Phytopathology and Nematology, Institute of Crop Science
                                                                     and Resource Conservation (INRES), Department of Plant
F 61                                                                 Health, University of Bonn, Nussallee 9, 53115 Bonn,
IMPACT OF FICUS CARICA L. LEAFE EXTRACTS                             Germany, Email: m_elwy76@yahoo.com; (2) Global
ON SOME PATHOGENIC FUNGI. Abdul-Ghany O.I.                           Wheat Program/ CIMMYT, Turkey.
Sarmamy1 and K.S. Zhian2. (1) College of Science-Biology;                     The fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a
(2) College of Agriculture, University of Salahaddin, Arbil,         cosmopolitan soil inhabitant. The majority of the strains
Iraq, Email: abdulghani_umer@yahoo.com                               found are considered saprophytic, surviving on organic
          Several experiments were carried out in the                matter in the soil and rhizosphere of many plant species.
laboratories of the College of Science, University of                Some strains are able to colonize plants and, by doing this,
Salahaddin – Arbil, during 2006–2007 to determine the                either cause root-rot and vascular disease or cause no
effects of leafe extracts of fig tree (Ficus carica L.) on the       symptoms at all. Because the plant pathogenic isolates can
growth of four pathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata,               seriously damage a large variety of plant species and,
Penicillium expansum, Fusarium oxysporum and                         consequently, lead to significant crop losses, such isolates
Aspergillus flavus). Fresh leaves were extracted with                have traditionally caught most attention. Relatively little is
distilled water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform.              known about the non-pathogenic isolates. Nevertheless,
Concentrations of 500, 1000, 5000 and 10000 µgml-1 were              these endophytic isolates can induce resistance in plants
prepared from the raw extracts and applied to PDA                    against both fungal pathogens and plant parasitic
medium. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was                       nematodes. Evidently, F. oxysporum may be interesting
applied with four replicates in all experiments. Data were           organisms that can be applied in novel integrated pest
analyzed statistically and the means compared by LSD at              management (IPM) strategies. However, another important
P=0.01. The results showed that leaf extracts of fig tree            element in IPM is the application of resistant plant
contains flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins,                    genotypes. Plants varieties that are resistant towards
alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrate and saponin. TLC of the          pathogenic F. oxysporum may thus not allow colonization
leaf extracts showed three spots a, b and c, and Rf value of         of a beneficial endophyte. The level of colonization is often
these three spots were 0.15, 0.46 and 0.72 for aqueous               considered to be an important factor influencing both the
extract, 0.42, 0.54 and 0.70 for ethanol extract, 0.44, 0.59         mode of action involved and the level of biocontrol
and 0.68 for ethyl acetate extract and 0.30, 0.72 and 0.93           attained. We compared the colonization ability of the F.
for chloroform extracts, respectively. The plant extracts            oxysporum endophytic strain Fo162, which can reduce
affected the growth of the four fungi significantly at               colonization of tomato by the root-knot nematode, in F.
concentration of 500 µgml-1 and the effects increased as the         oxysporum resistant and susceptible tomato varieties.
concentration increased. Chloroform and ethyl acetate                Additionally, the effect of Fo162 colonization on root-knot
extracts were effective against the four fungi more than the         nematode infection was verified. The results show that
aqueous and ethanol extracts. Fusarium oxysporum was                 Fo162 was in several cases able to efficiently colonize the
sensitive against fig leaf extracts more than other three            root and simultaneously reduced nematode infection in the

                                                         2009    /                         27                                E-65
resistant cultivars. The plant resistance is apparently not          their host range isn’t well established yet. Attempts of
affecting colonization by the endophyte, thus making                 artificial inoculation of 9 species of Fabaceae, with 24
Fo162 a potential interesting candidate in IPM for                   isolates derived from different fodder crops in Algeria and
combating multiple diseases.                                         France were made to identify the fungus pathogenic to
                                                                     Trifolium alexandrinum L. The results showed that the
F 64                                                                 isolates had differences in host range. The collection
EFFECT         OF     PEA       PATHOGENICITY            OF          studied included Phoma pinodella and Phoma medicaginis
CULTIVAR, CONCENTRATION OF SPORES AND                                the 2 species described on fodder Fabaceae before. On the
LEAF WETNESS DURATION ON ASCOCHYTA                                   other hand, results suggested the existence of at least one
BLIGHT         CAUSED         BY      MYCOSPHAERELLA                 other different species of Phoma strongly pathogenic to T.
PINODES. Setti Benali 1, Mohamed Bencheikh1, Henni                   alexandrinum.
Jamel2 and Neema Claire3. (1) Institut de Biologie,
Université de Chlef, BP151, 02000 Chlef, Algérie, Email:             F 66
benseti@yahoo.fr; bencheikdz@yahoo.fr; (2) Institut des              ISOLATE BY GENOTYPE INTERACTION IN
Sciences, Université d’Es Senia, Oran, Algérie, Email:               PHYTOPHTHORA             DRECHSLERI          AND        BETA
hennijamel@hotmail.fr; (3) UMR de Pathologie Végétale,               VULGARIS UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS.
INRA/INA-PG/Université Paris VI, 16 rue Claude Bernard,              Mahyar Sheikholeslami, Hassan Younessi, Darioush Safaei
75231 Paris Cedex, France.                                           and Jahanshah Basati, Agricultural and Natural Resources
          The effect of host leaf wetness duration,                  Research Center of Kermanshah Province, Kermanshah,
Mycosphaerella pinodes inoculum concentration and                    Iran, Email: m1sheikh@yahoo.com
pathogen isolate on the latent and the incubation periods of                  Phytophthora drechsleri is regarded as the most
the pathogen or disease severity were quantified on pea              prevalent and noxious species of Phytophthora spp. in
(Pisum sativum L.). Seedlings of two widely grown pea                sugar beet fields in Iran. In this study, 27 isolates were
cultivars, Onward and Merveille de Kelvedon, susceptible             collected from sugar beet fields in Kermanshah province.
and moderately resistant to M. pinodes, respectively were            Based on morphological characteristics and temperature
subjected to six leaf wetness durations of 6, 12, 24, 48 and         preferences all were identified as P. drechsleri. Ten isolates
72 h, and inoculated with five inoculum concentrations,              which had more capability to produce sporangia were
2.5×103, 4×104, 3.5×105, 4x106, and 5.2×107, in order to             selected and tested on 4 sugar beet genotypes 7233, BR-1,
determine whether the cultivars reacted differently to M.            Dorothy and FC-709. Results indicated that there was
pinodes isolates inoculated under identical conditions.              significant difference in pathogenicity among isolates and
Increasing the duration of leaf wetness and inoculum                 genotypes. On this basis, isolates Phy-11 and Phy-26 were
concentration caused significant (P<0.001) increases in              highly and Phy-6, Phy-19 and Phy-26 were least
disease severity within each cultivar. Both the incubation           pathogenic. For the tested genotypes, statistical analysis
period and the latent period decreased with increasing               revealed variability among the four sugar beet genotypes.
conidial concentration and leaf wetness duration. Generally,         The genotype FC-709 which is resistant to Rhizoctonia
the cv. Onward had a significantly shorter incubation                solani was also recognized as tolerant to P. drechsleri and
period, and latent period and higher disease severity than           the genotype 7233 which is sensitive to other sugar beet
cv. Merveille de Kelvedon. Isolates differed in                      diseases was identified as the most sensitive to this disease.
aggressiveness at higher levels of leaf wetness (48 h)
duration and of inoculum concentration (4×106), but there            F 67
was no significant interaction between isolates and leaf             MYCOBIOTA ASSOCIATED WITH SEEDS OF
wetness duration, or between isolates and inoculum                   SUNFLOWER             (HELIANTHUS          ANNUS        L.)
concentration. The optimum levels for obtaining a                    CULTIVARS GROWN IN IRAQ. Samir K. Abdullah1
consistent infection and for readily separating the                  and Karim A. Al-Mosawi2. (1) Biology Department,
susceptible and the partially resistant cultivars were a leaf        College of Education, University of Dohuk, Iraq; (2)
wetness of 48 h and an inoculum concentration of 4×106.              Biology Department, College of Science, University of
The study also showed that continuous leaf wetness for 48            Basrah, Iraq, Email: samer_abdalh@yahoo.com
h was a threshold for application of fungicides to control                    Mycobiota associated with seeds of 9 sunflower
the fungus in the susceptible cultivar.                              cultivars (Helianthus annus L.) viz. Akmar, Eurofflore
                                                                     As508, Mannon, As15, Florasol and three unidentified local
F 65                                                                 cultivars were studied using standard blotter method. The
HOST        SPECIFICITY        OF      PHOMA         SSP.            seeds were associated with 49 species of fungi belonging to
PATHOGENIC TO FODDER FABACEA. Nadra                                  19 genera. The broadest species spectrum on most cultivars
Boumédiène, Nawel Ghiat and Zouaoui Bouznad,                         were represented by the genera Aspergillus (9 species),
Laboratoire de phytopathologie et biologie moléculaire,              Alternaria and Fusarium (6 species each), followed by
Ecole Supérieure d’Agronomie, El Harrach, Alger, Algérie,            Penicillium (4 species), Chaetomium, Drechslera,
Email:boumediene_nadra@hotmail.fr                                    Trichoderma and Ulocladium (3 species each). Aspergillus
        The identification of species or varieties of the            niger, A. flavus, Chaetomium globosum, Alternaria
genus Phoma on legumes is still very difficult, because of           alternata, A. fumigatus, C. atrobrunneum, A. terreus,
the similarity of their morphological features. Moreover             Penicillium expansum, P. brevicompactum, Fusarium


E-66     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
oxyspoum, F. solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor hiemalis                       Seed borne Fungi isolated from Pea seeds cv.
and A. ochraceus were the most frequent species. The                  Zahra-8 were Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger,
species composition, contamination rate by fungi and seed             Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp. and Verticillium sp. The
germination rate differed among cultivars. Akmar cultivar             reaction of these fungi to Trichoderma harzianum,
showed the lowest number of detected species (17 species),            (Biocont-T) was tested. Results showed that T. harzianum
whereas, the highest number (49 species) were isolated                was antagonistic to most fungi under dual-culture, with a
from the unidentified local cultivar 3. Highest fungal                variable rate of antagonism (1-5) on Ciguantial scale.
contamination rate was recorded in unidentified local                 Extract of T. harzianum was significantly effective on
cultivar 3 (45%) and lowest was in Akmar (10%).                       development of fungal colonies, and on fungal dry weight,
Maximum seed germination was observed in Akmar                        and was found to be effective on Verticillium sp. with
(100%) and minimum in unidentified local cultivar 3                   85.0% growth reduction.
(38%). Seed-borne pathogenic species Macrophomina
phaseolina was detected from the three unidentified local             F 70
cultivars with low level of occurrence.                               PATHOGENEICITY                  AND          METALAXYL
                                                                      SENSITIVITY OF PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS
F 68                                                                  ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM POTATO AND
VARIATION OF CULTURAL, MORPHOLOGICAL                                  TOMATO FIELDS IN ALGERIA. Bellahcene Miloud1,
AND        BIOMETRIC         CHARACTERISTICS                OF        Rekad Fatima Zohra2, Guenaoui Yamina2 and Belabid
PYRENOPHORA TRITICI-REPENTIS ISOLATES                                 Lakhdar3. (1) Département de Biologie, Université de
ISOLATED FROM DURUM WHEAT FIELDS IN                                   Mostaganem, Algérie; (2) Département d’Agronomie,
SYRIA. Roula Shamsi1, Amor Yahyaoui2, Ahmed El-                       Université de Mostaganem, Algérie; (3) Département
Ahmed1 and Miloudi Nachit2. (1) Plant Protection                      d’Agronomie, Université de Mascara, Algérie, Email:
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University,                belahcene_miloud@yahoo.fr
Aleppo, Syria, Email: r.shamsi@hotmail.com; (2)                                 The present study showed that potato and tomato
ICARDA, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria.                                 late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de
          Tan Spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis - Ptr), is           Bary in the north-west region of Algeria can be destructive
one of the most dangerous diseases that attacks wheat in              for these crops if the weather is favorable during growing
many areas in the world. The present study was conducted              seasons. This is showed by the high severity and incidence
to identify cultural, morphological and biometric                     of the infection recorded during the growing season of
characteristics of 29 isolates, isolated from durum wheat             2007–2008. Planting of seed tubers infected with late blight
fields in Syria and belonging to three groups of Ptr (I, II and       has been reported as a major cause in initiating the disease
III),based on their reaction on the differential line                 in the field. Nine isolates of the pathogen obtained from
"coulter",. Results indicated that the isolates produced              potato and tomato fields situated in different locations in
subhyline conidia, cylindrical, thin walled, taper slightly           the north-west region of Algeria were compared with
toward the top, divided into 4-11 septa, and measure 154-             French isolates and assessed for their biological
203 X 13–16 µm. Pseudothecia measure between 225-230                  characteristics by using different parameters. P. infestans
µm. Cluster analysis showed that the isolates can be divided          populations in this region are characterized by the
into two sub-clusters. The first sub-cluster, characterized by        coexistence of the two mating types A1 and A2 which are
light colored spores and slow growth rate on V8-PDA                   collected from the same or different potato and tomato
media (1.7–4.5 mm/day), and represent group "I". Whereas,             plots. Thus, the mating type A2 was found in all locations
the second sub-cluster characterized by the color of its              surveyed. This study also confirmed the emergence of
colonies, and appeared black to olive colour and sometimes            metalaxyl resistant isolates (in- vivo). Moreover, all isolates
dark orange, and fast growth rate on V8-PDA (7.5–13.5                 collected from potato, showed a high level of metalaxyl
mm/day), this sub-cluster represent group II and III. Results         resistance and those of mating type A2 had a highly
indicated that there was a significant relationship between           complex virulence spectra, which overcame all specific
growth rate on media and isolate severity, and recorded               resistance genes. Aggressiveness of these isolates was
+0.65, +0.99 and +0.98, for groups I, II and III,                     assessed on detached leaves of different potato cultivars by
respectively. Accordingly, it is possible to take into account        determining the lesion size and the sporulation capacity.
those characteristics to predict in advance the isolate               Significant differences in aggressiveness were found among
virulence before conducting pathogencity test.                        isolates. Evaluating susceptibility of potato cultivars to
                                                                      different isolates revealed that the cultivar Spunta
F 69                                                                  (predominant in Algeria) appeared more susceptible to
EFFECT OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM ON                                    infection than Desiree and Atlas. However, the cultivar
SOME SEED-BORNE FUNGI OF PISUM SATIVUM                                Bintje (widely cultivated in France) appeared highly
L. Zineb Sadik1, Mohamed Birka1, Issa Faraj1 and Omar                 susceptible. Knowledge of pathogeneicity of the isolates
       2                                                              and their sensitivity to metalaxyl is very important for
Haroun . (1) Department of Plant Protection, College of
Agriculture, EL-Fatih University, Tripoli, Libya; Omar Al-            effective integrated management of late blight.
Moukhtar      University,   El-Beida,      Libya,   Email:
zn20042008@yahoo.com



                                                          2009    /                         27                                 E-67
F 71                                                                 effective for suppression of damping-off of cucumber
FUNGICIDES ACQUIRED RESISTANCE AND ITS                               caused by P. ultimum.
EFFECT          ON        THE        MORPHOLOGICAL
CHARACTERS OF STEMPHYLIUM VESICARIUM,                                F 73
THE        CAUSAL        ORGANISM           OF      ONION            MICROBIAL STUDIES ON BACTERIA FROM
STEMPHYLIUM LEAF BLIGHT. M.H.A. Hassan, S.A.                         COMPOST-BASED                  SUBSTRATES:           PLANT
Ahmed and W.T. Kenawy, Plant Pathology Department,                   GROWTH            PROMOTING           ACTIVITIES       AND
Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526, Assiut,            ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT AGAINST SOME SOIL-
Egypt, Email: mhasanmha@yahoo.com                                    BORNE PATHOGENS OF MELON. Claudine Sebaaly1,
          Chemical control is considered the most effective          Mariagrazia Antonelli1, Anna Maria D’Onghia2, Gabriele
mean to control onion stemphylium leaf blight caused by              Chilosi1 and Leonardo Varvaro1. (1) Department of Plant
Stemphylium vesicarium. One of the main problems                     Protection, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy; (2)
restricting chemical control of fungal diseases is pathogens         Integrated Pest Management Research Department, Istituto
that could produce resistant strains to the used fungicides,         Agronomico         Mediterraneo,     Bari,    Italy,  Email:
particularly to those used repeatedly at the same site for           claudine_seb@hotmail.com
several subsequent seasons. The causal pathogen was                            The two main fungal pathogens of melon
isolated and identified as Stemphylium vesicarium (Wallr.)           (Cucumis melo L.) causing a critical problem and economic
Simmons and the telemorphic state as Pleospora allii                 losses in Central Italy are Monosporascus cannonballus
(Rabenh) Ces. & De Not. Probabilities of generating                  (MC) and Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. melonis (FOM).
resistant strains by Stemphylium vesicarium affects the              These pathogens are agents of collapse and vascular wilts
occurrence and development of acquired resistance. One of            of the melon plants, respectively. Fluorescent pseudomonas
the most noticeable effects of development of acquired               and aerobic spore-forming bacteria were isolated and
resistance is the phenomena of changes of the                        quantified from some compost-based substrates used for
morphological characters of the pathogen. The resistant              melon cultivation. The same bacterial groups were also
isolate (M) was remarkable by producing a dark red color             isolated from the rhizosphere and from the rhizoplane of
pigments in the medium with white cottony mycelial                   melon plants grown in those substrates. Representative
growth and decrease in conidial production, while the                strains of these bacteria were characterized, and then were
sensitive one (S1) was distinguished by producing gray               in vitro tested for their antagonism towards two MC isolates
color pigments in the medium and increase in conidia                 or one FOM isolate and for their plant growth promoting
production. Alternating the use of different fungicide               ability on melon seedlings. A large number of bacteria were
groups was recommended to overcome the acquired                      obtained from the substrates, rhizosphere and rhizoplane. In
resistance problem.                                                  addition, the positive effect of roots on bacterial
                                                                     multiplication was confirmed. Finally, it was shown that
F 72                                                                 few bacterial isolates expressed an antagonistic feature
SUPPRESSION            OF       DAMPING-OFF           AND            against the assayed fungi; whereas a higher number of
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF CUCUMBER                                  bacteria were able to promote plant growth, in terms of
(CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) SEEDLINGS AFTER                                 phosphorous solubilization and siderophores production.
APPLICATION             OF        COMPOSTS            AND
PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS PF6. Sahar A.                                F 74
Youssef and Kamel A.H. Tartoura, Botany Department,                  NET BLOTCH OF BARLEY IN NORTHWESTERN
Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, 41522,                ALGERIA. Karima Bounguab1, Lakhdar Belabid1 and
Ismailia, Egypt, Email: youssefs@msu.edu                             Zohra Fortas2. (1) Laboratoire de Recherche sur les
        Management of root and crown rot of cucumber                 Systèmes Biologiques et la Géomatique, Université de
(Cucumis sativus L.) caused by Pythium ultimum is not                Mascara, BP 763, Mascara, 29000, Algérie; (2) Laboratoire
possible through a single approach. An integrated                    de Biologie des microorganismes et de Biotechnologie,
management was applied using composts and the plant-                 Département de Biotechnologie, Faculté des Sciences,
growth-promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens               Université d’Oran-Algérie, Email: belabidl@yahoo.fr
Pf6. The effects of treatments on disease suppression,                         Barley is an economically important crop in
growth parameters, nutrient uptake, phenolic content, lipid          Algeria. It contributes to increasing fodder production,
peroxidation and antioxidant capacity were investigated.             particularly in semi-arid areas and it shows an adaptation as
Dual culture of P. fluorescens Pf6 and P. ultimum revealed           compared with other cereals. Despite this economic
a high degree of antagonistic activity. The combined effect          importance, barley suffers from many phytosanitary
of cucumber seed bacterization and 25% compost (v/v) was             problems, which are probably the main causes of low
the most effective treatment in controlling damping-off and          production. A survey in the Northwest Algeria showed that
inhibited lipid peroxidation. Treatments significantly               net blotch disease is the most dominant in all sites. Our
increased cucumber fresh and dry weight and shoot and                study also focused on the pathogenicity of some isolates of
root length and uptake of mineral nutrients. The present             Drechslera teres (Sacc.) Shoem. The transmission of the
results also showed that bacterized cucumber plants grown            pathogen by seeds is an effective way for its spread. Results
in soil amended with composts contained higher levels of             of screening for disease resistance revealed that no resistant
endogenous total phenolics and antioxidant activity. It is           variety is available at present in Algeria.
concluded that seed bacterization and soil amendments are


E-68     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
F 75                                                                technique with 2×2 mm plaque of fungal culture. Results
FUNGAL DISEASES OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM)                              did not show any difference in growth rate of P. sojae on all
AND CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) IN                                   media. Biomass and oospore production in ABA was more
NORTHWESTERN ALGERIA. Merzoug Aoumria,                              than in OMA and CMA. There were no differences
Faouzia Benfreha, Malika Taleb and Lakhdar Belabid,                 between OMA and CMA in oospore and biomass
Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Systèmes Biologiques et            production. Results of race identification tests with OMA
la Géomatique, Université de Mascara, BP 763, Mascara,              were similar to results of other research but results of CMA
29000, Algérie, Email: belabidl@yahoo.fr                            and ABA were different from results of standard tests.
          A Survey conducted over several fields of pea and         Results of this research showed that ABA was the best
chickpea at different phenological stages of the plant in the       medium for growth and biomass production but OMA was
northwestern regions of Algeria (2006, 2007, 2008),                 the best medium for race identification test.
followed by laboratory analysis allowed the identification
of a large number of fungal diseases and their geographical         F 78
distribution. Pea diseases in the surveyed region were              FIRST         REPORT           OF        PHYTOPHTHORA
powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni) by 10-35%, downy                 CITROPHTHORA              ON      PISTACHIO         FROM
mildew (Peronospora pisi) from 0-23.75%, Anthracnose                SOUTHERN KHORASAN. Nasrin Nooras Mofrad1 and
(Ascochyta pisi) from 0-13.5%, root rot (Fusarium solani f.         Abbas Mohammadi2. (1) Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic
sp. pisi) from 2.25-11.33%, wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.             Azad University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran; (2) Department
sp. pisi) 9.5-14%. The presence of rust and grease bacteria         of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand
was also noted. For Chickpea diseases wilt (Fusarium                University, Birjand, Iran, Email: nasrin229@yahoo.co.in
oxysporum f. sp. ciceris) 37.7-100%, root rot and collar                     During the summer of 2008, symptoms of a root
(Fusarium solani, F. equiseté, F. culmorum) 22.22-6.66,             rot were observed in pistacia gardens located in southern
and other diseases caused by Alternaria alternata (12.5%)           Khorasan province in Iran. The symptoms resulted in root
and Stemphylium sp. (50%) were reported.                            and crown rot, and eventually plant death. The diseased
                                                                    tissue was disinfested for 1 min in 1% NaOCl and plated on
F 76                                                                a semi selective medium for Oomycetes. The
EFFECT OF SOWING DEPTH AND SOIL                                     microorganism consistently isolated from infected tissues,
MOISTURE ON INFECTION SEVERITY OF                                   grown on corn meal agar (CMA) at 22°C. Isolations from
COMMON ROOT ROT DISEASE ON WHEAT.                                   the affected tissues repeatedly yielded a Phytophthora sp.
Omran Youssef, General Commission for Scientific                    that was determined by morphological and physiological
Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Agricultural Research                characteristics to be P. citrophthora, produced hyphae with
Centre of Kamishly, Kamishly, Syria, Email:                         a diameter ranging from 4.7 to 5.2 µm. Sporangia were
om_youssef@yahoo.com                                                produced in sterilized 1% soil extract, papillate, and
          This work has obgected to study the effect of             hyaline, measuring 43.3 to 54.4 × 26.7 to 27.7 µm. This is
sowing depth and soil moisture in infection severity of             the first report of this pathogen affecting pistachio in
common root rot disease on wheat. Three depth of sowing             southern Khorasan in Iran.
were tested (5, 10 and 15 cm) in plastic basins (50×15×20
cm) containing contaminated soil with a mixture of some             F 79
isolates of three Fusarium species: F. culmorum, F.                 SEED ROT AND DAMPING OFF ON BEAN IN
moniliforme and F. graminearum. Twenty seeds/ plot are              NINEVAH GOVERNORATE, IRAQ. Ali Kareem Al-
planted with three levels of soil moisture was studied on           Taae and Nihal Yonis Al-Murad, Department of Biology,
disease development by adding known quantities of water             College of science, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq, Email:
at 5 cm sowing depth for all levels, with three replicates          nihalym04@yahoo.com
and compared to control treatment. Results showed that                       The results of a field survey carried out on bean
plant infection has been increased proportionally with              fields in two areas in Ninevah Governorate showed that
sowing depth, but negatively with both low rate and/or high         infection rate of bean seedling post emergence damping off
rate soil moisture.                                                 ranged between 40-49% in spring and 33-43% in autumn.
                                                                    The results of isolation and diagnosis showed that
F 77                                                                Fusarium solani Mart, Macrophomina phaseolina Tassi,
EFFECT OF THREE MEDIA ON GROWTH RATE,                               and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn were the causal pathogens.
BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND VIRULENCE OF                                 These fungi showed a high infection rate on local variety
PHYTOPHTHORA SOJAE. Nasrin Nooras Mofrad1 and                       (Phaseolus vulgaris) with seedlings pre-emergence
Abbas Mohammadi2. (1) Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic               damping off, where R. solani had the highest infection rate
Azad University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran; (2) Department           (65%). Reaction of five varieties of beans showed that
of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand                 Mosul 36 was the most resistant variety to the above fungi
University, Birjand, Iran, Email: nasrin229@yahoo.co.in             and to their mixture. Seedlings pre-emergence damping off,
         Effect of three media [Oat meal agar (OMA), Corn           incidence was 33.5%, while black beans variety was the
meal agar (CMA) and Anasazi bean agar (ABA)] on                     most susceptible. The average infection rate with the fungi
growth, biomass production and pathogenecity of races 1             and their mixture was 79.5%. It became clear that R. solani
and 3 of Phytophthora sojae was studied on differentials.           was significantly more abundant than the other two fungi
Race identification was done by hypocotyls inoculation              and their mixture, in relation to seedling pre-emergence

                                                        2009    /                        27                                E-69
damping off. As for post-emergence damping off,                      dots were observed on lower stem of infected plants, where
Contender variety was the least susceptible, and M.                  the intensity of acervuli and sclerotia commensurate with
phaseolina was more common than the other fungi and                  the severity of infection. The disease was destructive to
their mixture (34.4%).                                               both stems and roots, but without vascular discoloration.
                                                                     Symptoms observed on the surface of affected tubers as a
F 80                                                                 gray-brown patches, showing acervuli and sclerotia. The
CURRENT RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ANASTOMOSIS                               size of patches on tubers expanded and united under
GROUPS IN EGYPT AND THEIR PATHOGENIC                                 unfavorable storage conditions, which lead finally to crust
RELATION TO COTTON SEEDLINGS. Maurice S.                             wrinkling and canker, causing loss of tuber value.
Mikhail1, Kamel K. Sabet1, Moawad R. Omar2, Amal A.
Asran3 and Khaled K. Kasem1,4. (1) Plant Pathology                   F 82
Department, Cairo University, Egypt; (2) Plant Pathology             FUNGAL DISEASES ON ROSES FROM LIBYA.
Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza,              Farhat Ali Abozakar1 and Salah S.El-Ammari2. (1) Man
Egypt; Botany and Microbilogy Department, College of                 Made River Investment Department, Sirt, Libya. (2)
Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia; (4)                     Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of
Agricultural Research Center in Hama, General                        Garyounis,             Benghazi,       Libya,        Email:
Commission for Scientific Agric. Research, Syria, Email:             sselammari@yahoo.com
kaldkas5@hotmail.com                                                         This study was carried out to identify the fungal
         Twenty eight isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were            diseases on roses imported from Morocco and grown in El-
obtained from cotton seedlings and twenty three isolates             Gardabia nursries at Sirt. The following diseases were
from other hosts; eight from peanut, five from chickpea,             identified and their causal fungi were determined: powdery
two from each of flax, tomato and watermelon and one                 mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa), black spot (Marssonina
from each of potato, cantaloupe, pepper and lupine.                  rosae),     rust       (Phragmidium     mucronatum      and
Microscopic examination revealed that 17 isolates (33.33%)           Ph.tuberculatum), flower blight (Botrytis sp), leaf spot
belonged to AG-2-2, 17 isolates (33.33%) belonged to AG-             (Alternaria      sp.),    and    root   rots   (Rhizoctonia
4 HG-I, while 7 isolates (13.73%) belonged to AG-4 HG-II             solani,Verticillium albo-atrum and Fusarium sp.)
and 10 isolates (19.61%) belonged to AG-5 groups.
Pathogenicity test on cotton cultivar Giza 86, under                 F 83
greenhouse conditions, showed that 19 isolates significantly         FUNGAL DISEASES ON PEAS IN BENGHAZI -
induced Pre- and post-emergence damping-off, while they              LIBYA. Salah.S. El-Ammari and Mohammed A. Omar,
significantly decreased survival, plant height and dry               Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture,
weight. However, the pathogenic isolates of AG-2-2                   University of Garyounis, Benghazi, Libya, Email :
representing 19.61% of the total isolates as well as the             sselammari@yahoo.com
highest percentage of the pathogenic isolates (52.63%).                      The areas included in this survey of fungal diseases
There were no significant differences between effects of             on peas were Al-Magzaha, Wadi Al-gatara, Sidi Mansor,
different AGs on the cotton seedling variables. Cluster              Benina and Sidi Kalifa. The following fungal diseases were
analysis suggested that grouping the isolates based on their         recorded: powdery mildew, Ascochyta blight, root rots and
virulence patterns was not related to their geographic               leaf spots caused by Erysiphe pisi, Ascocyta pisi, Fusarium
origins or AG or host.                                               solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria alternata and
                                                                     Stemphylium sp. respectively. Rust on peas was not
F 81                                                                 observed in any of the farms visited. Although, powdery
ISOLATION            AND       IDENTIFICATION            OF          mildew appeared late in the season, it reached 100%
COLLETOTRICHUM COCCODES THE CAUSAL                                   incidence. In Alkadra area no significant difference in
PATHOGEN BLACK DOT DISEASE ON POTATO IN                              intensity of powdery mildew between two varieties of peas
SYRIA. Mohamed Matar, Department of Plant Protection,                naturally infected with E. pisi was observed.
Faculty of Agriculture University of Aleppo, Syria, Email:
matar59@maktoob.com                                                  F 84
       Black dote (Anthracnose) is an important disease              DETECTION           AND     IDENTIFICATION             OF
affecting potato in many regions worldwide, causing                  PHYTOPHTHORA SPP. OCCURRING IN THE
significant losses in yield. The disease was recorded for the        RHIZOSPHERE AND FEEDER ROOTS OF OLIVE
first time in 2006 on potato in Syria, in some potato fields         PLANTLETS. Ahmed Mahmoud Ismail1, Thaer Yaseen1,
at Hama and Idleb, on Panella and Sponta varieties. The              Anna Maria D’Onghia1, Antonio Ippolito2 and Franco
fungal pathogen was isolated from roots, stems and tubers            Nigro2. (1) Centre International de Hautes Etudes
of infected plants, and identified as Colletotrichum                 Agronomiques Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM/MAIB), Via
coccodes (Wallr) Hughes.The pathogenicity test of the                Ceglie 9, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy; (2) Dipartimento di
fungus was studied in glasshouse under artificial                    Protezione delle Piante e Microbiologia Applicata,
inculcation of the soil, using 45-55 mm potato seed tubers           University of Bari, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy,
of the Panella variety, (elite class). Symptoms were                 Email: y.thaer@iamb.it
observed after 65-70 days, a leaf wilting and chlorosis                     The aim of the present work was to monitor
followed by necrosis and death of infected plants. Black             Phytophthora spp. in the soil and feeder roots of olive


E-70     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
plantlets growing in several nurseries located in Calabria          F 86
and Apulia regions (Southern Italy). Traditional (plating on        FUNGICIDE MANAGEMENT OF ASCOCHYTA
selective medium) and molecular (PCR) methods were used             BLIGHT OF FABA BEAN. Siham Kabbabeh1, Seid
to detect the pathogen, both in soil and rootlets samples.          Ahmed1 and Mathew M. Abang2. (1) Biodiversity and
Phytophthora spp. were found in 74 out of 200 samples               Integrated Gene Management Program, ICARDA, P.O.
tested. Similar colonies were grouped and identified                Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email: s.kabbabeh@cgiar.org;
according to their morphological characters. Primers Ph2-           (2)Vegetable Breeding and Seed Systems (vBSS) Program
ITS4 also revealed the presence of the genus Phytophthora           AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center Regional Center for
immediately, whereas the sequences of the amplicons                 Africa, P.O. Box 10, Duluti, Arusha, Tanzania.
generated by the primer pairs ITS4-ITS5 and COXF4N-                          Ascochyta blight (Didymella fabae) is one of the
COXR4N, unambiguously identified P. palmivora, and P.               major production constraints affecting faba bean production
citricola. As a whole, results obtained from the samples            and quality in many counties. Many control strategies are
tested indicated that P. palmivora was the predominant              being used in different parts of the world to reduce the
species (85.7%) in the olive nurseries, followed by P.              impact of Ascochyta blight in faba bean production. Most
citricola (14.3%), either in the soil or in feeder roots            faba bean breeding programs are working to develop
samples. The molecular tools used in this work confirmed            Ascochyta blight resistant varieties for small and large scale
the morphological identification of the Phytophthora                growers. Although many varieties were developed by many
species occurring in the rizosphere and feeder roots of olive       national programs, they did not reach farmers mainly in
plantlets.                                                          developing counties where seed production and delivery are
                                                                    bottlenecks for technology transfer. In addition to shortage
F 85                                                                of seeds of improved varieties, the levels of resistance is not
APPLICATION OF SALTS AND NATURAL                                    high enough in many of the released varieties and require
SUBSTANCES TO REDUCE INCIDENCE OF                                   additional disease control components like adjustment of
PENICILLIUM          ROT      ON      MALTAISE        AND           sowing date and properly timed fungicide applications to
VALENCIA LATE ORANGES IN TUNISIA. Wafa                              increase productivity and quality of the crop. Field
Rouissi1, Simona Marianna Sanzani2, Angela Ligorio2,                experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of
Youssef Khamis2, Thaer Yaseen1, Mahamed Cherif3, Anna               fungicide applications (Mancozeb, Chlorothalonil and
Maria D’Onghia1 and Antonio Ippolito2. (1) Centre                   Azoxystrobin (Ortiva)) and sowing dates (end of November
International     de    Hautes     Etudes    Agronomiques           and mid January plantings) on six faba bean genotypes with
Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM/MAIB), Via Ceglie 9, 70010                 varying levels of resistance to Ascochyta blight in
Valenzano, Bari-Italy; (2) Dipartimento di Protezione delle         2007/2008 cropping season at ICARDA, Syria. Disease
Piante e Microbiologia Applicata, University of Bari, Via           epidemics were initiated from artificial inoculations of plots
Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari-Italy; (3) Département de                with infected debris and data on disease incidence, severity
Protection des Plantes et Maladies Post Récolte, Institut           and seed yield were collected. The results showed
National Agronomique de Tunisie. 43, Avenue Charles                 significant (p<0.001) effects of sowing date and fungicide
Nicolle 1082, Tunis, Mahrajène, Tunisine, Email:                    on disease incidence on leaves and stems as well as disease
ippolito@agr.uniba.it                                               severity. Early sowing date showed high levels of disease
        At a time of increased public awareness about               incidence and severity. The fungicide Ortiva and
chemical treatments and development of fungicide                    Chlorothalonil reduced both disease incidence and severity
resistance by postharvest pathogen populations, the                 of Ascochyta blight. There was no significant interaction
adoption of alternative control means seems to be essential.        effects among the variables studied for all disease
However, an effective way to reduce losses requires the             parameters measured in the experiment. The role of
knowledge on epidemiology and complex interactions                  fungicides as a component of integrated ascochyta blight
between host, pathogen and control agents. Results of the           management on faba bean will be presented.
present study revealed that the population of Penicillium
spp. on fruit surface and in the packing house atmosphere           F 87
fluctuated along the packing line, reaching a peak at "bin          IDENTIFICATION          OF    EUCALYPTUS         AND
emptying" step. In semi-commercial trials, organic and              SYCAMORE DEFENCE COMPOUND INDUCED
inorganic salts and natural substances were applied to              AGAINST NATTRASSIA MANGIFERAE AND
Maltaise (postharvest treatment) and Valencia late (pre             PHOMA EXIGUA. Khaled Hassan Taha1 and Anwar
and/or post-harvest treatment) oranges. On both cultivars,          Nouri Mohamad2. (1) Plant Protection Department; (2)
sodium carbonate and bicarbonate were the most effective            Forestry Department, College of Agriculture & Forestry,
substances, being on the latter as effective as Imazalil in         Mosul       University,    Mosul,      Iraq,    Email:
reducing Penicillium rots and populations on fruit surface.         mahmoud_mm2005@yahoo.com
Pre-harvest spraying on Valencia late proved to be the best                  Defense compounds induced by the toxins of
application strategy since, rot incidence was lower than in         Nattrassia mangiferae such as (–) Catechin, (–)
the other treatments. P. ulaiense and P. digitatum                  Epicatechin, (–) Gallocatechin, (+) Epiafzelechin,
identification was confirmed by the use of specific sets of         Phloroglycinol and the two unknown compounds (1) and
primers designed for the IGS regions of rDNA.                       (2) were induced when Glucuronic acid was injected in
                                                                    eucalyptus. Defense compounds were also induced by the


                                                        2009    /                         27                                 E-71
effect of Phoma exigua phytotoxin (Ascochitine) in                   B or A+B) and sugar in infected plants were reduced,
sycamore      seedlings    and    compounds      such    as,         whereas phenol content was less in healthy plants. Data
Phloroglycinol, (–) atechin and the unknown compound (3)             showed that it is possible to reduce the dosage of the
were defected. The results of quantitative separation of             fungicide Topaz to one third when the plant extract from
some defense compounds showed the precipitation of                   Urtica uren is added, and gave similar results to the use of
gelatinous substance in glass vials which may induce                 Topaz at the recommended rate.
defence compounds after their separation. There were
differences in their quantities produced in sycamore. The            F 89
highest value was for Gallic acid (2.4 mg/ 125 mg dry wt.),          CHARACTERIZATION AND PATHOGENICITY OF
while the quantities of other defense compounds were                 PYTHIUM          SPECIES         ISOLATED          FROM
between (10–14 mg/ 125 mg dry wt.) in sycamore branches.             MOROCCAN WATERS. Aicha El Aossami1, A. El
When the defense compounds were separated by                         Androusse1 and Z. Ejjalti2. (1) Laboratoire de Botanique,
chromatography they had different in Rf values. The highest          Mycologie et Environement, Département de Biologie,
rate was for Herniarin (0.93), followed by Scopoltine                Faculté des Sciences de Rabat. Université Med V(Agdal),
(0.86), unknown compounds (0.34), (–) Gallocatechin                  Morocco; (2) Département de Biologie, Faculté des
(0.34), Ellagic acid (0.11) and the lowest value for gallic          Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan II de
acid (0.03). All the defense compounds were characterized            Mohammedia, Morocco, Email: vaicha@hotmail.fr;
by their gelatin texture and brown color except for the              elaisami@fsr.ac.ma
gallic acid which tended to be yellow in color. The                            Twenty-two Pythium spp. were obtained from
calculation of inhibition concentration (IC50) for the               irrigation wather in the region of Rabat (capital of
defense compounds and their effect on the two pathogens              Morocco) in northern Africa, from 2001 to 2005. The
(spores germination, sporulation, and growth of both fungi),         predominant species recovered were P. catenulatum,
showed that lower IC50 (0.31 µMole/ ml) for Heriniarin               Pythium diclinum, P. torulosum and Pythium“Group F”.
against N. mangiferae inhibition then Gallocatechin (IC50=           Taxonomic and morphological details of the Pythium
0.34 µMole/ ml). Whereas, Heriniarin was more active                 species were identified. The isolates grew on potato carrot
against P. exigua sporulation (IC50= 0.41 µMole/ ml). The            agar (PCA) containing various concentrations of NaCl, up
effect of defense compounds on spore germination was                 to 700 mM, thus they were tolerant to high salinity.
higher by Gallic acid against P. exigua (IC50= 0.32 µMole/           Pathogenicity of all Pythium species was analyzed in pre-
ml) and N. mangiferae spores germination than                        and post-emergence inoculation tests. Tests were conducted
Gallocatechin (IC50= 0.34 µMole/ ml). The strongest                  on alfalfa and Berseem seeds and seedlings at 25°C and
defense compound on fungal growth was by Heriniarin                  high relative humidity. For each Pythium, aggressiveness
against N. mangiferae (IC50= 0.52 µMole/ ml) and P.                  on alfalfa and Berseem (measured by disease index) were
exigua growth (IC50= 0.54 µMole/ ml).                                highly correlated. P.“Group F was non pathogenic, P.
                                                                     catenulatum and P. torulosum were moderate but P.
F 88                                                                 diclinum was highly aggressive and caused the most pre-
DOSAGE REDUCTION OF THE FUNGICIDE                                    emergence death of alfalfa and Berseem.
TOPAZ FOR THE CONTROL OF POWDERY
MILDEW ON CUCUMBERS BY MIXING IT WITH                                F 90
AN EXTRACT FROM Urtica uren. N. Ali Mohamed,                         GENETIC VARIABILITY IN POPULATION OF
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,              FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. ALBEDINIS,
Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-Bayda, Libya, Email:                  CAUSAL ORGANISM OF BAYOUD DISEASE OF
noboshakoa@yahoo.com                                                 DATE       PALM       USING        RAPD        AND      ISSR
        This study was conducted during 2009 winter and              MOLECULAR MARKERS. My Hassan Sedra and
spring seasons, by treating 3 weeks old cucumber seedlings           Naoual Zhar, Institut National de la Recherche
with conidial suspension collected from powdery mildew               Agronomique, Centre Régional de la Recherche
infected cucumber. The causal agent was identified as                Agronomique de Marrakech BP. 533 Marrakech, Morocco,
Spherotheca sp. with typical conidia. This fungal pathogen           Email: sedramh@hotmail.com
was also found on a number of weeds adjacent to the                            The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the most
cucumber plants. Three days after inoculation, plants were           important crop in Moroccan oasian ecosystem that produces
treated with four treatments and four replicates. Each               dates and other products and preserves this system which is
replicate was composed of 5 pots with four plants in each            threatened by desertification. Several other constraints has
pot. The four treatments were boiled Urtica uren extract,            also perturbed the development of date palm sector, of them
boiled Urtica uren extract + Topaz fungicide at the                  the Bayoud disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum. f.sp.
recommended rate, Urtica uren extract + 1/3 of the                   albedinis (Foa) constitutes serious threat for these oases. In
recommended dose of the fungicide Topaz, and the fourth              order to control this disease, the use of resistant varieties
treatment was the recommended dose of Topaz. Powdery                 was until now the most appropriate approach. However, the
mildew infection 7 days after inoculation was significantly          resistance durability depends on pathogen genetic
lower in all treatments as compared to the untreated control.        variability notably the appearance of new physiological
There was no significant difference among treatments in              races. Recent studies showed that the variability level was
relation to plant height and weight and was higher than the          very low. This research work aimed to study genetic
untreated plants (positive control). Chlorophile content (A,         variability in Fusarium oxysporum populations of 45


E-72     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
pathogenic and non pathogenic strains from different areas
in Morocco and other Arab countries using specific and non          F 93
specific PCR techniques. The pathogen strains of F.o. f. sp.        SURVEY OF POTATO DISEASES IN WESTERN
canariensis (Foc) isolated from Canary island palm                  LIBYA. Fauzi A.Bisheya, M.M. Zantuti and M.M. Maauf,
(Phoenix canariensis L.) have been included in this study.          Agricultural Research Center, Tripoli, Libya, Email:
New RAPD and microsatellites ISSR primers were                      bisheya@yahoo.com
selected; these primers have generated 163 polymorphic                       Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is considered one of
markers. The dendrogram using average linkage and                   the important vegetable crops in Libya which is cultivated
established by polymorphic bands revealed by RAPD and               twice a year, spring and autumn growing season. Potatoes
ISSR analysis showed the polymorphism in Foa strains                are attacked by many diseases especially fungal, bacterial,
without discriminating them to other strains and globally           viral and, nematode. Field survey was conducted during
clustered the strains based on their geographic or isolation        spring and autumn growing season for five consecutive
origins. The specific PCR using two specific couples of             years (2003-2007) in 19 different locations. Results
primers showed relatively weak reliability level to detect          indicated that the rate of mother tuber soft rot after sixty
Foa strains.                                                        days of planting was 11%, and early blight was 18% (spring
                                                                    2003), while average infection rate with early blight 3%,
F 91                                                                and late blight was 2.9% (spring 2004). Black scurf
A SURVEY AND EVALUATON OF SUGAR BEET                                incidence was 13.75%, common scab 9% and root-knot
INFECTION WITH FUNGAL DISEASES. Abdul                               nematode was 3.2% (autumn 2004-2005). The average
Rahman Khafateh, Faculty of Agriculture in Idleb, Aleppo            infection rate of early blight was 0.7%, late blight was 18%
University, Syria, Email: yousf-kh@scs-net.org                      and soft rot 21% (spring 2007). Physiological disorders on
          A field survey was conducted during the 2007-             potato tubers were detected such as tuber deformation and
2008 growing season to determine the spread and                     cracking. Average of affected tuber surface was 11.2 cm².
distribution of sugar beet fungal diseases in Syria, where          Number, length and depth of cracks were 4.3 cm, 3 cm and
cultivated area amount to 29000 ha, and total production is         4.3 mm, respectively. Infection incidence of examined
1.4 milion ton in Homs, Hama, Idleb, Raka, Der elzor. Leaf          samples with scab was 37%, and with black scurf was
diseases such as cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora beticola),        10.2%. Some potato cultivars were evaluated during spring
powdery mildew (Erysiphe betae), downy mildew                       and autumn growing seasons. Results indicated some
(Perenospora farinosa), rust (Urumyces betae), Ramularia            variation in infection rate between 0-12.3% for black scurf,
leaf spot (Ramularia beticola) were observed. Infection             0-2.7% for soft rot and 5-42.3% for common scab. Total
evaluation was done by using two scales for diseases                yield and other specifications related to value of production
severity (DS) based on 11 classes from healthy to totally           were determined.
destroyed foliage. In addition, rot diseases: Rhizoctonia
crown rot (Rhizoctonia solani), crown wart (Urophlycts              F 94
leproides), and Fusarium and pythuim rot were lesss                 SENSITIVITY OF SOME DATE PALM VARIETIES
observed.                                                           TO THE INFLORESCENCE ROT DISEASE CAUSED
                                                                    BY MAUGINIELLA SCAITTAE AND FUSARIUM SP.
F 92                                                                K.K. Alhassan, I.I. Al-Yaseri and T.M. Al-Noaimee, State
GENOME FINGERPRINTING OF SCLEROTINIA                                Board for Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture,
SCLEROTIORUM POPULATIONS BY REP-PCR                                 Baghdad, Iraq, Email: ismail_alyaseri@yahoo.com
MARKER. Elham Karimi, N. Safaie and M. Shamsbakhsh,                           The sensitivity of 14 date palm varieties
Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural Faculty,                (Alkhustawe, Khathrawe Al-Basrah, Alkhyara, Almakawe,
Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, Email:                    Albraim, Albarhe, Dukal Taha, Dukal Kasim, Albarban,
karimielham@yahoo.com                                               Altebrzal, Alzahdi, Alsultani, Khathrawe Mandely, Nuher
         Genetic structure of twenty-seven isolates of              Alsili and the Males) to the inflorescence rot disease was
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal organism of canola             evaluated. Inoculation was carried out with a solution of 25
white stem rot, were determined by mycelial compatibility           × 104 spore/ ml for two consecutive years. Results indicated
groupings (MCGs) and rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting.                that the highest incidence and severity caused by the fungus
Total banding patterns of four primers, ERIC 1R, ERIC 2,            Mauginella scaittae was with cvs. Males, Alkhustawe and
REP2-I and BOX A1R produced 94 loci, of which one was               Albraim, and cvs. Alkhustawe, Males, Albraim and
monomorphic and 93 loci were polymorphic (98.9                      Alkhyara were highly sensitive. The varieties Albraim,
polymorphism). Cluster analysis of obtained data based on           Alkhustawe and Males were highly sensitive to infection
UPGMA and Jaccard´s coefficient divided the isolates into           with the fungus Fusarium sp.
seven groups at 55% similarity level, proposed high level of
genetic diversity within and among populations of this              F 95
fungus. Data indicated that in most cases the isolates              GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE SEPTORIA TRITICI
belonging to the one MCG did not show identical pattern.            ISOLATES BY USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED
This would be consistent with genetic exchange, mutation            POLYMORPHIC DNA. Azadeh Ghaneie1, N. Safaie1, R.
and mitotic recombination. This is the first study on genetic       Mehrabi2 and A. Saidi3. (1) Department of Plant Pathology,
diversity of S. sclerotiorum populations using MCGs and             College of Agriculture, University of Tarbiat Modares,
rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting.                                     Iran; (2) Department of Gene Bank, Seed and Plant


                                                        2009    /                        27                                E-73
Improvement Institute, Iran; (3) Department Biotechnology,           causal organism of fire blight disease in different regions
College of New Technology and Engineering, Shahid                    (El-Faidia, Shahat, Elbieda, Elwesita and Gernada) of Jabel
Beheshti University, Iran, Email: A.ghaneie@yahoo.com                El-Akhdar area-Libya. The diagnostic symptoms of this
        Septoria leaf blotch is one of the most important            disease included color changes of pear and apple flowers to
wheat diseases worldwide, including Iran which causes                black, pear leaves to black and apple leaves to brown. The
significant yield reduction. In this research the genetic            oozing was observed on curly pear fruits, and finally fruit
diversity of S. tritici isolates using RAPD markers was              mummification. Results of the survey revealed that the
evaluated. The infected samples were collected from                  highest disease severity was recorded in El-Faidia region
Khusetan, Golestan, Ardebil, Kermanshah and Western                  followed by Shahat, Elbieda, Elwesita and Gernada.
Azarbayejan. Three primers indicated considerable                    Infected samples were collected to study the morphological,
polymorphism between genotypes. Cluster analysis of DNA              cultural, biochemical and physiological characters of
fingerprint data using UPGMA method and Jaccard’s                    isolated bacterial pathogen. Results indicated that Erwinia
coefficient, divided the isolates into 9 groups at 50%               amylovora was the causal organism of this disease.
similarity level showing a high genetic diversity among              Pathgenicity test on premature pear fruits and slices of
populations of S. tritici. Accordingly, the isolates of              premature pear and apple fruits confirmed this conclusion.
Khusestan, Ardebil, Western Azarbayejan, Kermanshah,                 The specific PCR amplification by using specific E.
Golestan were categorized into 4, 1, 2, 1 and 1 group,               amylovora primers confirmed the identification of these
respectively. There were no correlation between                      isolates.
geographical origins and the resulting groups of RAPD
analysis.                                                            B2
                                                                     ISOLATION AND EFFECT OF ULTRA-VIOLET
F 96                                                                 RADIATION          ON      GROWTH           OF     ERWINIA
IDENTIFICATION OF THE CAUSAL FUNGUS OF                               CAROTOVORA STRAINS, THE SOFT ROT
APPLE STEM CANKER IN SWEIDA, AND TESTING                             PATHOGEN ON POTATO IN ALGERIA. Ahmed
THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME VARIETIES TO                              Bensoltane, S. Tabak, N. Saidi, M. Mahi and Arezki Ait
DESIEASE. Taissir Abou Al Fadil1, Walid Naffaa2, Taher               Abdeslam, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Alimentaire et
Abou Faker3, Bayan Muzher3 and Hussam Amer3. (1)                     Industriel, Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences,
Administration of Plant Protection Research, General                 Université          d’Oran           31000,           Algérie,
Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research                      Email:dikra15ma@Yahoo.fr
(GCSAR), Doma, P.O. Box 113, Damascus, Syria, Email:                           Twenty five strains of E. carotovora were isolated
tafadil@yahoo.com; (2) Administration Department of                  from potato (Solanum toberosum) tubers (Desirée) in the
Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus                   region of Oran city (Western of Algeria). The strains were
University, P.O. Box 30621, Damascus, Syria; (3)                     identified morphologically, biochemically and genetically
Agriculture Research Center of Al Siweda, Al Swieda,                 by PCR, which confirmed that those strains belong to
Syria.                                                               Erwinia carotovora. The objective of present work was to
          Samples were taken from 25 apple trees showing             study the antimicrobial effects of ultra-violet (UV) radiation
stem canker symptoms at five different geographical                  for disinfecting potato in the storage areas. Erwinia
locations of Daher Al jabal area in Sweida for isolation and         carotovora was submitted to three periods of treatment (5,
identification of the pathogen. Results showed that more             15 and 45 s) with three UV lamp distances (0.5, 1 and 2
than 90% of isolates were Alternaria alternata. This                 cm). Studied strains proved to be sensitive to UV-light (80-
pathogen was able to induce canker symptoms on stems of              99% inhibition), compared to E. coli strains which showed
12 apple varieties under artificial inoculation conditions.          74-99% inhibition). The inhibition of growth was increased
Isolates from different geographical sites were different in         with application period, where there was significant
their pathogenicity. Apple varieties studied showed also             differance (P<0.05) between 5s and 15s-45s treatment.
significant differences in their susceptibility to the disease.
Wealthy double red and Starking delicious varieties were             B3
the less susceptible, while Golden lody was the most                 STUDY OF FIRE BLIGHT ON POME FRUIT TRESS
susceptible to Alternaria canker disease.                            IN SYRIA. Hassan Ammouneh, Antonus Al-Daoude,
                                                                     Mohammad Imad Arabi and Amina Shoaib, Department of
BACTERIAL DISEASES                                                   Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, AECS, PO Box
                                                                     6091, Damascus, Syria, Email: hammouneh@aec.org.sy
B1                                                                           A survey of all major pome fruit growing regions
IDENTIFICATION AND SURVEY OF FIRE BLIGHT                             was conducted during 2005 and 2006 to establish whether
DISEASE ON APPLE AND PEAR TREES IN JABEL                             Erwinia amylovora, the causal organism of fire blight, is
EL-AKHDAR AREA, LIBYA. Ngaat I. Omar, Azzeddin                       present in Syria. Samples were collected from quince
M.Y. Alawami and Mohammed A.M. Adem, Plant                           (Cydonia oblonga), pear (Pyrus communis) and apple
Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-              (Malus domestica) trees suspected of being infected with E.
Mukhtar      University,  El-Beida,    Libya,    Email:              amylovora. Seventy five isolates of E. amylovora were
Azzawami2002@yahoo.com                                               recovered mainly from quince and some from pear but none
         This study was carried out on apple and pear                from apple. All isolates produced typical symptoms of fire
during 2007 growing season, to survey and identify the               blight when tested on immature pear fruit. Two isolates


E-74     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
were shown to induce a delayed hypersensitivity reaction             Erwinia was Recolta as the mean value was found to be
on tobacco. All isolates were confirmed to be E. amylovora           29.2 times compared to the control.
by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for this
bacterium. One set of primers amplified a fragment of the            B5
native plasmid (pEA29) and a second set amplified a                  ANTAGONISTIC            SPREAD         OF      RHIZOBIUM
fragment involved in the synthesis of amylovoran, the                JAPONICUM AGAINST FUSARIUM SOLANI AND
structurally unique exopolysaccharide of this bacterium.             MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA THE CAUSAL
Fire blight was found to prevail in Al-Zabadani region (Rif          AGENTS OF SOYBEAN WILT AND ROOT ROT
Damascus), an area with a moderate temperature and high              DISEASE ON SOYBEAN. Majda Hadi Mahdi1, Rakib
relative humidity during the blossoming period. However,             Akif Alani2 and Hadi Mahdi Abbod3. (1) Department of
the disease was found to be restricted within Syria and              Biological Science, College of Science University of
observed only in isolated foci near the Lebanese border.             Baghdad; (2) Department of Plant Protection, College of
This is the first isolation and identification of E. amylovora       Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq; (3) Ministry of
from Syria. Furthermore, seventy five Erwinia amylovora              Sci. &Tech., Iraq, Email: s_mouyed@yahoo.com
isolates were tested for copper and streptomycin sensitivity.                 The objective of this study was to evaluate the
Susceptibility of locally important pear and quince cultivars        capacity of Rhizobium japonicum to reduce the severity of
was also determined. The growth of sixty eight isolates was          Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal
inhibited by 10 µg/ml streptomycin and thus regarded as              agents of wilt and root rot on Soybean plants. Results
streptomycin sensitive. However, three isolates were not             showed a significant inhibition activity of culture filtrate of
inhibited by 2000 µg/ml streptomycin and these isolates              Rhizobium japonicum against the two pathogens as
were considered resistant. Additionally, fifteen isolates            determined on yeast manitol agar, using agar well diffusion
were found to grow well on a synthetic medium in the                 or food poisoning techniques. A positive correlation was
presence of 1.2 mM copper sulfate and none survived on               observed between inhibition activity and the cultural filtrate
the same medium containing 2.4 mM copper sulfate.                    concentrations. It has been found in the first technique that
Additionally, fruits from one hundred P. syriaca ecotypes            25, 50, 75 and 100% of the filtrate induced 33.84,
distributed throughout the interior of Syria were collected          46.46,56.02 and 65-58% inhibition of Fusarium solani, and
and examined. Merely, fruits from two ecotypes (Ps32 and             39.61, 47.12, 60.90 and 64.04% of Macrophomina
Ps62) were found to inhibit fire blight development.                 phaseolina, respectively. This filtrate concentrations
Similarly, three Pyrus communis cultivated varieties were            induced inhibition of 54.11, 63.33, 67.11 and 72.66% to F.
assessed and fruits from one variety, Muck Al-Jamal                  solani And 46.33, 52.66, 59.66 and 71.33% level to M.
inhibited the growth of E. amylovora. Notably, the local             phaseolina, as determined by food poison technique.
quince cultivar Baladi showed, in heavily diseased                   Results of greenhouse experiments showed that the bacteria
orchards, complete resistance to this bacterial pathogen             has increased seed germination and decreased disease
indicating the importance of this environmentally adapted            severity on foliage and root system of plants treated by the
variety as a potential source of resistance to E. amylovora.         two pathogens.
The existence of pEL60 plasmid in all Syrian isolates was
confirmed using multiplex PCR. Finally, selected isolates            B6
representing the major collected areas, pathogenicity groups         CHARACTERIZATION OF ERWINIA AMYLOVORA,
and hosts were finger printed using AFLP technique. No               A CAUSAL AGENT OF FIRE BLIGHT ON
correlation was found between the isolates and their                 ROSACEA FRUIT TREES IN MOROCCO. El Hassan
geographic distribution, host or their virulence.                    Achbani, Abdellatif Benbouaza and Najat Hannou. INRA
                                                                     Meknès, URPP, laboratoire de Bactériologie Végétale et de
B4                                                                   Lutte Biologique (BVLB), Km 11, Route Hadj Kddour, BP
THE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF SOME STRAINS                                578 VN Meknès, Morocco, Email: achbani5@yahoo.fr
OF ERWINIA FROM POTATO INFECTED WITH                                          Fire blight disease caused by the bacterium
SOFT ROT. AdeebaY. Shareef1, Khawla A. Flayeh2,                      Erwinia amylovora, is among the most serious threats to
Nadeem A. Ramadan1 and M. Ameen Rawdha Al-                           ornemental and cultivated Rosacea fruit trees, world wide.
Ramadany2. (1) College of Science; (2) College of                    In Morocco, it was first recognized in 2006 at the Meknes
Education for Girls, Mousl University, Iraq, Email:                  region. Two years later (2008), the disease spread to other
shareefadeeba@yahoo.com                                              regions. The objective of this study is to characterize the
         The virulence of different strains of Erwinia was           causal agent (E. amylovora) isolated since 2006.
determined by studying its ability to lyse five species of           Morphological and biochemical characterizations of
potato including Billini, Colombus, Recolta, Ajiba and               isolated strains of E. amylovora (60 strains) indicated high
Desirre. The results showed that Erwinia carotovora                  phenotypic and biochemical variability, particularly
carotovora was the most virulent, its mean lysis was 12.6            esculine hydrolysis and a morphological aspect of bacterial
times compared to that of the control. Less virulent toward          colonies on MM2Cu and CCT media. Tests of Api 20E
potato tissues was Erwinia carotovora betavascularum                 system allowed determination of two main specific codes of
which showed lysis 10.1 times that of the control. Billini           E. amylovora 0005522 and 0007522. Using PCR technique
was the most resistant 1.58 times of the control. The most           with chromosomal (FliC1 2di & FliC1 2re) and extra-
sensitive species of potato in response to infection with            chromosomal primers (pEa13 hrp di & pEa14 hrp re), a
                                                                     clear band of 1000 pb in all strains for the first, and a band

                                                         2009    /                         27                                 E-75
of 200 bp on some strains for the latter (27%). This was the         tissues were many times higher than those of healthy ones.
first characterization of a large collection of Morocco              These results confirmed the efficiency of serological
strains of E. amylovora.                                             methods to detect the pathogen of soft rot disease. Host
                                                                     range experiments showed that the bacterium E. carotovora
B7                                                                   subsp carotovora was able to induce typical symptoms of
OLIVE KNOT DISEASE IN JORDAN. Hamed Khlaif,                          soft rot on pepper, tomato, onion and zucchini.
Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture,
University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, Email: h-                       B9
khlaif@ju.edu.jo                                                     SEROLOGICAL STUDY ON FIRE BLIGHT
         A field survey was conducted in 2002 revealed the           PATHOGEN OF POME TREES AND COMPARISON
occurrence of olive knot disease (Pseudomonas savastanoi             BETWEEN ITS ISOLATES USING RESTRICTION
pv. savastanoi Smith) in different olive growing areas in            ENZYMES. Ngaat I. Omar, Azzeddin M. Y. Alawami,
Jordan. The disease incidence varied according to location           Hosney A. younes and Mohammed A. M. Adem, Plant
and cultivar. However, high disease incidence was reported           Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-
in Amman, Aljuhfia, Deir yosef, Almazar Alshamali, Wadi              Mukhtar       University,    El-Beida,     Libya,    Email:
Alsir, Alsmik, and low incidences were recorded in other             Azzawami2002@yahoo.com
areas. The reaction of cultivars to natural or artificial                    Antiserum of one isolate of Erwinia amylovora,
infection varied, as Nabali Muhasan, Rasei, Atrana and               isolated from Jabal Al-Akhdar area- Libya, was produced in
Shami were susceptible and Nabali Baladi was the least               NewZealand white rabbits injected with autoclaved or
susceptible cultivar. Infection significantly reduced twig           sonicated bacterial suspension. Injection of both bacterial
length, fruits number, weight and size. These parameters             suspensions produced antibodies aginst this bacterium.
were found to be correlated with the number of                       Results of indirect ELISA to determine the optimal period
knots/seedling. The pathogen was also isolated from                  to collect the antiserum showed that the first collection (2
jasmine, oleander and Ziziphus. Isolates of these hosts were         days) was the best when the rabbit was injected with
found pathogenic to olive grown either inside or at the              sonicated bacterial suspension and the third collection (7
border of olive orchards. Consequently, these hosts could            days) when injected with autoclaved suspension. Indirect
play an important role as a source of olive knot inoculum,           ELISA also showed serological relationship between the
and in disease epidemiology. Dipping olive twigs in                  isolates of different regions, because they gave the same
cuprosan suspension, trimiltox, opper sulfate, copper                reaction with antiserum, but they had no relationship with
hydroxide, resulted in reduction of disease incidence, knots         Agrobacterium tumifasciens and Erwinia carotovora.
number, and increased the fruits number compared to                  Efficiency of antiserum to detect this pathogenic bacterium
control.                                                             in diseased plant was investigated. Data proved that ELISA
                                                                     values of diseased tissues were several folds higher than
B8                                                                   those in healthy ones. These results confirmed the
IDENTIFICATION AND SEROLOGICAL STUDY ON                              efficiency of serological methods to detect the fire blight
THE CAUSAL ORGANISM OF BACTERIAL SOFT                                pathogen. DNA from five isolates of this bacterial pathogen
ROT ON POTATO IN JABAL AL-AKHDAR AREA,                               collected from different regions in Jabel El-akhdar area as
LIBYA. Hannan S. A. Mustafa, Azzeddin M. Y. Alawami                  well as on identified isolate supplied by Faculty of
and Issa A. Abogharsa, Plant Protection Department,                  Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt, were
Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-              electrophoresed on a 1% agarose gel. The DNA digestion
Beida, Libya, Email: Azzawami2002@yahoo.com                          with five restriction enzymes (EcoR1, BamH1, XbaI, MspI
        The present study was conducted to identify the              and Hind) showed that only three of them (EcoR1,
causal organism of bacterial soft rot on potato in Jabal Al-         BamH1and Xba1) gave positive results and proved that no
Akhdar area- Libya and prepare an antiserum to be used for           differences was found among the isolates.
detecting this pathogen in infected potato parts. Different
bacterial isolates were isolated from the collected diseased         B 10
potato tubers. Results of morphological, cultural,                   EXPRESSION PROFILING OF SOME ARABIDOPSIS
biochemical and physiological properties and pathogenicety           THALIANA GENES FOLLOWING CHALLENGE
test showed that six isolates (E625, E112, E122, E272,               WITH DIFFERENT STARINS OF PSEUDOMONAS
E393 and E3625) were identified as Erwinia carotovora                SYRINGAE. Hassan Ammouneh1 and John Mansfield2.(1)
subsp. carotovora, whereas the isolate E624 belongs to the           Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology,
bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi. Antiserum of the isolate             AECS, PO Box 6091, Damascus, Syria, Email:
E625 was produced in New Zealand white rabbit injected               hammouneh@aec.org.sy; (2) Life Science Department,
with sonicated bacterial suspension. Results of indirect             Imperial College London, Unvesity of London, Wye, TN25
ELISA showed that serological relationship exist between             5AH., UK.
the different isolates when they gave the same reaction with                The effecter proteins VirPphA and AvrPtoB share
the antiserum, except isolate E624 that belongs to E.                sequence similarity and they are a major determinant of
chrysanthemi, whereas the other isolates belong to E.                pathoegenicity of the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas
carotovora subsp carotovora. Efficiency of antiserum to              syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) and P. syringae pv. tomato
detect this pathogenic bacteria in diseased tubers was               (Pst), respectively.     Both effectors are virulence
investigated. Data proved that ELISA values of diseased              determinants in bean but only AvrPtoB has clear activity in


E-76     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Arabidopsis. Yeast two-hybrid screens identified protein             B 12
targets in Arabidopsis that interact with AvrPtoB and                GENETIC VARIABILITY OF PSEUDOMONAS
VirPphA. Putative interactors (PIs) recovered, including             SAVASTANOI PV. SAVASTANOI. Chiaraluce Moretti1,
cytoskeletal proteins and a receptor like-kinase may have            Franco Valentini2, Abdelmonim A. Ahmad2, Taha Hosni1,
an important role in plant defense. In this study, Northern          Nael Alabdalla2, Nabil S. Farag3, Anwar A. Galal4,
blots were used to examine the gene expression of selected           M’Barek Fatmi5, Mahmoud Abu-Ghorra6 and Roberto
PIs after bacterial pathogen challenge using probes labeled          Buonaurio1. (1) Department of Environmental and
with the isotope 32P. The expression profiling of the                Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of
transcripts showed different patterns including 1- pathogen          Perugia, Italy, Email: chiaraluce.moretti@unipg.it; (2)
induced genes (PIGs), such response was observed with the            Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques
protein kinase and receptor-like kinase; 2- delayed PIGs,            Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM/MAIB), Via Ceglie 9, 70010
this group included the 20S proteasome beta subunit,                 Valenzano, Bari-Italy; (3) Agricultural Research Centre,
caltractin and carnitine racemase-like protein; 3-                   Plant Pathology Research Institute, Giza, Egypt; (4)
constitutive gene pattern such as putative fibrillin; and 4-         Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture,
pathogen suppressed gene pattern (PSG), since it is the only         University of Minia, Egypt; (5) Institut Agronomique et
gene predicted to encode 2-cys peroxiredoxin-like protein            Vétérinaire Hassan II, Complexe Horticole d’Agadir,
fell into this category.                                             Agadir, Morocco; (6) Division of (Department of) Plant
                                                                     Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Damascus,
B 11                                                                 Syria.
BACTERIAL WILTS OF POTATO IN LEBANON.                                        Olive knot disease, caused by Pseudomonas
Adib Saad1, Elias Chnais1, Lucia Hanna1, Mireille Kattar2,           savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Pssa), poses a serious threat to
and Karma Bouazza1. (1) American University of Beirut,               many olive growing areas of the Mediterranean basin and
Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Agricultural               can significantly affect olive yield and oil. The study of
Sciences department; (2) American University of Beirut,              genetic variability of a wide Pssa population, coming from
Medical Center, Pathology department. P.O.Box 11-0236,               Albania, Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Morocco,
Agricultural Sciences, FAFS, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107               Portugal, Serbia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, USA and
202, Lebanon, Email: eliechnais@hotmail.com                          ex-Yugoslavia, is currently in progress. This research work
        The current study consisted of a survey that aimed to        was undertaken following the results of the investigations
detect the quarantine pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum                carried out at MAIB-CIHEAM (Italy), in the framework of
(R.s) and the blackleg bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp.           three Master theses in Integrated Pest Management, which
atroseptica (Eca). Three hundred and fourteen infected               allowed     to     conduct     a    preliminary    molecular
potato samples were collected from eleven localities in the          characterization of a Pssa population and to describe the
Bekaa. One hundred and fourteen bacterial strains were               disease for the first time in Egypt and Syria. Rep-PCR, and
isolated from these infected plants. The bacterial isolates          particularly, f-AFLP analyses revealed a high Pssa
were subjected to several biochemical and physiological              polymorphism which seems to be related to the country of
tests to determine their pathogenicity, where thirty nine            origin and not to the olive cultivars nor to the bacterial
isolates were pathogens. A pathogenicity test was                    virulence. Further Pssa characterisation was based on the
conducted on eggplants and tomato plants and rated on a              establishment of the repertoire of effectors involved in the
scale of 1 to 4 according to the degree of virulence. Twelve         bacterium virulence. Since multi-locus sequence analysis
isolates had a rating of 1, fourteen a rating of 2, thirteen a       revealed that Pssa is closely related to P. savastanoi pv.
rating of 3, and none had a rating of 4 (highly virulent). The       phaseolicola 1448A completely sequenced genome,
ability of the isolates to degrade potato tissues was assessed       primers designed on the basis of 21 bacterium effector
by rotting of potato slices and whole tubers. It was revealed        genes were used to verify whether or not they are present in
that the higher the pathogenic rate the isolates had, the more       a selected number of Pssa strains.
likely they possessed the ability to rot potato. Resuts
prooved that none of the isolates suspected as R. s.                 VIRUSES DISEASES
belonged to this species. However, Eca has many serotypes
and it is probable that local Eca strains do not belong to the       V1
same serotypes previously identified which might explain             BIOLOGICAL               AND            SEROLOGICAL
why they weren’t detected by the ELISA test. Sequencing              IDENTIFICATION OF TOMATO YELLOW LEAF
of the 16S rDNA was performed on 24 out of 39 isolates               CURL VIRUS (TYLCV) AND DETERMINATION OF
selected to represent the major surveyed localities.                 ITS STRAINS IN IRAQ. Rakib Akif AlAni, Mustafa Ali
Sequence analysis revealed that five isolates were Eca,              Adhab and Samir Abdul-Razzak Hassan Hamad, Plant
eight were Pantoea agglomerans and four were                         Protection Department, College of Agriculture, University
Agrobacterium tumefaciens. None of the isolates were                 of Baghdad, Iraq, Email: maa_adhab@hotmail.com.
identified as R. solanacearum. Therefore, this study                          This study was conducted to identify Tomato
indicates that R.s. was not present in the surveyed areas            yellow leaf curl virus and determine its strains in Iraq.
during the period of survey. However, this study confirmed           Symptoms on indicator plants, incubation period of virus in
the presence of E. carotovora subsp. atrospetica in five             vector, and serological properties of the virus were
localities in the Bekaa.                                             evaluated. Results of different isolates of the virus on


                                                         2009    /                        27                               E-77
tomato plants, showed two types of symptoms. The first               MAb-6, but they did not react with MAb-7, whwerase, 4
was manifested by curling, small leaves rolled upward at             pepper isolates reacted positively with all MAbs.
the margins accompanied with yellowing of the new leaves.
The other type of symptoms was slight leaf curling, and              V3
blade inflection downward. Datura, infected with the two             SURVEY AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOMATO
isolates, produced leaf curling, yellowing, deformation, and         VIRUSES AT AL-ZAWIA DISTRICT IN LIBYA.
dwarfing of the plants. Nicotiana glutinosa, N. tabacum              Hanan Dabob¹, Jabr Khalil¹, Hosny Younis² and Omar
Xanthi, N. tabacum Samsun and Phaseolus vulgaris were                Mousa Al-Sanusi². (1) Plant Protection Department, Faculty
infected by the two isolates without symptoms. It has been           of Agriculture, University of Al-Fateh Tripoli, Libya,
found that the incubation period of both isolates in the             Email: khalil_reem@hotmail.com; (2) University of Omar
vector were between 16–24 hrs. Results of immunodouble               Al-Mokhtar, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection
diffusion test revealed spur formation between the virus             Department, Al-Baida, Libya.
antiserum and sample of purified virus and extracts from                    Many farms and plastic houses planted with
plants infected with the two isolates. This indicates the            tomatoes at Al-Zawia west of Libya were visited to identify
presence of two different strains of TYLCV in the tomato             the viral diseases which infect tomato crop, during the
fields studied.                                                      growing seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Sixty
                                                                     tomato leaf samples were collected depending on symptoms
V2                                                                   suggestive of viral infection, such as leaf rolling and
CURRENT STATUS OF TOMATO SPOTTED WILT                                curling, stunting, yellowing and leaf malformation. The
VIRUS ON TOMATO AND PEPPER CROPS IN                                  results of indirect ELISA test using 8 different antisera
SYRIA                  AND                 SEROLOGICAL               indicated the presence of the following viruses in the
CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME OF ITS                                      samples: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV),
ISOLATES. Faiz Ismaeil1, Amin Amer Haj Kasem2 and                    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus Y (PVY),
Salah Al-Chaabi1. (1) General Commission for Scientific              Tomato sptted wilt virus (TSWV), Tomato ring spot virus
Agricultural Research, Adminstration of Plant Protection             (TRSV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tobacco mosaic
Research, Douma, P.O. Box 113, Damascus, Syria, Email:               virus (TMV) and Potato virus X (PVX). Their incidence in
faizismail@mail.sy; (2) Plant Protection Division, Faculty           the samples were: 46.7, 45, 25, 18.3, 15, 8.3, 6.7 and 1.7%,
of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.                    respectively. It was clear that TYLCV and CMV were the
      A survey to evaluate spread of Tomato spotted wilt             most prevalent viruses in this region. This is the first record
virus (TSWV) in Syria was carried out. 643 tomato                    for these viruses on tomato crop in Libya, except for
individual samples (leaves and fruits) collected from                TYLCV and CMV which were reported previously.
growers fields and from some Agricultural Research
Centers, and 250 pepper individual samples (leaves and               V4
fruits) collected from growers fields only, during spring and        FIELD SCREENING AND MOLECULAR STUDIES
summer 2007 and 2008, representing 8 Syrian                          ON TOMATO LEAF CURL VIRUS AND THE
governorates: Dar'a, Al-Qunaitara, Damascus countryside,             WHITEFLY BEMISIA TABACI GENN. IN SUDAN.
Homs, Hama, Idleb, Aleppo and Tartous and tested using               Manasic Mohamadain Ahmad¹, Sana K. Mukhtar¹, Abdalla
DAS-ELISA. Results showed that average infection of                  M. Abdalla¹, Ahmed Hashim1 and Michel Peterschmitt2. (1)
tested samples from both crops with virus was 19.6%,                 Plant Protection Department, University of Kordofan,
11.1% of tomato samples and 41.2% of pepper samples,                 Sudan, Email: sanamukhtar@hotmail.com; (2) Virology
meanwhile, the rates of virus incidence in both tomato and           Laboratory, CIRAD, Montpellier, France.
pepper fields and in each crop individually were 1.4, 0.7                      Field studies to identify four tomato varieties
and 3.1%, respectively. The highest spread of the virus was          (Strain B, Peto86, Castle Rock and Allakareem) resistant to
in tested tomato samples collected from Al-Qunaitara                 TLCVD were conducted 2007/2008 and 2008/2009
(41.0%) followed by Dar'a, Damascus countryside, Aleppo,             growing seasons. In both seasons the response of cultivars
and Idleb (21.8, 12.0, 2.6, 1.8%). Meanwhile, virus                  to disease incidence was significant (P<0.01). The disease
incidence in tomato fields were 6.1, 2.2, 1.2, 0.3 and 0.1%,         severity among cultivars was significantly different in
respectively. No virus infection was recorded in tomato              2007/2008 season. The cultivar Peto 86 gave the highest
samples collected from Homs, Hama and Tartous.                       disease incidence and severity followed by the cultivar
Damascus countryside was in the first rank in virus spread           Castle Rock and Strain B in 2007/2008 season, whereas the
on tested pepper samples (100%) and its incidence in the             cultivar Allakareem showed the lowest disease incidence
field (20.0%), followed by Dar'a (64.7% and 12.9) and                and severity in both seasons. In 2008/2009 season the
Hama (15.4 and 0.8%), respectively. No virus infection was           cultivar Strain B gave the highest disease incidence and
recorded in pepper samples collected from Al-Qunaitara,              severity followed by Castle Rock and Peto 86. Laboratory
Homs, Hama, Idleb and Tartous. Reaction of 34 local                  studies were conducted in the Virology Department at Plant
TSWV isolates collected from tomato and pepper crops                 Pathology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre,
with 5 specific monoclonal antibodies by TAS-ELISA                   Giza, Egypt in 2009 to test samples collected from Bara
identified that they fall into two different serogroups; all         (North Kordofan State) with two sets of primers to detect
tomato isolates (14) and 16 pepper isolates were similar in          TYLCSV-ES, TYLCV-IL, TYLCV-MLd and Tomato
their positive reaction with MAb-2, MAb-4, MAb-5 and                 yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus-Sicily (TYLCSV-Sic). The
                                                                     results showed that all these isolates have not been detected


E-78     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
in the samples. Other laboratory studies were conducted in         RNA silencing was used as a technique to produce
CIRAD, France in 2004 to identify whitefly biotypes                genetically modified plants that can terminate the function
collected from different localities in the Sudan. Whiteflies       of some endogenous genes. C1C2, C2C3 and V1V2
were collected from El-Obeid (North Kordofan State) and            constructs of the TYLCV genome were prepared at the
Abu Haraz (Gezira State) were grouped with individuals             Dept. of Plant Virus and Phytoplasma Res. Silencing
from the American continent belonging to biotype A.                constructs had the ability to reduce concentration of
Whiteflies collected from Sagai (Khartoum State) were              TYLCV in tomato plants in sense–antisense directions
grouped with biotype Q.                                            compared with plants that have only sense direction. Plants
                                                                   with C1C2 construct were more resistant than plants with
V5                                                                 V1V2 construct. Plants with V1V2 construct were more
CLONING         AND      EXPRESSION           OF      THE          resistant than those with C2C3 construct.
MOVEMENT PROTEIN GENE OF TOMATO
YELLOW LEAF CURL VIRUS IN ESCHERICHIA                              V7
COLI. Misha Salimi and M. Shams-bakhsh, Department of              THE MOST IMPORTANT OF VIRAL DISEASES
Plant Pathology, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box              AFFECTING CULTIVATED SOLANACIOUS CROPS
14115-143, Tehran, Iran, Email: m.salimi@modares.ac.ir             IN SYRIA. Amin A. Haj Kassem1 and Om Eltuka Ghufran
         Tomato yellow leaf curl virus is destructive              Rifai2. (1) Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, P.O.
pathogen of tomato (Solanum lycopercicum) and causes               Box 7548, Aleppo, Syria, Email: aahkasem@scs-net.com;
economic losses worldwide. Due to distribution of this             (2) Seed Health Laboratory, Agriculture Directorate of
pathogen in Iran, detection of this virus is necessary for         Aleppo, Syria.
controlling the damage caused by this pathogen. As                         A field survey was conducted during 2004/2005 and
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a                     2005/2006 growing seasons to determine the incidence of
convenient method for the detection of viruses, preparing a        virus diseases affecting solanacious crops in Syria. A total
source of antigen for immunization process is important.           of 939 plant samples of eggplant, tomato, potato, pepper
The movement protein gene of TYLCV was amplified by                and tobacco with symptoms indicating a viral infection
PCR and cloned in the expression vector pET26. This                were collected from 52 fields in Aleppo, Edleb, Latakia,
plasmid was transformed to Escherichia coli BL21                   Tartous, Hama and Homs provinces. Serological tests
competent cells. Expression of the cloned gene is in               indicated the presence of 9 viruses affecting these crops.
progress.                                                          Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was the most commonly
                                                                   encountered virus, followed by Potato virus Y (PVY),
V6                                                                 Tobacco ring spot virus (TRSV), Tobacco mosaic virus
TOMATO          YELLOW         LEAF      CURL        VIRUS         (TMV), Potato virus X (PVX), Beet western yellows virus
RESISTANCE           IN     EGYPT       USING         BOTH         (BWYV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (ToSWV), Tomato
CONVENTIONAL BREEDING AND VIRAL-GENE                               black ring virus (ToBRV) and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV).
SUPPRESSION TECHNOLOGIES. E. Khalil1, A.                           Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was not encountered. Virus
Rezk2, A.E. Aboul-Ata2 and H.M. Mazyad2. (1) Tomato                incidence in tested samples infected with one or more
Department, Horticulture Research Institute, ARC, Dokki,           viruses were 22.8% and 42.8%, respectively. Virus
Giza, Egypt; (2) Plant Pathology Research Institute, ARC,          incidence was higher in the first season in comparison with
P.O.       Box      1219,      Giza,     Egypt,       Email:       the second season. The natural infection of cultivated
hamedmazyad@yahoo.com                                              solanacious plants by some viruses such as TMV, ToSWV,
          Field work and laboratory analysis was conducted         ToBRV and TRV was recorded for the first time in Syria
during 2002–2008 to study TYLCV resistance using
conventional breeding and gene silencing. Twelve tomato            V8
genotypes with broad genetic background were chosen for            SURVEY AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIRUSES
crossing. Tomato hybrids resulted of the crossed materials         INFECTING SOME CUCURBIT CROPS IN THE
was grown for confirmation and recording their reactions.          WESTERN REGION OF LIBYA. Amal Abo-Mhara¹,
Different tomato genotypes from Egypt, Israel, Jordan,             Jabr Khalil¹ and Khalid El-Dogdog². (1) Plant Protection
Morocco, Lebanon and Guatemala were grown under                    Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Al-Fateh
climatic conditions of Egypt during 2006 growing seasons           Tripoli, Libya, Email: khalil_reem@hotmail.com; (2)
to evaluate their performance under severe TYLCV natural           University of Ain-Shams, Faculty of agriculture, Cairo,
infection. Sixty eight genotypes from Egypt represent              Egypt.
fourth and fifth generations of crossing between TYLCV-                     A field survey was conducted during two growing
resistant and susceptible parents were categorized into 3          seasons (20005/2006 and 2006/2007) to identify viral
levels concerning type of growth, earliness, yield, firmness       diseases of squash, cucumber and pumpkin in the western
and TYLCV tolerance. TYLCV detection was done                      region of Libya. A total of 61 leaf samples with symptoms
periodically using bioassay and PCR during the growing             of mosaic, mottling, malformation, yellowing and blistering
season. Vegetative growth of different genotypes was               were collected from 25 fields in 16 sites in the region. All
categorized into strong, moderate and week. 21 genotypes           these samples were tested by indirect ELISA using the
in the group, 39 in the 2nd group and 7 in the 3rd group. 28       following 5 polyclonal antibodies for the following viruses:
genotypes were early yielders, and 29 genotypes have fruits        Cucumber mosaic (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic
larger than 70 gr. 30 genotypes have relatively from fruits.       (CGMMV), Watermelon mosaic (WMV), Squash mosaic

                                                       2009    /                        27                                E-79
(SMV) and Zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV) viruses.                     areas in Riyadh region. The virus was mechanically
Results indicated the presence of CMV, CGMM, WMV,                    transmitted to lettuce (L. sativa) G. globosa, Chenopodium
SMV and ZYMV in the samples. The percentage of virus                 ammaranticolor Cost and Reyn, and C. quinoa. N.
infection in squash, cucumber and pumpkin was 88.8, 90.0             glutinosa and N. tabacum failed to develop symptoms when
and 92.0%, respectively. Some of these viruses are reported          inoculated with leaf crude extracts of leaves of infected
for the first time on these crops in Libya.                          lettuce plants. Double antibody sandwish-enzyme linked
                                                                     immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) was used to detect the
V9                                                                   virus responsible for these symptoms with the use of
CUCURBIT YELLOW STUNTING DISORDER VIRUS                              antisera of several viruses. Polyclonal antibodies specific to
A MAJOR THREAT TO CUCURBITS IN LEBANON:                              LMV reacted positively in DAS-ELISA. Negative
DEVELOPMENT OF SEROLOGICAL DETECTION                                 serological reactions were observed with lettuce viruses
METHODS AND SCREENING FOR RESISTANCE.                                such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Cucumber mosaic
Yousef Abou-Jawdeh1, Sahar Eid1, Hana Sobh1 and                      virus (CMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Tomato
Michael Havey2. (1) Department of Agricultural Sciences,             spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Reverse transcription-
Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American                  Polymerase chain reaction assay was used for the detection
University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon, Email:                        and identification of the virus from nucleic acid extracts of
abujawyf@aub.edu.lb; (2) United States Department of                 infected lettuce plants using specific primer for detection of
Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, Department of             the 3` end of the NIb gene together with the 5` end of the
Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706,                CP gene (region II). The viral DNA amplified product was
USA.                                                                 approximately 346 bp as estimated by agarose gel
         Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV),            electrophoresis. The 346 bp DNA fragment from LMV
genus Crinivirus and family Closteroviridae, has emerged             isolate was purified and sequenced. The comparative
as a serious whitefly-transmitted virus of cucurbit crops,           nucleotide sequence analysis showed 92.4 to 98.8%
causing between 40 and 50% yield loss. CYSDV was first               similarity with LMV isolates recovered from Brazil,
reported in Lebanon in 2000 using nucleic acid detection             France, China, Audran, AF199 and strain E. These results
methods. The unavailability of serological detection                 suggest that the high nucleotide sequence homology
methods prompted us to develop such methods. Since                   between the Saudi Arabian isolate and the other well
CYSDV is confined to the phloem, is present at low titer             defined LMV isolates confirm that the Saudi Arabian
and is difficult to purify in good quality to produce specific       isolate is LMV. This is the first report of LMV on lettuce in
antibodies, molecular techniques were used to clone the              Saudi Arabia.
coat protein and express it as a fusion protein with an N-
terminal hexa-histidine tag. Polyclonal antibodies were              V 11
produced against this recombinant coat protein and used in           GENOME            SEQUENCING,                MOLECULAR
serological tests, including tissue print immunoassay                CHARACTERIZATION                   AND          WHITEFLY
(TPIA), dot blot immunoassay (DBIA), and ELISA. Of 124               TRANSMISSION OF LETTUCE CHLOROSIS VIRUS.
cucumber accessions screened for resistance, seven                   Nida’ Salem1, Ioannis Tzanetakis2, Bryce Falk3 and James
accessions were tolerant but none was immune. The three              Ng1. (1) Department of Plant Pathology & Microbiology,
most tolerant accessions and one susceptible accession were          University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA,
selected for further evaluations. Time course studies at 3, 5,       Email: nmsalem@rss.gov.jo; nmsalem@ucr.edu; (2)
8 and 14 dpi using TPIA revealed that tolerance to CYSDV             Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arkansas,
in the three tolerant cucumber germplasms was not                    Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA; (3) Department of Plant
correlated with restricted or delayed virus movement.                Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616,
Preliminary results using DBIA and real-time RT-PCR-                 USA.
based assays proved that tolerance to CYSDV in two                        Members of the genus Crinivirus are emerging viruses
accessions was not correlated with reduced virus                     with a highly complex single-stranded positive sense RNA
accumulation. The higher tolerance of the third accession            genome, and are transmitted by specific whitefly species
may be correlated with reduced virus accumulation in                 via unknown mechanisms. Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV), a
young leaves, but not in roots.                                      crinivirus that is endemic to Southwestern USA, was
                                                                     isolated from infected lettuce and a study to determine its
V 10                                                                 complete genome sequence, genome expression and
BIOLOGICAL, SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR                                transmission by two whitefly species was carried out. LCV
IDENTIFICATION OF LETTUCE MOSAIC VIRUS                               sequences were generated and determined through a
AFFECTING LETTUCE IN SAUDI ARABIA.                                   combination of shotgun sequencing of cloned inserts from a
Mohammed A. Al-Saleh, Ibrahim M.Alshahwan, Mahmoud                   cDNA library constructed using randomly-primed viral
A. Amer and Omer A. Abdalla, Plant Protection                        double-stranded (ds) RNAs, 5’ and 3’ RACE (Rapid
Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences,               Amplification of cDNA Ends), and primer walking
King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451,                   strategies. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of four
Saudi       Arabia,      Email:       malsaleh@ksu.edu.sa;           LCV encoded structural proteins, CP, CPm , p59 and
malsaleh@yahoo.com                                                   HSP70h, with those of LIYV and Cucurbit yellows stunting
          Mosaic symptoms were observed on field grown               disorder crinivirus indicated a low (19%) to moderate
lettuce (Lactuca sativa Linn.) plants at Al-hair and Alkharj         (68%) level of identity. As an initial study of LCV aimed at


E-80     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
understanding the mechanism of whitefly transmission, we            (Cham 8). The effect of four different buffers and distilled
purified LCV from infected plant materials and observed by          water on virus stability using mechanical inoculation was
electron-microscopy that purified preparations contained            evaluated. Results showed that the buffer KPO4, pH: 7 was
virion-like particles (VLPs). Western blot analysis of VLPs         the best for mechanical inoculation. In addition, WSMV
identified the approx. 29 kDa CP, which was consistent              was found to be seed-transmitted in Cham 1 only (0.1%)
with the size determined from its deduced amino acid                and otherwise transmitted by wheat curl mite (Aceria
sequence. Furthermore, VLPs were readily acquired and               tosichella Keifer) (100%). The infection rate reached 99%
transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci and B.                    for both manual inoculation and compressed air
argentifolii) through membrane feeding, indicating that             inoculation. Furthermore, the effect of freeze drying and
they contained all the essential components needed for              storage period on virus stability was studied; revealing that
whitefly transmission. To further demonstrate the biological        the infection rate was 99.3%, 99.6%, 96.0% and 30.0%
activity of purified LCV, we extracted virion (v) RNAs and          when fresh tissue, new dry tissue, 9 year old tissue and 15
inoculated them to tobacco protoplasts. The plus and minus          year old tissue were used, respectively.
sense genomic RNAs and several smaller viral-specific
(possibly subgenomic) RNAs indicative of viral replication          V 14
were detected by Northern blot analysis in total RNAs               SOURCES OF PRIMARY INOCULUM OF BEAN
isolated from the vRNA inoculated protoplasts.                      YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS ON FABA BEAN IN
                                                                    BAGHDAD, IRAQ. Mothana E. El–Muadhidi, Virology
V 12                                                                laboratory, Agricultural Pests Diagnosis Department, State
STUDIES ON WHEAT AND BARLEY VIRUSES IN                              Board of Plant Protection, Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
NINEVAH. Nabil Aziz Kasim and Fadhel Yousef Abbo,                   mothna200398@yahoo.com
Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture and                      Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) is a serious
Forestry,       Mosul       University,      Iraq,     Email:       virus affecting faba bean in all faba bean producing areas in
nabilaziz60@yahoo.com                                               Iraq, with incidence reaching more than 90%, leading in
       Survey results indicated the presence of Barley yellow       many cases to a serious yield losses. This study was
dwarf virus (BYDV) and Barley yellow striate mosaic virus           conducted to determine the sources of primary inoculum of
(BYSMV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) on                     BYMV. Results of TBIA test showed that the rate of
barley and wheat crops in Al-Hamdaniyah (Karakoush) and             infection with BYMV in randomly collected plants from
Tilkief districts during the 2005 growing season by using           Baghdad were 2.3, 8.7 and 41.0% when the population of
the tissue blot immune assay (TBIA). The same viruses               aphids were 0.0, 18.6 and 33.4 insects/plant during January,
mentioned above in addition to Barley stripe mosaic virus           February and March, respectively. TBIA test revealed that
(BSMV) were also detected during the 2006 growing                   3.3, 13.4 and 1.4% of faba bean seeds for Local, Akwaderji
season by using the slide agglutination test. The detection         and Cyprus cultivars collected from different locations in
of BYSMV, BSMV and WSMV is considered the first                     Iraq were infected with BYMV, respectively. Results of
record on barley and wheat crops in Iraq. BYDV was also             ELISA test showed that the virus was detected in 5 out of
detected in Avena fatua, Polypogon monspllensis and                 10 adjacent weeds investigated in this study. It was
Sorghum halpense, BYSMV in Avena fatua, Sorghum                     concluded that the causal factors for a high percent of
halpense, and Lolium temulentum, WSMV in Avena fatua,               infection with BYMV on faba bean were aphids, seeds and
Lolium temulentum and Phalaris minor and wheat dwarf                the weed plants which act as a reservoir for this virus, and
virus (WDV) in Sorghum halpense only. This is also the              highly influenced by climatic conditions.
first record of BYSMV, WSMV and WDV in the above
mentioned weeds in Iraq.                                            V 15
                                                                    BIOLOGICAL, SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR
V 13                                                                DETECTION OF THE MOST DOMINANT VIRUSES
WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS IN SYRIA. Elias Al-                       AFFECTING FABA BEAN IN NORTHERN EGYPT.
Isaac1, Safaa G. Kumari2 and Bassel Al-Kai1. (1)                    Gaber Fegla, El-Sayed Wagih, Yehia El-Faham and Maha
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,             Kawanna, Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of
Albaath University, Homs, Syria, Email: sadadas@scs-                Agriculture, Alexandria University, P.O. Box 21545,
net.org; (2) International Center for Agricultural Research         Alexandria, Egypt, Email: drgaberfegla@yahoo.com
in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo,                         Out of 881 tested faba bean samples collected from
Syria.                                                              some locations of northern Egypt during four growing
         Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, genus                     seasons (2000/2001 - 2003/2004), 524 samples were found
Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) is a recently detected            infected with Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), 514 with
virus in Syria. The main symptoms of WSMV are striping,             Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), 146 with Broad
dwarfing, tiller death, and reduced seed number and weight.         bean true mosaic virus (BBTMV), 112 with Broad bean
Yield loss caused by this virus in five durum wheat (Cham           stain virus (BBSV), 67 with Broad bean mottle virus
1, Cham 3, Cham 5, Younes 1 and Ammar 3) and five                   (BBMV), 83 with Faba bean necrotic yellows virus
bread wheat (Cham 4, Cham 6, Cham 8, Cham 10 and                    (FBNYV), 9 with Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV) and 6 with
Babaga 3) cultivars was studied. Results showed that bread          Beet western yellows virus (BWYV). The sensitivity of
wheat was more susceptible than durum wheat, and                    using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-
infection rates ranged between 5.9% (Ammar 3) and 72.6%             PCR), indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay


                                                        2009    /                        27                                E-81
(indirect ELISA), dot blot immunoassay (DBIA), tissue blot           and Fawaz Azmeh3. (1) Department of Plant protection,
immunoassay (TBIA) and biological assay for the detection            Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria,
of the most common viruses in faba bean, namely BYMV                 Email: Y_nassan@hotmail.com; (2) International Centre
and PSbMV, were studied. Results indicated that RT-PCR               for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA),
was the most sensitive assay as it detected BYMV one day             P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email: s.kumari@cgiar.org;
after inoculation. BYMV was detected by indirect ELISA,              (3) National Commission for Biotechnology (NCBT), P.O.
DBIA, TBIA and infectivity test 2, 2, 3 and 5 days after             Box 31902, Damascus, Syria, Email: gcbt@mail.sy
inoculation, respectively. Nearly the same trend was                          Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most
observed with PSbMV. When serial dilutions of infectious             important food legume crops, and ranks third in world pulse
sap extracted from leaves of infected faba bean plants, 15           production. Chickpea yield is affected by several diseases
days after inoculation, were used, BYMV was detected in              and insect pests, including yellowing and stunting viral
infectious sap diluted up to 10-12 by RT- PCR, 10-9 by               diseases that inflict high losses in quantity and quality of
indirect ELISA, 10-5 by DBIA and 10-3 by infectivity test.           the production. Luteoviruses affecting chickpea have a
Concerning PSbMV, results also confirmed that the most               special importance since they are difficult to detect and
sensitive assay was RT- PCR followed by indirect ELISA,              control. The aim of this research was to determine the viral
DBIA and infectivity test, since virus detection by these            diseases affecting chickpeas and causing yellowing and
assays was possible at serial dilutions of infectious sap up         stunting symptoms in the main chickpea regions of Syria
to 10-12, 10-6, 10-5 and 10-4, respectively.                         during the 2007/2008 growing season. Unidentified virus
                                                                     isolates were transmitted to healthy chickpea plants using
V 16                                                                 virus-infected shoots as scions to graft onto chickpea root-
SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDIES ON                                 stocks (reciprocal grafting) under greenhouse conditions.
COWPEA MOSAIC VIRUS. Mervat Fath-Alla1 and Gaber                     The graft-transmitted isolates were tested further by a
Fegla2. (1) Institute of Plant Pathology, Agriculture                serology test (Tissue blot immunoassay; TBIA) using
Research Center, Sabhia Research Station, Alexandria,                specific monoclonal antibodies, and molecular analysis
Egypt; (2) Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of                    (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction; RT-
Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt,               PCR) using specific primers to detect Luteoviridae. Results
Email: mmmf_1992@yahoo.com                                           showed that two species, genus Polerovirus, family
          Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) was isolated from               Luteoviridae were transmitted by grafting: Chickpea
naturally infected fodder cowpea plants, showing mosaic,             chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV) and Beet western yellows
vein yellowing and leaf malformation symptoms, grown at              virus (BWYV) with transmission rates of 65% and 68%,
Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria                respectively. CpCSV was purified from systemically
University. Identification was based on symptoms                     infected faba bean and yielded 0.2 mg of purified virus per
developed on diagnostic hosts and serological reactions              kg of infected tissue. The purified virus was administered
with antisera to AMV, BBMV, BYMV, CMV, CPMV and                      into a white rabbit, using seven intramuscularly injections
TRSV. The molecular weight of coat protein subunits of               at weekly intervals. The antiserum produced gave strong
CPMV was determined using SDS-PAGE, and was                          CpCSV-specific reactions and very weak background
approximately 58 KDa and 48KDa. Reverse transcription                reactions with non-infected tissue when evaluated by TBIA.
polymerase chain reaction showed that, the simultaneous
amplification of 593 bp fragment of the genome. Among                V 18
five fodder cowpea cultivars tested for seed transmission,           SURVEY AND IDENTIFICATION OF ALFALFA
the virus was found to be transmitted through seeds of only          MOSAIC VIRUS AND AN UNIDENTIFIED SPECIES
one: cultivar “ITTA Acc” with a low transmission rate of             IN THE FAMILY LUTEOVIRIDAE FROM ALFALFA
1.5%. The virus was not transmitted by aphids, Yield of              PLANTS IN LIBYA. Yousif Izzo¹, Jabr Khalil¹ Safaa
purified virus was 16.2 mg/100g infected leaf tissues.               Kumari² and Nouran Attar². (1) Plant Protection
Specific antiserum was prepared and found to have a titer            Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Al-Fateh
of 1: 1.28x105 as determined by indirect ELISA.                      Tripoli, Libya, Email: khalil_reem@hotmail.com; (2) The
Sensitivities of three serological tests; optimized dot              International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry
immunobinding assay (DIA), indirect enzyme-linked                    Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria.
immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tissue blot                                 A field survey was conducted from May 2005 until
immunoassay (TBIA) were compared for detecting CPMV                  February 2007 and covered 71 fields in 19 different sites in
in 1:100 diluted sap extracted from leaves of infected plants        the southern region of Libya. A total of 124 alfalfa leaf
after different periods of mechanical inoculation. Results           samples (Medicago sativa L.) showing symptoms of
showed that sensitivity of DIA was similar to that of                mosaic, dwarfing, Leaf curling, yellowing, mottling and
indirect ELISA, which could detect CPMV 8, 16 and 24                 wilting were collected. Serological tests (indirect ELISA,
days after mechanical inoculation. Whereas, the virus was            tissue blot immunoassay and dot-blot) were conducted at
detected 4,8, 16 and 24 days after inoculation by TBIA.              the virology Laboratory, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, by using
                                                                     monoclonal and/or polyclonal antisera to the following
V 17                                                                 viruses: Alfalfa mosaic (AMV), Cucumber mosaic (CMV),
CHARACTERIZATION           OF      SOME     GRAFT-                   Bean yellow mosaic (BYMV), Pea seed-borne mosaic
TRANSMITTED CHICKPEA YELLOWS VIRUSES.                                (PSBMV), Broad bean mottle (BBMV), Broad bean stain
Yaseen Naasan1, Safaa G. Kumari2, Amin A. Haj Kasem1                 (BBSV), Soybean dwarf (SbDV), Beet western yellows


E-82     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
(BWYV), Bean leafroll (BLRV), Faba bean necrotic                     CIHEAM/Mediterranean Agronomic Institute, IPM Sector,
yellows (FBNYV) and Luteviruses monoclonal antibodies                Valenzano (BA), Italy, Email: saharyoussef@link.net
(5G4). These tests proved the presence of AMV and an                           In a survey of olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard
unidentified virus species in the family Luteoviridae. This          plantations in different location in Egypt. Samples from
is the first report of these two viruses on alfalfa in Libya.        olive cultivars Picual, Manzanello and Maraki were
                                                                     collected and tested for the presence of cucumber mosaic
V 19                                                                 virus infection using double antibodies sandwich-enzyme
POLEROVIRUS AFFECTING COOL-SEASON FOOD                               linked immunesorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and reverse
LEGUMES IN SYRIA. Nader Y. Asaad1, Safaa G.                          transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using
Kumari2, Amin A. Haj Kassem1 and Salah Al-Chaabi3. (1)               virus-specific antibodies and specific primers respectively.
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,              In ELISA, all the three olive cultivars tested were found to
Aleppo        University,      Aleppo,       Syria,    Email:        be naturally infected with CMV. Total RNA from these
asaad_nader@yahoo.com; (2) International Center for                  cultivars was isolated using RNeasy Plant mini kit. RT-
Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O.                PCR was developed and applied to the detection of CMV
Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email: s.kumari@cgiar.org; (3)              using virus-specific primers. Amplified products showed
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research              clear bands (about 280 bp) of the expected size for CMV
(GCSAR), Douma, Damascus, Syria.                                     amplification. No amplification was observed in uninfected
        Extensive field surveys were conducted in Syria              tissue. The successful application of RT-PCR for the
during the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 growing seasons to                accurate and sensitive detection of CMV was reported in
identify the viruses of the family Luteoviridae causing              olive trees in Egypt. This method could be used routinely
yellowing, reddening and/or stunting symptoms on cool-               for sanitary and certification programmes.
season food legumes, to investigate their natural host range,
and identify their biological characteristics. A serological         V 21
test (tissue blot immunoassay; TBIA) on 3345 legume                  INCIDENCE OF MAJOR VIRUSES AND VIROIDS
samples, followed by molecular analysis (Reverse                     INFECTING STONE FRUIT SPECIES IN ALGERIA.
transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, RT-PCR) of            Noureddine Rouag1, A. Guechi2 and A. Myrta3. (1)
142 samples, indicated that viruses of the genus Polerovirus         Department of Agronomy UFAS Sétif , 19000 Sétif,
(family Luteoviridae) were most commonly identified,                 Algeria; (2) Department of Biology UFAS Sétif , 19000
including at least two distinct viruses, Beet western yellows        Sétif, Algeria; (3) Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo, Via
virus (BWYV) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus                      Ceglie 9, 70010 Valenzano Bari, Italy, Email:
(CpCSV). These two viruses showed significant differences            rouag_rn@yahoo.fr
in their reactions with different antisera and primers used in                 The sanitary status of stone fruit trees in relation to
this study. However, the comparison of the coat protein              pathogens transmissible through plant propagating material
nucleotide sequence analysis of two Syrian isolates of both          constitute a preliminary measure for the establishment of
BWYV and CpCSV showed only 68% homology; although                    certification program for the production of healthy plants.
the two viruses appeared to have an overlapping natural              For this purpose, the main objective of this research was to
host range, which included more than 27 crop and weed                quantify the incidence of several viruses and viroids
plant species from 11 families (Apiaceae, Asteraceae,                infecting Prunus species cultivated in commercial orchards,
Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae,                    nurseries and mother blocks in the eastern part of Algeria.
Papaveraceae,        Polygonaceae,        Ranunculaceae,             Serological and molecular tests of 967 samples collected
Solanaceae). Moreover, they could be transmitted by the              from three acroecological regions gave a general rate of
same aphid species (e.g. Aphis craccivora), and spread               infection around 17.58%. Among the most important were
within the same regions. Multiple infections of these                three Ilarviruses (PNRSV, PDV and ApMV) detected by
viruses were also commonly found in this study (around               DAS-ELISA and CVA detected by RT-PCR, whereas,
18% of the samples were a mixed infection with both                  ACLSV, ApLV, CGRMV and PBNSPaV were not
viruses), and the occurrence of other new viruses/strains is         detected. The detection of CVA in this study represent the
most likely. Consequently, great difficulties will be                first report in Algeria. Results also showed that the
encountered when breeding for resistance/tolerance. This             sensitivity to infection is related to Prunus species and
paper has clarified the importance of the Polerovirus in             varieties. Rootstock varieties were more infected (21.88%)
Syria, and presents an accurate characterization of two              than scion varieties (17.11%). In addition, peach varieties
distinct viruses.                                                    were the most infected with an infection rate of 27.14%,
                                                                     and almond was the least infected at the rate of 8.26%. In
V 20                                                                 relation to viroids (PLMVd and HSVd), a total of 1128
SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DETECTION                                  samples were collected in autumn season (2004 – 2007) and
OF CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS FROM OLIVE                                  analysed with two molecular techniques: Tissue
TREES IN EGYPT. Sahar A. Youssef1, M. El-Sayed2,                     immunoprinting hybridization and Dot-Blot hybridization.
Anna M. D'Onghia3 and A.A. Shalaby1. (1) Virus and                   Results showed that general infection rate was 59%.
Phytoplasma Research Department, Plant Pathology                     Individually, PLMVd and HSVd were detected in 3.19%
Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza,               and 3.63%, respectively. This is the first record of HSVd in
Egypt; (2) Olive Department, Horticulture Research                   Algeria. Studies indicated that high temperatures in open
Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt; (3)


                                                         2009    /                          27                                  E-83
fields and low temperatures used for samples conservation            khalil_reem@hotmail.com; (2) University of Ain-Shams,
reduced PNRSV concentration in infected samples.                     Faculty of Agriculture, Egypt.
                                                                              The aim of this study was to identify Potato
V 22                                                                 spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) on potatoes in Libya. Tuber
DEVELOPMENT OF LEBANESE TYPE TOMATO                                  samples were collected during autumn 2005 from farms in
WITH MULTIPLE RESISTANCE TO TOMATO                                   Al-Mamoura and Sebratha areas west of Libya. Disease
YELLOW LEAF CURL VIRUS AND SOIL-BORNE                                symptoms were reduced leaf size and curling downward,
PATHOGENS. Rasha Talhouk1, Elvis Gerges1, Rachel                     tubers were spindle-shaped with cracks, and the buds were
Dagher1, Hagop Atamian, Choaa El-Mohtar1, Hana Sobh1,                surrownded by a swollen tissue which looked-like
Yusuf Abou-Jawdah1 and Douglas Maxwell2. (1) Faculty of              protruding eyebrows. The causative agent was confirmed to
Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of               be PSTVd by molecular hybridization of the nucleic acid
Beirut, P.O. Box: 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon, Email:                   and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The
rwt02@aub.edu.lb; abujawyf@aub.edu.lb; (2) Department                Libyan isolate of PSTVd was similar to the Egyptian and
of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin-Madison,                 the American isolates of PSTVd, where its nucleic acid
Madison, WI 53706.                                                   contained about 360 bp and its movement in
        The Lebanese tomato landraces are characterized by           polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was at the same level as
their large tasty fruits and vigorous plants adapted to local        the other two isolates. This is the first record for PSTVd on
environmental conditions. These landraces are highly                 potatoes in Libya.
susceptible to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and
some soil-borne pathogens, factors that led to a sharp decline       V 24
in their production along the coastal areas and middle               VIRAL DISEASES OF POTATO IN SOUTHERN
elevations. TYLCV constitutes a major threat for tomato              SYRIA. Houda Kawas, Plant Protection Department,
production in many other countries in the Middle East,               Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Syria, Email:
Europe, Africa and more recently in the American                     houdakawas@yahoo.com
continent. Lebanese landraces were crossed with four                          Viral diseases are considered as the most
parents: two lines of Solanum habrochaites carrying a                important factors affecting potato production in the world.
major dominant gene of resistance to TYLCV, and three                2140 potato samples were collected from 122 fields in
other genes for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum fsp.                southern Syria during 1996-2000, and were tested
lycopercisi (FOL) races 1 and 2, and Verticillium wilt race          serologically by ELISA and TBIA and by mechanical
1.; one line of S. chilense, which carries a major gene of           inoculation on indicator plants. Eleven viruses were
resistance to TYLCV with partial dominance, and one line             recorded for the first time on potato in southern Syria.
of S. peruvianum believed to carry multigenic recessive              Potato virus Y was the most common at a relative rate of
resistance to TYLCV. Inoculations with a high number of              76%. Nine potato cultivars Draga, Cinja, Sponta, Diamont,
viruliferous whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) were used to screen         Mondial, Claustar, ArranKonsel, Escort and Nicola were
for resistance to TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld. Marker assisted               tested to determine their reaction against natural viral
selection tools were used to screen for resistance to FOL            infection in Abo-Gharach during 1997-1999. Seasonal
race 2, Verticillum wilt race 1 and the root-knot nematode           abundance of aphid vectors of potato viruses and their
Meloidogyne spp. Two primer pairs designed in our                    efficiency in virus isolates transmissions was determined.
laboratory, based on published sequences for a locus co-             In addition, 16 isolates of PVY and 2 of PLRV were
segregating with Verticillium resistance, allowed efficient          characterized by using RT-PCR, IC-RT-PCR and RFLP. It
differentiation between susceptible genotypes, homozygous            can be concluded that new molecular tools are extremely
and heterozygous resistant genotypes in PCR assays. A                important to understand variability among different isolates
multiplex PCR protocol was developed and was efficiently             in a region and they are instrumental in detecting low virus
used to detect plants with resistance to FOL race 2. These           concentrations in field samples.
MAS techniques allowed the selection of plants with
double or multiple genes of resistance saving time, space            V 25
and efforts. At present, tomato lines with relatively large          INCIDENCE OF PLUM POX VIRUS IN JORDAN.
fruit size carrying combined resistance to TYLCV and the             Akel Mansour1 and Ayda Al-Nsour2. (1) Faculty of
two soil-borne fungal pathogens were developed along with            Agriculture, Jordan University, Amman, Jordan, Email:
lines carrying resistance to TYLCV and the root-knot                 akelman@ju.edu.jo; (2) Ministry of Agriculture, Amman,
nematode. Four of these lines showed excellent results in            Jordan, Email: aydahalnsour@moa.gov.jo
organoleptic tests. Breeding is in progress to combine                     Field surveys of Plum pox virus (PPV) incidence in
resistances to the four pathogens listed above and to further        Jordan stone-fruit growing areas was conducted during
improve the horticultural characteristics.                           2007 and 2008. A total of 1847 samples were collected
                                                                     from commercial orchards, a mother block and nurseries. A
V 23                                                                 total of 27 almond, 572 apricot, 126 cherry, 41 nectarine,
DETECTION OF POTATO SPINDLE TUBER VIROID                             603 peach and 478 plum trees were tested individually for
(PSTVD) FROM POTATOES IN LIBYA. Hania Al-                            PPV by the double-antibody sandwich enzyme linked
Gammudi¹, Jabr Khalil¹, Al-Taher Abo-Hleka¹ and Khalid               immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Around 4% of tested
El-Dogdog². (1) Plant Protection Department, Faculty of              samples were infected with PPV. The virus incidence in
Agriculture, University of Al-Fateh Tripoli, Libya, Email:           nectarine, plum, peach, cherry and apricot was 2.4, 3.1, 2.8,


E-84     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
3.1 and 6.1% of tested trees, respectively. The level of viral       virus-infected leaf demonstrated that chloroplasts lost their
infection was highest in the mother block (7.4%), and                envelopes and the internal structures of chloroplast
lowest in the samples from the commercial orchards                   including grana and stroma thylakoids were deformed and
(3.5%).                                                              replaced by isometric inclusion bodies. Soluble
                                                                     carbohydrate and protein contents increased while total
V 26                                                                 amino acids decreased in virus infected leaves.
PATHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON FIG MOSAIC VIRUS
(FMV) OF FIG IN EGYPT. Esam Kamal Fahmi Yossef,                      V 28
Agriculture Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture,               NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN VIRAL DISEASES OF
Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt, Email:                       FIG (FICUS CARICA). Toufic Elbeaino1, Michele
esam_elbeshehy@yahoo.com                                             Digiaro1 and Giovanni P. Martelli2. (1) MAIB-CIHEAM,
      Fig mosaic virus (FMV) was isolated from fig leaves,           Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Valenzano,
collected from orchards in Ismailia, Qana and El-Arish               Bari, Italy; (2) Dipartimento di Protezione delle Piante e
Governorates of Egypt. Leaves from infected trees showed             Microbiologia Applicata, Università degli Studi and Istituto
chlorotic blotching, vein clearing and banding in the cv.            di Virologia Vegetale del CNR, Sezione di Bari Via
Sultany. While, in the cv. Abode the mosaic spots were               Amendola        165/A,      70126     Bari,   Italy;    Email:
sharply delineated, the light green color of the affected            elbeaino@iamb.it
areas contrasted sharply with the normal green color of the                    Thanks to the use of molecular techniques, only
foliage. On the other hand, the fig mosaic systemic                  recently the list of putative fig-infecting viruses has
symptoms, including malformation in the cv. El-Adasy                 increased rapidly. Particularly relevant is the identification
were typical to FMV symptoms. Host range, symptoms,                  of the putative agent of fig mosaic, a worldwide virus-
electron microscopic investigation and effect of FMV on              induced disease (FMD), characterized by various patterns
protein content were investigated. Virus particles were              of discoloration and malformation of leaves and fruits. The
typical of viruses of the genus of Closterovirus (family             virus particles have enveloped round to ovoid structures 90-
Closteroviridae). An amplicon of 302 bp was produced                 200 nm in diameter (double-membrane bodies, DMB) and a
from the amplification of FMV-RNA.                                   complex genome organization which comprises at least of
                                                                     four RNA segments, completely sequenced and
V 27                                                                 characterised. Based on its molecular characteristics, the
DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE                                virus has been tentatively assigned to the family
EGYPTIAN             CLOSTEROVIRUS               ISOLATE             Bunyaviridae. Among isometric viruses identified in
AFFECTING FIG PLANTS. Khalaf A. Fayez1 and Sabry                     infected figs one should particularly mention Sowbane
Y. M. Mahmoud2. (1) Botany Department, Faculty of                    mosaic virus (SoMV) detected in southern Italy, a possible
Science, Sohag University, Sohag 82524, Egypt; (2)                   member of the family Comoviridae in England and Italy,
Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture,              putative viruses of the genera Luteovirus and Umbravirus
Sohag University, El-Kawtheer-Sohag 82786, Egypt,                    in the USA, of the genus Cripavirus (insect viruses) in
Email: sabryaraby2003@yahoo.com                                      Spain and a putative member of the genus Tymovirus in
          This work was carried out to identified an                 Italy. The list of fig infecting viruses comprises also several
Egyptian isolate of fig mosaic virus (FMV) on fig plants by          filamentous species, i.e. an unidentified potyvirus with
molecular tools, biological assays and electron microscopy.          particles 750-800 nm in length from former Yugoslavia
Changes in ultrastructure of chloroplasts were observed and          (Herzegovina), a virus with particles 720 nm long from
analysis of some physiological parameters investigated. The          Spain and a possible member of the genus Carlavirus from
results showed that fig mosaic virus systemically                    Japan. Three distinct members of the family
transmitted to Ficus carica plants by grafting, but no virus         Closteroviridae, denoted respectively Fig leaf mottle-
symptoms was recovered by mechanical inoculation to                  associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1), Fig leaf mottle-associated
herbaceous hosts. Virus infection produced a variety of              virus 2 (FLMaV-2) and Fig mild mottling associated virus
symptoms including discoloration, green blisters, mottling,          (FMMaV), were recently described from Italy together with
crinkling and deformation of leaves and fruits. A double-            a tentative member of the genus Trichovirus denoted Fig
stranded RNA (dsRNA) about 19 Kbp in size was obtained               latent virus 1 (FLV-1). For most of the above mentioned
from tissue extracts of symptomatic fig plants. A sensitive          viruses, specific sets of primers have been produced and
assay for the detection of FMV using specific RT-PCR was             applied for large scale testing. Two viroids (Hop stunt
developed. Using dsRNA preparation as a template, cDNA               viroid and Citrus exocortis viroid) and one phytoplasma
fragment (350 bp) was amplified by RT-PCR using specific             have been also reported from Tunisia and Turkey,
primers designed to amplify motifs 1 and 2 of the heat               respectively. Whether such a high number of intracellular
shock-protein 70 homologue (HSP70h) of the family                    infectious agents affecting figs can explain the enormous
Closteriviridae. Purified virus preparations showed the              variability in the symptomatology shown by mosaic
presence of few numbers of filamentous closterovirus-like            diseased figs remains to be established.
particles with length of about 1500 nm. Electron
microscopy investigations of leaves from the infected plants         V 29
revealed that virus inclusion bodied occurred in the                 VIRUS-FREE PRODUCTION OF LEBANESE FIG
chloroplasts and no virus inclusion was found in the                 VARIETIES BY TISSUE CULTURE: PRELIMINARY
cytoplasm. Moreover, ultrastructural investigations of               RESULTS. Lamis Chalak1, Toufic Elbeaino2, Ahmad


                                                         2009    /                         27                                 E-85
Elbitar3, Ali Chehade3, Tala Fattal3, Charbel Hobeika3 and           the Bekaa Valley, where 75 % of grapevine production
Elia Choueiri3. (1) Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,                occurs. A total of 300 samples were collected randomly
Lebanese University, Dekwane, Beirut, Lebanon. Email:                from 28 vineyards during 2008 growing season. Four
lchalak@lari.gov.lb; (2) Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo            ELISA procedures were used for the detection of eight
di Bari, Via Ceglie 9, 70010 Valenzano (Bari), Italy; (3)            different viruses: (i) Double antibody sandwich (DAS-
Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Zahle, P.O. Box            ELISA) for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-
287, Lebanon.                                                        1), Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2),
          A new disease of fig trees characterized by a wide         Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3),
rande of décolorations and malformation of the leaves,               Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Arabis mosaic virus
resembling those typical of fig mosaic disease and                   (ArMV); (ii) Protein-A (DAS-ELISA) for Grapevine virus
associated to two closteroviridae-like particles, Fig leaf           A (GVA); (iii) Triple antibody sandwich (TAS-ELISA) for
mottle-associated virus 1 and 2 (FLMaV1 and FLMaV2),                 Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) and (iv) Direct binding-
was recently reported in Lebanon. Infected trees of local            ELISA for Grapevine virus B (GVB). Out of 300 samples,
varieties were subjected to a sanitation approach using two          178 (59.3%) were infected with one or more viruses. GVA
different tissue culture techniques. Accordingly, two sets of        (26.3%) and GLRaV-3 (17.3%) were the prevailing viruses,
specific primers were used in RT-PCR to investigate the              followed by GLRaV-1 (10%), GFkV (5.6%), GLRaV-2
presence of both viruses in the fig plantlets of explants            (4.3%) and GFLV (3.3%). ArMV was not found, whereas
originated from both sanitation techniques. Shoot tip                GVB was rare. The most important Lebanese table
culture performance for regeneration of fig plantlets free           grapevine varieties, i.e. Tfeifihi, Beitamouni, Maghdouchi
from both viruses demonstrated to be an effective technique          and Obeidi had an average infection rate between 70% and
with a sanitation rate ranging from 60 to 100%, while the            100%, whereas varieties of foreign varieties used as wine
shoot regeneration rate didn’t exceed 18%. Whereas, stem             grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot, Gamay
cutting culture coupled with thermotherapy seemed to be              and Chardonnay had a better sanitary status ranging from
the most effective for shoot regeneration (40% of reactive           20 to 40 % infection. GVA was the most widespread virus
explants). However, elimination of both viruses was                  in both table and wine grapes, reaching 34.6% and 18% of
possible even though with lower rates of sanitation ranging          infection, respectively. Clear symptoms of fanleaf were
from zero to 81%. Finally, these preliminary results                 observed on Maghdouchi and Cabernet Sauvignon during
indicated that FLMaV-2 seems to be more susceptible than             spring; however, leafroll symptoms were seen on Cabernet
FLMaV-1 to thermotherapy.                                            Sauvignon and Syrah during autumn.

V 30                                                                 V 32
A SURVEY OF TOMATO VIRUSES IN JORDAN.                                SEROLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME
Abeer Abu-Shirbi, Akel Mansour and Nasser Tamimi, P.O.               SYRIAN ISOLATES OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF
                                                                                                                           2
Box 639, Baqa’19381, Jordan, Email: abeer@ncare.gov.jo;              SPOT VIRUS. Khaldoun Al-Jabor1, Imad D. Ismail and
Abeerqasem@yahoo.com                                                                   3
                                                                     Salah Al-Chaabi . (1) Al-Sweida Agricultural Research
         A field survey to identify tomato viruses in Jordan         Center, Al-Sweida, P.O. Box 461, Syria, Email:
was conducted during fall of 2008 and spring of 2009.                kaljebr@hotmail.com; (2) Facult of Agriculture, Tishreen
Samples were collected from tomato fields grown in                   University, Lattakia, Syria; (3) General Commission of
southern and central Jordan Valley. All samples were tested          Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Douma, Syria.
individually for 10 viruses including AMV, PVY, PVX,                           A total of 120 single samples of leaves, flowers
TYLCV, TMV, TSWV, BSV, ToRSV, TRSV and PVA by                        and fruits were collected from apple, pear, almond, cherry
the    double-antibody      sandwich      enzyme      linked         and peach trees exhibiting viral symptoms from genetic
immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). The results indicated               blocks at Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Sweida
the presence of TSWV, ToRSV, PVY, TYLCV, PVA and                     governorate and were tested for apple chlorotic leaf spot
TBSV on tomato grown in Jordan Valley. Around 29.5% of               virus during 2008 season, using modified double polyclonal
tested samples were infected with TSWV followed by                   antibodies sandwich DAS-ELISA and the monoclonal
ToRSV (11.3%) and PVY (9.7%). TSWV was dominant in                   antibodies in the treble antibodies sandwich TAS-ELISA.
both locations of Jordan Valley, whereas PVY was not                 57 virus isolates were divided into 23 different serological
detected in southern Jordan Valley.                                  groups. The monoclonal antibody MAb C1 reacted with 38
                                                                     isolates, whereas MAb A2 reacted with 22 isolates. The
V 31                                                                 reaction of some monoclonal antibodies (MAb C1, MAb
EVALUATION OF THE SANITARY STATUS OF                                 C2, MAb C3, MAb A2 and MAb B2) with apple isolates
GRAPEVINE IN BEKAA VALLEY, LEBANON. Elia                             was strong with the exception of MAb C2, whereas their
Choueiri1, Sereen Hamieh2, Souheir El Zammar1, Charbel               reaction with isolates from other plant hosts was weak. The
Hobeika1 and Fouad Jreijiri1. (1) Department of Plant                virus isolates collected from apple reacted positively with
Protection, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Tal            previous mentioned five MAbs and with polyclonal
Amara, P.O.Box 287, Zahlé, Beirut, Lebanon; (2) Faculty              antibodies, but the ELISA reading obtained with MAbs
of Agriculture, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon,                were higher than that with polyclonal antibodies. With the
Email: pretty.cyreen@hotmail.com                                     exception of one ACLSV isolate obtained from peach
          The incidence, severity and distribution of eight          flowers, the reactions of polyclonal antibodies with other
viral diseases were assessed in the main vineyard regions of


E-86     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
isolates were not consistent with monoclonal antibodies              BSMV could be transmitted by mechanical methods and
reactions; the reaction level of this isolate with three MAbs        through infected seeds.
(MAb C1, MAb 2 and MAb C3) was weak, whereas its
reaction with polyclonal antibodies was strong.                      V 35
                                                                     STUDY ON POTATO VIRUS Y (PVY) AFFECTING
V 33                                                                 POTATO IN AL-DAKAHLIYA AND DAMMIETTA
REGENERATION BY STIGMA/STYLE SOMATIC                                 GOVERNORATES, EGYPT. Mahmoud A. El-Mazaty1,
EMBRYOGENESIS OF CITRUS GENOTYPES IN                                 Mohamed R. Rasmy2 and Ahmed M.E. Eid1. (1) Plant
ALGERIA: PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Malika                                 Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansuora
Meziane1, M. Boudjeniba2, D. Frasheri3, A.M. D’Onghia3,              University, Egypt, (2) Plant Pathology Research Institute
A. Carra4, F. Carimi4, N. Haddad5, S. Boukhalfa5 and                 ARC, Giza, Egypt, Email: ayten999@yahoo.com
S.Braneci5. (1) Université Hassiba Ben Bouali. Hay salem ,                    Two strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were isolated
route national 19. (02000) Chlef. Algeria, Email:                    from naturally infected potato Solanum tuberosum cv.
meziane_ma@yahoo.fr; (2) Laboratoire des Cultures in                 Spunta plants from Al Dakahliya and Damietta
vitro. Ens Kouba BP:92, Alger, Algeria, Email:                       governorates showing rougosity, mosaic, and leaf veinal
mboudjeniba@yahoo.fr; (3) Centre International de Hautes             necrosis, stunting and stem canker. The identification was
Etudes            Agronomiques             Méditerranéennes          based on the symptomatology, indicator plants, physical
(CIHEAM)/Mediterranean Agronomic Institute, Via Ceglie               properties, serological tests “ELISA and immune electron
9, 70010 Valenzano (BA), Italy; (4) Institute of Plant               microscopy”, molecular weight, and electron microscopy.
Genetics/CNR, Research Division of Palermo, Corso                    The virus induced a systemic and non systemic symptom
Calatafimi 414, 90129 Palermo, Italy; (5) Institut                   which appeared on the indicator plants. Datura stramonium
Technique de l’Arboriculture Fruitière et de la Vigne,               was resistant to both strains (PVYN –W and PVYO ). On the
(ITAF), Tessala–El erdja, Birtouta, Alger.                           other hand Nicotiana tabacum cvs. Turkish, White Burley,
          Stigma/style somatic embryogenesis proved to be            Xanth, and Samsun., S. tuberosum cvs. King Edwared,
highly effective in the elimination of the main citrus virus         Spunta., and D. metel showed various systemic symptoms.
and virus-like diseases and an excellent method for the              The thermal inactivation point (TIP) was between 53ºC and
regeneration of most Citrus spp., except Clemetines,                 56ºC, dilution end point (DEP) for the tested virus between
without inducing somaclonal variation in regenerates. This           10-3 and 10-4, while longevity in vitro (LIV) was between
method was applied on a Citrus collection at ITAF, Algeria.          48 and 60 hr at room temperature (RT). Indirect-Enzyme
The main citrus local and international varieties were               Linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA) showed that there
chosen for regeneration by stigma/style somatic                      are nine positive samples from twenty fife samples.
embryogenesis. Explants were cultured in medium I and II             Electron microscopy showed separated particles of PVY
to induce somatic embryos formation. In both media, MS               with length of 600 nm, while using immune electron
basal salts, vitamins, sucrose and malt extract were used. In        microscopy showed PVY particles in aggregates. The
medium II the growth regulator (6-benzylaminopurine 3                molecular weight of purified PVY coat protein was 34 KDa
mg/l) was also added. All explants of Citrus limon and C             through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis test.
sinensis produced callus at the cut end of the styles, about 8
days after culture initiation. Most of the tested genotypes          V 36
proved to regenerate somatic embryos in a diffevariedrent            THE OCCURRENCE OF A NOVEL STRAIN OF
period of time (25-90 days), and then cultured in a single           POTATO VIRUS Y IN SYRIA. Mohamad Chikh Ali1,
tube before in vivo acclimatization.                                 Tetsuo Maoka2, Tomohide Natsuaki1 and Keiko T.
                                                                     Natsuaki3. (1) Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Utsunomiya
V 34                                                                 University, 350 Mine-machi, Utsunomiya, 321-8505 Japan;
DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BARLEY                               (2) National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido
STRIPE MOSAIC VIRUS (BSMV) IN BARLEY AND                             Region (NARCH), 1 Hitsujigaoka, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo,
DURUM         WHEAT        PLANTS        IN     ALGERIA.             Hokkaido, 062-8555 Japan; (3) Laboratory of Tropical
 Khaldia Medjahed, Biological Department, Faculty of                 Plant Protection, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1-
Agronomic and Biological science, University of Hassiba              Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 Japan, Email:
Benbouali,      Algeria,    Email:     hanene_2@yahoo.fr;            mhmdsaidsyr@hotmail.com
meziane_ma@yahoo.fr                                                            A field survey of Potato virus Y (PVY) strains in
         This study was conducted at two different                   Syria during the period from 2002 to 2007 revealed that
expermental stations in Algeria (Ouded Samar and Beni                PVY population included mainly a novel recombinant
Sliman). The aim of the study was to survey the presence of          isolate group of PVY, which was temporarily designated as
Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV, genus Hordeivirus) in              PVYSYR. Isolates of PVYSYR shared highest genomic
37 varieties of Barley and 10 varieties of durum wheat by            identity and close phylogenetic relationships with PVYNTN
using DAS ELISA. In addition, disease development was                and PVYNW isolates from Syria suggest a common origin
also studied at Blida Experimental Station at different plant        and a local emergence of these isolates in Syria. All
growth stages. The results of the study revealed that 26             PVYSYR isolates (total of 20) induced tobacco veinal
varieties of barley and 7 varieties of durum wheat were              necrosis but reacted to a PVYO monoclonal antibody, which
found to be infected by BSMV. The study also showed that             are typical characteristics of the previously reported
                                                                     PVYNW (or PVYN:O) stream. In potato, however, 4 isolates

                                                         2009    /                        27                               E-87
tested induced potato tuber necrotic ringspot (PTNRS)                CMV isolate induced mosaic on tobacco Nicotiana glauca,
which is the characteristic phenotype of PVYNTN. Owing to            N. glutinosa, N. tabacum cvs. Burley 21, White Burley,
the shared properties of PVYSYR isolates with PVYNTN and             Turkish and Xanthi-nc, and on pepper, squash, pumpkin;
PVYNW, they represent a new recombinant strain of the                necrotic local lesions on Chenopodium amaranticolor and
PVYN strain group with the proposed name PVYNTN-NW.                  broad bean; symptomless infection on cantaloupe and
The high prevalence of PVYNTN-NW in potatoes and weeds               Datura and no infection on cucumber, watermelon, tomato
as well as the ability to induce PTNRS indicated its                 and tobacco N. rustica and N. sylvestrus.
importance and the need for its control. The continuous
emergence of new PVY strains by genomic recombination                V 39
would alter the control program of PVY and calls for the             FURTHER MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION
regular characterization of PVY population.                          OF CUCURBIT APHID-BORNE YELLOWS VIRUS
                                                                     AFFECTING CUCURBITS AND LETTUCE IN
V 37                                                                 TUNISIA. Monia Mnari-Hattab1, Nathalie Gauthier2 and
EFFECT OF SOME TREATMENTS ON CONTROL                                 Ali Zouba3. (1) Laboratoire de protection des végétaux,
OF BEAN YELLOW MOSAIC DISEASE OF FABA                                Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie,
BEAN. Nadeem A. Ramadan and Nehil Y. Al-Murad,                       2049 Ariana, Tunisie; (2) IRD, UMR CBGP
College of Science, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq, Email:            (INRA/IRD/Cirad/Montpellier         SupAgro),        Campus
nadeemramadan@yahoo.com                                              international de Baillarguet, CS 30016, F-34988
         Spraying mineral oil (Sunoco) and insecticide               Montferrier-sur-Lez cedex, France; (3) Centre régional de
(Alpha Methrin) separately and in combination and by                 Recherches en agriculture oasienne de Déguache 2260
using corn plants as barriers, reduced the incidence of              Tozeur, Tunisie, Email: hattab.monia@iresa.agrinet.tn
mosaic symptoms on faba bean plants to 3%. The best                            Surveys of yellowing viruses under non heated and
treatment was the use of barrier plants planted at north-west        geothermal heated plastic tunnels as well as in open field
direction, which reduced the disease to 3% compared with             crops of melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus
4%, 6% and 9% by using mineral oil, insecticide and                  L.), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (C. maxima L.),
control treatments, respectively. Using a barrier crop               watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai)
increased the number of pods, seeds, bacterial nodules,              and ware cucurbit (Ecballium elaterium L. T. Richard)
stem and roots length compared with other treatments. It             were carried out year-round during 2001, 2003, and 2004 in
also increased wet and dry weight of broad bean plants.              the major cucurbit-growing areas in Tunisia. Severe
Accordingly, the use of barrier crop was considered as the           yellowing symptoms on older leaves of cucurbits were
best treatment. Statistical analysis showed significant              observed in open fields and under plastic-tunnel production
differences among the three tratments in mineral content of          systems. These yellowing symptoms and the high aphid
diseased broad bean plants. The natural infection with               populations (Aphis gossypii Glover) on diverse cucurbit
BYMV reduced the number of shoots to 3, and the length               crops in Tunisia supported the hypothesis of a viral cause of
of stem by 35%, the length of root system by 29.2%,                  the disease. Virus identification using DAS-ELISA,
reduction in fresh weight of stem and roots by 27.7% and             followed by RT-PCR and IC-RT-PCR showed that
34%, and dry weight by 43.3% and 37.8%, respectively,                Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) was widely
and the number of pods by 55%, number of seeds by 77.5%              spread in melon, cucumber, zucchini, squash and
and number of nodules by 75%.                                        watermelon crops. Ware cucurbit (E. elaterium) and lettuce
                                                                     (Lactuca sativa L.) crops were identified as potential
V 38                                                                 CABYV reservoirs. Molecular characterization as well as
STUDY OF CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS ON                                    phylogenetic study of Tunisian isolates of CABYV were
SEVERAL HOSTS IN MIDDLE REGION OF EL-                                conducted. The RT-PCR-amplified partial coat protein (CP)
GABAL AL-AKHDAR. Soaad S. Ali, Omar, M. Elsanousi                    and P4 genes, from nine Tunisian CABYV isolates, were
and Fathi S. Al-Mesmari, Faculty of Agriculture,                     cloned and sequenced. When compared, the obtained
University of Omar Al-Mukhtar, El-Beida, Libya, Email:               sequences seemed to be much conserved; they shared 98.1
omarelsanousi1@yahoo.com                                             to 100% nucleotide identities but less in amino-acid
         This study aimed to survey for Cucumber mosaic              sequence similarity 95.6 to 100% for P4 and 97.2 to 100%
virus (CMV) in some field crops and wild plants in the               for the CP or P3. CP and P4 gene nucleotide and amino-
middle region of Al-Gabal Al-Akdar including Al-Hanya,               acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic
Al-Wasita, El-Beida, Shahat and Susa. CMV was detected               reconstructions showed that the Tunisian isolates clustered
singly or in mixed infection on pepper plants in Al-Hanya,           into two major sub-groups. Otherwise, the comparison
Al-Wasita and El-Beida, and on wild tobacco Nicotiana                among Tunisian isolates sequences with those retrieved
glauca in Shahat and Susa, and on squil plants in Shahat,            from Gene Bank clearly showed a high nucleotide and coat
but was not detected in tomato, eggplant, cucumber, wild             protein amino-acid identities, and close relationships with
cucumber, squash, watermelon and local roses. Purified               the Italian and French isolates and constitute one sustained
virus was obtained from inoculated wild tobacco leaves,              group with a bootstrap of 77%.
with purified virus yield of 12 mg/100 gr of leaves. The
results showed that CMV was immunogenic and the
antiserum produced had a titer 1:128. The wild tobacco


E-88     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
V 40                                                               V 42
DETECTION OF VIRUS DISEASES AFFECTING                              RELATIVE INCIDENCE OF THREE IMPORTANT
APPLE AND PEAR TREES IN EGYPT. Sahar A.                            VIRUSES INFECTING CANOLA IN GOLESTAN
Youssef1, E.M. El-Fakharany2 and A.A. Shalaby1. (1) Virus          PROVIENCE IN IRAN. A. Zahedi Tabarestani and M.
and Phytoplasma Research Department, Plant Pathology               Shams-Bakhsh. University of Tarbiat Modares, Department
Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza,             of     Plant     Pathology,     Tehran,     Iran,     Email:
Egypt; (2) Deciduous Fruit Research Department,                    atena.zahedi@yahoo.com
Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research              Oilseed rape (Brassica napus oliefera) is an important crop
Center, Giza, Egypt, Email: saharyoussef@link.net                  in Golestan province. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Beet
          The purpose of this study was a survey on the            western yellow virus (BWYV) and Cauliflower mosaic
occurrence and distribution of the viruses affecting apple         virus (CaMV) can cause economicall losses in growing area
and pear trees in Egypt. Five locations (Giza, Monufia,            of canola worldwide. In order to determine the distribution
Nubaria, Kaliubia and Khataba) which are well known for            and relative incidence of these viruses in Golestan province
their state and commercial orchard plantations of apple and        during 2008, around 400 samples from canola fields were
pear (mixed with other stone fruits) were visited. About 500       collected. The randomly collected samples were tested for
leaf samples showing virus and virus like symptoms                 the presence of TuMV, BWYV and CaMV by DAS-
ranging from chlorotic and necrotic spots, calico, mosaic          ELISA. The results showed that canola fields infection
and deformation of the leaves to dwarfing and short                level in Golestan province with TuMV, BWYV and CaMV
internodes of the trees were collected. DAS-ELISA, RT-             was 4.5%, 6% and 2.5%, respectively.
PCR and m-RT-PCR assays were used to detect the
presence of apple mosaic virus (ApMV), apple chlorotic             V 43
leaf spot virus (ACLSV), prunus necrotic ringspot                  EFFECT OF BEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS ON
(PNRSV), apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) and apple stem            SOME CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF BROAD
grooving virus (ASGV) infection in apple and pear trees.           BEAN CELLS. Khalid Mahmood1 and Nnadeem
ACLSV and PNRSV were found to be the most widespread               Ramadan2 (1) Plant Protection Department, Agriculture
in different orchards. ApMV, ASGV and ASPV were the                College, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq, Email:
second important viruses recorded.                                 saidkhalid88@yahoo.com; (2) Science College, Biology
                                                                   Department, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq, Email:
V 41                                                               nadeemramadan@yahoo.com
SPREAD OF ZUCCHINI YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS                                      Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) infection
ON CUCURBITS IN SYRIA AND ITS MOLECULAR                            caused decrease in the value of the chlorophyll a, b and
DETECTION. M. Jamal Mando1, Amin Amer Haj                          total chlorophyll. The reduction rate reached 15.31, 23.5
       2                                   3
Kasem , Salah Al-chaabi1, Safaa G. Kumari and Massimo              and 23.19%, respectively. The rate of inhibition by the
       4
Turina . (1) Pathology Division, Plant Protection                  virus in the first stage was significantly increased 48.71,
Administration, General commission for Scientific                  49.73 and 48.77%, respectively. The virus infection
Agricultural Research, Douma, P.O. Box 113, Damascus,              increased the amount of nitrogen in comparison with the
Syria. Email: jamalagr@mail.sy; (2) Plant Protection               control. The plants infected with the virus in the second
Division, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Syria;        stage had significant increase in the amount of nitrogen
(3) Virology Laboratory, International Center for                  compared with healthy plants. BYMV infection of faba
Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, (ICARDA), P.O.             bean did not cause significant reduction in carbohydrates
Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria; (4) CNR, Torino, Italy.                   content during both stages when compared with health
        To determine the spread of Zucchini yellow mosaic          plants.
virus (ZYMV) in different cucurbit species (Squash,
cucumber, melon, watermelon and pumpkin), samples                  V 44
showing symptoms of viral infection were collected from            COMPARISON OF CRYOPRESERVATION AND
cucurbits growing areas in provinces of Latakia, Homs,             ELECTROTHERAPY               METHODS          FOR      THE
Aleppo, Idleb and Daraa in Syria during 2006 and 2007              ELIMINATION OF GRAPEVINE VIRUS A FROM
growing seasons. 43 fields were visited and 387 samples            INFECTED VINES. Masoud Shamsbakhsh and Shirin
with viral infection symptoms were collected. Samples              Bayati, Department of Plant Pathology, Tarbiat Modares
were tested using DAS-ELISA against ZYMV, Watermelon               University, P.O.Box:14115-336, Tehran, Iran, Email:
mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus. The results of             shamsbakhsh@mail.modares.ac.ir
serological tests showed that 323 samples (83.9%) were                       The incidence of Grapevine virus A (GVA) is
infected with one or more virus, including 112 samples             reported from all of the major grape growing regions in
with mixed infection whereas 64 samples were negative.             Iran. Grapevine is propagated via vegetative material such
ZYMV was detected in 263 samples (67.9%) followed by               as cuttings and grafts. In such plants, viral diseases are
WMV in 151 samples (39.9%) then CMV in 42 samples                  easily transmitted to the progeny. Therefore, the control of
(10.8%). Squash isolate of ZYMV was detected using RT-             grapevine viruses is achieved through production of healthy
PCR, and a 605 base fragment at the N-terminal of the coat         mother plants. In the present research, cryopreservation and
protein gene was amplified.                                        electrotherapy methods were employed for the elimination
                                                                   of GVA from naturally infected vine (V. vinifera L. cv
                                                                   Black) and their efficiency was compared. In two separate

                                                       2009    /                        27                                E-89
cryopreservation experiments, 20 and 12 shoot tips of                point was between 55–60ºC, the dilution point was between
infected grape were examined. In both experiments 59% ±              10-3-10-4 and longevity in vitro was 2 days.
1.4 of plants were regenerated. GVA detection by RT-PCR
showed that none of the steps before freezing were able to           V 46
eliminate GVA. In contrast, GVA was eliminated from                  MOLECULAR            CHARACTERIZATION              OF    A
42.2%±0.8 of the plantlets recovered from freezing. In the           SYRIAN ISOLATE OF WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC
electrotherapy method, the effects of electric current               VIRUS AND ITS TRANSMISSIBILITY THROUGH
intensity and duration of treatment were investigated. Sixty         WHEAT SEEDS. Nouran Attar and Safaa G. Kumari,
eight Cane 3 cm long pieces were exposed to electric                 Virology Lab., International Center for Agricultural
currents of 0, 10, 20 and 30 milliamperes (mA) for 10 or 15          Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466,
minutes followed by immediate sterilization and culture of           Aleppo, Syria, Email: n.attar@cgiar.org
explants. The results showed that, the cryopreservation                        Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, genus
technique described above was more efficient and                     Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) is an important cereal
convenient protocol for elimination of GVA from infected             virus in many countries in America, Europe, North Africa
grapevine than the electrotherapy technique.                         and Asia. WSMV is transmitted mainly by mites, but also
                                                                     mechanically; and was recently reported as a seed-borne
V 45                                                                 pathogen in Australia and Canada. In this study, a field
STUDY OF BEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS (BYMV)                             experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of WSMV
ON BROAD BEAN IN AL-JABAL AL-AKHDAR                                  on six durum wheat (Lahn/Haucan, Dcc, Ammar-9, Gidara-
REGION. Abdalla M. Abd-Alaleem, Omar, M. Elsanousi,                  2, ICDW-22942 and Boohai) and four bread wheat
Hosny A. Younes and Fathi, S. Al-Mesmari, Faculty of                 (Maringa, 12th-IBWSN-459, ICBW-208008 and Cham-6)
Agriculture, University of Omar Al-Mukhtar, El-Beida,                genotypes during 2005/2006. All plants were inoculated
Libya, Email: omarelsanousi1@yahoo.com                               mechanically with WSMV at the flowering stage and tested
        This study was conducted during growing season               by tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) two months after
2005/2006 to identify virus or viruses causing mosaic                inoculation. Results showed that all tested wheat genotypes
diseases on broad bean crop in different regions (Al-goba,           became infected with WSMV,with the infection rate
Lamloda, Ain-mara, Elgaygab, Elabrag, Alsafsaf, EL-beida,            varying between 37.8% (Maringa) and 68.1% (Cham-6).
Elwesita, El-hanya, Shahat, Gernada and Elfaedya of El-              Seeds of infected plants from the field experiments were
gable El-Akhtar district). Indirect ELISA test was carried           harvested and replanted in plastic houses, and 1000
out on 47 samples randomly collected from broad bean                 seedlings from each genotype were tested by TBIA for
plants showed symptoms of virus infection by using                   presence of WSMV after 20 days. Results revealed that
antisera to Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV), Broad bean               WSMV was seed-transmitted in four genotypes
stain virus (BBSV), Broad bean true mosaic virus                     (Lahn/Haucan, Cham-6, ICDW-22942 and Maringa), and
(BBTMV) and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV). The                     the seed-transmission rate was 0.1-0.3%. WSMV was
results revealed that the causal agent of the disease was            confirmed in all infected seedlings by Reverse-
serologically related to BYMV, and 19 samples out of 47              Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) using
samples were infected by the virus with an infection rate of         specific WSMV primers. Comparing the sequence of
40.4%. Examination of ultrathin sections prepared from               WSMV-amplicons from the Syrian isolate with the other
infected tissues of broad bean under electron microscope             WSMV isolates revealed identities of 98% (Turkish,
showed the presence of pinwheel inclusion bodies which               Australian and American isolates) and 94% (Iranian
are characteristic to the viruses of Potyviridae to which            isolate).
BYMV belongs and dense band and virus induced crystals
were also observed. Isolate no. 11 from Al-goba infected             V 47
with BYMV was selected for virus purification and                    STUDY OF ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS IN LIBYA.
andudies on symptoms host range, virus properties in the             Yousif Izzo and Jabr Khalil, Plant Protection Department,
crude sap and insect transmission. The ultraviolet                   Faculty of Agriculture, University of Al-Fateh, Tripoli,
absorption spectrum for the purified viral preparation was           Libya, Email: khalil_reem@hotmail.com
typical for nucleoprotein with A260/A280 and A max/A                            Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is one of the newly
min ratios of 1.62 and 1.47, respectively. The yield of              discovered viruses on alfalfa in Libya. AMV mode of
purified virus was 8.8 mg/100 g infected tissues. The host           transmission, symptoms and host range, and properties in
range studies revealed it can induce mosaic symptoms on              the crude sap were studied. It was found that AMV is
broad bean, bean, peas, lupine, peanut, and leaf yellowing           transmitted mechanically, by dodder (Cuscuta spp., from
of chickpea, cowpea, pepper and local lesions of                     alfalfa to alfalfa), and by two aphid species (Myzus persicae
Chenopodium amaranticolor and no infection on tomato,                Sulzer and Aphis fabae Scopoli) in non-persistent manner
tobacco Nicotiana glutinosa, lentil, squash, sweet melon,            (within 0.5–15 min). Its dilution end–point was between 10-
                                                                     3
watermelon cucumber, okra, cabbage, roquette, radish,                  -10-4, longevity in vitro 3 days and thermal inactivation
turnip, lettuce, eggplant and Egyptian leek had occurred.            point between 60–65ºC. Twenty plant species in 4 families
Aphid transmission studies revealed that this isolate was            (Chenopodiaceae,         Cucurbitaceae,     Fabaceae      and
transmitted mechanically and by Aphis fabae and Myzus                Solanaceae) were mechanically inoculated with AMV.
persicae in a non persistent manner. The properties of the           AMV it infected 4 species only in Fabaceae, Cicer
virus in the crude sap revealed that the thermal inactivation        arientinum L. (leaf yellowing), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (red


E-90     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
brown local lesions), Vicia faba L. (blackening of the stem,        0.5-20 min. acquisition feeding time. Seventeen plant
wilting and death of the plants) and Vigna sinensis L. (red         species in 6 families were mechanically inoculated with
brown local lesions). AMV did not mechanically infect the           WMV. 13 species produced symptoms varied from local
following plants: Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste &                 lesions, mosaic, leaf malformation and blistering. These
Reyn., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Cucumis melo L., Cucamis            species were: Chenopodium album L., C. amaranticolor L.,
sativus L., Cucurbita pepo L., Lathyrus sativus L., Lens            Citrullus lanatus L., Cucurbita maxima L., C. pepo L.,
culinaris Medic, Medicago sativa L., Pisum sativum L.,              Cucumis melo L., C. sativus L., Cicer arientinum L.,
Capsicum annuum L., Datura metel L., Nicotiana glutinosa            Phaseolus vulgaris L., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and
L., N. tabacum L. cv. White Burley, Solanum Lycopersicum            Capsicum annuum L. WMV didn’t infect the following
L., Solanum melongena L. and Solanum tuberosum L.                   plants: Datura metel L., D. stramonium L., N. glutinosa L.
                                                                    and N. tabacum L. cv. White Burley. The longevity in vitro
V 48                                                                was 7 days, dilution end-point between 10-3-10-4 and the
BIOLOGICAL STUDY ON TOMATO YELLOW LEAF                              thermal inactivation temperature waas 60–65ºC. WMV was
CURL VIRUS IN LIBYA. Hanan Dabob and Jabr Khalil,                   successfully purified, and electron micrographs showed that
Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture,                its particles are flexuous rods with a length of 730–750 nm.
University of Al-Fateh, Tripoli, Libya, Email:                      and a width of 15 nm.
khalil_reem@hotmail.com
          Transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus             V 50
(TYLCV) mechanically and by the white fly (Bemisia                  SEROLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION FOR SOME
tabaci Genn.), symptoms and host range, and susceptibility          IMPORTANT VIRUSES ON STONE FRUITS IN
of Libyan tomato cultivars to infection with TYLCV were             SAUDI ARABIA. Khalid Alhudaib1 and Gamal Ghanem2.
studied. Results showed that TYLCV was not transmitted              (1) Plant Protection Department, P.O. Box 55009, Alhasa
mechanically, but it was transmitted by the whitefly                31982, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, Email:
persistently (circulative virus) after an acquisition feeding       alhudaib@hotmail.com; (2) Plant Pathology, Agriculture
period of 20 min. when using 6–15 insects/plant, and after          College, Cairo University, Egypt.
30 min. with 3 insects/plant. Inoculation feeding period was               A field survey was carried out in the stone fruit
24–48 hrs., with a latent period of 22 hrs. The virus did not       growing area (Al Juof - North of Saudi Arabia) to assess
pass through the eggs. Twenty five plant species in 6               stone fruit viruses in spring 2007. A total of 67 (38 peach
families were inoculated with TYLCV using viruliferous              and 29 apricot) leaf samples with virus symptoms including
white flies. Only 9 species showed disease symptoms which           green mottle, vein clearing, necrotic spots, chlorosis and/or
varied from leaf rolling, curling and yellowing, small-sized        discoloration in addition to symptomless samples were
leaves, stunting and leaf necrosis, they were: Cucumis melo         collected and tested for the presence of Plum pox virus
L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Datura metel L., Capsicum                (PPV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic
frutescence, Abelmuschus esculentus L., Nicotiana                   ringspot virus (PNRSV) using double antibody sandwich
glutinosa L., Solanum lycopersicum L. cvs. Sankara, Karaz,          enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Result
Boshra and Hoda, Solanum nigrum L. and Solanum                      showed that 28 out of 67 leaf samples were infected with
tuberosum L. TYLCV did not infect the following plants:             one and/or more viruses. The most common virus was
Vinca rosea L., Chenopodium album L., C. amaranticolor              PNRSV (detected in 12 samples), followed by PDV (9
L., Cucumis sativus L., Citrullus lanatus L., Cucurbita             samples) and PPV (7 samples). Mixed infections of
pepo L., Pisum sativum L., Modicago sativa L., Lupinum              PPV+PDV+PNRSV, PPV+PDV, and PDV+PNRSV were
termis Forsk, Lens esculentum L., Vicia faba L., Malva              detected in 3, 3 and 2 samples respectively. Further
parviflora L., Althea rosae L., Capsicum annuum L., N.              investigations are needed for other commercial orchards
tabacum L. cvs. White Burley and Xanthi-nc, and Solanum             and nurseries. This is the first report of the occurrence of
melongena L. Susceptibility of the following tomato                 PPV, PDV and PNRSV in Saudi Arabia.
cultivars to the infection with TYLCV was studied: Boshra,
Senkara, Karaz, Hoda, Super Halim, Dunia, Felkato,                  V 51
Thoraia, Libda, Farwa and Nazeha. The infection rates were          FIRST RECORD OF GRAPEVINE FANLEAF VIRUS
100, 100, 100, 80, 50, 50, 40, 20, 10, 0.0 and 0.0%,                (GFLV) TRANSMITTED BY XIPHINIMA INDEX IN
respectively.                                                       IRAQ. Mothana E. El-Muadhidi1 and Bssima J. Anttwan2.
                                                                    (1) Virology laboratory, Agricultural pests diagnosis
V 49                                                                Department, State Board of Plant Protection, Baghdad, Iraq,
CHARACTERIZATION OF WATERMELON MOSAIC                               Email: mothna200398@yahoo.com; (2) Nematology
VIRUS FROM LIBYA. Amal Abo-Mhara¹, Jabr Khalil¹                     Laboratory, State Board of Agricultural Research, Baghdad,
and Khalid El-Dogdog². (1) Plant Protection Department,             Iraq.
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Al-Fateh, Tripoli,                      Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson seedless
Libya, Email: khalil_reem@hotmail.com; (2) Faculty of               and French black cultivars) was found infected with a viral
Agriculture, University of Ain-Shams, Cairo, Egypt.                 disease showing half-closed fan leaf shaped leaves, with
         Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) is one of the                margins irregularly dentate-serrated instead of lobate-
recently discovered viruses on cucurbits in Libya. The              serrated, the shoot internodes were abnormally short and
experiments proved that WMV was transmitted                         arranged in a zigzag fashion. The causal virus was
mechanically and non-persistently by A. gossypii following          identified to be grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV), by using

                                                        2009    /                        27                                E-91
double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) in 93% of                 (253 chickpea and 53 lentil) samples with symptoms
symptomatic samples which were collected from different              suggestive of virus infection (yellowing, leaf rolling and
locations in three governorates. Results showed that the             stunting), and 3100 random samples (2400 chickpea and
vector Xiphinema index nematode was found in all soil                700 lentil) samples from 17 fields (13 chickpea and 4 lentil)
samples collected from the base of infected grapevine trees.         were collected. All the above samples were tested by the
Results of this study explained the heavy decline and yield          tissue-blot immunoassay (TBIA) using 11 specific virus
losses that occurred in grapevine orchards and reached 80-           antisera. Virus disease incidence was determined on the
100%, especially at Salah-Eldeen governorate. This study is          basis of laboratory testing of 200 individually randomly
the first record of GFLV in grapevine orchards in Iraq.              collected samples from each field. Serological tests of
                                                                     randomly samples indicated that Luteoviruses [e.g.
V 52                                                                 Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), Beet western
VIRAL           DISEASES         AFFECTING            SQUASH         yellows (BWYV) and Bean leafroll viruses (BLRV)] were
(CUCURBITA PEPO) IN SOUTHERN SYRIA AND                               the most common in chickpea fields, with an overall
JORDAN VALLEY. Naser Al-Tamimi1, Houda Kawas1                        average of 13.5% followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows
and Akel Mansour2. (1) Plant Protection Department,                  virus (FBNYV) (1.1%). In contrast, Pea seed-borne mosaic
Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus,               virus (PSbMV) was the most abundant virus in lentils, with
Syria; (2) Plant Protection Department, Faculty of                   an overall average of 22.1%, followed by FBNYV (17.4%)
Agriculture, Jordan University, Amman, Jordan, Email:                and Luteoviruses (8.7%). Twelve fields had a virus disease
n_tami@yahoo.com                                                     incidence of 5% or less based on the field inspection, and
           This study was conducted to identify viruses              only four fields had around 6-20% virus disease incidence.
affecting squash plants in southern Syria and Jordan Valley.         Whereas on the basis of laboratory testing, 13 fields had
during the growing seasons 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, a                more than 6% virus infection [five of them had 32.0%,
total of 1760 squash samples with virus-like symptoms                34.5% (chickpea), 44.5%, 45.5% and 100% (lentil), virus
were tested serologically by ELISA. Results indicated the            infection]. This is the first survey of legume viruses in
presence of 14 viruses affecting squash in Southern Syria            Azerbaijan and first report of FBNYV, PSbMV, BWYV,
and 15 viruses in Jordan Valley: Zucchini yellow mosaic              BLRV and CpCSV naturally infecting legume crops in
virus (ZYMV) was the most commonly encountered virus                 Azerbaijan.
in squash fields with infection rates in the tested samples in
the two seasons were 59.9% in Syria and 53.2% in Jordan,             V 54
Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) (38.3%, 30.5%),                        WHEAT DWARF VIRUS IN SYRIA. Ahmed Ekzayez1,
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) (34.0%, 23.6%), Papaya                   Safaa G. Kumari1, Nouran Attar1 and Imad Ismail2 (1)
ring spot virus (PRSV) (24.8%, 25.6%), Cucumber green                Virology Laboratory, International Center for Agriculture
mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) (23.4%, 39.8%), Squash                   Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466,
leaf curl virus (SLCV) (22.9%, 43.8%), Tomato spotted                Aleppo, Syria, Email: Ahmed-ekzayez81@hotmail.com;
wilt virus (TSWV) (4.5%, 12.1%), Lettuce mosaic virus                (2) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,
(LMV) (3.17%, 1.43%), Tomato black ring virus (ToBRV)                Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria
(2.8%, 0.44%), Squash mosaic virus (SqMV) (2.35%,                              Wheat dwarf virus (WDV, genus Mastrevirus,
2.0%), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) (0.59%, 1.43%),                    family Geminiviridae) causes a serious disease of several
Tomato ring spot virus (ToRSV) (0.23%, 0.88%), Tobacco               cereal crops in many countries in the world. The main
ring spot virus (TRSV) (0.23%, 3.1%) and Alfalfa mosaic              symptoms of the disease are dwarfing, yellowing and
virus (AMV) (0.23%, 0.33%), in addition to Tomato bushy              reduced heading. WDV is persistently transmitted by
stunt virus (TBSV) (0.396%) in Jordan. This is the first             leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus Dahlbom). Surveys were
record of the natural infection of squash plants with LMV,           conducted in the major cereal growing regions of Syria
ArMV, ToBRV, TRSV and ToRSV in the two regions, and                  during April and May 2009. A total of 1909 plant samples
it is the first record of the natural infection of squash plants     (938 wheat and 971 barley) with symptoms suggestive of
with TSWV and TBSV in Jordan Valley and SLCV in                      viral infection were collected from 103 fields (45 wheat and
Syria.                                                               58 barley). In addition, different leafhopper species were
                                                                     collected from wheat and barley fields. These leafhoppers
V 53                                                                 were maintained on wheat and barley plants covered by
VIRAL DISEASES AFFECTING CHICKPEA AND                                cylindrical plastic cages, 15 cm in diameter and equipped
LENTIL CROPS IN AZERBAIJAN. Eldar Mustafayev1,                       with ventilation slots, under greenhouse conditions. The
Safaa G. Kumari2, Zeynal Akparov1 and Nouran Attar2. (1)             efficiency of leafhopper transmissibility of WDV was
Azerbaijan National Academy Science of Genetic                       studied by following virus acquisition after 48 hours. The
Resources Institute, 155 Azadliq Ave, 1106, Baku,                    serological (Tissue blot immunoassay; TBIA) and
Azerbaijan, Email: eldar_agdam@yahoo.com; (2) Virology               molecular (PCR) tests showed that WDV was found only in
Laboratory, International Center for Agricultural Research           the Al-Hasakah governorate with mean relative occurrence
in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria              in tested samples of 16.3% (26.1% on wheat and 6.5% on
       A survey to identify virus diseases affecting                 barley). In addition, results indicated that only one
chickpea and lentil crops in five different regions                  leafhopper species, Psammotettix provincialis Ribaut,
(Absheron, Binagady, Bilasuvar, Jalilabad and Masalli) in            transmitted WDV under experimental conditions, at rates
Azerbaijan was conducted during June, 2007. A total of 306           up to 41%. This is the first report of WDV infecting wheat


E-92     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
and barley in Syria, and the first report of P. provincialis as       Comoviridae), were conducted. Results indicated that
a WDV vector worldwide.                                               ACLSV and ApMV were the most commonly spread, with
                                                                      relative occurrence of 24% and 26.9%, respectively.
V 55                                                                  TomRSV, TRSV, ToBRV and ArMV were registered for
SEED TRANSMISSION OF VIRUSES IN SQUASH                                the first time on apple in Syria at a relative occurrence rate
SEEDS (CUCURBITA PEPO) IN SOUTHERN SYRIA                              of 13%, 14.8%, 12.03% and 2.43%, respectively. With the
AND JORDAN VALLEY. Naser Al-Tamimi1, Houda                            possible existence of other viral and viroid diseases, more
Kawas1 and Akel Mansour2. (1) Plant Protection                        attention is needed to assess the health status of apple
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University,              orchards in Syria.
Damascus, Syria; (2) Plant Protection Department, Faculty
of Agriculture, Jordan University, Amman, Jordan, Email:              V 57
n_tami@yahoo.com; houdakawas@yahoo.com                                MOLECULAR DETECTION OF SPIROPLASMA
         This study was conducted to identify the                     CITRI ASSOCIATED WITH STUBBORN DISEASE
transmission of viruses in squash seeds. Imported, local,             IN CITRUS ORCHARDS IN SYRIA. Raied Abou
seeds from infected fruits, and others from healthy-looking           Kubaa1, Maria Saponari2, Ali El-khateeb3, Raymond K.
fruits, were collected from southern Syria and Jordan                 Yokomi4, Khaled Djelouah5 and Majd Jamal6. (1)
Valley, during the 2006/2007 growing seasons. Serological             Dipartimento di Protezione delle Piante e Microbiologia
tests showed the presence of 8 viruses transmitted by seeds           Applicata, Università degli Studi, Via Amendola 165/A,
to seedlings in different rates: Cucumber mosaic virus                70126 Bari, Italy; (2) Istituto di Virologia Vegetale del
(CMV) was the most commonly encountered virus in all                  CNR, Unità Organizzativa di Bari, Via Amendola 165/A,
seedlings (0.5%) and in infected fruits (2.4%), followed by           70126 Bari, Italy; (3) General Commission for Scientific
Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) (0.27%), and 1.8% in seeds of              Agricultural Research, Lattakia, Syria; (4) USDA-ARS San
apparently healthy fruits, Tomato ring spot virus (ToRSV)             Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 So.
(0.23%) and (1.2%) in infected fruits, Zucchini yellow                Riverbend Ave. Parlier, CA 92648; (5) Mediterranean
mosaic virus (ZYMV) (0.04%) and 0.4% in infected fruits               Agronomic Institute, Via Ceglie 9, 70010 Valenzano (BA),
(was found in one seedling), Tomato spotted wilt virus                Italy (6) International Center for Agricultural Research in
(TSWV) (0.12%), Tomato black ring virus (ToBRV)                       the Dry Areas, P.O.Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria. E.mail:
(0.15%), Squash mosaic virus (SqMV) (0.08%), Cucumber                 raedsir@hotmail.com
green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) (0.08%). Seed viral                           Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited pathogen,
infections were 5.2% and 4.8% in infected fruits and                  causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and can be
apparently healthy fruits, respectively; and it was lower in          transmitted from plant to plant by several species of
imported seeds (0.25%) than local Syrian seeds (0.64%).               phloem-feeding leafhoppers. CSD is an important disorder
The serological test showed that viral incidence in all seeds         in certain warm and arid citrus-growing areas, and its agent
was 1.47%; there were 38 virus infected seedlings from a              has been recorded from several Mediterranean and Middle
total 2575 seedlings. This is the first record of seed                Eastern countries, including Syria. In September 2008,
transmission of ArMV, ToRSV, TSWV and ToBRV in                        columella were collected from fruits of 130 symptomatic
squash seeds. Serological tests showed the seeds were free            and symptomless trees, 102 were from 10 commercial
from Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV), Watermelon mosaic                 fields in Lattakia and 28 were from 2 groves in Tartous.
virus (WMV) and Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) from the                Silica gel-desiccated columella samples were brought to the
seeds.                                                                University of Bari for S. citri detection. DNA extraction
                                                                      and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed using
V 56                                                                  the primer pairs P58-6f/4r and P58 3f/4r in conventional
VIRAL DISEASES OF APPLES IN SOUTHERN                                  and real-time PCR, respectively. Twelve sweet orange trees
SYRIA. Houda Kawas, Plant Protection Department,                      (9.2%) from two different groves (11 in Lattakia and 1 in
Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Syria, Email:            Tartous) were S. citri-positive in both assays. Nucleotide
houdakawas@yahoo.com                                                  sequences of the P58-6f/4r amplicon of four selected
         Several viral diseases are known to affect apple             spiroplasma isolates showed 98% identity with the putative
Malus communis L. worldwide. To investigate viral                     adhesin gene of S. citri strain T9 (accession No. EU602314)
diseases of apple in Syria, 108 samples were collected from           from California and strain BR3-3X (DQ344812). The
apple fields in southern Syria during 1998-2005. Main                 presence of S. citri in Syrian citrus orchards was therefore
symptoms were recorded, and biological assays                         confirmed by molecular tools. Because PCR-based
(mechanical inoculation on plant indicators and insect                techniques are more apt than traditional S. citri culturing for
transmission) and serological assays by ELISA using                   large scale analyses, their use will allow more rapid and
antisera of Apple mosaic virus ApMV (genus Ilavirus,                  systematic surveys in commercial citrus plots as well as in
family Bromoviridae), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus                 mother plant repositories and nurseries. The leafhopper
ACLSV (genus Trichovirus, family Flexiviridae), Tomato                Neoaliturus haematoceps has been shown to be a vector of
ring spot virus TomRSV (genus Nepovirus, family                       S. citri in Syria. Thus, the use of these tools for the early
Comoviridea), Tobacco ring spot virus TRSV (genus                     detection of the pathogen in infected plants and leafhopper
Nepovirus, family Comoviridae), Tomato black ring virus               vectors will be critical for improving the management and
ToBRV (genus Nepovirus, family Comoviridae) and                       containment of the disease.
Arabis mosaic virus ArMV (genus Nepovirus, family

                                                          2009    /                         27                                 E-93
V 58                                                                 (IPEST) B.P. 51, 2070 La Marsa, Tunisie, Email:
THE PRESENCE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS                                najar.asma@iresa.agrinet.tn
CAN CHANGE THE COURSE OF CITRUS                                                Essential oils have a multitude properties and are
INDUSTRY IN SYRIA. Raied Abou Kubaa1,3, Khaled                       used in many fields such as agri-food, phytotherapy and
Djelouah1, Maria Saponari2, Majd Jamal4 and Anna Maria               cosmetics. This study aims to highlight the antimicrobial
D’Onghia1. (1) Mediterranean Agronomic Institute, Via                effect of essential oils extracted from the flavedo of
Ceglie 9, 70010 Valenzano (BA), Italy; (2) Istituto di               Tunisian Maltaise “Demi-sanguine” trees grafted on two
Virologia Vegetale del CNR, Sezione di Bari, Via                     rootstocks cultivars: Sour orange and Citrumelo. Essential
Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari; (3) Dipartimento di                      oils were extracted from one healthy and one exocortis
Protezione delle Piante e Microbiologia Applicata,                   inoculated for each rootstock. Results showed that
Università degli Studi, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari,              regardless of their origin, the major component of those
Italy; (4) International Center for Agricultural Research in         essential oils was the limonene. However, the level of this
the Dry Areas, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria. E.mail:                 monoterpene varieed between 73% for a healthy citrumelo
raedsir@hotmail.com.                                                 and infected sour orange and 91% for the healthy sour
             Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the causal agent         orange and infected citrumelo. Despite of the fact that each
of the most important virus disease of citrus. CTV was               of these oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram+
detected for the first time in the Syrian citrus-growing areas       and Gram- bacteria tested, the inhibition diameter never
of Lattakia and Tartous by Direct Tissue Print                       exceeded 12 mm. The highest response was observed for
Immunobinding Assay (DTBIA) in 2006. About 2600                      Staphylococcus epidermidis in the case of sour orange
samples from commercial orchards and nurseries were                  extracts and for Bacillus subtilis in case of Citrumelo
tested, showing an infection rate of 3.5%. Sweet oranges             extracts. Escherichia coli was the most resistant bacteria
were the most infected in both types of stands. In particular,       with a maximum response of 8 mm. Finally, we have
the virus was detected in 16 Navel orange trees, used as             noticed that the essential oil extracted from the infected
budwood sources from Lattakia. Most of the infected trees            citrumelo has the most antifungal activity against
were apparently symptomless. To determine the genetic                Penicillium sp. isolated from an orange spoilage. This
diversity and CTV strains present in the country, infected           inhibition reached 50% after 24 hours and 42% after 48
samples were examined by single strand conformation                  hours of inocubation.
polymorphism (SSCP) of the major coat protein (CP),
multiple molecular markers analysis (MMM), and sequence              V 60
analysis of the CP gene. SSCP analysis of CP yielded two             DISCRIMINATION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS
distinct simple patterns and CP sequence analysis showed             (CTV)           INFECTED              PLANTS              BY
that both SSCP profiles belonged to viral isolates                   SPECTRORADIOMETER                      MEASUREMENTS.
genetically related to the severe VT strain. This finding was        Mabrouk Bouneb, Franco Santoro, Stefania Gualano,
also confirmed by MMM analysis. In fact, all infected                Khaled Djelouah and Anna Maria D’Onghia, Centre
samples reacted only with VT-specific markers (primer                International    de     Hautes     Etudes     Agronomiques
VTPOL, VT5’, VTK17). None of the other known CTV                     Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM/MAIB), Via Ceglie 9, 70010
genotypes were detected in the survey. Since the CTV-                Valenzano, Bari, Italy, Email: djelouah@iamb.it
sensitive sour orange rootstock is widely used in the Syrian                 CTV monitoring is of great importance for prompt
citrus industry, the discovery that only severe VT-like              large-scale detection of the virus outbreaks. Therefore, the
strains are spreading is especially worrying, and calls for          Apulia Region funded the present research work aimed at
the urgent enforcement of an effective national CTV                  applying proximal and remote sensing to virus monitoring.
management plan. Preventive measures such as monitoring              Leaf spectral signatures of a population of CTV-free and
and eradication of the pathogen as well as the control of            CTV-infected plants (Mexican lime on Troyer citrange)
vector populations must be prioritized as a first step               were measured by using a plant probe and a
towards the implementation of an efficient certification             spectroradiometer. The trial was run by inoculating a pure
programme of citrus propagating material.                            CTV-quick decline isolate (IAMB-Q 109) and growing the
                                                                     plants under a climate-controlled greenhouse and under a
V 59                                                                 screenhouse. Furthermore, a trial was conducted in two
COMBINED EFFECT OF ROOTSTOCK AND                                     commercial groves of clementine and sweet orange selected
EXOCORTIS VIROID ON THE ANTIMICROBIAL                                in a CTV outbreak area of Apulia. Serological and
ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED                                 molecular testing was performed to estimate the virus
FROM THE TUNISIAN CITRUS VARIETY                                     incidence in both plantings. Based on these results, 15
“MALTAISE DEMI-SANGUINE”. Nadia Chammem1,                            CTV-positive and 15 CTV-negative plants were selected
Asma Najar2, Chokri Jéribi3, Wissal Ben Chalbi1, Manef               and the canopy spectral signature was assessed. All the
Abderabba3 and Mokhtar Hamdi1. (1) Institut National des             trials showed a significant difference of reflectance values
Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie (INSAT), Centre                within the whole wavelength range (325-1075 nm) of the
urbain Nord. B.P. 676, 1080 Tunis, Tunisie; (2) Institut             instrument, highlighting a different reaction to the incident
National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie                      solar radiation of the CTV-positive plants compared to the
(INRAT). Rue Hedi Karray. 2049 Ariana, Tunisie; (3)                  CTV-negative plants. In the light of these results, it will be
Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques         possible to characterize this discrimination by adopting


E-94     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
specific vegetation indices that might be subjected to              unknown origin, the latter representing 72% of the total
algorithm processing in combination with satellite imaging.         infected material. Around the two nurseries, only one
                                                                    orchard was CTV infected, whereas no S .citri was
V 61                                                                detected.
SURVEY ON FIG VIRUSES IN LEBANON. Toufic
Elbeaino1, Christina Mortada1, Elia Choueiri2 and Michele           V 63
Digiaro1. (1) MAIB-CIHEAM, Mediterranean Agronomic                  CITRUS          TRISTEZA           VIRUS         IN       THE
Institute of Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy; (2) Department of        MEDITERRANEAN REGION: STATE OF THE ART
Plant Protection, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute,         AND CONTROL. Khaled Djelouah and A.M. D’Onghia,
Tal Amara, P.O. Box 287, Zahlé, Lebanon, Email:                     Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques
elbeaino@iamb.it                                                    Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM/MAIB), Via Ceglie 9, 70010
          A survey for viruses was carried out in the main          Valenzano, Bari, Italy, Email: djelouah@iamb.it
fig-growing areas of Lebanon (Bekaa and Mount Lebanon)                        The presence in northern Portugal and Spain of
in 2006-2008. A total of 102 samples was collected and              Toxoptera citricidus, the most efficient vector of citrus
checked by RT-PCR for the presence of Fig mosaic virus              tristeza virus (CTV), represents a serious threat for the
(FMV), Fig leaf mottle associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1), Fig            Mediterranean citrus industry, since the virus is present in
leaf mottle associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2), Fig mild                  perhaps all citrus growing areas. Despite the eradication
mottling associated virus (FMMaV) and an isometric still            programmes that have been undertaken by some countries
unclassified virus of the Tymoviridae family (hereafter             in the last few decades, the CTV distribution in the
referred to as FFkV) using virus-specific primers designed          Mediterranean area is not at all reassuring, most of these
in our laboratory. About 90% of the trees were infected by          countries grow their citrus orchards with intolerable scion-
at least one virus, with mixed infections in ca. 46% of the         sour orange combination, the inoculum is widely
samples. FLMaV-1 closterovirus was the prevailing virus             distributed and one of the most efficient CTV vectors Aphis
(47% infection), especially in Mount Lebanon (95%) and              gossypii is present. Considering the importance of this crop
on cv. Aswad (80%), followed by FMV Emaravirus (42.2%               from the economic and social point of view, CTV outbreaks
infection), which was particularly spread in North Bekaa            could be a disaster for the entire local citriculture. This
(68,1%) on cv. Biadi (50.8%). Other two viruses of the              situation prompted CIHEAM/Mediterranean Agronomic
family Closteroviridae, FLMaV-2 and FMMaV, were                     Institute of Bari to urgently promote a harmonized common
detected respectively in 29.4% and 26.5% of the samples,            action for the control of the virus and its vector in the whole
with FLMaV-2 particularly spread in north Bekaa (57.4%)             region.
on cv. Biadi (39.4%). FFkV was detected in 13.7% of
samples, with highest infection rate of 40% in cv.                  V 64
Houmairi.                                                           IDENTIFICATION OF SOME APHIDS VECTORS
                                                                    OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CITRUS GROVES
V 62                                                                OF SYRIA. Raied Abou Kubaa1, Rocco Addante2, Khaled
ASSESSMENT OF THE MAJOR CITRUS GRAFT-                               Djelouah1, Mahmoud Sha'ban3, Majd Jamal4 and A.M.
TRANSMISSIBLE DISEASES IN TWO EGYPTIANS                             D’Onghia1.(1) Mediterranean Agronomic Institute, Via
NURSERIES              ACCORDING             TO         THE         Ceglie 9, 70010 Valenzano (BA), Italy. (2) Dipartimento di
MANAGEMENT                     CONDITIONS               AND         Biologia e Chimica Agro-forestale ed Ambientale,
LOCALISATION. Mohammed Said Zaki Sherif1, Hesham                    Università degli Studi, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari,
Fahmy2 Monia Daden1 and Khaled Djelouah1. (1) MAIB-                 Italy. (3) General Commission for Scientific Agricultural
CIHEAM, Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari,                  Research, Tartous, Syria; (4) International Center for
Valenzano, Bari, Italy; (2) Certification Center of Bahteem,        Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, P.O. Box 5466,
Egypt, Email: djelouah@iamb.it                                      Aleppo, Syria. E.mail: raedsir@hotmail.com.
          Two Egyptian citrus nurseries, selected for their                   During the period from March to July 2006,
location and different citrus budwood management, were              surveys were carried out to determine the occurrence of
considered as a case study to highlight the importance of           aphids vectors of Citrus Tristeza Virus in the coastal region
nurseries in a citrus certification programme. Surveys were         of Syria. The experiment was conducted in 18 commercial
conducted in both nurseries for the presence of the main            fields in both Lattakia and Tartous Districts, in addition to
graft-transmissible pathogens (CTV, CPsV, CIVV, S. citri,           two budwood sources in Lattakia. Fifteen trees were
CEVd and CCaVd) and in the surrounding orchards for the             randomly selected in each grove across the diagonals of the
presence of the main vector-borne diseases (tristeza and            field and two infested shoots per tree (when present) were
stubborn). CTV was not reported from the two nurseries,             collected every three weeks, from different tree heights and
while CPsV, CIVV and S. citri infections reached 4.% of             orientation. In this study, four aphid species were found.
the tested plants, and viroid infection (CEVd, CCaVd) was           The green citrus aphid, A. spiraecola (Patch), was the
considerably higher (18%). Comparing the results obtained           dominant species in the investigated areas, representing
in both nurseries, the management and origin of the plant           50.0% of the total aphid population, followed by the cotton
material proved to be essential, since the mother plants kept       aphid, A. gossypii Glover (27.3%), T. aurantii (Boyer de
under screenhouse were less infected (14%) than mother              Fonscolombe), the black citrus aphid (20.3%), whereas the
plants grown in the open field (30%). Certified and tested          black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Scopoli) represented only
materials performed much better than the material of                2.3% of the population. The recent presence of citrus

                                                        2009    /                         27                                 E-95
tristeza virus in the Syrian cit5riculture, and its easy
dissemination by aphid vectors (as the cotton aphid is one           N2
of the most active vectors in the Mediterranean region               EFFECT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE BREAD
which caused CTV- outbreaks in some countries such as                YEAST         ON      MELOIDOGYNE               INCOGNITA
Spain) highlighting the importance of continuing vector              INFESTING GREEN BEAN AND ON YIELD
monitoring and rapid eradication specially in the mother             QUANTITY AND QUALITY. M.M.A. Youssef and
tree fields, thus preventing the establishment of the brown          Wafaa M.A. El–Nagdi, Nematology Laboratory, Plant
citrus aphid, T. citricidus (Kirkaldy), the most efficient           Pathology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki,
vector for CTV which was first reported close to the                 P.O.      Code      12622,      Cairo,     Egypt,     Email:
Mediterranean basin in the northern part of Portugal and             myoussef_2003@yahoo.com
Spain, and could be a potential threat to citriculture in the                 A biologically active compound, bread yeast
Mediterranean basin.                                                 Saccharomyces cerevisiae activated by adding sucrose,
                                                                     black honey and molasses was studied under field
NEMATODES                                                            conditions. After fermentation, yeast was used at
                                                                     concentrations of 0.25, 0.50 and 1% for biocontrol of
N1                                                                   Meloidogyne incogntia root-knot nematode infesting green
ROLE OF CROP ROTATION ON ROTYLENCHULUS                               bean cv. Paulista. All treatments significantly (P≤0.01 and
RENIFORMIS POPULATION WITH REFERENCE                                 0.05) decreased M. incognita as indicated by the number of
TO ITS MANAGEMENT ON COTTON PLANT,                                   galls and egg masses on roots. There was an inverse
GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSE IN CEMENT BINS                                  relationship between the number of galls and egg masses
UNDER OUTDOOR CONDITIONS. A.G. EL-Sherif1,                           and the respective concentrations used. In other words: one
A.E.M. Khalil2 and A.R. Refaei1. (1) Nematology Research             month after application, the highest concentration of yeast
Unit, Agriculture Zool. Department, Faculty of Agriculture,          caused the highest rate reduction of galls (66.7%) followed
Mansoura University, Egypt; (2) Nematology Division,                 by the moderate and the lowest concentration (55.6 and
Plant Pathology, Research Institute Centre, Giza, Egypt,             44.4%, respectively) for yeast activated by sucrose.
Email: Elsherifmohammed@yahoo.com                                    Whereas, yeast activated by black honey at different
          Population behavior of Rotylenchulus reniformis            concentrations caused equal reduction rate (66.7%) in the
as artificial infestation on winter crops, i.e. Egyptian clover      number of galls. Yeast activated by molasses at the highest
(Trifolium alexandrinum) or faba bean (Vicia faba)                   concentration caused the highest reduction rate of galls
preceding cotton cv. Giza 45 as a summer crop through                (77.8%) followed the other concentrations (66.7%). After
crop rotation system, was studied within cement bins under           three months (at harvest), the same treatments behaved in
outdoor conditions. The test also included management                the same trend in reducing nematode parameters(galls and
treatments using certain organic matters i.e. camel, horse           egg masses) as the highest concentrations of each activated
manures, dried leaf powder of perwinkle and adhatoda in              yeast caused the highest nematode reduction rate compared
comparison with a herbicide (Emax) and a nematicide,                 with other concentrations. In addition, yeast activated by
(oxamyl) during the growing season 2005/2006. Results                the different materials improved pod production quality
revealed that R. reniformis population fluctuated in soil of         (number and weight of pods) and quantity (proteins and
winter crops, increased from 200 individuals per 250 g. soil         carbohydrates) and number of nodules and directly
as the initial population to 264 or 300 individuals per 250 g.       positively proportional to the concentrations tested.
soil of Egyptian clover or faba bean in December 2005 and
then declined down to 170 or 190 individuals/250 g. soil in          N3
March, 2006 where soil temperature reached 19±5 ºC,                  EFFECT OF COMMERCIAL FORMULATION OF
respectively, after sowing cotton cv. Giza 454 seeds. With           BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND STREPTOMYCES
respect to its management on cotton, oxamyl sharply                  AVERMITILIS           ON       CITRUS        NEMATODE
suppressed nematode population below the economic                    TYLENCHULUS SEMIPENETRANS, YIELD AND
threshold level that was 125 individuals per 250 g. soil             FRUIT QUALITY OF MANDARIN. Wafaa M.A. El-
throughout the growing season. Periwinkle dried leaf                 Nagdi1, M.M.A. Youssef1 and M.H.A. Omaima2. (1)
powder ranked second to oxamyl in suppressing nematode               Department of Plant Pathology, Nematology Laboratory;
count, followed by Emax and camel manure with values of              (2) Department of Pomology, National Research Centre,
78.92%, 69.95% 68.35% and 56.87% suppresion,                         Dokki, P.O. Box 12622, Giza, Egypt,                  Email:
respectively. Also, rate of nematode build-up on cotton              omaimahafez@yahoo.com
roots under stress of the various tested treatments was                     The present study was performed during 2007 and
adversely affected with range between 0.11 to 1.4 vs 1.04            2008 seasons on 15 years old Balady mandarin (Citrus
folds for the control. Oxamyl treatment had the lowest rate          reticulata Blanco) trees grafted on Sour orange (Citrus
of nematode build-up (0.11), while adhatoda powder had               aurantium L.) rootstock, grown in sandy soil at 5×5m apart
the highest one (1.11). Meanwhile, cotton yield increase             under flood irrigation system. When studying the effect of a
values were 41.6%, 33.0%, 25.0% and 15.0% for oxamyl,                commercial formulation (agerin®) containing an isolate of
periwinkle powder, Emax and camel manure, respectively,              Bacillus thuringiensis at a rate of 1, 2 and 3 Kg/acre. and
whereas, the lowest values were recorded for horse manure            abamectin®1.8% (fermentation product of bacterium
(8.3%) and adhatoda powder (5.0%), respectively.                     Streptomyces avermitilis) at concentrations of 200, 400 and
                                                                     800 ppm on Tylenchulus semipenetrans citrus nematode,


E-96     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
nutritional status of mandarein trees and yield and fruit            Department of Plant Health, University of Bonn, Nussallee
quality. It was found that all the treatments tested reduced         9, 53115 Bonn, Germany, Email: m_elwy76@yahoo.com
nematode build up and the rate of build was positively                         Mutualistic endophytes are well known for their
correlated with the rates tested. Also, the treatments               antagonistic activity against a wide range of plant
markedly improved nutritional status, yield and fruit                pathogenic fungi and nematodes. In such tritrophic
quality. The best results were obtained from the highest rate        interactions, several mechanisms may be involved in
of agerin® as it reduced the population of this citrus               obtaining biocontrol of the pathogen and induced resistance
nematode as indicated by the rate of build up (final                 in the host elicited by the endophyte is considered one of
population/initial population). In other words, the highest          them. In order to obtain a better understanding of the
rate of agerin® caused the lowest rate 0.16 and 0.15. As for         responsible mechanisms and the abilities of the mutualistic
abamectin®, it behaved similarly as the highest rate caused          endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162 in
the lowest build up 0.21 and 0.15 in both seasons,                   preventing colonization of tomato by the sedentary
respectively followed by the moderate rates and the lowest           nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the induced resistance
rates. Moreover, the best results in relation to nutritional         responses were compared with the typical induced systemic
status of mandarin trees occurred by both compounds at the           resistance (ISR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR),
highest rate and concentration of agerin® and abamectin®,            which can be chemically induced using methyl jasmonate
respectively. These treatments increased the leaves mineral          (MeJa) and salicylic acid (SA), respectively. A split-root
content of macro elements (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and micro             technique was used, in which one side of the root system
elements (Fe, Zn and Mn). Also, these treatments increased           was treated with the inducing agent (inducer side) and the
the yield average by about 52.9 and 69.2%, 84.6 and                  other side (responder side) was inoculated with M.
115.4%, respectively for both compounds in the two                   incognita second-stage larvae J2. Results showed that all
seasons as compared to the untreated treatment (control). It         treatments reduced (P ≤ 0.05) tomato root galling by 68-
could be concluded that these compounds may be used in               91%. However, no significant differences in root weight
the control management of citrus nematode for their                  and growth of the responder side of the twin pots were
efficacy in reducing nematode, improving nutritional status          observed. Apparently, in host plants different systemically
of mandarin trees, yield and fruit quality. Moreover, these          induced resistance pathways can be stimulated, which
are low cost and safe to environment and human.                      ultimately all mobilize defense mechanisms responsible for
                                                                     controlling Meloidogyne incognita. This knowledge
N4                                                                   unlocks new perspectives for further dissecting the
FIELD APPLICATION OF BRASSICACEOUS                                   mechanism underlying the systemic induced resistance by
AMENDMENTS FOR CONTROL OF ROOT KNOT                                  using molecular biological tools.
NEMATODE               MELOIDOGYNE              INCOGNITA
INFESTING SUNFLOWER PLANTS. Hoda H. Ameen                            N6
and Moawed M.M. Mohammed, Nematology Unit, Plant                     EFFECT OF THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE
Pathology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki,               MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA AND INTERACTION
Giza, Egypt, Email: hoda_ameen@yahoo.co.uk                           WITH CERTAIN SOIL BORNE PATHOGENS ON
          A field study was conducted to evaluate the                TOBACCO SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLINGS
biofumigation effect of three brassicaceous amendments               GROWTH AT DIFFERENT AGES. Bassima G.
(cabbage,canola and turnip plants) when incorporated into            Antoon1, Muna H. Al-Jboory2 and Z.A. Stephan1. (1) Plant
the soil at three rates equivalent to 4, 6 and 8 tons /area to       Protection Research Center, State Board for Agricultural
control root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita                     Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq; (2)
infesting sunflower plants, as compared to the chemical              Department of Biology, College of Science, Baghdad
control using Vydate and bionematicide using a commercial            University,          Baghdad,          Iraq,          Email:
product (Micronema) which contains the following                     basimanematod@yahoo.com; zuhairstephan@yahoo.com
microorganisms: Bacillus spp., Rhizobacterium spp.                             Three experiments were conducted to study the
Pseudomonas spp. and Rhizobium spp. Results showed that              effect of the inocula levels of the root-knot nematode M.
all applications significantly reduced nematode population           javanica and the two pathogenic fungi Fusarium solani and
compared to the untreated check. The greatest reduction in           Macrophomina phaseolina before and at sowing of tobacco
nematodes population density was attained by incorporating           seeds, and on 3, 5 or 7 weeks old seedlings. Also, an
cabbage amendment to soil at a rate of 8 tons/area followed          experiment was designed to study the effect of nematode
by the canola amendment at 6 tons/area. On the other hand            population densities (0, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000
the highest amount of sunflower seeds production resulted            juveniles/pot) on 30 or 60 days old tobacco plants in plastic
from the canola treatments.                                          pots under plastic or shade house conditions. Results
                                                                     showed that application of different nematode inocula
N5                                                                   levels to 30 or 60 old tobacco days seedlings increased root
INDUCTION         OF       TOMATO        SYSTEMIC                    galling index and decreased plant height and dry shot and
RESISTANCE            AGAINST          ROOT-KNOT                     root weights by 7.29–72.9%, 38.5–75.0% and 41.4–88.5%,
NEMATODES USING ENDOPHYTIC FUSARIUM.                                 respectively. Interaction of the nematode with both fungi
Mohamed E. Selim, Richard A. Sikora and A. Schouten,                 negatively affected the seed germination rate and plant
Soil-Ecosystem Phytopathology and Nematology, Institute              growth with significant differences compared to the control
of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES),                   (untreated) plants. Also, the 5 and 7 weeks old tobacco

                                                         2009    /                        27                                E-97
seedlings showed more resistance to infection by the                 Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, College
disease complexes than those of the 3 weeks old seedlings.           of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University,
                                                                     P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia, Email:
N7                                                                   asalhazmi@ksu.edu.sa
CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE USING                                            Cereal cyst nematode, H. avenae is one of the
BACTERIAL NITROGEN FIXATION NODULES.                                 most serious pathogens, which causes severe yield losses to
Faissal Farawati and Mahabba Ghannam, Department of                  wheat in Saudi Arabia. In a breeding program to develop
Plant Protection Research, General Commission of                     resistant cultivar(s) to the cereal cyst nematode, H. avenae,
Scientific Agricultural Research. Douma, P.O. Box 113,               32 wheat genotypes (some of them were developed by King
Damascus,       Syria,      Email:     frwfai88@yahoo.com;           Saud University) were screened for resistance to a local
mahaba.2008@yahoo.com                                                population of this nematode in an outdoor pot experiment.
          Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita is a             Clean plastic pots, 15 cm diam. were filled with a nematode
pest prevalent throughout many greenhouse cultures in the            naturally- infested soil (20 eggs + J2/g soil). Pots were
Syrian coast. It's considered among the most important               planted with wheat seeds, and seedlings were thinned to
pests causing severe economic damage to tomato. In the               three plants/pots, soon after seed germination. Five
search of finding safe alternatives to control this pest, an in-     replicates were used for each genotype, and the known
vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency            susceptible cultivar “Yecora Rojo” was used as a
of faba bean bacterial nitrogen fixation nodules (Rhizobium          susceptible check. Pots were kept in the outdoor during the
spp.)     and      soybean      nitrogen-fixation      nodules       wheat-growing season, watered and fertilized as needed.
(Bradrhizobium spp.) for control of this disease. The                Seventy-five days after germination, plants were gently
different bacterial isolates showed a varied efficiency in the       freed from soil, roots were washed with tap water, and the
LC100 (Lethal concentration 100%) to kill/reduce the total           number of white cysts/plant was counted. Plants having
number of the second stage-larvae of root-knot nematode.             three (or less) cysts/plant were designated as resistant,
The average of LC100 capable to kill the total number of             while those having more cysts were designated as
larvae according to the three tested isolates (BR, RH5,              susceptible. All the tested genotypes were found to be
RH3) was 26.45, 27.25 and 56.77%, respectively.                      susceptible (with various degrees of susceptibility) to the
Moreover, the experiment showed an effective efficiency              local population of H. avenae. The tested genotypes were;
enhancement of the bacterial isolates to control of the root-        81470, 81471, 81472, 81473, 81474, 81475, 81476, 81477,
knot nematode 48 hours after infection. The RH3 isolate              HD 2329, Irena, Bonus, Kauz, Parus, TIA, Classik, KSU
showed greater efficiency of nematode control in the                 101, KSU 102, KSU 103, KSU 104, KSU 105, KSU 106,
second reading, where LC100 reached 91.12%.                          KSU 110, KSU 111, KSU 115, KSU 118, KSU 119, L 11-
                                                                     7, L 11-8, L 11-15, L 11-17, L 11-19, L 11-21, and Yecora
N8                                                                   Rojo (susceptible check).
RESPONSE          OF       SOME        CEREAL          AND
LEGUMINEOUS PLANT CULTIVARS TO ROOT-                                 N 10
KNOT NEMATODES. Luma Al Banna and Walid Abu-                         FIELD PERFORMANCE OF SOME SAUDI SPRING
Gharbieh, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of                 WHEAT GENOTYPES IN HETERODERA AVENAE-
Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, Email:             INFESTED SOIL. Ahmed A.M. Dawabah1, Ahmed S. Al-
lalbanna@ju.edu.jo                                                   Hazmi1, Abdulla Abdul-Aziz Aldoss2 and Khaled A.
         The response of some cereal and legumineous                 Mostafa2. (1) Plant Protection Department; (2) Plant
plant cultivars to three root-knot nematode species                  Production Department, Center of Excelence in
(Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica) was             Bioltechnology Research, College of Food and Agricultural
studied in a greenhouse pot experiment. Seven plants of              Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh
each cultivar were inoculated with 3000 eggs per plant from          11451, Saudi Arabia, Email: dawabah@hotmail.com
each nematode species .Two months after inoculation,                          Field performance of 11 spring wheat genotypes
roots were rated for root galling and egg mass production.           (developed by King Saud University) was evaluated in a H.
Results showed that cereal cultivars were poor hosts for the         avenae-infested field, in comparison with the international
tested nematode species, where no galling or only few galls          cultivars Irena and Yecora Rojo (the most commonly
and egg masses were found on the roots. Legumineous                  cultivated wheat cultivar in Saudi Arabia). A nematode-
cultivars were generally more susceptible to the tested              infested site (20 eggs/g soil) was selected and divided into
nematode species, compared to cereals. However,                      39 microplots (1.2 × 3 m), in a randomized complete block
legumineous cultivars reacted differently to the tested root-        design with three replicates. Seeds were hand-sown in 6
knot nematode species.                                               rows of 20 cm distances. One month before harvest, five
                                                                     plant samples (10 plants, each) were collected from each
N9                                                                   microplot to determine the number of white cysts/plant as
SCREENING OF SPRING WHEAT GENOTYPES                                  an indicator for nematode development. At the end of the
FOR RESISTANCE TO THE CEREAL CYST                                    season, plants were hand harvested, and the plant growth
NEMATODE, HETERODERA AVENAE IN SAUDI                                 components [grain yield, plant biomass and harvest index
ARABIA. Ahmad S. Al-Hazmi1, Ahmed A.M. Dawabah1,                     (HI)] were recorded. Results showed that all genotypes
Abdulla A. Aldoss2 and Khaled A. Mustafa2. (1) Plant                 tested were susceptible (number of white cysts/plant > 3) to
Protection Department; (2) Plant Production Department,              H. avenae, but with various degrees of susceptibility.


E-98     Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Nematode development (number of white cysts/plant) on                FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM (CDNA-
Saudi wheat genotypes was generally lower compared to                AFLP) TECHNIQUE. Mohamed A. M. Adam1, Mark
the cultivars Irena and Yecora Rojo. However, plant growth           S.Phillips2 and Vivian C. Blok2. (1) Plant Protection
components of Saudi genotypes were generally higher than             Department,      Agriculture     Faculty,   Omar-Almuktar
those of Irena and Yecora Rojo. Saudi genotypes; KSU                 University, P.O. Box 919, El Bieda, Libya; (2) Scottish
118, L 11-21, KSU 102 and L 11-23 had the highest grain              Crop Research Institute, Plant Pathogen Interactions
yields (8.5, 8.2, 8.0 and 8.0 tons/ha, respectively) among all       Programe, Invvergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK, Email:
the tested genotypes. Whereas, Irena and Yecora Rojo had             M_A_M_ADAM@yahoo.com
the lowest productivity (6.9 and 7.3 tons/ha, respectively).                  The use of tomato cultivars with the Mi resistance
                                                                     gene to control the most common and widely distributed
N 11                                                                 species of Root Knot Nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita,
HOST SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT GREEN BEAN                             M. javanica and M. arenaria, is considered to be more
CULTIVARS TO MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA.                                  environmentally friendly and safe approach compared with
Saleh, N. Al-Nadary, A. S. Al-Hazmi, F. A. Al-Yahya and              pesticide treatment. Unfortunately, resistance breaking
A. A. M. Dawabah, Plant Protection Department, Collage               (virulent) populations of these species can reproduce on
of Food Science and Agriculture, King Saud University,               these cultivars. Identifying avirulence factors should
Email: nadary3@yahoo.com                                             provide molecular markers that can be used to distinguish
          The host suitability of 15 green bean cultivars            Mi-virulent from avirulent populations, which may replace
(Phaseolus vulgaris) to M. incognita race 2 was studied in a         traditional biological methods to distinguish virulent and
greenhouse pot experiment (25±2ºC). Tested cultivars                 avirulent RKN populations. Comparison of gene expression
included: Alfa, Ambra, Catlas, Cilena, Concord Improved,             profiles between naturally Mi-virulent and avirulent M.
Contender, Cora, Extra, Leader, Nita, and Strike, and four           javanica populations using the complementary DNA
Yemeni cultivars. All cultivars tested were inoculated at the        amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP)
rate of 5000 egg / pot. Sixty days after inoculation, the test       technique using 185 combinations of primers with seven M.
was terminated. Numbers of galls and eggs on roots were              javanica lines revealed high similarities between the lines
counted and recorded. Galling index (GI= 0-5) and                    which ranged between 0.96-0.98. A phylogenetic tree
reproduction factor (Rf) were calculated for each cultivar.          showed two groups of lines that were independent of their
Results indicated that all cultivars, were very heavily galled       virulence status. Four bands were identified, three of which
(GI= 5), except for the Yemeni cultivar Y3 (GI= 4). The              displayed differences in their presence between the virulent
nematode reproduced very well on all tested cultivars (Rf =          and avirulent M. javanica lines. Two were present in the
40-114), except on the Yemeni cultivar Y3 (Rf= 6.2).                 virulent but absent in the avirulent lines whereas the third
Based on values of GI, Rf and the Canto-Saennz slandered             one was present in the avirulent and not in the virulent
test, all cultivars are susceptible to M. incognita race 2           lines. In contrast, a small difference in the size was
(GI>2), and considered to be good hosts (Rf>1) to this               observed between the virulent and avirulent lines with the
nematode.                                                            fourth band. Moreover these fragments were sequenced and
                                                                     expression was tested using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-
N 12                                                                 PCR). The full length of one of these sequences (1163 bp)
FUNGI PARASITIZING THE CEREAL CYST                                   was obtained and encodes a 322 aa protein with a signal
NEMATODE HETERODERA AVENAE IN TUNISIA.                               secretion peptide of 22 aa. This proline rich protein, which
Najoua-Namouchi Kachouri1 and Kallel Sadreddine2. (1)                was named Prp, consists of 16.2% proline. The gene is
Laboratoire de Protection des Végétaux 2049 INRAT                    transcribed only in J2 but not in eggs or females, and is
Tunisie,      Email:      kachouri.najoua@iresa.agrinet.tn;          expressed in the subventral gland. However there were no
n_najoua@yahoo.fr; (2) INAT, 1082 cité Mahrajène, Tunis.             differences in the expression of this gene between virulent
Fungal species parasitizing females and cysts of Heterodera          and avirulent lines.
avenae collected from cereal fields in six Tunisian regions
were isolated and identified. More than 16 different fungal          N 14
species were identified. The frequency of fungi colonizing           INTERACTION EFFECT BETWEEN ROOT-KNOT
brown cysts were relatively higher han those parasitizing            NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA AND
white females. The frequency of fungi associated with the            THE MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI GLOMUS MOSSEAE
brown cysts in soil increased as the time they stayed in the         ON EGPLANT. Asma Haidar1, Khaled Al-Assas2 and
soil increased. Cysts were generally associated with more            Kamal Al-Ashkar3. (1) Biological Control Studies and
than one fungus. Pochonia chlamydosporia (= V.                       Researches Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus
chlamydosporium) was the most encountered fungal species             University, Syria, Email: esraaha77@yahoo.com; (2) Plant
on the females and cysts of H. avenae, and was found in all          Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus
the surveyed regions.                                                University, Syria, Email: khaledalass@hotmail.com; (3)
                                                                     Plant Department, Faculty of Science, Damascus
N 13                                                                 University, Syria.
COMPARISON OF GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES                                        To identify the antagonism effect between
BETWEEN MI-VIRULENT AND AVIRULENT M.                                 mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae and southern root-knot
JAVANICA   POPULATIONS    USING   THE                                nematode Meloidogyne incognita, and their corporate effect
COMPLEMENTARY           DNA-AMPLIFIED                                on growth of eggplant, the inoculum of nematode and fungi

                                                         2009    /                        27                                E-99
were collected from eggplant fields in Reef Damascus                 samples from fig trees, tomato, eggplant and cucumber
governorate, Syria. Results of a pot experiment in 2007              were collected from three geographical areas of Jordan
showed that inoculation with nematode reduced foliar and             (Safi, Central Jordan Valley and Jerash). Paecilomyces
root weight by 18.77% and 16.48%, respectively in                    variotii occurred in 10% of the samples and was found in
comparison with control treatment, and reduced production            both females and egg masses of M. javanica. Results
by 18.8% in comparison with control, but the treatment               showed that the local isolates of P. variotii, as nematode
with the mycorrhizal fungi increased foliar weight between           antagonists, resulted in egg parasitism of about 61.4%
0.95% and 25.54% in comparison with non-inoculated                   compared to 68.5% for P. lilacinus. Moreover, both species
control according to plant phenological phase. Results also          were able to parasitize females and freed eggs and to reduce
showed asured that ionculation of G. mosseae increased               hatching of second stage juveniles. Under laboratory
root weight with or without nematode based on time of                conditions, P. lilacinus, on agar plates, parasitized females
addition of the nematode and the fungi. In addition,                 significantly higher than local isolates of P. variotii.
nematode addition reduced the mycorrhization by 28.55%               Isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii
in comparison with control, and the reduction level was              parasitized heat-killed eggs nearly equally, but at rates
higher than when the nematode was added to the root                  higher than those of live eggs within egg masses,
before the fungi. Inoculation with fungi reduced the number          suggesting that both species possess high saprophytic
of the nematode 2nd juvenile larvae in soil by 29.30% in             ability.
comparison with the control, and caused reduction of gall
index of nematode on the roots by different rates. Results of        N 17
soil elements analysis (NPK, C/N, organic material                   STATUS OF THE NEWLY DISCOVERED PALE
percentage) indicated that the role of G. mosseae is by              CYST NEMATODE, GLOBODERA PALLIDA ON
increasing the phosphorous absorption from soil by 30.46%            POTATO IN USA. Saad L. Hafez and P. Sundararaj,
in comparison with control, and this improved foliar and             University of Idaho, Parma Research and Extension Center,
root growth and plant production.                                    29603 U of I Ln, Parma, Idaho 83660, USA, Email:
                                                                     shafez@uidaho.edu
N 15                                                                           Idaho is the number one potato producer in the
SURVEY OF NEMATODE GENERA IN VINEYARD                                United States, growing about one-third of the country’s
AREAS        AND         THEIR         GEOGRAPHICAL                  potato production (12.5 billion pounds), which earned
DISTRIBUTION           IN     NORTHEN          ALGERIA               farmers about US$700 million and was worth about US$2
VINEYARDS. Farid Bounaceur1,2, Fadhila Safiddine3,                   billion to the state. The pale cyst nematode Globodera
Dahouia Nebih-Hadj Sadouk3, Amina Djemai3 Fatima                     pallida was discovered in Idaho at a potato (Solanum
Zohra Bissaad2, Bahia Doumaindji-Mitiche2 and Atika                  tuberosum) processing facility in eastern Idaho. This is the
Benrima Guendouz3. (1) Department of Biology, University             first time the pale cyst nematode has been found in the
Ibn Khaldoun Tiaret, Algeria; (2) Department of Zoology,             United States. G. pallida, is a major pest of potato crops in
National Institute of Agronomy, Algiers, Algeria; (3)                cool-temperate areas. It primarily affects plants within the
Department of Agronomy, Faculty Agro-veto, University                potato family including tomatoes, eggplants and some
Saâd Dehleb, Blida, Algeria, Email: fbounaceur@yahoo.fr              weeds. This was significant to producers because it can
         A survey for nematodes was carried out in the               attack the roots and reduce yields by up to 80 percent. The
major vineyard producing areas in central and western                finding immediately galvanized the potato industry into
Algeria during 2007 and 2008 seasons. Nematode genera                action. The university has conducted more than 9,000 soil
were extracted and identified from the soil samples.                 sample tests since 2006. Early discovery of PCN in Idaho
Inventory showed diversity of genera based on vineyards              minimizes future potato production costs and enhances
location: Tylenchus, Tylenchorenchus, Helicotylenchus,               product quality and marketability. Though PCN is widely
Aphelenchus,     Ditylenchus    and     Xiphinema.  The              distributed in many potato-growing regions throughout the
geographical distribution showed differences in among                world, its infestation in Idaho appears to be isolated. The
locations.                                                           nematode does not pose any threat to human health, but can
                                                                     reduce the yield of potatoes and other crops. Affected
N 16                                                                 potato plants may exhibit yellowing, wilting or death of
NEMATOPHAGAL ABILITY OF JORDANIAN                                    foliage. However, there is no sign that the quality of tubers
ISOLATES OF PAECILOMYCES VARIOTII TO                                 grown in Idaho has been affected. Regulatory programs
PARSATIZE ON THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE                                  were implemented at the positive site designed to prevent
MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA. M. Al-Qasim1, W. Abu-                          the pest’s spread to other fields. Additional surveillance
Gharbieh2 and K. Assas3. (1) National Center for                     programs and regulations were implemented to restrict the
Agricultural Research and Extension, MOA, Amman,                     movement of plants and soil with appropriate sanitation
Jordan, Email: mohdqasim@maktoob.com; (2) University                 procedures for equipment used in regulated field to prevent
of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; (2) University of Damascus,                the spread of this nematode. Appropriate crop rotation and
Damascus, Syria.                                                     the use of certified seed and nematicides are an effective
         The distribution and nematophagal ability of local          and practical strategy to enhance PCN decline rates.
isolates of Paecilomyces variotii against the root-knot              Eradication program is under way in the infested fields by
nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne javanica, was investigated               the use of high rate of soil fumigants and planting different
under laboratory conditions. Eighty RKN-infected root


E-100    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
green mnaure crops. Potato production is prohibited in the             numbers of these juveniles in grape roots, and also numbers
infested fields.                                                       of root galls (54%). At harvest, the highest rate reductions
                                                                       in the number of nematode juveniles in soil (70%), grape
N 18                                                                   roots (40%), and root galls (72%) was achieved by sea
COMBINATION OF THE NEMATOPHAGOUS                                       ambrosia, sweet marjoram and salvia extracts, respectively.
FUNGUS PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AND SOME                                 However, repeated treatment with sweet marjoram extract
AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS IN CONTROLLING                                   reduced number of nematode juveniles in both soil and
MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA INFECTING POTATO.                                 grape roots by 100%. While, the highest reduction rate in
A.E. Khalil and Samaa M. Shawky, Nematology                            the number of root galls was achieved by salvia extract
Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute,                        (46%). At harvest, salvia caused the highest reduction in the
Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt, Email:                      numbers of nematode juvenile in both soil (84%) and grape
ashraf_373@yahoo.com                                                   roots (100%), as well as numbers of root galls (80%).
      An experiment was conducted to determine the                     Abamectin and fertile caused reductions in the numbers of
impact of six aqueous leaf extracts (Vinca rosea, Datura               nematode juveniles in soil (69 and 31%, respectively), and
stramonium, Tagetes erecta, Aambrosia maritima, Ocimum                 grape roots (76 and 62%, respectively) as well as numbers
basilicum, Bougainvillea spectabilis) alone or combined                of root galls (36 and 76%, respectively). All treatments
with the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus                   increased weight and numbers of clusters/vine, compared to
against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica on                the controls. However, repeated treatments twice were
potato(Solanum tuberosum) cv. Diamant, under greenhouse                better than single treatments.
conditions in Egypt. Results indicated that most treatments
caused significant increase in potato plant growth, but with           N 20
different degrees. The combination treatment of P. lilacinus           GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE AT DIFFERENT
+ D. stramonium caused the highest increase of whole plant             LEVELS OF PRATYLENCHUS ZEAE IN SILTY
fresh weight (78.1%), while the treatment of O. basilicum              CLAY LOAM SOIL. M.M.M. Mohamed and A.M.
alone gave the lowest increase of the whole plant fresh                Korayem, Plant Pathology and Nematology Department,
weight (23.8%). In addition, treatments singly or combined             National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, Email:
increased fresh weight and length of the whole plants as               moawad_bondok@yahoo.co.uk
well as weight of potato tubers. Also, the combination of P.                 Seeds of Single Cross Hybrid 10 maize, Zea mays L.
lilacinus + D. stramonium showed the highest efficacy in               were grown in silty clay loam soil naturally infested with
reducing nematode population in both soil and roots. On the            Pratylenchus zeae Graham. The initial nematode population
other hand, the treatment of P. lilacinus alone showed the             densities were estimated in 100 micro-plots that were
least effect. The combined effect of P. lilacinus + D.                 randomly selected to obtain different nematode population
stramonium induced a remarkable reduction in nematode                  densities. The nematode population densities ranged from
numbers and improved both plant growth and tuber weight,               250 to 1600 individuals per kg soil. There was a negative
compared to nematode treatment alone.                                  correlation between maize yield and the initial nematode
                                                                       population, but no significant reduction in maize yield was
N 19                                                                   obtained by the nematode population tested. No tolerance
EFFECT OF CERTAIN MEDICINAL PLANT                                      limit and damage threshold level were detected within the
EXTRACTS AND BIO-AGENTS IN CONTROLLING                                 P. zeae population range (250-1600 nematodes/kg soil)
MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON GRAPE. Wafaa                                  tested.
M.A. El-Nagdi and M.M.A. Youssef, Nematology
Laboratory, Plant Pathology Department, National                       N 21
Resaerch Centre, Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt, Email:                     EFFECT OF CERTAIN ORGANIC COMPOSTS ON
wafaa_elnagdi@yahoo.com.                                               SUNFLOWER PLANTS INFECTED WITH ROOT
The effect of three aqueous extracts of the plants sweet               KNOT NEMATODE, MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA
marjoram, salvia and sea ambrosia on Meloidogyne                       UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS. Susan A. Hasabo,
incognita-second stage juveniles was primarily studied                 Nematology Laboratory, Plant Pathology Department,
under laboratory conditions. All extracts, at the highest              National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, Email:
concentrations, caused 100% mortality of the nematode                  moawad_bondok@yahoo.co.uk
juveniles. The efficacy of all extracts, in addition to the bio-                The effect of three composts viz., pigeon, sheep
fertilizer "fertile", and the biocide "abamectin 1.8%", in             and cattle applied at three different times were studied
controlling M. incognita on grape cv. "Bez Al-Anza" was                under field conditions for three consecutive years. These
also studied under field conditions. Results showed that               composts were applied as soil amendments for the control
single treatments of sweet marjoram and sea ambrosia gave              of Meloidogne incognita at the rates of 2, 4, 8 ton/feddan)
the highest reduction rate in the numbers of M. incognita-             to sunflower cv. Euroflower 40 days before planting
second stage juveniles in both soil (94%) and grape roots              (season, 2006), at planting (season, 2007) or left for a week
(79-86%), and also, number of root galls (7-35%), one                  to allow decomposition before planting (season 2008). All
month after treatment. Two months after treatment, sea                 materials tested significantly reduced the number of galls,
ambrosia extract gave the highest reduction (83%) in the               egg masses and second stage juveniles of the nematode in
numbers of nematode juveniles in the soil, while sweet                 the soil and increased the weight of flowering discs,
marjoram extract gave the highest reduction (79%) in the               especially at the rate of 4 tons/feddan, during the three

                                                           2009    /                        27                               E-101
cropping seasons. The application of the composts also               University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, Email:
inhibited growth of the pathogenic fungi Pythium sp. and             ssmh_85@yahoo.com; lalbanna@ju.edu.jo
Alternaria sp. and increased number of beneficial fungi                        Root knot nematodes (RKN) and citrus nematode
such as Trichoderma harzianum, Arthrobotrys conoides and             are important pests causing severe losses of economic
Dactylaria brochopaga.                                               plants. Several methods are used to effectively suppress
                                                                     RKN. However, there are constrains that limit the use of
N 22                                                                 such methods. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the
GROWTH,             YIELD           AND        CHEMICAL              efficacy of calcium and magnesium phosphonate fertilizers,
COMPOSITION             OF       SUNFLOWER            SEEDS          which are essential agricultural practices, in suppressing
INFECTED WITH DIFFERENT ROOT-KNOT                                    two RKN species Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita,
NEMATODE POPULATION DENSITIES. A.M.                                  and the citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans. The
Korayem1, Mona G. Dawood2 and M.M.M. Mohamed2. (1)                   results showed that the exposure to the phosphonat
Plant Pathology and Nematology Department; (2) Botany                fertilizers caused a complete kill of the second stage
Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt,                  juveniles of the three studied nematodes. Moreover the two
Email: kor_asm@yahoo.com                                             fertilizers prevented hatching of the RKN juveniles. In
         The effect of Meloidogyne incognita root-knot               conclusion, results were encouraging to recommend the
nematode on the growth and yield of sunflower grown in               use of these fertilizers, which are plant growth enhancers,
two different geographical regions was investigated in               as an ecofriendly alternative method to control plant
microplots, at initial population densities of 0, 10, 100,           parasitic nematodes.
1000, 10000, 20000 eggs and juveniles/kg soil. Tolerance
limits of sunflower growth and yield as well as the                  N 25
chemical composition of sunflower seeds including oil,               A FIELD TRIAL TO USE THE NEMATODE-
protein, carbohydrate, phenolic compound contents and                TRAPPING              FUNGUS            ARTHROBOTRYS
fatty acids composition were estimated. Tolerance limits             DACTYLOIDES TO CONTROL ROOT-KNOT
(T) for fresh shoot and seed weights were 110, 350 eggs              NEMATODE             MELOIDOGYNE              INCOGNITA
and juveniles of M. incognita/kg soil, respectively, at Kafr-        INFECTING BEAN PLANTS. Ezzat M.A. Noweer,
Kandeel (Giza) region, and 105 and 153 eggs and                      Nematology Unit, Plant pathology Department, National
juveniles/kg soil respectively, at Kafr-Elsheikh region. Seed        Research        Center,      Giza,      Egypt,       Email:
oil content (seed quality) and protein content in oil cakes          enoweer@hotmail.com
(meal) decreased due to nematode infection, and the                           Microbial control of root-knot nematode by using
reduction increased by increasing nematode inoculum. The             the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys dactyloides
fatty acids (oil quality) were not affected by nematode              alone or in combination with yeast, molasses and
infection.                                                           vermiculate is reported under field condition. The results
                                                                     revealed that the highest percentage reduction in number of
N 23                                                                 nematode larvae per 1kg soil was achieved when applying
SALT        SUPPRESSION          OF      MELOIDOGYNE                 the fungus A. dactyloides with yeast, molasses and
JAVANICA ON TOMATO. Muwaffaq Karajeh1 and Farah                      vermiculate. Also the highest percentage reduction in
Al-Nasir2. (1) Plant Pathology Laboratory; (2) Soil Science          number of root-galls per plant (87%) was achieved by using
Laboratory, Mutah University, Karak, P.O. Box 7, zip code            the fungus A. dactyloides with yeast, molasses and
61710, Jordan, Email: muwaffaq@mutah.edu.jo                          vermiculate. The data revealed that the weight of fruits per
          The influence of ammonium chloride, potassium              bean plant significantly (P≤0.05 and/or P≤ 0.01) increased
nitrate and sodium chloride, and inoculation with the root-          in all nematode-trapping fungus A. dactyloides treatments
knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, were evaluated at                compared to the untreated check treatment.
two levels of electrical conductivity (EC) 4 and 8 in two
tomato cultivars (GS12, root-knot susceptible, and Asala,            N 26
root-knot resistant). Ammonium chloride was more                     OCCURRENCE             AND       DESCRIPTION           OF
effective than potassium nitrate at both ECs in causing              ROTYLENCHULUS BOREALIS IN AL-QASSIM
mortality of second-stage juveniles and reducing nematode            FIELDS, SAUDI ARABIA. Suloiman Al-Rehiayani,
reproduction (number of eggs/g fresh root weight) and root           Medhat Belal and Hind Al-Twajrrey, Plant Production &
galling. Sodium chloride and potassium nitrate caused                Protection Department, College of Agriculture &
significantly greater reductions of shoot and root fresh             Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, P.O.
weights of tomato than ammonium chloride. Thus, it is                Box 6622, Saudi Arabia, Email: Alreh@yahoo.com
assumed that ammonium chloride could be used as an                            Rotylenchulus borealis has been found in Al-
effective and environmentally acceptable control option              Qassim fields, infecting native weed-grass roots grown
against M. javanica on tomato.                                       along with Date palm trees. The morphological characters
                                                                     of the species indicated that female has high lip region,
N 24                                                                 conoid with annulation, with a stylet length of 10-11µm,
SUPPRESSION OF ROOT KNOT AND CITRUS                                  and vulva is located 55% of the body lentgth. The length of
NEMATODES            USING           PHOSPHONATE                     hyaline portion of the tail is 6-7 μm. The male of the
FERTILIZERS. Samer Habash and Luma Al Banna,                         species was present. Illustrations, key features, and
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,              measurements of representative populations indicated that


E-102    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
the given species was Rotylenchulus borealis. Also,                  reduction in the length and dry weight of shoots and roots,
sections from infected roots with females showed the                 and such reduction was proportional to the susceptibility of
nematode feeding on syncitia formed by endodermial,                  the cucurbit varities to the nematode.
precyclic, and vascular paranchema cells in a manner
similar to that reported for other hosts of the R. borealis          N 29
nematode.                                                            CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND INTEGRATED
                                                                     CONTROL OF THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE
N 27                                                                 MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ON CUCUMBER
DETECTION               OF       ENTOMOPATHOGENIC                    PLANTS. Sulaiman N. Ami1 and Ayoub I. Ahmed2 (1).
NEMATODES (EPNS) IN ALMOND ORCHARDS OF                               Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture,
HOMS AND HAMA GOVERNORATES OF SYRIA.                                 University of Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan region, Iraq; (2)
Khaled Al-Assas1 and Asma Haidar2. (1) Plant Protection              Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture,
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University,             University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan region,
Syria, Email: khaledalass@hotmail.com; (2) Biological                Iraq, Email: sulaimanami@yahoo.com
Control Studies and Researches Center, Faculty of                             Three treatments were applied for controlling
Agriculture, Damascus University, Syria, Email:                      root–knot nematode M. javanica on cucumber plants cv
esraaha77@yahoo.com                                                  Babylon. The treatments included: vydate (24%) in its
          Fifty-seven complex soil samples were collected            liquid formula, and two biocontrol agents included
from peach, almond and prune orchards at Homs and Hama               Trichoderma harziaum and Bacillus thuringinesis as a
governorates of Syria, in order to identify                          single, twofold and triple treatments combined. The results
entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) natural populations.               revealed that all treatments reduced infection based on
EPNs (extracted by Galleria melonella larvae baiting                 defined criteria (i.e, number of rootgalls, root-knot index,
technique) were found in 12.3% of sampled fields. Four               nematode population density and rate of reproduction), and
isolates were identified as Heterorhabditis spp.                     improved growth of cucumber plants (i.e, length and weight
(Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) with a relative frequency            of shoots and roots). It was also noted that pre-plant
of 7.0%, and three isolates were identified as Steinernema           application of all treatments was better than that of post-
spp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) with a relative                  plant application, and their effects increased when
frequency of 5.3%. Soil analysis showed that Steinernema             combined. The triple treatment which represented the
spp. distributed in silty-loam soils, and Heterorhabditis spp.       application of the two biocontrol agents 15 days after
in sandy soils and silty clay loam soils, and soil acidity           vydate application was the best.
(pH) in positive samples were between 7.6-7.9. This is the
first record of (EPNs) in the middle region of Syria.                N 30
                                                                     PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES ASSOCIATED
N 28                                                                 WITH PEACH (PRUNUS PERSICA) ORCHARDS IN
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME CUCURBITACEAE                                 DAMASCUS AND HAMA GOVERNORATES OF
PLANTS          TO       ROOT–KNOT             NEMATODE              SYRIA. M. Al-Qasim1, K. Assas2, Lama Al-Banna3 and W.
MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA. Ayoub I. Ahmed1 and                            Abu-Gharbieh3. (1) National Center for Agricultural
Sulaiman N. Ami2. (1) Department of Plant Protection,                Research and Extension, MOA, Amman, Jordan, Email:
Agricultural College, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq,         mohdqasim@maktoob.com; (2) University of Damascus,
Email: ayoubdebaga@yahoo.com; (2) Department of Plant                Damascus, Syria; (3) University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
Protection, Agricultural College, University of Dohuk, Iraq,                The study surveyed the occurrence of plant parasitic
Email: sulaimanami@yahoo.com                                         nematodes in peach orchards in Damascus and Hama
        Three varieties of each of cucumber, water melon             governorates of Syrian Arab Republic. One hundred twenty
and squash and two varieties of each of snake melon and              six random soil and root samples were collected from 63
melon were selected to test their susceptibility to root–knot        bearing peach orchards of Ghuta, Zabadani, Yabrod,
nematode Meloidogyne javanica, depending on some                     Syrghaya and Kharabo areas in Damascus governorate, and
infection criteria (number of rootknots, root–knot index,            Salmieh, Qamhaneh, Sqailbieh, Rastan, Kufr Ton, Arzeh,
nematode population density and its reproduction rate). The          Sheha, Balhasen, Sharaya areas in Hama governorate. The
results revealed that the varieties of cucumber (Babylon,            results revealed that the root-knot nematode (RKN)
Ghazeer and Hamada) were very susceptible to the                     Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) Chitwood
nematode, and two varieties of water melon (Charlee and              1949 was distributed in many peach orchards of Hama
Sugar Baby) were intermediate, while the third variety               governorate of Syria (44% of samples), with an average of
(Charleston Grey) was intermediate in its resistance.                10-90 second stage juveniles/100 cc soil, and 20-330
Results showed that the squash variety zucchini Kriti was            galls/10 gm roots, while samples of Damascus governorate
susceptible whereas the other two varieties (Hakim and               peach orchards were free of the RKN infection. However,
Amjad) possessed an intermediate susceptibility. Snake               an infection appeared on peach transplants of Nasrieha
melon variety Karamlase was highly susceptible while the             nursery. On the other hand, the lesion nematode
local variety was susceptible. It was also found that one            Pratylenchus spp. was reported in 4% and 23% with an
variety of melon (Ananas) was susceptible and the other              average of 30 and 36 nematode counts per 100 cc soil in
(Extra Ananas) was intermediate in its susceptibility. In            samples from Hama and Damascus peach orchards,
addition, results showed that the nematode caused distinct           respectively. The dagger nematode Xiphinema spp. was

                                                         2009    /                        27                              E-103
reported in 11% of samples from Hama peach orchards                  along with viable cysts were recorded. Data from this study
only with an average of 28 nematode counts per 100 cc soil.          revealed that there was a significant difference in the cyst,
Two species of the dagger nematode were identified as X.             eggs and larval population among the varieties tested. The
pyrenaicum Dalmasso, 1964 and X. intermedium Lamberti                lowest level of cyst, eggs and larvae were observed with
& Bleve-Zacheo, 1979. Paratylenchus spp., Amplimerlinius             Colonel followed by Ramses. For the second experiment in
spp., Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchus spp., were found            the field study, three varieties were planted in the fall 2006
in 26%, 36%, 21% and 14% (223, 52, 46, and 29 nematode               in a field that was naturally and heavily infested with
counts/100 cc soil), respectively, in samples from Hama.             H.schachtii. They were mechanically chopped three months
While Amplimerlinius spp. and Helicotylenchus spp. were              after planting and roots and shoots were incorporated into
reported in 3.8% and 40% (29, and 120 nematode                       the soil by double-disking. Sugar beet was planted over all
counts/100 cc soil), respectively, in samples from                   treatments in spring, 2007 following incorporation of the
Damascus peach orchards. This is the first report of plant           green manure trap crops. Sugar beet was harvested at
parasitic nematodes associated with peach orchards of                maturity and the yield data along with sugar percent were
Syria.                                                               recorded. Data from this study revealed that that there was a
                                                                     significant increase of beet yield in trap crop planted plots
N 31                                                                 compared to the fallow. The maximum yield increase was
MANAGEMENT OF MELOIDOGYNE CHITWOODI                                  in the Colonel planted plots followed by Ramses and
IN POTATO BY DMDS AND A BIOLOGICAL                                   Saloon. There was no significant difference in sugar percent
PRODUCT BACILLUS FIRMUS IN IDAHO, USA.                               of beet due to the planting of trap crops.
Saad L. Hafez and P. Sundararaj, University of Idaho,
Parma Research and Extension Center, 29603 U of I Ln,                N 33
Parma, Idaho 83660, USA, Email: shafez@uidaho.edu                    EFFICACY OF SEED TREATMENT IN THE
         Dimethyl di-sulphide (DMDS) is a hihly volatile,            MANAGEMENT STRATEGY OF HETERODERA
water soluble compound found in the plants from Allium               SCHACHTII ON SUGAR BEET. Saad L. Hafez and P.
family. Chancellor is a biopesticide active ingredient,              Sundararaj, University of Idaho, Parma Research and
Bacillus firmus. The efficacy of these two products on               Extension Center, 29603 U of I Ln, Parma, Idaho 83660,
Meloidogyne chitwoodi has been tested. Five months after             USA, Email: shafez@uidaho.edu
planting, the tubers were harvested, graded and evaluated                     Two field experiments were conducted in order to
for nematode infection. Nematode population, nematode                find out the efficacy of Temik 15G along with Admire Pro
infected tubers as well as percent of nematode infection was         and Poncho Beta seed on the sugar beet cyst nematode
significantly reduced in treated plots with an increase in           management in sugar beet. Five months after planting beets
clean and total yield compared to control plots. Percent of          were harvested from 20 ft of the middle two rows of each
tubers with nematode infection in DMDS treated plots                 plot, weighed and yield data recorded. Results showed that
ranged from 0.2 to 25.6. Chancellor treatments indicated             application of Temik at planting along with the seed
that percent of tubers with nematode infection in treated            treatment has significantly increased the beet yield
plots ranged from 31.5 to 97.8. Lowest level of nematode             compared to the untreated control. Percent yield increase
infection was recorded in the plots treated with Temik +             (25.9%) was also greatest in that treatment. The highest
Vydate treatment followed by the highest rates of Bacillus           plant vigor was observed in the plots treated with Temik +
firmus treatments. DMDS is a promising alternative                   the seed treatment. The combination of seed treatment and
nematicide for Columbia root knot nematode on potatoes               Temik performed better than other treatments in terms of
and Chancellor is a potential nonchemical alternative for            beet yield and plant vigor. Maximum reduction of
Columbia root knot nematode management on potatoes.                  nematode population and yield increase were in the plots of
Stand alone treatment is not sufficient but effective in             seed treated withPoncho Beta plus Temik, followed by the
combination with other management practices.                         treatment Poncho Beta plus EXP3. Application of Temik at
                                                                     planting and side dressing (20lb/A +13lb/A) or single
N 32                                                                 application of Temik along with seed treatment (Poncho
USE OF TRAP CROPS IN THE MANAGEMENT                                  Beta Fs 453, 68 G A/Unit + Exp3 90 G A/Unit)
STRATEGY OF HETERODERA SCHACHTII IN                                  significantly increased the beet yield compared to the
SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION. Saad L. Hafez and P.                          untreated control. The highest plant vigor and percent yield
Sundararaj, University of Idaho, Parma Research and                  increase (58.7 and 49.1) was also maximum in the same
Extension Center, 29603 U of I Ln, Parma, Idaho 83660,               treatments. In general, split application Temik alone or
USA, Email: shafez@uidaho.edu                                        single application of Temik along with seed treatment
          Two experiments were conducted in order to study           performed better than other treatments in terms of beet
the effect of two oilradish (Colonel and Ramses) and one             yield.
mustard (Saloon) varieties on Heterodera schachtii. For the
first experiment (green house), all three varieties were             N 34
planted in individual pots (500 cc) filled with soil infested        MANAGEMENT         OF     LESION       NEMATODE
with sugar beet cyst nematode (14 eggs and larvae/cc soil)           PRATYLENCHUS PENETRANS ON POTATO WITH
in a completely randomized block design with five                    SYSTEMIC AND NON SYSTEMIC NEMATICIDES.
replications each. Eight weeks after planting, the crop was          Saad L. Hafez and P. Sundararaj, University of Idaho,
harvested and data on eggs and larval population in soil


E-104    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Parma Research and Extension Center, 29603 U of I Ln,                 includes 7 species parasitizing 86 host species of 24 plant
Parma, Idaho 83660, USA, Email: shafez@uidaho.edu                     families, O. ramosa as the most common and attack 73
          Systemic and non systemic nematicides were                  plant species, and Cistanche consists of three species
tested to control lesion nmeatode on potato, where Vydate             attacks 20 plant species of 10 families; Cuscutaceae
L, Temik 15G and Mocap EC are tested in a silt loam field             consists of Cuscuta genera that has six species parasitizing
with an indigenous population of lesion nematodes (pre-               120 plant species belonging to 37 plant families with
treatment nematode population of 3500/500 cc soil).. Five             Cuscuta campestris as the most common and attacks 78
months after planting, the tubers were harvested from 15              plant species; Santalaceae includes Osyris with one species
feet of the middle two rows of each plot and weighed.                 attack 23 plant species belong to 14 plant families and
Results showed that maximum reduction in nematode                     Thesium that has one species parasitizing onion plants;
population, compared to untreated control, was with Mocap             Cynomoriaceae includes one genus with a single species
+ Temik treatments followed by Temik + Vydate                         attack 4 plant species; Viscaceae that has one genus with
combinatuin. The total yield was significantly increased by           one species parasitize 14 host species of 8 families and
all Vydate and Temik treatments, compared to control                  Loranthaceae includes one genus with one species attack 24
plots, but there was no increase in saleable yield in different       plant species belonging to 11 families. Parasitic species are
combinations of all treatments compared to control plots.             divided between root and stem parasites of a wide host
Maximum reduction of nematode population was with                     range including wild herbs, forage plants, range land
Temik application followed by Vydate applied before row               shrubs, forest and fruit trees. Parasitic species were found
closure and two applications at 14 days interval.                     spread in all biogeographical regions of Jordan. Results
                                                                      revealed the presence of new species of parasitic plants in
N 35                                                                  Jordan and many newly reported hosts in the country and in
IMPACT OF FUMIGANT AND NON FUMIGANT                                   the world.
NEMATICIDES ON THE MANAGEMENT OF
MELOIDOGYNE CHITWOODI ON POTATO. Saad L.                              W2
Hafez and P. Sundararaj, University of Idaho, Parma                   RESPONSE OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MED.)
Research and Extension Center, 29603 U of I Ln, Parma,                AND       ITS    NODULATION           TO      NITROGEN
Idaho 83660, USA, Email: shafez@uidaho.edu                            FERTILIZATION           AND      CHEMICAL           WEED
         Fumigant and non-fumigant nematicides are                    CONTROL. A.M. Sultan and A.A. Khudir, College of
effectively used to control Columbia root-knot nematode,              Agriculture and Forestry Mosul University, Iraq, Email:
Meloidogyne chitwoodi on potato in Idaho, USA. to study               aaltaae@yahoo.co.uk
The efficacy test of Telone II alone or in combination with                    A pot experiment was carried out at the college of
Vapam HL or different combinations of Vapam HL, Temik                 Agriculture and Forestry of Mosul University during the
15G, Mocap 6EC, and Vydate C-LV for control of M.                     winter growing season of 2005 to investigate the effect of
chitwoodi in potato, were conducted. Experiments are                  two herbicides (Trifluralin at 2.4 and 3.2 l/ha and
carried out in a silt loam field with indigenous population           Cyloxidim at 1.2 l/ha) and nitrogen fertilizer at 40 and 80
of Columbia root-nematodes (Pretreatment nematode                     Kg N/ha on the growth of lentil and the number of
population 2500/500 cc soil). Five months after planting,             nodulation on its roots. Results indicated that tifluralin
tubers were harvested from 20 feet of the middle two rows             significantly reduced all crop growth characteristics
of each plot weighed, graded and evaluated for nematode               including the number of nodulation on its roots. However,
infection. The percent nematode infected tubers were                  cycloxidim significantly increased crop height, number of
significantly reduced by the treatments compared to control           branches and number of nodulation. Nitrogen applied at 40
plots. Percent of tubers with nematode infection in treated           Kg/ha significantly enhanced plant height and as compared
plots ranged from 0.0 to 35.6. The lowest level of nematode           to 80 Kg/ha. In general, cycloxidim and 40 Kg N/ha
infection was recorded in the Telone 15 g/A + Vapam 30                enhanced crop growth in comparison to trifluralin or
gal/A (0.0 %) and Mocap 2gal + Temik 20 lb + Vydate 2.2               nitrogen at 80 Kg/ha. However, mixture of cycloxidm (2
pt (6.0 %).                                                           l/ha) and nitorgen (40 Kg/ha) or cycloxidim (1 l/ha) and
                                                                      nitrogen (80 Kg N/ha) significantly enhanced root
WEEDS                                                                 nodulation as compared to the check.

W1                                                                    W3
PARASITIC FLOWERING PLANTS IN JORDAN:                                 EGYPTIAN EXPERIENCE OF USING INSECTS FOR
PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE THREAT. Jamal R.                            BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WATER HYACINTH.
Qasem, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of                     Yahia Hussein Fayad, Department of Biological Control,
Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Email:              PPRI, ARC, 9 Gamaa Street, Giza, Egypt, Email:
jrqasem@ju.edu.jo                                                     yhfayad1@hotmail.com
         A field survey of parasitic flowering plants in                       Water hyacinth (Eichhorniae crassipes (Mart.)
Jordan was carried out during the period 2003 to 2007.                Solms. is considered as one of the most serious floating
Results showed the occurrence of 8 genera of parasitic                aquatic weeds infesting fresh water in tropical and
plants belong to 6 plant families. These were:                        subtropical regions. During the period of 1978-1982,
Orobanchaceae that consists of two genera; Orobanche                  intensive host specificity tests were carried out under
                                                                      quarantine conditions in Egypt to study the plants and crops

                                                          2009    /                        27                               E-105
host preference of two coleopterous curculionid weevils;             included five herbicidal treatments, hand weeding twice, as
Neochetina eichhorniae Warner and N. bruchi Hustachi.                well as a weedy check for comparison. The treatments were
Results showed that both weevils are monophagous specific            arranged in a complete randomized block design. All
weevils that feed, reproduce and grow on water hyacinth              treatments increased the chemical components and the yield
only. Accordingly, during June 2000, both Neochetina                 significantly over the weedy check. Hand weeding
weevils were collected and introduced from USA into                  treatment was the best followed by fluazifop-butyl,
Egypt. Weevils were mass produced under greenhouse                   oxyfluorfen, then bentazon. The contents of chlorophyll a,
conditions and released in the following four lakes in               carotenoids, total carbohydrates, crude protein, nitrogen,
northern Egypt: Mariout, Edko, Al-Borollos and Al                    phosphorus, potassium, zinc, copper, manganese were the
Manzalah. Results obtained through analyzing the satellite           highest in hand weeding and pendimethalin treatments. The
images taken after the release of weevils indicated that             foliar fertilizer treatment at 400 g/feddan reduced weed
reduction in water hyacinth infestations reached 96, 95, 80          mass and increased the photosynthetic pigments in the
and 65% in Al Borollos, Edko, Manzalah and Mariout,                  leaves at 75 days after planting, and increased total
respectively.                                                        carbohydrates and protein in the seeds.

W4                                                                   W6
THE EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM                                    COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS
AMARANTHUS             RETROFLEXUS             L.      AND           EXTRACTS OF THREE CHENOPODIUM SPP. ON
CHENOPODIUM             ALBUM         L.     ON      SEED            SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH
GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF SPRING SOWN                                OF DIFFERENT CROPS. Barakat Abu Irmaileh,
LOCAL CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETENIUM L.).                                Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,
Basima Barhoum1, Abdul Aziz Niane2 and Anwar Al-                     University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan, Email:
Maamaar3. (1) Al-Ghab Research Centre, Hama, Syria,                  Barakat@ju.edu.jo
Email: Basimabarhom@yahoo.com; (2) ICARDA, P.O.                             Leaves and tender branches of Chenopodium album,
Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria; (3) Damascus University, P.O.               Ch. murale and Ch. vulvaria were mixed thoroughly in a
Box 2233, Damascus, Syria.                                           Molinex blender for 5 minutes, at 75g fresh material of
      Plants of Amaranthus retroflexus L. and                        each species in one liter dH2O, filtered, then centrifuged at
Chenopodium album L were collected at the flowering                  4000 rpm to get as clear aqueous extract as possible. Ten
stage. The plants were cleaned from dirt and separated into          mls of each extract were added to a minimum of ten seeds
roots, stems, leaves, and seeds. The palnt parts were dried          of each crop placed on filter paper in a Petri dish. Each
and ground into a fine powder. A weight of 100 g of each             treatment was replicated four times. All treatments were
part was soaked in one liter of tap water for 48 hrs in the          incubated at 20ºC in a closed incubation unit for three
dark. The filtrate of each part was considered the stock             weeks. Percent of germination, shoot and root lengths were
from which the following concentrations were prepared; 20,           calculated as percent of the check treatment which
40 and 80%. A volume of 125 ml of each concentration                 consisted of adding 10 mls dH2O to seeds of each crop.
were added to the test plate having 50 local chickpea seeds.         Root length was the most affected parameter by all extracts
Each treatment was replicted four times. Results were                followed by shoot length. Extract of Ch. album was the
compared with the check in which only tap water was                  most effective in reducing germination rate and seedling
added. The experiment was carried out during 2005 and                growth, followed by Ch. vulvaria. Parsley germination was
2006 in the seed laboratory at ICARDA according to the               completely inhibited by all extracts. Extract of Ch. album
ISTA guidelines. The results indicated that plant extracts           completely inhibited germination of watermelon and
significantly reduced germination rate of chickpea as well           Armenian cucumber, and effectively reduced germination
as the dry weights of shoot and root. Seed extracts of both          rate and seedling growth of barley, okra and tomato. The
weeds were more inhibitory than root or shoot extracts.              extract of Ch. vulvaria effectively reduced germination rate
Root extract of Amaranthus was more inhibitory than that             and seedling growth of Armenian cucumber, beans, okra,
of Chenopodium. Seed and shoot extracts of Chenopodium               squash and watermelon; while Ch. murale was effective in
were more inhibitory at 40 and 80% compared with the                 reducing germination rate and seedling growth of
check.                                                               watermelon, but was not effective on cucumber, tomato and
                                                                     wheat. Moderately affected crops by Ch. murale included
W5                                                                   Armenian cucumber, barley, corn, okra and squash; while
THE EFFECT OF SOME HERBICIDES AND                                    corn, cucumber, and wheat were moderately affected by
FOLIAR FERTILIZER ON THE YIELD AND SOME                              Ch. album and Ch. vulvaria extracts.
CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF SOYBEAN. Salwa
Sayed Mohamed Gaweesh, Botany Department, National                   W7
Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, Email:                          THE       EFFECT           OF THE SHOOT AQUEOUS
salwgaweesh@yahoo.com                                                EXTRACT OF SUNFLOWER, MAIZE, OKRA, HOT
         Two field experiments were carried out during               PEPPER, COWPEA AND EGGPLANT ON SEED
2007-2008 growing seasons at the experimental farm of the            GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF CROPS. Salah
National Research Centre Egypt to study the effect of some           Mohammad Saied Al-Tai and Hala Muzhir Yaqub Yousuf,
herbicides and the foliar fertilizer stimufol on the yield and       Department of Biology, College of Science, University of
some chemical components of soybean. The experiment                  Mosul, Mosul, Iraq, Email: dr_salahaltai@yahoo.com


E-106    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of                 formulation containing pyroxsulam at a concentration of 45
aqueous extract of the vegetative shoots of sunflower,                g ai/l and the crop safener cloquintocet-mexyl at 90 g ai/l.
maize, okra, hot pepper, cowpea and eggplant on seed                  The oil dispersion formulation type reduces the need to mix
germination and growth of the same crops. Fresh weights of            with an adjuvant. Countries where the product has been
shoots; 3, 6, and 9 gr from each crop, were blended in 100            tested and under development includes Syria, Iraq,
ml distilled water and the filtrate was used for testing their        Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, Sudan and Libya.
effect on seed germination and seedling growth of each                Registration is anticipated in all these countries from mid-
crop. The results indicated that the rate of seed germination         2009-2011. It is applied as a one shot application at low use
was reduced significantly by all extracts in all crops, at all        rates from 18-22.5 g ai/ha, depending on the weed and
concentrations compared with the control (in which                    stage of application, and it controls sensitive species from
distilled water was added). Extracts of maize, pepper and             BBCH 11 to 24 stages for grass weeds (1 leaf to 4 tillers)
sunflower were the most inhibitory. The effect of extracts            and up to 8 leaf stage for broadleaf weeds. Where needed a
on seedling growth, as represented by shoot and root                  broadleaved weed partner can be added to extend the weed
lengths as well as their dry weights, varied. Some extracts           spectrum. Pallas 45 OD has shown to be very active on a
increased and others reduced the seedling growth.                     wide range of grass genera such as Avena spp, Phalaris
                                                                      spp., Lolium spp., Bromus spp., Alopecurus myosuroides
W8                                                                    and shows good suppression on other grasses, e.g Hordeum
FARMERS’ FIELD SCHOOLS FOR TRAINING                                   spp. Key dicotyledonous weeds include Ammi majus,
FARMERS TO CONTROL BROOMRAPE IN FOOD                                  Anthemis arvensis, Beta vulgaris, Bifora radians, Brassica
LEGUMES. Souhila Aouali1 and Feliachi Kamel2. (1)                     spp, Cephalaria syrica, Galium aparine, Malva spp.,
Institut Technique des Grandes Cultures, BP.142, BIR                  Raphanus raphanistrum, Sinapis arvensis and Vaccaria
Mourad Rais, Algeria, Email: saouali@yahoo.fr; (2) Institut           pyrimidata. Due to the short half-life of pyroxsulam, there
National de la Recherche Agronomique Algérien, Algeria.               are no restrictions for crops that can be planted the
          Food legumes are very important crops for human             following season after an application of Pallas 45OD.
nutrition and animal feed. However, these crops are subject
to many stresses that seriously compromise the yields.                W 10
Among the menacing biotic stresses, the parasitic weed                ECO-PHYSIOLOGICAL STRATEGIES FOR WEED
Orobanche crenata, is known to be very detrimental. This              MANAGEMENT. Rosine Habchi and Mustapha Haidar,
parasitic weed is very easily disseminated by the wind,               Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of
equipments, seeds and animal grazing. One plant of                    Agricultural and Food Sciences, Lebanon, Email:
orobanche can produce up to 500 000 seeds and these                   mhaidar@aub.edu.lb
besides their very small size and their extremely light                         Weeds pose a problem of considerable economic
weight, can have a longevity of more than 15 years in the             and environmental importance in various crops in Lebanon
soil. Several methods of control have been developed in               and Mediterranean region. Efforts to manage weeds in this
different countries in the Mediterranean region but these             region have centered primarily on chemical and cultural
methods were not totally remedial as they only allow the              methods. However, the increasing economical and/or
reduction of infestation. It is therefore necessary to apply an       environmental costs of such practices have forced scientists
integrated control strategy. To assure the success of the             to look for alternative control practices. Eco-physiological
introduction of this strategy, at farmers’ level, it is               weed management system is an alternative way that could
necessary to make farmers actively participate in their own           help in reducing the environmental and economical costs. It
field, through Farmers’ Field Schools approach. The                   focuses on designing strategies based upon weed responses
farmers need to know the orobanche and to understand its              to different environmental signals. This strategy relies on a
life cycle and the conditions of its development in order to          multi-tactic approach based on manipulation of all types of
be able to control and manage infestations; they also have            ecological interactions (including cultural and physical
to get acquainted with available control options and to use           practices, webs of information, and farmer’s skills) and
them effectively.                                                     careful selection of site-specific strategies. Thus, eco-
                                                                      physiological weed management enhances biodiversity and
W9                                                                    reduces environmental and health risks.
PALLAS® 45OD IS A NEW POST-EMERGENCE
HERBICIDE CONTAINING PYROXSULAM FOR                                   W 11
ANNUAL GRASS AND BROADLEAF WEED                                       EFFECT OF SHEEP RUMEN DIGESTION ON
CONTROL IN WHEAT. Mike Lysandrou, R&D Mid-                            GERMINATION AND VIABILITY OF COMMON
East, N.E Africa and Pakistan, DAS, Athens, Greece,                   WEED SEEDS OF LEBANON. Chady Gharib, Mustapha
Email: Mlysandrou@dow.com                                             Haidar and Fouak Sleiman, Department of Agricultural
         Pyroxsulam is a cross-spectrum post-emergence                Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences,
herbicide for control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds in          Lebanon, Email: mhaidar@aub.edu.lb
winter and spring cereals (soft wheat and durum wheat). It                   Studies were conducted to examine the effect of
belongs to the triazolopyrimidine sulfonamide chemical                sheep rumen digestion on germination and viability of
family and mode of action is inhibition of the enzyme                 seeds of five common weed species of Lebanon and two
acetolactate synthase (ALS). The lead commercial offering             crops (Barley and Lentil). Seed samples were put in a small
in the Arab countries is Pallas 45OD, an oil dispersion               monofilament nylon bags and placed in the plastic rumen of

                                                          2009    /                        27                               E-107
fistulated sheep for 1, 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively. Total         fertilizer application as there were no harvestable maize
percent germination (germination + viability) of seeds after         plants in weed infested plots. Although the importance of
four days in the rumen were 86% for Cuscuta spp, 76% for             the major nutrients could not be ignored in crop production
Amaranthus retroflexus, 31% for Convolvulus arvensis.                but weed infestation does not provide a fair choice of
However, Lolium multiflorum and Raphanus raphansitrum                fertilizers application. This might be due to the abundance
seeds died two days after incubating them in the rumen .             of grassy summer/perennial weeds in the experimental
Seeds of lentil and barley, which were tested for                    fields. Combination of NP showed promising results giving
comparison, died one days after incubating them in the               maximum yield. Overall, data suggested that weed control
rumen. The results indicate that grazing sheep could be an           through herbicide application was as important as weed
important vector for carrying viable weed seeds,                     control itself because consistent hand weeding was difficult
particularly hard-coated seeds, in their digestive system and        and uneconomical due to perennial weeds and the hot
depositing them with their manure in un-infested fields.             season during June and July. Farmers in the studied area
                                                                     usually give more importance to fertilizer application
W 12                                                                 instead of weed control. The findings of this study advocate
SITUATION OF EXOTIC PESTS AND THEIR                                  that weed control is more important than fertilizer
IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL                                    application.
RESOURCES IN SUDAN. Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti and
Abdelrahman Hamed Abdelrahman Hashim, Environment                    W 14
and Natural Resources Research Institute (ENRRI),                    STUDY         OF      THE       PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL
National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan, Email:                AFFINITIES         OF     THE       PARASITIC          WEED
satisattisat@yahoo.com                                               OROBANCHE CRENATA FORSK. WITH WEED
          The cultivated field and horticultural crops in            COMMUNITIES IN THE MAJOR HOST CROPS IN
Sudan were originally selected from indigenous flora since           EASTERN ALGERIA. M. Y. Ouallah1, S. Benhouhou1,
earlier times. These crops were usually attacked by                  N. Zermane1 and C. Mallory-Smith2. (1) Ecole National
different local pests at variable levels based on the                Supérieure Agronomique (ENSA), Département de
prevailing climatic and ecological conditions. However,              Botanique, El-Harrach, 16200, Alger, Algérie, Email:
with the modernization of agriculture together with the              n_zermane@yahoo.com; (2) Department of Crop and Soil
rapid movement of global trade during the last decades,              Science, 109 Crop Science Building, Oregon State
new exotic species of plants and insects were intentionally          University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3002, USA.
or accidentally introduced to the country. Unfortunately,                      Phytosociological affinities that may exist between
most of these are potentially invasive organisms, hence              the parasitic weed Orobanche crenata Forsk. and weed
becoming serious pests on agricultural crops or natural              communities in fields planted with faba bean (Vicia faba
resources. This paper highlights the importance of alien             L.) in eastern Algiers were investigated during the 2008
pests such as water hyacinth, Orobanche crenata, green               growing season. A total of 47 samples were randomly
scale and mesquite trees, their distribution and impact on           collected and data were organized in phytosociological
certain crops or ecosystems. It addresses the sources and            tables to distinguish syntaxonomic units. Floristic
distribution of these pests and fears from introducing new           similarities between samples and plant species assemblages
alien species. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance          were investigated with factorial correspondence analysis
of cooperation in eradicating exotic pests, and asks for             (FCA) and ascending hierarchical clustering (AHC). The
upgrading of quarantine measures in Africa so as to keep             intensity of the Orobanche infestation was estimated using
pace with the accelerating world trade.                              the 0-6 scale of Schmitt (1981). A total of 101 weed species
                                                                     representing 8 genera and 30 families were identified. The
W 13                                                                 most representative families were Asteraceae, Poaceae,
RESPONSE OF MAIZE TO WEED CONTROL AND                                Fabaceae, Brassicaceae and Apiaceae which accounted for
DIFFERENT          COMBINATIONS            OF      MACRO             more than 58% of the total number of species. Hierarchical
NUTRIENTS. Muhammad Azim Khan and M. Siraj                           clustering of vegetation data pointed out 5 species
Kakar, Department of Weed Science, NWFP Agricultural                 assemblages, defined according to the dominant species,
University     Peshawar      25130,     Pakistan,    Email:          namely: (1) Medicago hispida & Lolium multiflorum, (2)
ahmadzaipk@yahoo.com                                                 Emex spinosa & Oxalis cernua, (3) Stelleria media &
         Decreasing the cost of production and increasing            Fumaria capreolata, (4) Sinapis arvensis & Avena sterilis
the crop yield are the main objectives of farmers. However,          and (5) Polygonum aviculare. No phytosociological
many unnecessary measures were taken in developing                   relationships were found between the Orobanche and weed
countries to increase the yield. Study was conducted at              assemblages identified in the present work. However, some
NWFP agricultural University Peshawar during March                   correlations could be established between the Orobanche
2009, using RCBD design with split plot arrangement.                 and some weed species. Hence, the following few weeds
Maize Hybrid was planted in March 2009. One main plot of             found to be correlated to very low infestation with
maize was kept weed free while another was kept as weed              Orobanche: Rumex crispus, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum
infested throughout the crop season. While the sub-plots             aviculare, Lythrum junceum, Cyperus rotundus and
were different combinations of macro nutrients viz; N, P,            Chenopodium album. While Emex spinosa was found to be
K, NP, NK, PK, and NPK. Statistical analysis of the data             correlated with high infestations of Orobanche. Further
showed that weed control was more important than


E-108    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
ongoing in-vitro and in-planta based experiments will               W 17
verify or reject these assumptions.                                 MANAGEMENT OF PARTHEMIUM WEED: NEW
                                                                    STRATEGIES                FOR          COMPLEMENTING
W 15                                                                BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN AUSTRALIA. Asad
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION METHODS                              Shabbir1, Steve Adkins1, Kunjitapatham Dhileepan2 and
ON HERBICIDES ACTIVITY FOR CONTROLLING                              Chris O’Donnell1. (1) School of Land Crop & Food
COTTON WEEDS AND ON PRODUCTION. B. Al                               Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia
Rahban1, K. Mhemid2 and A. Mhemid3. (1) Administration              Australia; (2) Alan Fletcher Research Station, Sherwood,
of Plant Protection Research, General Commission for                Email: asad@uq.edu.au
Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Douma, P.O.                         Parthenium hysterophrus L. commonly known as
Box 113, Damascus, Syria, Email: gcsarpartect@mail.sy;              parthenium is a weed of global significance affecting many
(2) Directorate of Agricultural And Agrarian reform in Deir         countries including Australia. In Australia, parthenium
Ezzor, Syria; (3) Faculty of Agricultural in Deir Ezzor,            mainly occurs in grazing areas in Queensland, where it
Syria.                                                              causes severe human and animal health problems,
          The trial was conducted at Deir Ezzor Scientific          agricultural losses and environmental problems. Currently
Agricultural Research Center – Sa'alou Research Station             biological control is the most widely used management tool
during the 2008 season to study the effect of different             for parthenium in Queensland. To date, 11 biological
irrigation methods on herbicides activity for controlling           control agents (9 insects and 2 rusts) have been released in
cotton weeds and on production. Cotton variety Deir Ezzor           Australia where many of them are known to be established
22 was cultivated and the soil was treated with herbicides:         in the field. However, the impact of biocontrol is highly
Pendimethaline 50% EC, Prometryn 50% SC and                         variable, and still parthenium is a major weed of concern in
Trifluralin 48% EC. The applied herbicides showed some              many areas in Queensland. There is a potential to integrate
slight phyto-toxicity symptoms 30 days after application.           other management options with the existing biological
Trifluralin caused higher toxicity than other herbicides and        control to enhance effectiveness. Competitive displacement
this toxicity disappeared several days later. Pendimethaline        of parthenium with native and introduced beneficial plants
didn't show any toxic symptoms in drip and furrows-                 has shown potential in different parts of the world including
irrigated cotton plants. The weeded control treatment was           Australia, India and Pakistan. But the combined
better than other treatments in terms of average plant height       effectiveness of biological control and competitive pasture
and number of complete bolls per plant for the three                plants are yet to be studied in detail. Hence, a study was
irrigation methods. This, in turn, affected yield which was         initiated to quantify the combined effect of competitive
the highest among treatments estimat and reached 4255               pasture plants with biological control agents on parthenium
kg/ha. Trifluralin was the best among herbicides in terms of        growth and reproduction. This includes glasshouse
yield while Pendimethaline produced higher average plant            experiments at Alan Fletcher Research Station (AFRS) and
height 80.25–86 cm. The findings revealed that Trifluralin          field trials at two different locations in central Queensland
was the best herbicide for controlling broad-leaf weeds and         (Monto & Injune). The results from this study will provide
was better than the other herbicide treatments r 30, 45 and         an insight into how much more effective biological control
60 days after application. Weed control with this herbicide         agents will be in managing the weed in the presence of
observed 30 days after application was 80.6%, 84.3 and              competitive plants under different conditions.
77.5% for drip, furrow and traditional irrigation methods,
respectively. Trifluralin and Pendimethaline were better            W 18
than Prometryn against narrow-leaf weeds with 100%                  PERSISTENCE OF SULFOSULFURON AND ITS
control.                                                            RESIDUAL EFFECTS ON FOLLOWING CROPS.
                                                                    Haddad, Atef1, Samir Kodsiye2, Khalil Al Saidi2, Zilal
                                                                    Kaddour3 and Yassen Khalil1. (1) International Center for
W 16
                                                                    Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O.
EFFECT OF SWEET POTATOES AND RADISH
                                                                    Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email: a.haddad@cgiar.org; (2)
RESIDUES ON GROWTH OF PURPLE NUTSEDGS
                                                                    Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Syria; (3)
(CYPERUS ROTUNDUS L.). Samir Tabbache, Plant
                                                                    Directorate of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture,
Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen
                                                                    Syria.
University, Lattakia, Syria, Email: Tabbache@scs-net.org
                                                                             This study aimed at detecting residual effect of
         Effect of dried residues of sweet potatoes and
                                                                    wheat herbicide sulfosulfuoron and to determine its
radish were evaluated on growth of nutsedgs in pots. Purple
                                                                    phytotoxic effect on the subsequent crops. The study started
nutsedgs tubers were collected from the field in April and
                                                                    in 2006 and completed in 2009 after observing severe
planted in pots. The addition of 1% and 2% of dried sweet
                                                                    damage on legume research fields preceded by
potatoes residues in soil pots reduced fresh weights of nut
                                                                    sulfosulfuoron treated wheat at Tel Hadya research station
grass by 42% and 51%, respectively. The addition of the
                                                                    of ICARDA. Initial greenhouse studies were conducted to
same concentration of radish residues reduced fresh weight
                                                                    grow 10 crops in pots filled from same soils having
of nut grass by 18.5% and 52%. Utilizing crop residues as
                                                                    sulfosulfuron residues. Results indicated that residues were
natural herbicides is a useful tool in weed management.
                                                                    concentrated in the top soil layer and deep tillage enhanced
                                                                    degradation of the herbicide. Lentil, chickpea and coriander
                                                                    were identified from previous studies to have different

                                                        2009    /                        27                               E-109
sulfosulfuron tolerance levels. Following wheat crop treated         Department, College of Science, University of Salahaddin,
with herbicide, these crops were evaluated in field studies,         Arbil, Iraq.
under 2 levels of sulfosulfuron 0 and 30 g ai/ha with tillage        This study was carried out during the growing season
and zero-tillage conditions. The experimental split-split plot       2004/2005 , to determine the effects of burning, cutting,
design was used. Wheat was planted in the first season with          covering with green plastic boxes , glyphosate at 4 and 12
different tillage and sulfosulfuron levels, indicator crops          l.ha-1, mayei soluble (composed of 360 g. l-1 2,4-D+ 315 g.
were grown in the following season. Biotic measurements              ha-1MCPA) at 4 l.ha-1, bentazon at 3 l.ha-1, granstar at 30 g.
were collected during the growing season. Results indicated          ha-1 and the mixture of mayei at 1 l.ha-1+glyphosate at 3
that sulfosulfuron residues did not affect germination and           l.ha-1 ,respectively in controlling licorice in wheat fields.
phytotoxicity appeared on seedlings later. Sulfosulfuron             All herbicidal treatments were sprayed twice, at 4 l.ha-1
residues significantly reduced plant height, especially              except for Glyphosate which was sprayed once.The results
coriander. Total biomass and grain yield were slightly               indicated that burning treatment as well as the treeatments
better under zero tillage compared to conventional tillage           with glyphosate , mayei and bentazon significantly reduced
and were significantly reduced by sulfosulfuron residues             the fresh and dry weights of licorice. Licorice rhizome
especially in susceptible lentil. This explains the severe           length was reduced significantly by glyphosate and Mayei
damage to lentil grown under zero tillage, where most                treatments. The percent control of licorice by glyphosate at
residues are concentrated in the top soil layer.                     12 l.ha-1 was 99.53%. Glyphosate at 12 l.ha-1 and the
                                                                     mixture of glyphosate and mayei reduced the vegetative
W 19                                                                 growth of licorice significantly. The degree of licorice
USE OF CRESSA CRETICA EXTRACT TO                                     control by these treatments, at a visual scale from 1-10 (1=
CONTROL DODDER. Oadi N.Al-Hadeethy1, S.M.K.                          no effect, 10= plant death), were 9 and 8.75, respectively.
Saadedin2 and Bashier A.Al-Nadaawi2. (1) Department of               The number of wheat seeds per plant and the 1000-seed
Plant Protection; (2) Department of Field Crop Sciences,             weight were significantly increased by the mixture,
College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:          glyphosate + mayei. Number of licorice branches was
Udayal_hadethy@yahoo.com                                             reduced significantly by granstar treatment which brought
          This experiment was carried out at an alfalfa field,       about a significant increase in the spike length. The cover
heavily infested with dodder Cuscuta campestris L. at the            treatment reduced the number of pods per licorice plant.
College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the
2006 season, to evaluate the efficacy of the aqueous extract         W 21
of Cressa cretica L. to control the parasitic weed. The full         RESPONSE OF SOME GROWTH CHARACTERS OF
strength extract was prepared by soaking 50 g of ground              FIELD AND VEGETABLE CROPS TO DIFFERENT
dried shoots of C. cretica in one liter of water for 24 hours.       CONCENTRATION               OF       THE      HERBICIDE
The filtrate was then diluted to get one half, one third and         CHEVALIER 15 WG. K.W. Ibade1, Saleh H. Samir2 and
one fourth strength extract solutions. Water was added as a          Showkat A. Habib1. (1) College of Agriculture, Al-Anbar
check treatment. The spreader, Zahi, was added to the spray          University; (2) College of Agriculture, Baghdad University,
solution at 2% to all treatments. Each treatment was                 Iraq, Email: khalid.abade@yahoo.com
sprayed on 2 m2 of an alfalfa plots heavily infested with the              Several pot experiments were carried out to
parasite. Each treatment was replicated three times. Data on         investigate growth parameters such as plant height, fresh
dodder weight and diameter was taken on five 10 cm shoots            plant weight, root length and weight of some field and
branching from the main dodder stem. Compared with the               vegetable crops to 0.02, 0.002, 0.0002 and 0.00002 ppm
check treatment, the results showed a significant decrease           concentrations to treatment with Chevalier15 WG (methyl
in the average weight of dodder stem and dodder diameter             Na - 30 Iodosulfuron + methyl - Mesosulfuron 30 +
by all treatments four days after spraying. The full and half        Mefenpyr diethyl 90 g ai/kg) a newly registered herbicide
strength extracts showed significant decrease in dodder              in Iraq the control offor grassy and broadleaf weeds in
stem weight eight days after spraying as compared with the           wheat, in addition to the control treatment. The experiment
check. Dodder stem diameter was decreased by all extract             was repeated three times. Results showed that the herbicide
treatments after two days. The least value of the stem               at concentrations 0.02, 0.002 and 0.0002 ppm significantly
diameter was obtained by spraying full, half and third               reduced plant height of cucumber, squash, sorghum,
strength aqueous extract after eight days. On a visual scale         cowpea, chickpea and lentil while no adverse residual
from 0 (not affected) to4(complete kill), the results showed         effects were detected on these crops at 0.00002 ppm. Other
that plots treated with full and half strengths aqueous              crops such as sunflower, corn, rice and green gram were not
extract of C. cretica were given a score of 4, eight days            affected by the herbicide. The herbicide did not affect the
after spraying.                                                      germination rate of all crops tested. More studies are
                                                                     needed to test the influence of this herbicide on successive
W 20                                                                 crops in the rotation.
CONTROL OF LICORICE (GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA
L.) IN WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM) CV. SENATOR                            W 22
CAPELLI FIELDS. Ali Mala Khedir Galalay1 and Abdul-                  REDUCTION OF WEED SEEDS RATIO                              IN
Ghany Omer Ismael Sarmmy2. (1) Field Crops Department,               HARVESTER SEED TANK IS INFLUENCED                         BY
College of Agriculture, University of Salahaddin, Arbil,             HARVESTER SPEED. Saad Abdul Jabbar Alrajabo               and
Iraq, Email: raassyan@yahoo.co.uk; (2) Biology                       Momtaz Isaak Almitewty, Collage of Agriculture            and

E-110    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Forestry,       Mosul       University,       Iraq,     Email:        W 24
saad21955@yahoo.com                                                   ALLELOPATHIC INTERACTION OF PROSTRATE
          This experiment was carried out in Talafar region           SPURGE EUPHORBIA PROSTRATA WITH THREE
(Nineveh governorate) in wheat field under supplementary              KINDS OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. Janan A. Sa'eed,
irrigation to study the effect of different speeds of harvester       Department of Biology, College of Science, Mosul
units on weed seeds ratio in the harvester tank (john deere).         University, Iraq, Email: jansaeed@yahoo.com
Three factors were tested: harvester ground speed (2.5-3,                       This research was conducted to study the effect of
3.5-4 km.hr-1), reel speed (21, 26, 31 rpm) and thresher              prostrata spurge residues (shoot and root) on germination
cylinder speed (750, 850, 950 rpm). Treatments were                   and growth of three kinds of ornamental plants which
replicated three times and laid in a randomized complete              includes Chrysanthrmum carinatum, Gaillardia pulchella
block design. Samples of the tank contents were taken after           and Lathyrus odoratus. Laboratory results showed that the
completing the harvest of 50 m-long line and 4.25m- wide              aqeous extract of the residues at concentration 5 and 10%
for every treatment, then divided by Porner divider in order          (w:v) caused a significant reduction in seed germination of
to obtain 60 gram-samples for calculating the number and              the three kinds of the plants as compared with distilled
ratio of weed seeds. Results were analyzed and means were             water, the greatest reduction was observed with the 10%
separated by Duncan's Multiple Range test. The lowest                 concentration. The seedling growth showed an increase in
weed seed ratio was obtained at 21 rpm reel speed and 950             the coleoptile length of chrysanthemum seedlings, but
rpm thresher speed of harvester. The harvesting speed of              gaillardia and lathyrus coleoptile length was reduced,
3.5-4 km.hr-1 with thresher speed 950 rpm gave the lowest             moreover, a reduction in the radicle length was seen in the
weed seed ratio in the harvester tank compared with other             three plant speciess. The greenhouse experiment also
treatments. Generally, the best result obtained was at                showed inhibition in seed germination of the three kinds of
harvester ground speed 3.5-4 km.hr-1, reel speed 26 rpm,              ornamental plants sown in the soil containing (Spurge)
and thresher speed 950 rpm.                                           residues added at the rate of 5 and 10% (w:w) as
                                                                      compared with the control soil (without residues)
W 23                                                                  treatment.Results revealed a significant increase in the
THE EFFECT OF MIXING TYPE, NOZZLE TYPE                                growth of the plants (shoot and root and their dry weights)
AND SPRAY DEPTH FOR LOCALLY MADE                                      grown in the soil containing spurge residues at the two
EQUIPMENT FOR SEED WEED CONTROL USING                                 rates. The highest increase was found in shoot length and
THE HERBICIDE TREFLAN. Abdulrazzak A. Jasim                           dry weight of Gaillardia at the 10% rate which reached
and Saif A. Rudhan, Agricultural Mechanization                        102.1% and 333%, respectively. The highest increase in
Department, College of Agriculture, University of                     root length and dry weight was noticed in Chrysanthmum
Baghdad, Iraq, Email: raz55iq@yahoo.com                               and reached 174.5% and 166.6%, respectively.
          The experiment has conducted in the fields of
College of Agriculture, Bagdad University during the 2008             W 25
spring season, to evaluate the effect of the nozzle type and          EFFECT OF CHANGING TEMPERATURE ON SEED
the type of mixture e and the spray depth by using Treflan            GERMINATION OF WEEDS. Adel Nadjib Chaker,
on drifting rate ,efficacy in inhibiting weed growth, and             Mohamed Fenii and Meriem Hani, Laboratoire de
slippage rate. A split-split plot design with four replications       Valorisation des Ressources Biologiques, Faculté des
was used, with the nozzle type as the main plot                       Sciences, Université Ferhat Abbes, Sétif 19000, Algérie,
(flabelliform, conical) and the mixture type for the sub-plot         Email: chakeran@yahoo.fr
(with and without mixing the sprayed herbicide in the soil)                    Weeds are the biggest problem that face
and the depth of spray (0, 5, 10.0 cm) as the sub-sub plot.           agriculture in the world especially cereal crops. For
The flabelliform nozzle with a spray depth of 5 cm gave               example, total area used to cultivate cereals in Algeria is
the highest weed control rate (76.8%) and weed growth                 about 80% of total area cultivated. The loss caused by
inhibition rate(77.9%). Spraying at 5 cm depth without                weeds varies from 20% to 50% depending on the year. A
mixing gave the highest weed control rate (80.0%) and                 study was carried out on seed germination of 31 species of
weed growth inhibition rate (80.41%). Increasing depths of            weeds that are widely spread in the region of Setif
sprayl from surface to 5 cm depth gave highest weed                   (Northeast of Algeria). Samples of seeds were collected
control rate (75.5%), with an increase in drift rate and weeg         from different fields in the region and were described
growth inhibition. Increasing the spray depth from 5 cm to            according to their form, colour, size, hardness, brightness
10 cm led to decrease in weed control from 75.55 to                   and dimensions. Seed germination was carried out in
68.60% in addition to decrease in weed growth                         laboratory under different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25
inhibitionand drifting rate.The interaction among nozzle              and 30ºC). Ten seeds were sown in a Petri dish covered
type, type of mixingand spray depth was significant for               with wattman paper. Three replicates were used for each
weed control, weed growth inhibition and drift rate, with             species at the same temperature. Seeds were observed daily
highest weed control of 81.25% produced from the                      and their average germination and viability were calculated.
interaction of fan shape nozzle without mixing sprayed at 5           From the results obtained, weed species were arranged into
cm soil depth.                                                        groups. Each group contains species that germinate at the
                                                                      same temperature. It was to differentiate between species,
                                                                      which show morphological similarities in their seeds. In
                                                                      addition, results showed that there was five groups

                                                          2009    /                        27                              E-111
according to favourable temperature for seed germination.
Last group their seeds did not germinate in spite of                 W 28
providing the right conditions. These results can help in            CHEMICAL CONTROL OF BROADLEAF WEEDS
defining ways for preventing weeds growth at the right               IN LENTIL VARIETY IDLEB 2 (ILL 8553). Sobhi
time.                                                                Mona1 and Atef Haddad2. (1) Department of Plant
                                                                     Protection, Faculty of Agriculture Aleppo University,
W 26                                                                 Aleppo, Syria; (2) International Center for Agrricultural
CONSERVATION             VERSUS         CONVENTIONAL                 Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). P.O. Box 5466,
TILLAGE ON WEED GROWTH IN BARLEY,                                    Aleppo, Syria, Email: s-mona@scs-net.org
CHICKPEA AND SAFFLOWER. S.K. Yau and                                          Wide range of broadleaf herbicides belonging to
Mustapha Haidar, Department of Agricultural Sciences,                different chemical groups were tested on lentil cv. Idleb 2
Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Lebanon,                  compared to weedy and hand weeded checks. The research
Email: mhaidar@aub.edu.lb                                            work was conducted at the International Center for
          A rainfed field experiment was conducted in the            Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) main
semi-arid, central Bekaa Valley of Lebanon for 2-years               station northwest Syria. Results showed that Bladex
(2005/2006 and 2006/2007) to compare minimum tillage,                (cyanazine) at preemergence treatment, broadstrike
zero tillage with conventional tillage on weed control and           (flumetsulam) at preemergence and early post emergence
performance of three crops. Tillage and crops were the 2             and Oroban (imazapic) at preemergence treatments were
factors studied in a strip-plot design with 4 replicates.            well tolerated by lentil but Brodal (diflufenican) and Boxer
Tillage consisted of 3 treatments: conventional, minimum,            (prosulfocarb) were the most phytotoxic herbicides
and zero tillage. Crops studied were barley (Hordeum                 especially when applied as preemergence treatment. Best
vulgare L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and safflower            Biological and grain yields were obtained from Oroban
(Carthamus tinctorius L.). Seeds were sown using a no-till           treatment followed by Bladex at preemergence where lentil
drill, and weeds were controlled by herbicides (2,4-D and            productivity, when using Brodal and Boxer at
Fusilade) and hand weeding in all tillage systems. In each           preemergence was poor, but these herbicides ranked first
year, the zero tillage had similar weed number and weed              for 1000–grain weight. Sinapis arvensis L. was properly
dry weight m-2 as conventional tillage. The mean weed                controlled by most herbicides tested except Oroban. Best
infestation over the two years was lower in both tillage             control of Vaccaria pyramidata Medik was achieved by
treatments than minimum tillage. Although conventional               application of Brodal followed by Broadstrike at
tillage yielded higher barley than zero tillage, the zero            preemergence. Other tested herbicides had less performance
tillage gave similar mean yield as conventional tillage for          in controlling this weed in addition to Carthamus syriacum
chickpea and safflower. This finding suggests that the               Boiss and Polygonum avicularie L.
fibrous root system of cereals may not do well under zero
tillage than under conventional tillage, in contrast to              W 29
legumes and safflower which have tap root system. Since              PENOXSULAM AS A NEW RICE HERBICIDE FOR
zero tillage did not lead to higher weed infestation and             DIRECT SEEDED AND TRANSPLANTED RICE IN
lower yield, except for barley, than conventional tillage, it        EGYPT. Mike Lysandrou1 and S. Temerak2. (1) Dow
suggested that farmers should try the zero tillage. Further          AgroSciences,          Athens,        Greece,        Email:
studies on other important crops need to be initiated.               Mlysandrou@dow.com; (2) Assiut University, Egypt.
                                                                              Field studies were conducted in Egypt to examine
W 27                                                                 weed control, and the tolerance of six rice cultivars, to
EVIDENCE          THAT         CAROTENOIDS           AND             penoxsulam between 2003 and 2008. Two formulations of
CHLOROPHYLL                 ARE          NOT         THE             penoxsulam were evaluated: Rainbow® 25 OD (2.5%) for
CHROMOPHORES OF BLUE LIGHT-INDUCED                                   direct seeded rice and Granite® 240 SC (24%) for
PREHAUSTORIA             IN     DODDER         (CUSCUTA              transplanted rice. Rainbow® 25 OD was applied POST at 24
CAMPESTRIS) SEEDLINGS. Mustapha Haidar and                           gai/ha (400 ml/feddan) at 8-15 days after seeding, provided
Randa Chatila, Department of Agricultural Sciences,                  excellent activity on the main grasses, sedges and
Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Lebanon,                  broadleaved weeds compared to bispyribac-sodium and
Email: mhaidar@aub.edu.lb                                            thiobencarb. Granite® 240 SC demonstrated a similar trend
         Previous studies demonstrated that cryptochromes            of activity, using the poured-on technique in transplanted
are involved in blue light-induced coiling and prehaustoria          rice, with a wide application window of 4-15 days after
development in young de-etiolated dodder seedlings. In this          transplanting. Weeds controlled included: Echinochloa
study, evidence suggests that “bulk” carotenoids and                 crus-galli E. colonum, Cyperus difformis, Scirpus
chlorophyll are not the blue light absorbing chromophores            juncoides, Ammannia spp., and Eclipta alba. Both
involved in the mediation of prehaustoria development to             penoxsulam products were not phytotoxic to all rice varities
blue light. Norflurazon-bleached dodder segments coiled              and significantly increased the yield as compared with the
and formed prehaustoria under blue light. However,                   control.
norflurazon significantly reduced prehaustoria number
(62%) under a mixture of red and far-red light, suggesting
that phytochromes could be affected by norflurazon.



E-112    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
W 30                                                               SORGHUM. Kassim Al-Khatib1, Mitch Tuinstra2 and
CHEMICAL           CONTROL           OF        BRANCHED            Kellan Kershner1. (1) Kansas State University, Manhattan,
BROOMRAPE (OROBANCHE RAMOSA L.) IN                                 KS 66506 USA; (2) Agronomy Department, Purdue
PLASTIC HOUSES GROWN TOMATO. B. Alrahban1,                         University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-4778 USA, Email:
H. Habak2 and M. Al Ahmad3. (1) General Commission for             khatib@ksu.edu
Scientific Agricultural Research, Doma, P. O. Box 113,             Weed competition has been identified as one of the greatest
Damascus, Syria, Email: gcsarpartect@mail.sy; (2) General          challenges to sorghum. Grass weeds are of important
Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research,                   concern due to their morphological and biochemical
Agricultural Research Center, Lattakia, Syria; (3) Tishreen        similarity and lack of herbicides that control these weeds.
University, Faculty of Agriculture, Lattakia, Syria.               Although deployment of herbicide resistance crops has
       Trials were careid out in Agricultural Research             revolutionized weed control in several major crops,
Center, Lattakia, in 2006. Three doses of the herbicide            sorghum did not benefit from the technology. The objective
Imazapic (2.5, 5 and 7.5 g/h) were tested for their efficacy       of this research is to develop herbicide resistant sorghum
in controlling O. ramosa on tomato plants grown in plastic         utilizing resistance genes from wild relatives. Herbicide-
houses. Herbicide application was achieved with irrigation         resistant sorghum accessions that tolerate acetyl-coenzyme
water, and before O. ramosa emergence. Results showed              A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides including
that, the three doses of Imazapic were efficient in                quizalofop have been identified at Kansas State University.
controlling O. ramosa and they caused significant reduction        Studies were conducted to determine the level of resistance
in number of emerged shoots /m2, dry and wet weight of             to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in the wild sorghum and in
these shoots. The efficacy rates measured on number of             a heterozygous genetic background of wild x grain
shoots/m2 for the three applied doses were 46%, 90.28%             sorghum. The wild biotype, elite sorghum parent Tx623,
and 94.64%, respectively. Toxicity symptoms were found             and their F1 progeny were grown under optimal conditions
on some tomato plants treated with 7.5 gr/ha, causing              in a greenhouse. Sorghum seedlings were treated with
negative influence on tomato crop production, whereas 2.5          selected rates of fluazifop, quizalofop, sethoxydim, or
gr/ha caused increase in yield.                                    clethodim. Two weeks after treatment, plants were visually
                                                                   scored for injury and above-ground biomass was harvested,
W 31                                                               dried, and weighted. Levels of resistance to the four
WEED CONTROL DECREASES THE COST OF                                 herbicides were observed in the wild biotype with a 3 to
PRODUCTION IN WEEDY FIELDS. Khan Bahadar                           150 fold difference. Herbicide rates that cause 50% visible
Marwat, Department of Weed Science, NWFP Agricultural              injury (GR50) for the wild biotype were 1956, 341, 227, and
University      Peshawar      25130,    Pakistan,    Email:        16 g ha-1; for the F1 progeny were 857, 88, 170, and 14 g
kbmarwat@yahoo.com                                                 ha-1; and for Tx623 were 17, 2.1, 59, and 4.4 g ha-1 for
          Weed control is considered as an additional              fluazifop, quizalofop, sethoxydim, and clethodim,
measure that increases the cost of production in certain           respectively. GR50 values for total plant dry weight
crops by many farmers. To test the hypothesis, field               measurement revealed similar pattern to visible injury
experiment was conducted at ARF, NWFP Agricultural                 ratings. In addition, segregation experiments showed that
University Peshawar in spring 2009. Maize cultivar                 resistance is controlled by a single gene with point mutation
“Azam” was planted in rows, 75 cm apart, using RCBD                at Trp2027 to Cys2027. This gene from wild sorghum
design with split plot arrangements having 2 main plots and        represents a promising resource for developing sorghum
5 subplots. One of the main plots was kept weed free while         hybrids     with      resistance    to    field   rates    of
another was kept weed infested throughout the crop season.         aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides, fluazifop and
While treatments maize alone, maize + mungbean                     quizalofop, yet it still allows susceptibility to
intercropped at 10 kg ha-1, maize + mungbean at 20 kg ha-1,        cyclohexanedione herbicides, sethoxydim and clethodim.
mungbean alone at 10 kg ha-1 and mungbean alone at 20 kg
ha-1 were assigned to the subplots. Data showed that weed          CHEMICALS PESTICIDES
control was the only option for the farmers as weed
infestation throughout the season resulted in the failure of       P1
both crops planted individualy or intercropped. Thus crop          EFFECT OF THE PESTICIDES ALPHAMETHRIN
failure can be avoided, and farmers will happily invest in         AND ACTARA ON SOME ENZYMATIC AND NON-
weed control to decrease the cost of production. It was            ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS AND ON THE
found that when weeds were controlled there was a                  PEROXIDATION OF LIPIDS IN THE SERUM AND
maximum return in maize + mungbean at 20kg ha-1                    TISSUES OF WHITE MALE RATS (RATTUS
intercropped. Predicting the long term advantage,                  NORVGICUS). Mona Husein Jankir and Sarab Yahya El-
intercropping and weed control suppressed the weed and its         Qasem, Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Mosul
seed production and will fix atmospheric nitrogen that may         University, Iraq, Email: munahj04aa@yahoo.com
increase the soil fertility which subsequently decrease the                  The present study aimed to understand the effect
cost of production.                                                of alpha-methrin and actara insecticides and to determine
                                                                   the medium lethal dose (LD50) for these insecticides, as
W 32                                                               well as studying the effect of the different concentrations on
DEPLOYMENT OF HERBICIDE RESISTANCE FOR                             non-enzymatic antioxidants existing in the rats body such
SUSTAINABLE WEED MANAGEMENT IN GRAIN

                                                       2009    /                         27                               E-113
as glutathione (GSH) and enzymatic antioxidants such as              mortality occurred within 24-48 hrs after treatment.
super oxide dismutase (SOD) in the serum and tissues,                Developmental period was also reduced in all treatments.
taking into consideration the malodialdehyde (MDA) level
which is considered as an indicator for the lipids rancidity         P4
in the serum and tissue. Results showed a significant                HISTORY OF INSECTICIDES USAGE AND THEIR
decrease in GSH level and increase inSOD activity and a              NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN
significant increase in MDA level in blood serum. Rat                SUDAN. Abdelrahman Hamed Abdelrahman Hashim and
tissue showed a significant decrease in GSH level                    Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti. Environment and Natural
accompanied with significant increase in MDA level in                Resources Research Institute (ENRRI), National Centre for
different rat tissues (brain, heart and liver and Kidney),           Research,          Khartoum,            Sudan,          Email:
administeredwith different concentrations of the above               dahamy2002@yahoo.com
mentioned insecticides compared with the control group.                        Sudan is one of the pioneer world countries
The alpha-methrin insecticide was considerably more                  adopting insecticides application in agriculture, where wide
poisonous than actara insecticide, expressed in the different        scale spraying of DDT was firstly conducted at the Gezira
biochemical parameters investigated.                                 scheme in 1945, and shortly followed by the other schemes.
                                                                     Consequently, several formulations of organic chemicals
P2                                                                   entered gradually to the country which started with the
EFFECT OF PRODUCING CONCENTRATED                                     organochlorines, then the organophosphates, carbamates
TOMATO PASTE AND PICKLED CUCUMBER ON                                 and pyrethroids, which were applied extensively for more
OXAMYL RESIDUE. Rita Mansour and Mohamed Jamal                       than half a century in all agricultural sectors. Although,
Al-Hajjar, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University,              insecticide sprayings were greatly reduced in some large
Syria, Email: ritamansoor@yahoo.com                                  schemes as a result of IPM adoption during the end of the
         Soil was treated by the insecticide oxamyl at the           last century, but the problem due to the sole reliance on
recommended application rate (30 Kg/ha). The residues of             chemical control especially by the vegetable small holders
oxamyl in cucumber and tomato fruits, cucumber pickles,              continued. However, the irrational use of broad spectrum
and concentrated tomato paste were studied for a period of           insecticides during that long period of time have caused
three weeks after treatment. The oxamyl residues were                several environmental catastrophies, which were discovered
determined by high performance liquid chromatography                 lately. The objective of this paper is to understand the real
(HPLC) using fluorescence detector at Ex= 338 nm and Em=             effects of such heavily used insecticides, on production of
455 nm. Results showed that the level of oxamyl deposits in          economic crops like cotton, besides their negative impact
cucumber and tomato fruits had not changed with time for             on different components of the environment. Studies
the duration of experiment (0.1-0.2 mg/kg) and it was                showed that cotton yields for instance were poor, variable
below the maximum residue limit (MRL) (2 mg/kg). The                 and uneconomical, in spite of the increasing trend in
food processing to produce picked cucumber and tomato                insecticidal application, during the whole period. On the
paste reduced pxamyl residues by 88-92% and 90-92%,                  other hand, toxicity and death were reported on humans,
respectively.                                                        animals, birds and fish. In addition, the effects of pesticides
                                                                     on biodiversity were recognized from scientific research or
P3                                                                   technical reports of agricultural schemes. For example,
EFFECT OF TERPENOIDS, PHENOLS, AND                                   counts of natural enemies revealed dramatic reduction in
ALKALOIDS OF CONVOLVULUS ARVENSIS L. AND                             species diversity and population numbers of these bioagents
IPOMOEA CAIRICA L. ON SOME BIOLOGICAL                                during the time of pesticide use as compared with the
ASPECTS OF GREEN BUG APHID, SCHIZAPHIS                               preceded period. Hence, this presentation stresses the
GRAMINUM (ROND.). M. Al-Salami1 and Fawzi S. Al-                     urgent need for applying all possible ecologically sound
Zubaidi2. (1) Technical College-Authority of Technical               alternatives of pesticides within the IPM framework.
Education, Iraq; (2) College of Science –Biology
Department      Baghdad-      University,    Iraq,    Email:         P5
fawzi_alzubaidi@yahoo.com                                            COMBINED EFFECT OF EQUIPMENT USED AND
         A study was conducted to evaluate the probable              FORMULATION OF PESTICIDE ON SPRAY AND
effects of crude phenols, terpenoids, and alkaloids of C.            DUST DRIFT IN RELATION TO HARMFUL
arvensis, and I. cairica on some biological aspects of green         EFFECTS ON SOME NON-TARGET ORGANISMS.
bug aphid S. graminum. Results showed a direct correlation           Ashraf Zalook1 and Sherif Abouelkassem2. (1) Faculty of
between crude allelochemicals mentioned above and the                Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt; (2) Faculty
mortality rate of the nymphs. The data also revealed that C.         of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Asiut, Egypt, Email:
arvensis extracts were more effective than I. cairica                abouelkassem_eg@yahoo.com
extracts. The mortality rate reached 90% at the                             Field and laboratory studies were conducted in
concentration of 1% of C. arvensis crude phenols, and                summer 2008 to investigate drift of cyanophos applied on
terpenoids. Whereas, it was 90% at the same concentration            cotton field onto adjacent maize plants in Dakalt village,
of terpenoids, phenols, and alkaloids of I. cairica. No              Kafrelshikh governorate, Egypt. Drift deposits of
individual nymphs were produced due to the effects of all            Cyanophos was determined as µg/kg maize leaves. The
extracts of C. arvensis and terpenoids and alkaloids of I.           determinations were conducted on leaves of maize grown at
cairica at above mentioned concentrations. Nymphal                   various distances from the edge of the treated cotton fields


E-114    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
(i.e. 5, 8, 14…. up to 51 m). Distances traveled by drift in        fungicide treatments. It is concluded that tubers produced
the 1st spray were farther than those of the 2nd spray,             by fungicide treated plants were healthy and had in general
mainly because wind speed was higher during 1st spray               higher dry matter, compared to tubers from untreated
(wind speeds were 3.8 and 2.6 km/hr during time of                  plants. The decline of some parameters in tubers of
application in the 1st and 2nd sprays, respectively). The           fungicide treated plants may partly, but not considerably,
farthest distance within maize field reached by drift was           influence their quality and nutritional characters.
observed for the dust application followed by micron
ULVA and mistblower spraying (the distances were 26, 35             P7
and 44 m in the first spray when using the mistblower,              EFFECT OF TEMPERATURES ON THE STABILITY
micron ULVA and the mistblower as a duster,                         OF SOME PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS. H.I. Awad1,
respectively). The corresponding values of drift deposits           J.F. Wahib2, I.I. Al-Yasyeri2 and H. Shamkhi3. (1) State
were 18.5, 13.6 28.4 µg/kg maize leaves, respectively. The          Board for Agric. Res., Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad,
potential drift emitted by micron ULVA compared with that           Iraq; (2) State Board for Plant Protection, Ministry of
of mistblower may be due to the smaller droplets of the             Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq; (3) Tarik State Company,
former sprayer. Drift of Cyanophos released by each of the          Baghdad, Iraq, Email: hi_awad@yahoo.com
tested equipment caused 100% mortality of fish or                             Fifteen     pesticides     representing   different
honeybees placed at the distances 5 and 7 m from the edge           formulations, such as EC, ULV and WP were tested.
of treated cotton field. For the dust application, 100%             Results revealed that solid formulations were more stable
mortality was observed at longer distances (14 and 21 cm).          than liquid formulations at high temperatures 54±2°C. The
The study suggests that buffer zones (no spray zones) have          most affected emulsifiable concentrates were Nogos
to be established downwind of the treated field to avoid            (dichlorovos), Diazinon, and Senthion (fenitrothion). The
environmental contamination due to off-target deposition of         effect is attributed to degradation in the active ingredient
pesticide drift. The model and specifications of these zones        and to seperation of components of formulated pesticides
depend on quality of spray, release height, wind speed and          such as emulsifiers. The results showed also the importance
other factors. Other measures of drift mitigation have to be        of active ingredients origin, and the emulsifying agents
considered.                                                         added to the failure of emulsifiable formulations. Low
                                                                    temperature was found to have no detectable effect on the
P6                                                                  stability of tested pesticides under study.
EFFECT OF FUNGICIDE TREATMENTS ON DRY
MATTER           AND         SOME         NITROGENOUS               P8
COMPOUNDS IN POTATO TUBERS. M.E.O. Elsayed1,                        STUDY OF THE PERSISTANCE OF DIMETHOATE
2
 , E. Pawelzik and A. Keutgen1. (1) Section Quality of Plant        IN OLIVE FRUITS AND SOIL. M. Maher Khaznawi¹,
Products, Department of Crop Science, Georg-August                  M. Jamal Hajjar² and Marwan Dimashqi³. (1) Directorate of
University Göttingen, Carl-Sprengel-Weg 1, 37075                    Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Damascus, Syria;
Germany; (2) Departmant of gums chemistry and                       (2) Plant Protection Division, Faculty of Agriculture,
processing, Gum Arabic Research Centre, University of               Damascus University, Syria; (3) General Agency of
Kordofan, Elobeid, P.O. Box 160, Sudan, Email:                      Environment       affairs,  Damascus,      Syria,    Email:
mustafa2274@yahoo.co.uk                                             asir78@hotmail.com
         The application of fungicides guarantees disease                    This study was carried out at Abou Jarash farm,
control as well as improves growth of crop plants which             Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, to estimate
leads to high yield. Research was conducted by several              the persistence of Dimethoate and its oxygen–analogue
workers to assess the changes induced by fungicide                  metabolites (Omethoate) in olive fruits and soil.
application in chemical composition of different crops              Recommended application rate of 100 ml/100 liter water of
including potatoes Solanum tuberosum L. The purpose of              Dimethoate 40% EC on olive trees was used. Pesticide
this study was to assess the effects of different fungicide         residues in olive fruits were extracted by chloroform
treatments of potato plant on changes in dry matter and             following Paolo Cabras method. The soil samples were
some nitrogenous compounds namely crude protein, nitrate            extracted with mixture of acetone–water (95:5). Dimethoate
concentration and total free amino acids in potato tubers. In       residues were detected by Gas Chromatography equipped
this respect, various fungicides were used against                  with flame–photometric detector (GC–FPD). The results
Phytophthora infestans, which cause late blight disease in          showed that the residues in olive fruits were 9.264 mg/kg
potato foliage and potato tuber. The biochemical                    after one hour post treatment and then decreased to 5.422,
parameters studied contribute in a varied manner to the             3.968, 2.662, 2.278, 1.429, 1.687 and 0.723 mg/kg after 1,
quality aspects and nutritional value of the tubers. The            3, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days of application, respectively.
current study was conducted in two consecutive seasons              Pesticide degradation occurred through two main stages:
(2000 and 2001) in Göttingen, Germany. Two potato                   relative sharp degradation stage during the first 10 days
cultivars Hansa and Milva and three different fungicides            after application which showed a reduction in residues from
treatments were used. Results revealed that dry matter              9.264 mg/kg to 2.278 mg/kg. In this stage almost 74.41% of
content and crude protein were increased. In cv. Hansa, in          the initial deposit was degraded. In the 2nd stage, the
2000, these parameters did not however change, nitrate              degradation was relatively slow and the residues were
concentration has been decreased and total free amino acids         decreased from 2.278 mg/kg to 0.723 mg/kg. The
either remained unchanged or decreased in response to

                                                        2009    /                        27                               E-115
remaining deposit of 0.723 mg/kg after 25 days was above                     The efficacy of three plant extracts as rodenticides
the recommended level (MRL = 0.5 mg/kg) on olives.                   against some rodent species Rattus norvegiens, Rattus
Dimethoate half-life on olives was 8.4 days and the                  rattus and Meriones shawi was determined under laboratory
calculated pre-harvest intervals (PHI) was 53.6 days.                conditions by using choice feeding method. The results
Whereas the PHI, as stated by the manufacturing company,             showed that the three tested plant extracts namely, Oshar
was 21 days. The pesticide residues in soil was 5.059                leaves, Cumin and Golden Shower seeds exhibited
mg/kg after one hour post treatment, then decreased to               noticeable rodentical effects against the treated rats.
0.789, 1.006, 0.614, 0.555, 0.687, 0.377 and 1.026 mg/kg,            Toxicity data revealed that ethanolic Oshar leaves extract
after 1, 3, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days, respectively. The             proved the most effective one against the albino rats
pesticide degradation occurred through two main stages:              followed by Cumin seeds extract, while Golden shower
relative sharp degradation, which happened directly one              seeds extract was the least effective. Under the field
day after application, in which the residues decreased from          conditions, ethanolic extract of Oshar leaves caused the
5.059 mg/kg to 0.789 mg/kg. In the 2nd stage, the                    highest population of reduction 83.79% on R. rattus and
degradation was relatively slow with alternation in decrease         65.04% M. shawi. The corresponding reduction reached
and increase of residue quantities. The residues increased 3         74.50 and 67.69% (R. rattus) and 51.22 and 37.86% (M.
days after application reaching 1.006 mg/kg, then decreased          shawi) with Cumin and Golden Shower seed extracts,
to 0.377 mg/kg after 20 days, with a total degradation of            respectively.
92.54% of the initial deposit. The half-life in soil was 17.7
days (humidity percent was 2.7%, pH = 8 and the soil type            P 11
was clay – loam). This study showed that the persistence of          THERMAL DEGRADATION OF CARBENDAZIM
Omethoate in both olive fruits and soil, was observed at the         AND        THIOPHANATE-METHYL                  BY      FTIR
beginning of the applications until the end of sampling              TECHNIQUE WITH PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL
period, 25 days post treatment. The residue quantities               EVALUATION. Alaa H. Al-Fartoosy, Plant Protection
ranged from 0.836 to 0.361 mg/kg in olive fruits and from            Department, College of Agriculture, Basra University, Iraq,
0.069 to 0.001 mg/kg in soil.                                        Email: alaaalmufteen@yahoo.co.uk.
                                                                              The aim of the study was to investigate the effect
P9                                                                   of tropical temperature on the storage of Bell and Topsin-M
TOXICITY OF THE PESTICIDE DELTAMETHRIN                               wettability, active ingredient, acidity measurement,
(K-OTHRINE) ON PLANT CELLS USING PLANT                               absorbance of infrared radiation and bioassay. The results
TISSUE CULTURE OF THE BLACK SEED NIGELLA                             demonstrated that the thermal storage lead to increase in
SATIVA L. Hana Saeed Al-Saleh, Biology Department,                   wettability time for both fungicides but did not exceed the
College of Science, Mosul University, Iraq, Email:                   acceptable period of 2 min. Storage heat caused partial
hanasa59@yahoo.com                                                   degradation of active ingredients of Carbendazim 42% and
        The toxicity effect of the pesticide Deltamethrin (K-        31.8% after one and two months of storage and
Othrine EC 2.5%) on the plant cell was conducted. The                Thiophanate-Methyl 44.5% and 37.6%, respectively. In
expermint was carried out using callus culture of Nigella            addition, storage caused increase in acidity of Carbendazim
sativa initiated from stem explants of seedlings cultured on         value from 0.157 before storage to 2.47 after two months
MS medium supplemented with 10-6M of 2,4-D (MS                       and for Thiophanate-Methyl, the value increased from 0.09
standard).Callus was cultured on MSO and MS (standard)               before storage to 0.402 after two months. The FTIR spectra
medium with addition of 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5,            improved the breakdown of active ingredients for both
1.0, 2.0, 4.0% of K-Othrine. Results showed that addition            fungicides and led to the formulation of new metabolic
of 0.01, 0.02, 0.05% K-Othrineslightly enhanced callus               products (5-hydroxycarbendazim for Carbendazim and
growth,whereas, addition of 2.0 and 4.0% was harmful and             Dimethyl-4,4-O-Phenylenebis (allophanate) for Topsin-M)
caused callus death within 7 days. Fresh weight of callus            after two months storage. Bioassay results indicated that the
grown on standard MS medium reached 2.585 g 30 days                  inhibitory effect of both fungicides on Fusarium oxsporium
after culture, whereas, callus grown on MS medium with               growth was the same before and after storage.
addition of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05% of the pesticide reached
5.332, 3.839 and 7.112g. The study also showed                       P 12
enhancement of protein synthesis in the callus grown on              FIELD EVALUATION OF SIX ACARICIDES AND
these media.                                                         THE DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF ACULOPS
                                                                     LYCOPERSICI (MASSEE) ONTOMATO LEAF.
P 10                                                                 Mushtak T. Mohammed, Plant protection Department,
EFFICIACY OF SOME ETHANOLIC PLANT                                    College of Agriculture , Basra University, Iraq, Email:
EXTRACTS AGAINST SOME RODENT SPECIES                                 mushtak74@yahoo.com
UNDER AGAINST SOME RODENT SPECIES                                              A field study was conducted to evaluate the
UNDER Laboratory AND FIED CONDITIONS. Abd El                         toxicity of six acaricides against tomato rust mite Aculops
Raoof A. Mourad1, Saied Dahroug2, Zidan H. Abd El                    lycopersici ( Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae) and the
Hamied2 and Hassen I. El Deeb1. (1) Plant Protection                 distribution pattern on upper and lower of tomato plant at
Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki,              Al-Zuber region , Basra governorate during fall 2007
Giza, Egypt; (2) Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams                   season. The results revealed that Polo 500 SC was the most
University, Cairo, Egypt, Email: dr_homam@hotmail.com                effective acaricide against this mite, reaching 0.04 mite/leaf


E-116    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
followed by Ortus 5 SC and Neuron 500 EC which reduced                Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM/MAIB), Via Ceglie 9, 70010
mite population to an average of 0.49 and 0.56 mite/leaf.             Valenzano, Bari, Italy, Email: ippolito@agr.uniba.it
The highest mite population was recorded for the                                Due to toxicity, oncogenic risk, environmental
Hostathion 40 EC treatment. Studies of leaf surface                   pollution and lack of activity due to the development of
preference and plant levels showed that mite prefers to live          pathogen resistant strains, the use of fungicides to prevent
on the lower leaf surface and the lower parts of the plant.           microbial spoilage is in general no longer recommended to
                                                                      control postharvest disease. Therefore, the demand for
P 13                                                                  alternative control means is continuously rising. Beside
PERACETIC ACID AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE                                  fungicide application, during postharvest handling, citrus
(JET 5) SUPPRESS PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI                                fruit are waxed in order to improve their overall appearance
AND BACTERIA IN VITRO AND IN COLD ROOM                                and to preserve the internal quality. The role of mixed
ENVIRONMENT. Youssef Khamis1,2, Corrado Cariddi1,                     application of wax and salts on the development of
Arben Myrta3 and Antonio Ippolito1. (1) Department of                 postharvest diseases was examined on two citrus varieties,
Plant Protection and Applied Microbiology, University of              ‘Comune’ clementine and ‘Tarocco’ orange. Common food
Bari, Via G. Amendola 165/A, 70126, Bari, Italy, Email:               additives, i.e. sodium carbonate and bicarbonate, potassium
youssefeladawy@yahoo.com;                                             carbonate and bicarbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and
youssefeladawy@agr.uniba.it; (2) Plant Pathology Research             potassium sorbate, at a concentration of 6% (w/v), in
Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza-Egypt; (3)              combination with a commercial wax, were evaluated for
Certis Europe B.V. Via A. Guaragna 3, 21047 Saronno                   their activity against postharvest rots. Fruit were stored for
(VA), Italy, Email: ippolito@agr.uniba.it                             one month at 4°C (‘Tarocco’ orange) or 6°C (‘Comune’
          The use of synthetic fungicides for the control of          Clementine), followed by one week of shelf life at 20±2°C.
the diseases of fresh fruit and vegetables is restricted by the       Major rots were due to Penicillium digitatum and P.
actual EU and national legislation due to the possible risks          italicum, with an incidence of 11 and 4% for ‘Comune’
for humans and environmental health. Therefore, there is an           clementine and ‘Tarocco’ orange, respectively; the
increasing need for unconventional and preventive control             incidence of P. ulaiense infection was negligible and
means to establish an eco-compatible agriculture. The                 appeared at the end of the storage. Rots caused by Botrytis
effect of Jet 5 (a mixture of peracetic acid 5% and hydrogen          cinerea and Alternaria spp. showed an incidence, on the
peroxide 20%) was tested against some important                       whole, lower than 1% on ‘Tarocco’ orange and around 3%
phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria and in a cold storage              on ‘Comune’ Clementine. The incidence of post-harvest
room for fresh fruit and vegetables. Jet 5 at concentrations          rots on fruits treated with wax was significantly higher as
of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% mixed with Potato Dextrose Agar             compared to fruit treated with water; whereas, in fruit
(PDA) medium was tested against Penicillium italicum, P.              treated with wax combined with different salts, rot
expansum, Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea. Whereas,               incidence was significantly lower than the control, the
the compound at concentrations of 0.062, 0.125, 0.25,                 combination wax/potassium sorbate was the most effective.
0.5%, and 1% mixed with Sucrose-Nutrient Agar (SNA)
medium was tested against several phytopathogenic                     P 15
bacteria including Erwinia amylovora, Agrobacterium                   TESTING EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT
tumefaciens,       Clavibacter       michiganensis       subsp        PESTICIDES ON FRANKLINIELLA OCCIDENTAILS.
michiganensis,       Pseudomonas        spp.,    Xanthomonas          Hassina Benmessaoud-Boukhalfa, Département de zoologie
campestris pv vesicatoria and Pectobacterium carotovorum              agricole et forestière Ecole nationale supérieure
subsp carotorum. Jet 5 at 0.75% gave a complete growth                agronomique hacene Badi, Alger, Algeria, Email:
inhibition of all fungi tested, except for B. cinerea, being          h.benmessaoud@ina.dz; hassina_b52@yahoo.fr
completely inhibited at 1%. The mixture at 0.125% gave a                        Frankliniella occidentalis, causes serious damage
complete inhibition of all tested bacteria species, except for        to crops in greenhouses mainly cucumber on which our
Pseudomonas viridiflava which was completely inhibited at             study was conducted. Thrips prefer moderate light
0.25%. In the application as aerosol for air sanitation in a          intensities and that is why it is often found on the underside
cold storage room, Jet 5 applied at 0.6 ml/m3, reduced                of leaves. A study of the spatial distribution of this pest has
microbial air population by 88.5% for Penicillium spp. and            shown that the larval stages are more important on the
Cladosporium spp. and by 60.5% for yeasts.                            leaves (43.6 larvae on the basal leaves and 28.1 larvae on
                                                                      upper leaves) than adults (11.75 adults basal leaves and 5.6
P 14                                                                  adults in the upper leaves). A test of effectiveness of seven
ACTIVITY OF SALTS IN COMBINATION WITH                                 active ingredients on Frankliniella occidentalis gave the
WAX AGAINST POSTHARVEST ROTS ON CITRUS                                following results: average corrected mortality of 85% was
FRUITS. Youssef Khamis1,2, Angela Ligorio1, Thaer                     obtained with profenofos, pymetrozine and the
Yaseen3, Franco Nigro1 and Antonio Ippolito1. (1)                     thiametoxam; 79% wih Lufénuron and Abamectin and 65%
Department of Plant Protection and Applied Microbiology,              with Lambda-cyhalothrin and Diafenthiuron.
University of Bari, Via G. Amendola 165/A, 70126, Bari,
Italy,        Email:         youssefeladawy@yahoo.com;
youssefeladawy@agr.uniba.it; (2) Plant Pathology Research
Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza-Egypt; (3)
Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques

                                                          2009    /                         27                                E-117
PLANT EXTRACTS                                                       EX 3
                                                                     THE EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS AND THE
EX 1                                                                 ALCOHOLIC            EXTRACTS         OF       TRIBULUS
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT                                    TERRESTRIS L. AND CYNODON DACTYLON L. ON
EXTRACTS. Faozia A.A. Ibrahim1, Nawara Mohamed2                      SEED GERMINATION OF CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS
and Zakia M. Senossi2. (1) Department of Food Sciences,              SATIVUS) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS.
Faculty of Agriculture, Omer Al Mukthar Unversity, Al-               Othman Salem Edakhli, Higher and Middle Level Center of
Baida, P.B. 919, Libya; (2) Department of Plant Protection           Agricultural Technology, Gheeran, Aljefara Branch, the
Faculty of Agriculture, Omer Al Mukthar Unversity, Al-               Great Jamaheereyya, POB 151, Tripoli, Email:
Baida, P.B. 919, Libya; (3) Department of Horticulture,              Organic_libya@yahoo.com; amn_de@yahoo.com
Faculty Agriculture, Omer Al Mukthar Unversity, Al-                        A 25 gram dry matter of Cynodon dactylon or
Baida, P.B. 919, Libya, Email: noboshakoa@yahoo.com                  Tribulus terrestris were soaked in 100 ml of dH2O to
          Ethanolic extracts of tarragon (Artemisia                  prepare the aqueous extract or 100 ml ethanol 96% to
dracunculus), rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L) and               prepare the alcoholic extract. The effect of the following
thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and the essential oil of oregano          dilutions: 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4%, from each extract on seed
(Origanum vulgare subsp. Hirtum) were tested against                 germination of cucumber was studied. Germination of
several fungi including Aspergillus niger, A. flavus,                cucumber seeds were significantly higher in Tribulus
Penicillium sp., Rhizopus spp. and Fusarium spp. Oregano             teresstris extracts than in Cynodon dactylon extracts.
essential oil showed a very strong antifungal activity               Germination in the aqueous extract of Tribulus teresstris
against Fuasarium spp. (MIC 0.8 mg/ml) and Penicillium               was higher (71.67%) than in the alcoholic extract (54.5%).
spp. (MIC 0.9 mg/ml) whereas other fungi were more                   Germination in either extracts of Cynodon dactylon was
resistant. The results showed that Rhizopus spp. were the            similar. The higher the concentration of the extract the
most sensitive fungi to the plant extracts, whereas rosemary         lower was the germination rate and the longer was the pre-
extract was the most effective. Application of oregano               germination period.
essential oil or rosemary extract with different
concentrations (100, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) and                  EX 4
storage at either 5 or 25oC for postharvest control of               EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF SOME
tomatoes for three weeks showed that the combination of              PLANT EXTRACTS FOR ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT
two treatments (refrigeration and rosemary extract or                DISEASE CONTROL OF CHICKPEA. Mysire Majeed
oregano essential oil) was more effective in preserving              Jarjees1, F. Al-Dulaimy2, A. Al-Azawi2, S. Al-Amry2 and A.
tomatoes quality.                                                    Faic2. (1) College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad,
                                                                     Baghdad, Iraq, Email: mysirem@yahoo.com; (2) State
EX 2                                                                 Board for Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture,
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND                                     Iraq.
ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF NERIUM OLEANDER                                          Ascochyta blight disease of chickpea is considered
L. FLOWERS ON DIFFERENT SPECIES OF                                   the most serious disease that affect chickpea worldwide.
ALTERNARIA. R.K Al Barhawi and W.S. Kassem,                          Garlic and thuja extracts were used for Ascochyta blight
Department of Life Science, Faculty of Sciences, Mosul               disease control. Results obtained showed that extracts of
University, Iraq, Email: riyadh.albarhawi@yahoo.com                  garlic and thuja were effective at 2, 4, 6 g/l concentration
         The inhibitory effect of aqueous and alcoholic              against the fungus Ascochta rabiei in culture media
extracts of Nerium oleander L. flowers on different species          compared with untreated control. The highest level of
of Alternaria isolated from summer and winter vegetables             inactivation was achieved by the application of thuja extract
with leaf spot disease, in Mosul city, was studied.                  at 6 g/l concentration which reached 59.93% while the
Alternaria species included: A. brassicicola, A. brassicae,          lowest inactivation level was recorded for garlic extract at 2
A. alternata, A. longipes, A. dianthi, A. cheiranthi, A.             g/l concentration. Results also revealed that the application
tenuissima, Alternaria state of Pleospora infectoria, A.             of both extracts after artificial inoculation with the fungus
radicina and A. raphani. One of Alternaria isolate was               significantly reduced infection severity at 2, 4, 6 g/l
greatly affected by the aqueous extract. The average                 concentrations. The infection rate for garlic and thuja
inhibition in colony diameter was 42.3%. The inhibitory              extracts at 6g/l concentration were 44.4%, 48.10%,
effects were 41.7, 40.5 and 22.9% for A. raphani, A. dianthi         respectively, compared with control (unsprayed) (87.57%).
and A. dianthicola; respectively. The alcoholic extract of N.        The efficiency of extracts varied according to their
olearder flower showed clear effect on the average                   concentration. The application of extracts before
inhibition in colony diameter of different species; they were        inoculation showed the same trend as the application after
67.9, 65.4, 65.3 and 53.1% in A. alternata, A. brassicicola,         inoculation.
A. dianthicola and A. radicina, respectively. The study
showed that these extracts can be utilized, especially the           EX 5
alcoholic extract, as aid agents in any future programme of          FUNGICIDAL AND HERBICIDAL EFFECTS OF
biological control or integrated control of the above                THE     FORMULATIONS            OF    THE      ACTIVE
pathogens.                                                           COMPONENTS          EXTRACTED         FROM       SOME
                                                                     PLANTS. M.S. El-Zemaity1, M.A. Abdel-Gawad2, Naglaa
                                                                     M. Soliman2. (1) Plant Protection Department, Faculty of

E-118    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; (2)               was relatively the most effective in the first year, it reduced
Central Pesticides Laboratory, Agriculture Research Center,        insect population by effective with 38.7-54.9%, the Lupine
Geiza, Egypt, Email: mselzemaity@hotmail.com                       oil was the most effective in the second season (35.1-
      The study aims to evaluate the herbicidal and                81.3%), whereas, coriander oil was the least effective with,
fungicidal activity of some potent components of plant             3.8-53.2% reduction only. The results revealed that, using
extracts from the following species: Peganum harmala,              8% water extracts of Wormwood, Cumin, Coriander,
Solanum nigrum, Silybum marianum and Xanthium                      Fenugreek, Lupine and Colocynth gave a high net benefit
punganes. Formulation of the alkaloids extracted from the          and protection for sorghum heads from house sparrow and
seeds of Peganum harmala and fresh unripe from Solanum             insects' larvae.
nigrum were evaluate for their pesticidal activities. Also,
extraction and formulation of the naturally occurring              EX 7
terpenoids obtained from the leaves of Silybum marianum            ANTIMICROBIAL INHIBITORY EFFECT OF
and Xanthium punganes were evaluated on seeds of                   ALCOHOLIC AND WATER EXTRACTS OF DATE
cucumber and wheat as test plants representing                     PALM SEED POWDER ON SOME GRAM POSITIVE
monocotyledons and dicotyledonos herbs was determined.             AND NEGATIVE BACTERIA. Sarab D. Al-Shamaa,
The fungicidal effect of the extracted alkaloids and               Adeeba Y. Shareef, Shababa Abdul Latif Bahjat,
terpenoids on Alternaria sp, Sclorotium rolfsii, and               Department of Biology, College of Science, Mosul
Asperagulus flavus fungi was also determined. Formulation          University, Iraq, Email: drsarabalshamaa@yahoo.com
of the extracted alkaloids and terpenoids that gave high                     The objective of this work was to test the
pesticidal activity was carried out in the form of                 antimicrobial inhibitory effect of alcoholic and water
emulsifiable concentrate where their physico-chemical              extracts of date palm seed. Extracts had been prepared into
properties were measured to determine the most successful          two ways: alcoholic extract of date palm seed was prepared
formulation. The data obtained indicated the high pesticidal       by soaking seeds in water for one week; crushed,
activity of the extracted alkaloids from Peganum harmala           solubilized in ethanol and dried. The crushed seed in the
and Solanum nigrum and their formulation as emulsifiable           second way was solubilized in water and dried. The
concentrates. All formulations tested passed physico-              inhibitory effect of the two types had been studied against
chemical properties tests based on WHO measures.                   the following bacterial specieses: Klebsiella sp,
Isolation and primary identification of compounds of the           Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp, Neisseria gonorrhoea,
alkaloids extracted from Peganum harmala and Solanum               E. coli, Salmonella sp, Serratia sp, Psedomonas auroginosa
nigrum were also carried out.                                      and Streptococcus sp. These extracts revealed inhibitory
                                                                   effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Niesseria
EX 6                                                               gonorriea. It is advised to test its inhibitory effect against
EFFICACY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS AND                                harmful plant bacterial pathogens such as Erwinia and
PLANT OILS AS REPELLANTS TO THE HOUSE                              pseudomonas.
SPARROW AND INSECTS LARVAE ATTACKING
SORGHUM HEADS IN THE FIELD. Adel M. El-Rawy1                       EX 8
and Ahmad E.A.A. Mourad2. (1) Plant Protection Research            PHYTOCHEMICAL               AND        TOXICOLOGICAL
Institute, ARC, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; (2) Sorghum                    EFFECT OF CERTAIN PLANT EXTRACTS
Department, Field Crops Research Institute, ARC, Giza,             AGAINST POTATO TUBER MOTH, PHTHORIMAEA
Egypt, Email: adel_elrawy69@yahoo.com                              OPERCULELLA AND GREEN PEACH APHID,
        The efficacy of seven plant extracts and five plant        MYZUS PERSICAE. Homam B. Homam1, Asma El-Z.
oils were tested as repellents to house sparrow, Passer            Sharkawy2, Halmey A. Zeidan1, Afaf Abd El-Wahab2 and
domesticus niloticus and three head worms; Autoba                  Hala E.A. El-Mowafy1. (1) Agriculture Research Center,
(Eublemma) gayneri, Cryptoblabes gnidiella and                     Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 12816, Giza,
Pyroderces simplex on sorghum Dorado variety under field           Egypt; (2) Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girls
conditions in Sids Agricultural Research Station, Beni-            Branch,      Egypt,     Email:    dr_homam@hotmail.com;
Sueif Governorate, during 2005 and 2006 seasons. This              homam_b@yahoo.com
work revealed that, the bird damage was clearly higher for                   Phytochemical constituents were separated and
grains during the mature stage (8.6-45.9%) than those of the       ethanol hexane extracts identified in the arial parts of
dough stage (2.1-8.2%). The plant extracts and oils caused         Peganum harmala (Harmal) and Pelergonium graviolens
a grain yield protection from the bird damage reached 36.3-        Granum and Green potato crusts of potato tuber Solanum
69.7% in dough stage and 27.4-81.2% in mature stage at the         tuberosum. The evaluation of plant extracts was done by
same time the treatment decreased the insects' larvae              dipping and the residue film acted against both
numbers by 3.8-100% during the dough stage. Effects of             Phthorimaea operculella (PTM) larvae and Myzus persicae
the plant extracts differed according to the insect species.       nymphs. Phytochemical analysis indicated that Harmal
Cumin water extract was the best against all insects, it           extract contained carbohydrate and/or glycocides, tannins,
reduce their populations by 42.0-79.1 and 68.4-100% for            saponins, alkaloids, flavonoides, but sterols and/or
the two years, respectively. The least effective was               triterpenies existed in medium amounts On the other hand,
wormwood acetonic extract (26.7-34.0% reduction) and               Geranium extract had carbohydrates and/or glycocides,
Lupine water extract (6.9-29.7% decrease) in the first and         tannins, saponins sterols and/or triterpenies, alkaloids, but
second seasons, respectively. As for plant oils, Neemix oil,       flavonoides existed in medium amounts. Green potato

                                                       2009    /                         27                                E-119
crusts contained carbohydrate and/or glycocides, tannins             plants, Carum copticum C. B. Clarke (Apiaceae) and Vitex
alkaloids but saponins and sterols and/or triterpenies existed       pseudo-negundo (Haussk) Hand. I. MZT. (Verbenaceae)
in medium amounts. Green potato crusts had noflavonoides.            essential oil vapors against. Sitophilus oryzae L.
Dipping technique was more effective to both Geranium                (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to elucidate their mode of
and Green potato crusts than residue film against PTM. The           action and persistence. The experiments were conducted at
extractions tested could be arranged in descending order as          27±1°C, 60±5% R.H. and in dark conditions. The essential
follows: Geranium, Green potato crusts and Harmal (76.6,             oils were obtained from seeds of C. copticum and dry
70.0 and 65.6% mortality at 120 ppm concentration,                   leaves of V. pseudo-negundo, and subjected to
respectively). According to phytochemical analysis, sterols          hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type
and/or triterpenies existed in Geranium more than Harmal             apparatus. The highest concentration of the C. copticum and
and Green potato crusts and were effective against newly             V. pseudo-negundo oils (3 µL per 1 ml acetone) caused
hatched larvae of PTM. Hence, the greatest amount of                 69.64 and 57.45% repellency on adult insects, respectively.
sterols and/or triterpenies may be responsible for the               At 926 µL/L air, persistence and half-life time of the C.
efficiency of Geranium extract against P. operculella                copticum (42.04 days) oil was significantly longer than that
larvae. In respect to Myzus periscae, dipping technique for          of V. pseudo-negundo (7.16 days).The results demonstrated
Green potato crusts, Geranium and Harmal recorded 76.6,              the efficacy of these two essential oils for use in organic
63.3 and 56.6% mortality at the concentrations 200, 3200             food protection. They can prevent the infestation of the
and 4000 ppm, respectively.                                          stored-product pests in warehouses.

EX 9                                                                 EX 11
USE OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS FOR CONTROL                               EFFECTS OF MELIA AZEDARACH L. AND OCIMUM
OF         THE         ROOT-KNOT              NEMATODES              BASILICUM L.             EXTRACTS AGAINST THE
MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA IN LABORATORY AND                               STORED          PRODUCTS           PEST       TRIBOLIUM
GREENHOUSE EXPERIMENT. Idres A. Suliman1,                            CASTANEUM HERBST. Mustapha Bounechada1, R.
Mahmoud K. Al-hweati2 and Issa A. Abougarsa2. (1) Plant              Arab2, W. Begam3 and Z. Takerkert3. (1) Laboratory
Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Garyounis             ADPVA, Faculty of Sciences, Setif; Algeria; (2) UFAS,
University,     Libya,    Email:       aasa2080@yahoo.com,           Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Setif; Algeria;
aasa2080@yahoo.com; (2) Plant Protection Department,                 (3) UFAS, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Sciences,
Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Al-              Setif; Algeria, Email: Bounechadam@yahoo.fr
Bida, Libya.                                                                   Powder extracts from unripe fruits of Melia
          The results and statistical analysis of the effect of      azedarach L. (Meliaceae) and leaves of Ocimum basilicum
garlic, rosmary and myoporum extracts on reproduction of             L. (Lamiaceae) collected from north east of Algeria
Meloidogyne javanica indicated that all tested extracts              (Setifian area), were tested at different concentrations 10,
suppressed reproduction of nematodes on "Riogrande"                  15 and 30% for their effects against larvae and adults of
tomato seedlings receiving 100 J2 per plant. The most                Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae),
effective was garlic extract at 6% concentration, producing          the pest of stored grains grain stored under laboratory
a high mortality of J2 at an average of 22.3 and 26.0 J2             conditions, as a measure towards natural protection of
after 96 and 120 hours treatment, respectively. The use of           crops, food stocks and the environment. In general, the
6% garlic extract led to an average of 1.60, 4.44 and 1.25           fruits powdered extract of M. azedarach showed higher
for gall-index, number of females and egg masses index,              bioactivity at all doses than the same doses of the leaf
respectively, as compared to 2.33, 17.79 and 5.58 at 4%              extract of O. basilicum, while the leaf extract of O.
concentration.                                                       basilicum proved to be more active, at higher doses.
                                                                     Laboratory experiments showed also that the fruits and
EX 10                                                                leaves powdered extracts were more toxic on larvae than on
REPELLENT ACTIVITY AND PERSISTENCE OF                                adults activity of T. castaneum at all doses. The less
ESSENTIAL OILS FROM CARUM COPTICUM AND                               expensive and naturally occurring biopesticides may be safe
VITEX PSEUDO-NEGUNDO ON SITOPHILUS                                   alternative to synthetic pesticides to protect cereal stored
ORYZAE. Bibi Zahra Sahaf and Saeed Moharramipour,                    grains.
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat
Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-336, Tehran, Iran,
Email: sahaf@modares.ac.ir                                           EX 12
         Protection of stored agricultural products against          EFFECT OF AMMOIDES PUSILA AND THYMUS
insects is carried out mostly with chemical insecticides.            NUMIDICUS ESSENTIAL OILS ON PSEUDOMONAS
These insecticides cause harmful effects on the                      SYRINGAE PVS. Hocine Laouer1, Meriem El Kolli1,
environment. Recently, several studies on alternative                Mebarka Lamamra1, Daoud Harzallah2, Mohamed M.
substances with insecticidal activity, such as the use of            Zerroug2, and Farida Sahli1. (1) Laboratory of Natural
essential oils of plants to control storage insect pests were        Ressources; (2) Valorization Laboratory of Applied
reported. Essential oils are volatile and can act like               Microbiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences,
fumigants offering the prospect for use in stored products           University Ferhat Abbas, Sétif 19000, Algeria, Email:
protection. The objective of the present study was to test the       hocine_laouer@yahoo.fr
possible properties of, essential oil vapors from medicinal


E-120    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
       The antmicrobial activity of the essential oils of           Egypt,            Email:           badrelsabah@yahoo.com;
Thymus numidicus and Ammoides pusilla were assayed                  mohamedalelimi@hotmail.com
against five strains of bacteria: Pseudomonas syringae pv.                   Effects of some vegetable extracts namely
morsprunorum       330;    Pseudomonas      syringae    pv.         ethanolic extracts of seed kernels of chinaberry, apricot and
morsprunorum 1460; Pseudomonas syringae pv.                         mango as well as soybean leaves against the cotton
morsprunorum 1781; Pseudomonas syringae pv.                         leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were evaluated. 1:1
phaseolicola 1099 and Pseudomonas syringae pv.                      acetone: hexane extract of mango seed kernels was used.
maculicola 1776. The results revealed that the investigated         Results were reported as larval mortality rates, 2 and 7 days
oils exhibited a remarkably higher antibacterial activity,          after feeding on castor leaves treated with the tested
particularly the Ammoides pusilla two fold dilution against         compounds at the concentrations of 1 and 2% as well as
Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and Pseudomonas                 inhibition of larval development. Mortality rates of larvae
syringae pv. phaseolicola 1099.                                     were estimated by all extracts used. Greatest effects were
                                                                    attained by using 2% concentration of apricot and soybean
EX 13                                                               extracts which gave 20.0 and 16.7% mortality after 7 days,
FUMIGATION OF STORED DATES INSECTS                                  respectively. Chinaberry extract had extremely high effect
ECTOMYELOIS CERATONIAE AND EPHESTIA                                 on inhibiting pupation with 50.0 and 45.0% pupation when
KUEHNIELLA WITH LAVANDULA OFFICINALIS L.                            1 and 2% concentrations, respectively, were used. The
ESSENTIAL OIL AS ALTERNATIVE TO METHYL                              control gave 100% pupation. Malformed pupae were
BROMIDE.          Jouda Mediouni-Ben          Jemâa1, Olfa          noticed in case of the acetone:hexane mango extract. All
Bachrouch2,3, Brahim Marzouk3 and Manef Abderraba2. (1)             extracts decreased number of emerging adults in
Laboratoire de Protection des Végétaux, INRAT, 2049                 comparison with the control. Malformed adults were
Ariana, Tunisia; (2) Unité de Recherche de Physico-Chimie           observed when 2% of soybean extract, as well as 1 and 2%
Moléculaire (URPCM). IPEST BP51270 La Marsa                         acetone: hexane mango extract were used.
Tunisie ; (3) Unité de plantes aromatiques et Médicinales.
Centre de Biotechnologie du Technopole de Borj Cedria BP            EX 15
902,      2050      Hammam        Lif      Tunisie,   Email:        THE EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS BELONGING
joudamediouni@lycos.com                                             TO MENTHA VIRIDIS L., SATURIEA HORTENSI
          The two pyralidae carob moth, Ectomyelois                 AND CUMINUM CYMINUM, ON THE GROWTH OF
ceratoniae Zeller and the Mediterranean flour moth                  FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM. Seyedeh Felour Mazhar1,
Ephestia kuchniella Zeller are the most important and               Farhang Aliakbari1,2 and Rouhollah Karami-Osboo3. (1)
destructive insect pests attacking dates fruits (Phoenix            Microbiology Department, Azad Islamic University, North
dactylifera) in storage in Tunisia. Methyl bromide is               Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran; (2) Faroogh Life Sciences
presently the primary method of post harvest insect control.        Research Lab., Tehran, Iran; (3) Plant Protection Research
However, the ozone depleting effect of methyl bromide has           Institute, Tehran, Iran, Email: fmazhar110@yahoo.com
led to restrictions on its use. Consequently, it is urgent to                 Essential oils extracted from plants are aromatic
develop alternative control methods which are both                  oily liquids, that have an antibacterial, antifungal and
effective and friendly to the environment. In this context,         antioxidant properties. They have the potential to be used as
essential oils from aromatic plant are widely being                 an antimicrobial agent, or fungicide in agricultural
investigated for their insecticidal activity including their        industries. In this investigation, we investigated the
action as fumigants, repellents, anti-feedents. The present         antifungal potential of essential oils belonging to Mentha
work aimed to assess the toxicity and biological effects of         viridis, Saturiea hortensi and Cuminum cyminum on the
Lavendula officinalis essential oil fumigant against these          growth of Fusarium graminearum, which causes Fusarium
two stored- date moths. The results showed that fumigant            head blight or scab of small cereal grains such as wheat all
toxicity varied with insect species, essential oil                  over the world. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol
concentration and exposure time. Thus, L. officinalis               (NIV) are the two main mycotoxins produced by Fusarium
essential oil was more toxic to E. kuehniella than E.               graminearum that have toxicity to animals and humans.
ceratoniae. Indeed, for E. kuehniella, 100% of mortality            Broth dilution method was employed to assess the
was achieved after 24 h of exposure at 90.91µl/l air. The           antifungal activity of essential oils. Fusarium graminearum
LC50 was 0.443 µl/l air and the LT50 was 2.179 h. For E.            was cultured in potato dextrose broth along with the
ceratoniae, 100% of mortality was achieved at 159.1 µl/l            individual essential oils at various concentrations for 48 h.
air after 36h of exposure. The LC50 and the TL50 were 0.368         similar culture without essential oils was used as a control.
µl/l air and 6.641h, respectively. Moreover, L. officinalis         Lowest concentration, which inhibited the colony growth of
essential oil decreased fecundity, larvae emergence,                microorganisms, was considered as the minimum inhibitory
copulation rate and total protein content.                          concentration (MIC). All cultures were sub-cultured on
                                                                    potato dextrose agar for the evaluation of minimum
EX14                                                                bactericide concentration (MBC). Results demonstrated that
EFFICACY OF SOME VEGETABLE EXTRACTS ON                              Mentha viridis L., Saturiea hortensi and Cuminum cyminum
THE      COTTON        LEAFWORM,            SPODOPTERA              essential oils decreased the colony growth of F.
LITTOTALIS (BOISD.). Ramadan M. Farrag, Plant                       graminearum in contrast to the control treatment.
Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center,



                                                        2009    /                        27                               E-121
EX 16                                                                adults ranged between 0 and 1.3 individuals. Compared to
TOXICOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS                                 high numbers of progeny for the control treatment. Some
OF NEEM AND JOJOBA OILS ON THE BLACK                                 powdered herbs showed high effect on respiration of the
CUTWORM AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFN.). A.M. El-                            adults. The quantity of oxygen consumed by untreated
Rawy and Soad M. Osman, Plant Protection Research                    beetles during the time of experiment (90 min.) was higher
Institute,     ARC,     Dokki,      Giza,     Egypt,     Email:      than that of beetles treated with Acorus calamus, Artemisia
adel_elrawy69@yahoo.com                                              absithium and Allium sativum powders. Moreover, the
        The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity          internal systems of both sexs have been affected by these
and biological effects of neem oil (Neemix 4.5%                      products showing different changes when studied
azadirachtin) and jojoba oil (Nat-1 96%) on 4th instar A.            anatomically giving small size of ovarioles, deformed
ipsilon larvae. The two materials were tested as bait (with          accessory glands, swollen stink glands with a liquid oil.
wheat bran) at 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 and 2.00           Majority of male showed small testis. Most of the
liters/25 Kg. wheat bran under a constant temperature of             mentioned effects happened as a result of the powders of
26±1ºC. The study revealed that Neemix was more toxic                Acorus calamus, Allium sativum and Matricaria
than Nat-1. LC50 and LC90 values were 0.84 and 1.85 for              chamomilla. In addition, the powders of Foeniculum
Neemix and 0.97 and 2.04 for Nat-1, respectively. At the             capillaceum and Artemisia absithium decreased the sizes of
same time the Neemix was more effective, it decreased                the testis and accessory glands.
pupation rate, pupal weight, adult emergence rate, fecundity
and fertility. In general the two plant oils caused an increase      EX 18
in larval and pupal durations but decreased the pupal                PLANTS CONTAINING ACTIVE INGREDIENTS
weight. Malformations in pupae and adults increased with             WITH INSECTICIDAL PROPERTIES IN SUDAN.
increasing the concentrations of the two oils.                       Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti and Osman Elhaj Nasr,
                                                                     Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute
EX 17                                                                (ENRRI), National Centre for Research (NCR), Khartoum,
EVALUATION OF TOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES                               Sudan, Email: satisattisat@yahoo.com
OF SOME MEDICINAL HERBS ON THE                                                 Sudan encompasses virtually every geographical
CONFUSED          FLOUR         BEETLE        TRIBOLIUM              and climatic features from the arid north to the tropical rain
CONFUSUM. O.S. Mohammad, University of Mosul,                        forests in the south which enriches its biodiversity in
College of Agriculture and Forest, Mosul, Iraq, Email:               natural flora. Several plant species were used in traditional
osa_1953@yahoo.com                                                   medicine or as deterrent for pests' damage since ancient
         The effects of five concentrations of nine herb             times. The exploitation of these natural materials was
powders against the confused flour beetle T. confusum                diminished during the 20th century (1930-1970), when
(Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) were studied under controlled            application of synthetic chemicals reached its peak against
conditions. The toxicological properties of different                all pests. But, with the increased awareness about the
concentrations on the egg, larvae, pupae and adult of the            various drawbacks of such chemicals, scientific research on
insect showed that some, e.g. Foeniculum capillaceum and             botanical pesticides were attempted in Sudan for the first
Anethium graveolens, have certain effects on the different           time during the last decades of the 20th century as sporadic
stages of the studied insect even at the lowest                      works in different institutions. However, with upgrading of
concentration. The above mentioned two herb powders                  the National Centre for Research in 1991, a comprehensive
showed very high mortality effect on egg stage reached               research programme was put forward at the Environment
96.6 and 93.3%, respectively, at the 1st concentration and           and Natural Resources Research Institute to study active
100% at the highest concentration for both powders. Other            plants in controlling insect pests of agricultural and public
powdered herbs showed prolonged effect on the durations              health concern. More than 100 plants investigated showed
of larval stage. Acorus calamus powder prolonged this                variable results, and discovery of new active species
duration to 34.2 days, at the 1st concentration while it was         continues. Potent plant species detected were listed by
25.4 days for control treatment. At the second concentration         scientific and local names and their activities against
it was 53 and 41.5 days for Anethium graveolens and                  important insect pests were explained. Generally, the study
Pimpinella anisum powders, respectively, Matricaria                  reflects the great potentiality of the country in the field of
chamomilla powder also showed similar effect at 4th and 5th.         botanical insecticides, which invites cooperation of research
concentrations. On the other hand, powders of some herbs             efforts in the region so as to gain the prescribed objectives
affected the progeny of treated adults. The numbers of               and protect our environment from harmful synthetic
emerged adult at 1st concentration were 14, 11.7, and 20.3           insecticides. In addition, the content of this paper could be
for Foeniculum capillaceum, Acorus calamus and                       considered as useful baseline data for establishing
Matricaria chamomilla powders, respectively, while that of           successful botanical insecticides industry in Sudan.
untreated beetles was 49.7 adult. At the 2nd concentration
the numbers of pupae were very few reached 0, 0, 0, and              EX 19
3.3 pupa for Acorus calamus, Pimpinella anisum, Allium               LABORATORY          EVALUATION        OF     NEEM
sativum and Matricaria chamomilla powders, while it was              (AZADIRACHTA        INDICA      A.  JUSS)    SEEDS
40 pupae for the Control. At the last 3 concentrations,              INSECTICIDAL ACTIONS AS AFFECTED BY
powders of Foeniculum capillaceum. Anethium graveolens               DIFFERENT STORAGE DURATIONS. Abdalla
and Allium sativum led to few numbers of larvae, pupae and           Abdelrahim Satti, Abdin Elhadi Mohamed, Amir Ibrahim


E-122    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Futuwi and Mohamed Elamin Ellaithy, Environment and                   with increasing extract concentration, especially on the first
Natural Resources Research Institute (ENRRI), National                and second larval stages. The high cumulative level of adult
Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan, Email:                          mortality was found 72 hours after oil extract treatment,
satisattisat@yahoo.com                                                with 96% adults mortality under laboratory conditions and
          Extracts of neem proved very effective against              72% adults mortality under greenhouse conditions.
various agricultural insect pests of storage and field crops in
Sudan. Therefore, laboratory experiments were carried out             EX 21
to evaluate the insecticidal activities of water and oil              FIELD RESPONSE OF TEPHRITID FRUIT FLIES
extracts prepared from neem seeds stored at different                 (DIPTERA) TO WATER EXTRACT OF SOME
durations (1-5 years) under shade, using the khapra beetle            FRUITS. Mohammed E.E. Mahmoud1, Sunday Ekesi2,
(Trogoderma granarium Everts), as test insect. Insect                 Mohammed Kambal3, Sumia Abu Kashwa3 and Elsadig M.
mortality was taken as the main parameter of the study, in            Billal1. (1) ARC, Sudan; (2) ICIPE, Sudan; (3) University
addition to some other measurements including feeding                 of Khartoum, Sudan, Email: nazeiro@maktoob.com
rates and repellent or antifeedent effects. The results                         Fruit flies of the order Tephritidae are the most
showed that water extracts of neem seeds stored at 2, 3 and           notorious pests which attack various fruits and vegetables
4 years exerted more or less similar significant mortality            causing severe losses. A series of experiments to evaluate
rates on insect larvae, but were all better than the results          field response of fruit flies to water extract of mango,
scored by the 1 and 5 years old seeds. On the other hand,             guava, apple, cucumber and a ready made mango juice
comparing neem oils produced from seeds stored at three               Crystal® was conducted for five consecutive weeks in
different durations (1, 2 and 3 years) showed no significant          guava orchards in both Khartoum and Kassala States in
differences in insect mortality between the oils of different         Sudan. The number of fruit flies caught by different plant
ages, two weeks after treatment, although, the highest larval         extracts compared with Torula yeast, the standard fruit fly
mortalities were recorded by the last year seeds one week             attractant. Fruit flies Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera
after treatment, followed by the 2nd year and finally the 3rd         invadens, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Ceratitis cosyra, Ceratitis
year seeds. Moreover, all treatments of either water or oil           quinaria responded positively to all tested plant material
extracts significantly reduced damage of sorghum grains by            extracts in both states. Dacus ciliatus, Dacus sp were
nearly equal levels at the end of each experiment, compared           attracted to cucumber and Torula extracts. Two other
to the untreated control. The current findings indicated that         unidentified species were trapped by Torula only. High
seeds of 2 to 4 years old were more toxic to the insect than          numbers of C. capitata reacted positively to Crystal® in
the 1 year old seeds, but the latter may compensate the               Khartoum state. The number of B. invadens attracted to
activity through stronger repellent or antifeedent effects.           water extract of mango and guava in Kassala was
However, the diminishing of neem seeds activities seemed              significantly similar to that lured by Torula. The results
to start after four years of storage, while the toxic active          obtained will open a door for developing a cheap and
ingredients in fresh seeds may require more than one year             simple attraction technique to be used by poor farmers to
to gain their full concentration and activities. It is                get rid of fruit flies invasion and protect their crops by
concluded that, when neem fruits stored under shade, neem             using an environmentally sound practice.
seeds can remain potent as insecticides for up to four years
after production.                                                     EX 22
                                                                      TOXICITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF SALVIA
EX 20                                                                 OFFICINALIS L. ON TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM
EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACT PEGANUM                                       (HERBST). Fahimeh Rastegar1,3, S. Moharramipour2, M.
HARMALA AGAINST THE WHITEFLY, BEMISIA                                 Shojai1 and H. Abbasipour3. (1) Department of Agricultural
TABACI, AT DOUCEN, BISKRA OASIS, ALGERIA.                             Entomology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad
N. Tarai1, S. Doumandji2, H. Harzallah1 and A. Achoura1.              University, Tehran, Iran; (2) Department of Entomology,
(1) Département d’Agronomie, Université Mohamed                       Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University,
Khider, Biskra, Algeria, Email: tarai_nc@yahoo.fr; (2)                Tehran, Iran; (3) Department of Plant Protection, College of
Département de Zoologie, Institut National Agronomique,               Agricultural Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran,
Elharrach, Algeria.                                                   Email: rastegar_fa@yahoo.com
         To minimize the side effect of chemical use                  Plant essential oils have been recognized as an important
against pests in greenhouses, a survey was conducted at               natural source of insecticides. Among many essential oils,
Doucen, Oasis of Biskra, by applying plant extract of                 those from plants within the Lamiaceae family have
Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) against the whitefly                 received considerable attention in the search for
Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), one of the most              biologically active natural products against agricultural as
devastating pests on tomato crops in greenhouses. Extracts            well as stored products pests. Salvia is a wide genus of
were sprayed on the first, the second and the sixth day.              plants belonging to the mint family (Labiatae). The
Three different extracts were used; seed extract, oil extract         essential oil of dried leaves and flowers were obtained by
from the seed and extract from dry leaves, with three                 using Clevenger-type apparatus. Fumigant toxicity of
concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 ml/ml). Extracts were tested           essential oil from S. officinalis was tested against 1-7 days
on different larval stages and on adults under laboratory or          old adults of T. castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).
field conditions, during the autumn and winter period of the          The experiment was carried out at 25±1°C and 65±5% RH
year 2008. Results showed that the mortality level increased          under dark conditions. Probit analysis showed that the LC50

                                                          2009    /                         27                               E-123
and LC90 values for adults were 46.77 µl/l air and 584.33            concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest
µl/l air, respectively. Mortality was also increased with            concentration that inhibits growth of microorganism. For
rising increase in the concentration of essential oil.               minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) assessment, F.
                                                                     graminearum was cultured on PDA medium. Results
EX 23                                                                indicate that Mentha polegium, Lavandula officinalis and
EFFECT OF RUTA GRAVEOLENS L. EXTRACT ON                              Thymus sp. essential oils reduced colony growth of F.
FLOUR BEETLES TRIBOLUM CONFUSEUM AND                                 graminearum compared with the control treatment.
LATHETICUS ORYZEA L. Hana S. Al-Saleh1, Hani J.
Al-Attar2 and Mira U. Al-Katib2. (1) Biology Department,             EX 25
College of Science, Mosul University, Iraq; (2) Biology              BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF LANTANA
Department, College of Education, Mosul University, Iraq,            CAMARA L., LEAF EXTRACT ON POTATO TUBER
Email: mirausama@yahoo.com                                           MOTH,           PHTHORIMAEA               OPERCULELLA
          Ruta graveolens L. is a medicinal plant, it                (ZELLER) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS.
possesses anti insect activity, due to its content of                M.Y. Ibrahem and M.A.Seed, GCSAR., Agricultural
secondary metobolites. In this study, the effect of this plant       Scientific Research Center at Homs-Department of Plant
against two genera of flour beetles; Tribolum confuseum              Protection      Research,      Homs,        Syria,     Email:
and Latheticus oryzea L. were examined, by using alcoholic           mohamedkozii@yahoo.com
extract of the plant. Acetone and methanol were used in              The biological effect of Lantana camara L. leaves, acetonic
preparing the extracts. The extract was examined to check            and Ether petroleum extracts, on potato tuber moth,
its effect on the adults and larvae. Concentrations used were        Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) was studied to quantify
25 and 50 microgram/ml for the acetone extract, and 50,              natural mortality rates and age structure, under laboratory
100 microgram/ml for the methanolic extract. 10 insects,             conditions. Results showed that acetonic extracts was more
with three replicates were used for each treatment. Results          effective than Ether petroleum, and there was a linear
revealed that there was no effect during the 24th h, but             relationship between bio-agents effect and concentrations.
during 48 h, the extract caused mortality to T. confuseum at         Apparent larvae mortality rates which fed on tubers treated
50 microgram/ml for the two types of extracts (acetone and           with acetonic extract were 44.17 and 68.97% at 2.5 and 5%
methanolic). This caused 50% larval mortality in case of             concentrations; whereas these values at both concentrations
methanolic extract, and 40% in case of the acetone extract.          of petroleum extract were 46.82 and 61.29%, respectively,
In the adult stage, mortality reached 10% only, this was             compared with 6% for the control. The total fecundity (Mx)
caused by 100 microgram/ml of methanolic extract in case             values were 99 and 76.25, and 52. and 51 egg/female at 2.5
of L. oryzea, the extracts caused 40 and 10% mortality by            and 5% concentrations, when larvae were fed on tubers
treatments with methanolic and acetone extracts,                     treated with acetonic and petroleum extracts at same
respectively.                                                        concentrations, respectively. But respect the age specific
                                                                     survival were 13 and 10 days respectively. Whereas the
EX 24                                                                total fecundity and age specific survival for control were 99
THE INFLUENCE OF MENTHA POLEGIUM,                                    eggs /female and 19 days, respectively. Net reproductive
LAVANDULA           OFFICINALIS         AND        THYME             rate values (Ro) in F2 was 14.57 and 7.05 female / female
ESSENTIAL OILS ON FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM.                              for acetonic extract and 6.37 and 3.54 female/female for
Farhang Aliakbari1,2, Seyedeh Flour Mazhar2 and                      petroleum extracts at 2.5 and 5% concentrations
Rouhollah Karami-Osboo3. (1) Faroogh Life Sciences                   respectively, whereas it was 36.396 female/female in the
Research Lab., Tehran, Iran; (2) Microbiology Department,            control. Generation time (Gt) was increased to 31.6 and
Azad Islamic University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran,                33.9 and 28 and 32 days for acetonic and petroleum extracts
Iran; (3) Plant Protection Research Institute, Tehran, Iran,         respectively at 2.5 and 5% concentrations compared with
Email: aliakbari110@gmail.com                                        27.2 days for the control.
      One of the most damaging species of Fusarium is
Fusarium graminearum; causing Fusarium head blight or                NATURAL ENEMIES
scab of wheat as well as other small cereal grains all over
the world. Fusarium head blight occurs both in the field and         NE 1
during storage. F. graminearum produces two main                     NATURAL ENEMIS OF APPLE INSECT PESTS IN
mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) in              AS-SWEIDA GOVERNARATE, SOUTHERN SYRIA.
wheat and mold corn which are toxic to animals and                   Wa’el Almatni1 and Nazir Khalil2. (1) Biological control
humans. These mycotoxins are difficult to detect and thus            division, Dept. of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture,
present a serious risk to human health. Plant essential oils         Damascus, Syria, Email: almatni@scs-net.org; (2)
are a potentially valuable source of antimicrobial                   Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Sciences,
compounds. In this study, for the purpose of replacing               Damascus University, Syria, Email: khalil-n@scs-net.org
chemical fungicides with essential oils, we examined the                      A survey of insect pests of some apple orchards in
effect of Mentha polegium, Lavandula officinalis and                 As- Sweida governorate, southern Syria was conducted
Thymus sp. essential oils on the growth of F. graminearum            from 2001 until 2009. Lepidopteran larvae and pupae were
using the broth dilution method in which the fungus was              collected from and reared until emergence of the adult
incubated with the individual essential oils at a range of           moths or its parasitoid(s), in addition, sweeping net samples
different concentrations for 48 h. The minimum inhibitory


E-124    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
were used for aphid colonies. Associated parasitoids and               Heterorhabditis were recovered. Our study reports the
predators were determined depending on standard keys or                diversity of EPN species in Lebanon and discusses their
sent to specialists for identification. Surveyed natural               potential in biocontrol against the cedar weevil, Cephalcia
enemies were initially sorted to the genus, family and order           tannourinensis.
levels; and according to the related host/prey. A total of 77
natural enemies (parasitoids and predators) were identified            NE 3
in this survey, in addition to 2 entomopathogenic fungi. As            SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DIFFERENT TERRESTRIAL
a result, 2 predatory mites, 21 species of Coleoptera                  GASTROPOD            SPECIES        TO     THE      NATIVE
including 16 Coccinellids, 2 Carabidae, 2 Staphylinidae                RHABDITID NEMATODE, PHASMARHABDITIS
and one species of Cleridae were ifentified. One species of            HERMAPHRODITA. Marwa A. M. Genena and Fatma A.
Dermaptera were also found in addition to 3 species of                 M. Mostafa, Agriculture Zoology Department, Faculty of
Diptera including 2 Syrphidae and one Chamaemyiid                      Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt,
species. 8 species of Heteroptera, 7 of Neuroptera, and 32             EMail: marwaaz2002@yahoo.com
species of Hymenoptera which includes 11 species of                          The susceptibility of four common adult helicid land
Braconidae, and various numbers of Ichneumonidae,                      snail species; Cebaea hortensis, Eobania vermiculata,
Eulophidae, and Scoliidae. In addition to that one species of          Monacha cantiana and Theba pisana, and the tree slug,
predatory Thrips (Thysanoptera) has been recorded. This                Lehmannia marginata to the rhabditid nematode, P.
study showed 32 new records of natural enemies in apple                hermaphrodita was carried out in vivo after one, two and
orchards in southern Syria. Natural enemies of aphids were             three weeks of exposure to constant inoculum nematode
the most abundant and diverse, followed by natural enemies             level (3000 IJs/ cup). The screened snails and slugs showed
of lepidopteran pests such as codling moth and leaf miners             remarkable reaction to nematode infection, but with
and defoliators. Some families need further investigation to           different degrees. After three weeks of exposure, the slug L.
identify related species, especially those of Carabidae.               marginata proved to be the highest susceptible one to P.
                                                                       hermaphrodita with death ratio of 100% followed by the
NE 2                                                                   clover land snail, M. cantiana and the white land snail, T.
DIVERSITY                AND             BIOGEOGRAPHIC                 pisana with values of 76.6 and 63.3%, respectively.
DISTRIBUTION             OF       ENTOMOPATHOGENIC                     However, E. vermiculata and C. hortensis gave 56.7% and
NEMATODES                                     (RHABDITIDA:             40.0% mortality, respectively. In another test, the
STEINERNEMATIDAE                                          AND          susceptibility of three different size-classes of M. cantiana
HETERORHABDITIDAE) IN LEBANON. Elise                                   to P. hermaphrodita indicated that the small sized snails (4
Noujeim1, Carla Khater1 and Olivier Thaler2. (1) National              mm wide & 1 mm high), the intermediate sized snails (7
Council for Scientific Research-CNRS, P.O. Box 11-8281,                mm wide & 3 mm high) and the big sized snails (13 mm
Ryad El Solh 1107 2260 59, Zahia Selman street, Beirut,                wide & 7 mm high) were found to be susceptible to the
Lebanon; (2) Laboratoire d’Ecologie Microbienne des                    rhabditid nematode, P. hermaphrodita but in different
Insectes et interactions hôte-Pathogène UMR INRA 1133,                 proportions. After two weeks of exposure to 3000 IJs/cup
Université Montpellier II, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34000               mortality percentage reached 100.0% in the small-sized,
Montpellier, France, Email: Enjeim enjeim@cnrs.edu.lb                  followed by intermediate and the big- sized snails at 92.0
          Entomopathogenic          nematodes-EPN            are       and 40.0%, respectively. On the other hand, the impact of
remarkably used for biological control of many soil insect             P. hermaphrodita against M. cantiana under three different
pests. They are ubiquitous, having been isolated from every            temperature degrees revealed an inverse correlation
inhabited continent from a wide range of ecologically                  between mortality percentages of M. cantiana and
diverse soil habitats including cultivated fields, forests,            temperature degrees after one, two and three weeks of
grasslands, deserts, and even ocean beaches. They lodge in             exposure to the target nematode. The capability of P.
their intestine a bacterial symbiotic essential for parasitic          hermaphrodita to infect and kill M. cantiana has
success. The nematode-bacterium complex is able to kill                significantly increased as the temperature declined from
insects so rapidly, giving a large spectrum of activity on             30°C to 20°C after three weeks of exposure. Hence, the
different soil insects. This characteristic is largely exploited       mortality rate ranged from 63.6 to 87.0%.
for biological control of insect pests in several ornamental
and crop production systems. The diversity and distribution            NE 4
of entomopathogenic nematodes in the families                          ARTHROPODS ASSOCIATED WITH THE YELLOW
Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae were assessed for               STARTHISTLE CENTAUREA ONOPORDIFOLIA
the first time throughout an extensive biogeographical                 BOISS. IN AS-SWEIDA, SOUTHERN SYRIA. Wa’el
survey in Lebanon during 2008 and 2009. The survey was                 Almatni, Biological Control Division, Department of Plant
conducted according to the vegetation types extending from             Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Damascus, Syria,
sea level to 3088m a.s.l in Lebanon covering 10 vegetation             Email: almatni@scs-net.org
levels. Sampling framework consisted of 600 samples                            A Survey of insects associated with the yellow star
extracted from 20 sites. Within each vegetation type,                  thistle Centaurea onopordifolia Boiss (Asterales:
wooded and herbaceous ecosystems were considered for                   Asteraceae) conducted in 2008 and 2009 in As-Sweida
sampling purposes. Four sites among 20 were positive for               governorate, southern Syria. Samples of insects were
the presence of entomopathogenic nematodes (20%). Four                 collected during growth period from March to the end of
EPN species including two Steinernema and two                          October, in addition to samples from dried plants during the

                                                           2009    /                        27                               E-125
winter. Fourteen species of phytophagous insects which               family Aphidiidae and the predators belonged to the
attack yellow star thistle were found, those belong to nine          families: Coccinellidae, Syrphidae, Cecidomiyidae,
families and six orders. The list include seven species of           Chrysopidae, Miridae. Total number of specimens was
fruit flies Tephritidae (Diptera), four species belong to            1570. Abundance rate of the natural enemies during the
family Curculionidae (Coleoptera), three species of moths            season 2008 was as follows: mummies 34.7%, coccinellids
(Fam. Gelechiidae and Noctuidae, Lepidoptera), one                   41.59%, syrphids 10.31%, mirids 9.1%, cecidomiyids
species of Aphidae (Homoptera), and two species of Cicada            2.1%, chrysopids 2.1%. The same study is continuing in
(Cicadoidea: Issidae), and one species each of thrips                2009 and the results will be presented.
(Thysanoptera), grasshoppers (Orthoptera), and ants
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In addition, this weed has one
species of Eriophyidae (Acari). 12 insect species of natural         HOST RESISTANCE
enemies were recorded on this weed that feed on aphids, in
addition to one non identified species of Acari which                R1
attacks aphids. Those insect natural enemies included six            EVALUATION THE SENSITIVITY OF SOME
species of Coccinellidae, two species each of syrphid flies          SOYBEAN VARIETIES TO THE WHITEFLY,
(Syrphidae) and mirid bugs (Miridae), one species each of            BEMISIA TABACI (GENN.) AND SPIDER MITS,
Chrysopidae and Chamaemyiidae, in addition to one                    TETERANY                CHUSURTICAE               (KOCK.)
species of parasitoids (Braconidae). Consequently, the               INFESTATION. Magedy A. Ahmed, Agriculture
existence of the yellow star thistle close to the cultivated         Research Center, Plant Protection Research Institute, Giza,
crops is very important as it host specialized species of            Egypt, Email: dr_homam@hotmail.com
aphid which could play the role of an alternative prey to            Soybean plants are attacked by piercing-sucking insect
aphids in nearby trees and crops, therefore, yellow star             pests causing severe damage. Six soybean varieties namely,
thistle is a source for natural enemies which could maintain         Giza 83, 82, 22, 111, 35 and Giza 21 were evaluated in
and support the natural balance in the agricultural                  order to determine their sensitivity as well as their
ecosystem.                                                           resistance to some insect sucking pests; i.e. whitefly,
                                                                     Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) and spider mites, Tetranychus
NE 5                                                                 urtecae (Koch.) during two successive seasons, 2004 and
SURVEY OF NATURAL ENEMIES OF RED PALM                                2005. Giza 83 and Giza 21 varieties were the most sensitive
WEEVIL IN SYRIA. Ghassan Rostom, Randa Abou-Tara,                    varieties with high eggs deposited by the whitefly during
Amal Sydawi and Hosam Amer. General Commission of                    the two seasons. Whereas Giza 35 variety was the most
scientific Agricultural Research, Douma, P.O. Box 113,               tolerant to eggs deposition. Giza 22 and 82 varieties were
Damascus, Syria, Email: randaaboutara@hotmail.com                    the most sensitive to nymphs infestation during the two
        Red palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, has              season. On the other hand, Giza 111 and 83 were the least
been introduced into Syria since 2001. It caused                     sensitive varieties to nymphs infestation. Giza 22 and 111
severe damage to palm trees. Two locations were                      were the most sensitive varieties to spider mites. as they
determined for its distribution (Lattakia –Tartous). Palm            were preferred hosts for eggs deposition during the two
tree is the only host which has been reported so far for this        seasons, whereas, Giza 83 and 35 varieties were the most
pest. Six species of natural enemies were collected. Two             tolerant varieties for depositing eggs during the two
species are parasites on the adults of red palm weevil, the          seasons. Generally, resistance level to infestation with
first is external parasite from Acari and the second is an           spider mite adults during the 2004 season can be arranged
internal parasite       from Diptera.      Three     species         in a decreasing order as follows: Giza 111, 35, 83, 21, 82
of entomopathgenic fungi were also found, Trichoderma,               and Giza 22. However, resistance level to the spider mite
Fusarium, and Beauvaria sp. Four different isolates from             adults infestation during the 2005 season can be arranged in
these fungi were isolated which attack larvae, pupa and              a decreased order as follows: Giza 35, 22, 82, 83, 21 and
adults of red palm weevil. Two Bacillus bacterial isolates           Giza 111. Based on the mean of infestation rate caused by
attacked larvae and pupa.                                            both whiteflies and spider mites during the two seasons, it
                                                                     could be concluded that Giza 35 was the most tolerant to
NE 6                                                                 infestation by both whitefly and spider mites; whereas, Giza
POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PARASITOIDS AND                               21 and 22 had the lowest tolerance levels toward infestation
PREDATORS ASSOCIATED WITH APHID INSECTS                              by whiteflies and spider mites.
ON TOBACCO PLANTS IN ALHAFHE REGION,
LATTIKIA, SYRIA. Fidaa Shamsin1 and Nabil Abo Kaf2.                  R2
(1) General Organization of Tobacco, The Research                    EFFICACY         OF       SYSTEMIC        ACQUIRED
Section, Latakia, Syria; (2) Department of Plant Protection,         RESISTANCE USING BENZOTIADIAZOLE IN
Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, P.O. Box                CONTROLLING BEET NECROTIC YELLOW VEIN
1446, Latakia, Syria, Email: n.abokaf@scs-net.org                    VIRUS (BNYVV). A.M. Mouhanna1 and G. Langen2. (1)
         The research was carried out to study the                   Faculty of Agriculture, University of Damascus, and the
population dynamics of the parasitoids and predators                 General commission of Biotechnology, Damascus, Syria,
associated with aphids on Tobacco plants in AlHafhe,                 Email: AhmadMouhanna@gmx.net; (2) Institute for
Latakia, Syria during the two seasons 2008 and 2009. The             Phytopathology and Applied Zoology, Justus-Liebig-
results showed that the parasitoids found belonged to


E-126    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen,               scale. Results showed that the varieties Bosfer, Daher
Germany.                                                             aljabal has a high level of resistance to early blight. Plants
         Sugar beet is one of the most important economic            with this level of resistance would normally not experience
crops as a major source of sugar. It could be infected with a        defoliation due to early blight in the field, and they out
number of viral diseases, the most serious of which is               yielded others at P=0.05 compared with the varieties Dara,
Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus                 Gerdi, Haragel, Magdal Mawash, which were moderate to
(BNYVV), transmitted by the vector Polymyxa betae. P.                highly susceptible, and no significant differences were
betae has the ability to survive in the soil and preserve the        found compared with the varieties Wardiat, Breh, Baskanta,
virus for more than 15 years. This study aimed to                    which had moderate level of resistance. Plants with this
investigate the ability of the resistance activator                  level of resistance would normally not suffer yield losses
Benzothiadiazole (BTH) with different concentrations to              due to early blight in the field.
induce Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) in
Rhizomania-tolerant and -susceptible sugar beet cultivars            R 5
against BNYVV infection, and to find out the biochemical             DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW WHEAT CULTIVAR
changes associated with SAR induction. Several trials                RESISTANT TO YELLOW AND BROWN RUST
showed that BTH has the ability to reduce the level of               DISEASES. Emad Al-Maaroof, Kazal Abas, Faris Fiahd,
BNYVV up to 80.5% in Rhizomania-tolerant and -                       Hasan Ismael and Azhar Hussein, Agriculture & Food
susceptible sugar beet cultivars. The accumulation of PR-            Technology Directorate, Ministry of Science &
proteins (chitinase III, β-1,3-glucanases) as a proof of the         Technology, P.O. Box 765, Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
activation of defense against pathogens in intercellular and         ealmaaroof@yahoo.com
extracellular regions in leaves and roots were examined by                     Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum.) is one of the
Northern-blot and DAS-ELISA. In addition, whether a                  most important cereal crops worldwide. Many diseases,
transcript accumulation of chitinase III occurred in leaves          particularly yellow and brown rusts incited by Puccinia
and roots of sugar beet plants after infection with                  striiformis and Puccinia triticina drastically decrease grain
Rhizomania or virus-free Polymyxa betae was also                     yield and quality of wheat in Iraq. Since the use of resistant
examined.                                                            cultivars is the most effective, economical and
                                                                     environmentally safe method to control rust diseases, a
R3                                                                   breeding program was initiated in Iraq, in order to improve
SCREENING            WHEAT          GENOTYPES           FOR          spring bread wheat cultivars by combining high level of
RESISTANCE TO COMMON ROOT ROT OF                                     resistance to yellow and brown rusts with high grain yield
WHEAT. Omran Youssef, Haleem Youssef and Sultan                      and quality. A field trial was conducted to evaluate
Shiekhmous, General Commission for Scientific                        performance of 788 introduced lines from CIMMYT
Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Agricultural Research                 international wheat nurseries in comparison with the local
Centre of Al-Qamishly, Al-Qamishly, Syria, Email:                    commercial cultivars, at Twaitha and Latifia experimental
om_youssef@yahoo.com                                                 stations, located at Baghdad and Babylon, respectively.
      Twenty three genotypes of wheat were tested for                Field screening of germplasm under artificial inoculation
resistance to common root rot of wheat during 2004-2005.             conditions for three successive generations resulted in the
The results of artificial and natural inoculation showed that        identification of 251 resistant and moderately resistant
all genotypes tested were infected by the disease with               lines, while 225 lines were superior in yield. Among 11
disease score ranging from 0.2 to 2.1 according to a 0-3             resistant genotypes, a new promising one "Farris" was
scale. Some genotypes were not infected under natural                selected. This genotype surpassed the local cultivars in
inoculation, and barley, oat and wild barley plants were not         disease resistance, productivity and some of other useful
infected under artificial and natural inoculation. The results       agronomic traits at different locations. Farris was 14-30%
indicated the necessity of more in-depth studies for                 higher yielding than "Tamuz 2" and "Maxipak". The
identifying genetic resources resistant to disease under             genotype was submitted in 2006 to registration and release
special Syrian conditions.                                           by the national committee of registration and release of
                                                                     agricultural cultivars/ Ministry of Agriculture, to be
R4                                                                   released as a new resistant wheat cultivar to yellow and
EVALUATION OF SOME LOCAL TOMATO                                      brown rust diseases, as well as moderately resistant to
VARIETIES FOR EARLY BLIGHT RESISTANCE                                common bunt disease and with high yield potential under
(ALTERNARIA SOLANI). Faten Alsafadi1, Taisser Abo                    Iraqi environmental conditions.
Alfadil1 and Bassam Abo Trabi2. (1) General Commission
of Scientific Agricultural Research, Sweida, Syria, Email:           R6
f.alsafadi@ gmail.com; (2) Faculty of Agricultur,                    BREEDING          FOR     COMMON        ROOT      ROT
Damascus University, Syria.                                          RESISTANCE IN DURUM WHEAT. Mohammad El-
          Laboratory evaluation of some local tomato                 Khalifeh and Miloudi Nachit, ICARDA Durum Breeding
varieties for early blight resistance, a disease which is            Program, ICARDA, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email:
caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, were carried out.            M.Khalifa@cgiar.org
The varieties were Haragel, Magdal Mawash, Daher                             Common Root Rot (CRR) on durum wheat is an
aljabal, Breh, Baskanta, Kafer selwan, Dara, Wardiat,                important disease in the Mediterranean dryland. Using
Gerdi, and Bosfer. Disease severity was rated on a 1-9               resistant varieties is considered as the best economic

                                                         2009    /                         27                               E-127
method to control this disease. A breeding program specific          and the mechanisms which lead to plant resistance. The
for CRR resistance at ICARDA durum breeding program                  evaluation of the interaction between two species of wheat
has been developed. More than 6000 segregating and                   (Triticum durum, Triticum aestivim) and S. tritici started in
advanced lines are screened annually for resistance to               controlled conditions by measuring simultaneity the amont
Fusarium spp. and H.sativum, under field and laboratory              of H2O2 released and the induction of 3 genes encoding for
conditions. Several isolates of F.graminearum (F10 and               PR proteins (PR2, PR3 and PR9). The wheat seedling was
F19), F. avenaceum (F6 and F16), and H. sativum (H5 and              treated with two products inducing defence mechanism:
H7) were collected and used to screen for CRR resistance.            salicylic Acid (AS) and Laminarine (L). The detection of
During 2006, 2007 and 2008, 6289, 7300 and 8500                      H2O2 in S. tritici resistant varieties (Agili and Haidra)
segregating populations were screened under field                    revealed, after the application of these two products, that
conditions (a Hot Spot site at ICARDA Tel Hadya research             they exercise a similar stimulating effect on the
station), where the selected populations are re-screened             biosynthesis of H2O2. In sensitive cvs. of wheat (Karim and
under lab conditions for CRR. Results under field                    Salambo), the quantity of H2O2 released was lower than that
conditions showed gradual increases in CRR disease                   released by the resistant cv. The induction of three genes
resistance, where 8% in 2006, 12% in 2007 and 16% in                 coding for three PR proteins revealed that in the resistant
2008 were recorded. These results were reconfirmed by the            durum wheat cv. (Agili), AS and L had a positive effect on
Petri dish screening of germinating seeds, where more than           the pathway of Peroxydase (PR9). These two defence
50% of selected lines in the field showed good resistance            inducer showed no particular effect on Chitinase (PR3) and
against F.graminearum and F. avenaceum and more than                 repress the PR2 expression. For the sensitive durum wheat
30% against H. sativum. The combined field and lab                   cv. (Karim), three studied genes, inferred by the pathogen
screening is a potential technique to identify and select            at 48H, reached a normal level at 72H. The resistant bread
resistance to CRR starting from segregating populations.             wheat cv. (Haidra) revealed an accumulation of Peroxydase
                                                                     (PR9) at 48H after the application of AS and L. Concerning
R7                                                                   Chitinase and PR2, further to the presence of the pathogen,
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME LENTIL GENOTYPES                              there was accumulation of the transcripts at 48H and 72H,
TO THE BEAN ROOT APHID, SMYNTHURODES                                 while AS and L have led to a repression of this gene. In the
BETAE WESTW, INFESTATION. Atie Arab, Mohamed                         sensitive variety (Salambo), while Peroxydase (PR9) was
Fayez Mozyk, Khloud Hokan, Yagoub Azar and Bahaa                     absent, Chitinase and PR2 accumulated under the influence
kawroo. General Commission of Agricultural Scientific                of the pathogen. The efficiency of some inputs, that could
Research, Agriculture scientific research centre of Aleppo,          decrease the damages trigged by S. tritici on durum and
Syria. Email: atiearab@hotmail.com                                   bread wheat was tested under natural conditions. Three
          Lentil is an important leguminous crop in Syria.           parameters were considered: the percentage of the necrotic
The bean root aphid, Smynthurodes betae Westw., one of               leaf area (PSFN), the yield and the thousand grains weight
gall forming aphid, found throughout Syria on Pistacia               (PMG). The applied treatments showed different effect on
leaves (perennial host), and on the lentil roots (one of its         three parameters considered to both tested varieties. The
annual host), could cause an economic damage in some                 fungicide Triazole turned to be most effective for three
years. The susceptibility of 6 lentil genotypes (local and           parameters. However the growth regulators (Zn and Mn)
improved) to the bean root aphid infestation was studied             showed a positive effect on the PSFN but not on the PMG
under natural conditions, and artificial infestation in the          and the yield. Laminarine was the least effective in
glasshouse in 2008 and 2009. The susceptibility to those             controlling the disease even it was more efficient than the
infestations were measured by taking the level of                    control. Besides, the time course of S. tritici infection on
infestation severity, and the mean number of aphids per              both sensitive cvs. (Karim and Salambo), was achieved for
plant roots. Results showed that there were significant              the RT-PCR technique by analyzing the cytochrome b gene
differences among genotypes in the level of infestation, and         of S. tritici. The follow-up realized every 5 days from the
in the mean number of aphids per plant roots. The                    10th day by inoculation revealed the presence of the
infestation levels were 16.7-35% in 2008, and 11.1-24.4%             pathogen at the end of the 20th day on bread wheat and at
in the field in 2009, and the mean number of aphids per              the 25th day on durum wheat. These results suggested that
plant roots were 0.82-3.34 in the glasshouse.                        there is a difference in the susceptibility between the two
                                                                     species of wheat. This leads to suppose that the strain of S.
R8                                                                   tritici attacking bread wheat was more virulent than that on
CHARACTERISATION OF RESISTANCE LEVEL                                 durum wheat.
OF WHEAT VARIETIES TO SPETORIA LEAF
BLOTCH IN TUNISIA. Walid Hamada and Rania Zouid,                     R9
Laboratory of Plant Genetics, National Agronomic Institute           EVALUATION OF THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOFT
of        Tunisia,           1082         Tunis,         Email:      WHEAT VAREITIES TO THE GRAIN WEEVIL
hamada.walid@iresa.agrinet.tn                                        (SITOPHILUS GRANARIUS L.). Abdelkrim Mebarkia1,
         Septoria tritici, the causal agent of the septoria leaf     Hafidha Sabah Benkohila1, Meriem Hamza1, Abdelhak
blotch disease, is considered as the most serious pathogen           Bouras2 and Mahfoudh Makhlouf3. (1) Department of
for this crop. It can trigger enormous losses in yield               Agronomy, Faculty of Sciences, University of Setif,
especially during rainy season. To be able to control the            Algeria; (2) Laboratory of Alimentary Production and
pathogen, it is essential to study the interaction with its host     leeway of Setif, Algeria; (3) Agricultural Experimental


E-128    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
Station of the Field Crop Institute of Setif, Algeria, Email:       FIGS approach in better targeting accessions held in
mebarkiabba@yahoo.fr                                                genebanks for valuable traits. In this context, FIGS has the
          Evaluation of susceptibility of fifteen varities of       potential to greatly reduce the resources required to mine
soft wheat grown in Algeria for their vulnerability to an           genetic resource collections and thereby ensure a
artificial infestation with the wheat weevil Sitophilus             continuum between conservation and utilization of genetic
granarius L. after a month of storage at the temperature of         resources.
30±2°C and a relative humidity of 70±5% was carried out.
Results obtained indicated that there were significant              R 11
differences (at P= 5%) and the effect of weevil was more            BIOLOGICAL              EFFICACY            OF         SOME
damaging for Seri 82 (+5.15% protein) compared with Tsi             GENETICALLY MODIFIED EGYPTIAN COTTON
(+2.27%). Correlation matrix and ascending hierarchical             VARIETIES             FOR          RESISTANCE             TO
classification (at P= 5%) indicated that there were two             LEPIDOPTEROUS INSECT PESTS (THE COTTON
groups of varieties: the first group was resistant with good        LEAFWORM SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.)).
grain quality, these include: TSI, CHAM4‚ THB‚ K134                 Hassan F. Dahi, Plant Protection Research Institute, ARC,
(160)‚ ABAX‚ ACSAD440‚ WIFAK‚ ARZ, compared with                    Dokki, Giza, Egypt, Email: hassandahi@yahoo.com
the second group that contained: HIDHAB, AIN ABID,                            This study was conducted on four Egyptian cotton
S.91314A, KAUZ'S ", SERI 82, PBW65, and CHAM-6.                     varieties (Giza 80, Giza 90, Giza 85 and Giza 89)
Results of laboratory analysis showed that infested wheat           Genetically Modified (GM) by transfer of two genes (Cry 1
had reduced quality of flour protein, weight of 1000 grains,        Ac and Cry 2Ab) from the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to the
gluten, starch and dough strength. The difference in                American cotton by the gene particle gun, then transfer
resistance or lack of susceptibility between the two groups         those two genes to the four Egyptian cotton varieties by
was based quantity (12.39 and 7.03%, respectively) and              crossing between the American cotton and the Egyptian
quality of proteins which determines dough strength                 cotton varieties. The developed GM Egyptian cotton
(256.01 and 106.37 × 10-4 J, respectively) and allows to            varieties clearly indicated high resistance against the cotton
attract or repelle the weevil, which hinders the penetration        leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Mortality rate for
and development in wheat grain.                                     larvae fed on Egyptian cotton varieties (non GM or non Bt)
                                                                    were 1.7, 5.0, 13.3 and 5.0% for Giza 80, 90, 85 and 89,
R 10                                                                respectively. On the other hand, the larvae fed on GM
NOVEL SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO RUSSIAN                              Egyptian cotton varieties (Bt progenies), the mortality rate
WHEAT APHID AND SUNN PEST IN WHEAT,                                 varied from 95 to 100% for Giza 80, 81.7 to 100% for Giza
IDENTIFIED           USING          THE          FOCUSED            90, 100% for Giza 85 and from 86.7 to 100% for Giza 89.
IDENTIFICATION OF GERMPLASM STRATEGY                                Biological aspects of S. littoralis stages (larval duration,
(FIGS). M. El Bouhssini, K. Street, A. Amri, F.C.                   pupal weight, pupal duration, emergence %, malformed
Ogbonnaya, A. Omran, F. Rihawi and A. Dabbous,                      adult %, male and female longevity, sex ratio, fecundity
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry           and fertility were affected by Cry 1 Ac and Cry 2 Ab of Bt
Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email:                genes transferred to the four Egyptian cotton varieties.
M.Bohssini@cgiar.org
         Russian     wheat    aphid,    Diuraphis      noxia        R 12
(Kurdjumov), and Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton,           EVALUATION OF SOME TOMATO CULTIVARS
are among the most important insect pests of wheat in               FOR INFESTATION WITH WHITEFLY, BEMISIA
North Africa and West and Central Asia. Host plant                  TABACI GENN. Manasic Mohamadain Ahmed, Abdalla
resistance is the most economical and practical means of            M. Abdalla and Sana K. Mukhtar, Department of Plant
controlling these insects. Two trait-specific best-bet              Protection, Faculty of Natural resources and Environmental
subsets, composed of 1046 accessions of bread wheat and             Studies, University of Kordofan, PO Box 160, Elobeid,
nine accessions of durum wheat, from the International              Sudan, Email: khalil2004@hotmail.com
Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, the                        Tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill is a vital
Vavilov Institute and the Australian Winter Cereals                 vegetable crop worldwide. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
Collection gene bank holdings, were selected from a total           Genn. is the major insect pest that acts as a vector for the
of 16,000 geo-referenced accessions using the Focused               devastating disease caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl
Identification of Germplasm Strategy (FIGS). The material           virus. In this study, four cultivars of tomato, namely Strain
was screened in the field and greenhouses in Syria for              B, Peto86, Castle Rock and Allakareem were evaluated for
resistance to the two insect species. Twelve bread wheat            their reaction to whitefly infestation under field conditions.
lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid, one durum wheat             Four replicates were made and study was conducted for two
were identified, along with eight bread wheat accessions            seasons: 2007/08 and 2008/09 in Bara town in Northern
with good levels of resistance at the vegetative stage to           Kordofan State, Sudan. Records on the whitefly infestation
overwintered Sunn pest adults. These accessions will be             and its population dynamic were taken on weekly basis
used as sources of resistance in ICARDA’s breeding                  from tomato plants and from sticky traps in each of the
programs, that will contribute to the overall integrated pest       target cultivars. Data obtained were statistically analyzed
management program designed to control damage from                  using M-Stat-c software package (Version 2.10). Results
these insects in North Africa, West and Central Asia, and           revealed significance (P< 0.01) among the four cultivars in
elsewhere. This study also showed the relevance of the

                                                        2009    /                         27                               E-129
term of infestation with whitefly and there were significant         adults through beat tray and sticky yellow traps during 2007
differences amongst time of observation.                             and 2008 seasons in Mokhtaria Research Station of the
                                                                     Agricultural Research Center at Homs. Results showed that
R 13                                                                 the highest number of eggs were on Abo-Satl cultivar at the
DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE METHOD FOR                                   rate of 28%, followed by Beurre Giffard (23-30%), while
SCREENING CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)                              Red Bartlett Cultivar had the least infestation rate (5 to
GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST VIRAL                               10%). Cultivars Spadona, Cocia and white Bartlett had
DISEASES. Mosab Halwani1, Safaa G. Kumari1 and Imad                  intermediate infestation rates (8 - 20%). This result was in
Ismail2. (1) Virology Laboratory, International Center for           line with the nymphs count, as infestation rate was 22-26%
Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O.                 for the cultivars Abo-Satl, Beurre Giffard, while Red-
Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email: sir_mosab@hotmail.com;               Bartlett Cultivar had the least infestation rate (4-9%). With
(2) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,          regard to adults, Abo-Satl was the most preferable cultivar
Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria                                 with an infestation rate of 26 to 28%, followed by Cocia
          Breeding for genetic resistance is the most                21%), whereas, Red Bartlett proved to be the least
effective way to reduce economic losses due to viral                 preferable cultivar (7-10%).
diseases. However, the characteristics of the chickpea plant
makes it an inappropriate host for colonization by aphids,           R 15
and this in turn makes screening of chickpea germplasm for           EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE OF IRANIAN
resistance to aphid-transmitted viruses difficult. It is then        BREAD WHEAT TETRAPLOID LINES TO
essential to develop an appropriate method for virus                 INFECTION WITH SEPTORIA TRITICI. Azadeh
inoculation. Chickpea plants were artificially inoculated            Ghaneie1, N. Safaie1, R. Mehrabi2 and A. Saidi3. (1)
with Beet western yellows virus (BWYV, genus                         Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture,
Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) by viruliferous Myzus              University of Tarbiat Modares, Iran; (2) Department of
persicae (Sulzer) after feeding on virus-infected radish, and        Gene Bank, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Iran; (3)
with Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV, genus Luteovirus, family            Department Biotechnology, College of New Technology
Luteoviridae) by viruliferous Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)           and Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran, Email:
after feeding on virus-infected faba bean. Inoculated plants         A.ghaneie@yahoo.com
were caged individually with viruliferous aphids in                            The ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, the
cylindrical plastic cages, 15 cm in diameter, and equipped           causal agent of Septoria blotch disease of tetraploid wheat.
with ventilation slots. By employing an appropriate                  It is a serious foliar disease of wheat worldwide, resulting
combination of factors (viruliferous aphid, virus replication        in a decrease in both yield and grain quality. Host resistance
host, time of inoculation and use of plastic cages) it was           is the most effective mean for controlling the disease. In
possible to get 100% infection of cultivar, Ghab 4 and ILC           this study the reaction of several tetraploid wheat lines to S.
15566. By using this methodology, 108 chickpea                       tritici collected from Fars were examined. Factorial
genotypes, originating from 27 countries held at ICARDA’s            experiment was carried out in a completely randomized
Gene Bank, were screened during the 2007/2008 growing                design with four replications in the greenhouse. Disease
season under plastichouse and under field conditions for             severity was measured using Kema et al. method. The
their reaction to Syrian isolates of BLRV and BWYV. Two              analysis of variance showed that there was a significant
genotypes (ILC 10284 and ILC 10479) highly sensitive to              difference between these lines in reaction type to this
infection were used as controls. Four genotypes (CICA                fungus (P=0.01). According to mean disease severity, the
0704, CICA 0705, CICA 0706 and CICA 0708) were found                 cultivars were placed into 18 groups. 46, 5,36, 9,1 lines
to be resistant to BLRV infection and all genotypes were             with disease severity of 0.96, 89.7, 82.7, 78.6, 78.1%,
susceptible to BWYV infection. However, 10 genotypes                 respectively, were the most susceptible. In contrast, 21, 17,
(ILC 10501, ILC 10652, ILC 1455, ILC 7266, ILC 7272,                 23, 44, 45, 29 and 2 lines with disease severity of 0, 0, 1.3,
ILC 10298, ILC 9904, CIAR-18, CICA 0512 and CICA                     2.4, 2.4, 2.7 and 4.9%, respectively, were the least
0611) were found to be tolerant to BWYV infection. These             susceptible. Other lines were of intermediate reaction. This
results were also confirmed during the 2008/2009 growing             is the first study for determining relative resistance of
season under field conditions.                                       tetraploid wheat lines to Septoria tritici.

R 14                                                                 R 16
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME PEAR CULTIVARS TO                             THE       SUSCEPTIBILITY           OF      DATE        PALM
PEAR PSYLLA, CACOPSYLLA PYRI (L.) IN SYRIA.                          VARIETIES TO THE STORED PRODUCTS
Dumar Namoor1, Mohamed Ibrahim2 and Bassam Aoudi2.                   INSECTS IN U.A.E. DATE PALM ORCHARDS. Emad
(1) Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-         M. T. Al-Hafidh, Private Trading Company, P.O. Box
Baath University, Syria; (2) GCSAR, Agricultural scientific          27492, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Email:
Research      Center     at     Homs,       Syria,   Email:          emmothi@yahoo.com
B_oudee@Gawab.com                                                            The susceptibility of some varieties of date palm
       The infestation of pears psylla Cacopsylla pyri L.            fruits were studied to determine the insect infestation on the
was studied on some pear cultivars Pyrus communis L.                 most important date varieties in U.A.E. The results showed
(Abo-Satl, Beurre Giffard, Spadona, Cocia, Red Bartlet,              that some insect species infested the fruits during the pre-
White Bartlet) by the direct count for eggs and nymphs, and          harvest period of dates in orchards. Khlas and Khsab were


E-130    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
more susceptible than the other varieties to the infestation        Aphidius matricariae and Trioxys sp. Moreover, three
of stored product insects. The high infestation level was           species of parasitoids associated with Liriomyza trifolii
during October and November and in the dates without caps           were also identified, namely Diglyphus isaea Walker,
than fruits with caps. The population density of Carophilus         Pnigalio sp. (Eulophidae) and Opius sp. (Braconidae).
spp., Ephesria spp., and Oryzaephilus were highest on the           These parasitoids reached its maximum parasitism rate
different varieties in orchards and new spieces of stored           during February and March; 21.1% during February and
product insects were recorded.                                      17.2% during March for aphid parasitoids and 12.8 %
                                                                    during February and 13.1 % during March, for leaf miner
R 17                                                                parasitoids.
TOLERANCE OF TEXAS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE TO
THE CORN STEM BORER, SESAMIA CRETICA                                R 19
LED. Abbas M. Al-Khafaji1 and Hameed H. Al-Karboli2.                TOWARDS PRODUCTION                     OF     SUGARBEET
(1) Agricultural Section, Directorate of Municipal Babylon          CLONES RESISTANT TO INSECTS: ENGINEERING
governorate, (2) Department of plant protection, College of         OF PLANT CELL WITH BT GENE. Shawky A.
Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad, Iraq, Email:                      Bekheet, Plant Biotechnology Department, National
alkarbolihameed@yahoo.com.                                          Research Center, El-Tahrir Street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt,
Field experiments were conducted in Babylon province                Email: shawky005@yahoo.com
(Iraq) to evaluate the tolerance of 10 hybrids of maize,                    An attempt of engineering sugarbeet plants with Bt
recently introduced to the country from Texas University            (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene was achieved. An efficient
USA, after exposure to natural infestation with the corn            regeneration protocol through in vitro direct and indirect
stem borer, Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera:                      organogenesis of sugarbeet was developed. Construct
Phalaenidae). These experiments were conducted during the           containing Bt (Cry 1AC) was prepared and cloned in a
spring and fall seasons of 2004-2005. Results indicated that        vector plasmid. Transformation of sugarbeet explants was
all hybrids were susceptible to corn borer, and they can be         done using Agrobacterium strain LB4404 containing
divided according to their susceptibility to the borer into         pBI121 plasmid containing. CaMV 35S promoter, nos
several groups, Hybrid MSI4387 was the most tolerant to             terminator, GUS (reporter gene), hygromycin (plant
stem borer, MSI4387 showed the least rate of infested               selection), kanamycin (bacterial selection). Two types of
plants (5, 0.00%) and yield loss (12, 17%) for the spring           explants i.e., leaf (taken around the midrib and with part of
and fall seasons respectively. However, these values were           petiol) and shoot bases were used as plant materials.
significantly different from the highest corresponding              Transient expression of GUS in transformants was assayed
values of 58.53, 7.26% ecorded for hybrids MSI4290 and              since the positive response was recorded as showing blue
the local hybrid (IPA 5012), whereas, the highest yield loss        patches. Although shoot bases explants were appropriate
(48%) was recorded for hybrids MSI4317 and MSI4290 for              for direct and quick regeneration but their transformation
the two seasons. It could be concluded that further field           frequency was relatively poor. Plant tissues which
studies are necessary in the future to confirm these results        successfully grew and regenerated on selective medium
and evaluate further its potential use in IPM programs for          containing antibiotics were taken and subcultured on
the corn borer.                                                     elongation and rooting medium to obtain complete
                                                                    plantlets. Transformation was confirmed by using PCR
R 18                                                                analysis. The presence of the reporter gene was detected by
POPULATION           FLUCTUATIONS             OF      APHIS         using the total plant DNA and primers flanking a region
CRACCIVORA AND LIRIOMYZA TRIFOLII AND                               within the gene. PCR analysis results indicated that there
THEIR ENDOPARASITOIDS ON FABA BEAN                                  was a high percentage of GUS positive cultures indicating
VARIETIES. Salwa S. Abdel-Samad and M.A. Ahmed,                     successful transformation.
Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research
Center, Giza, Egypt, Email: salwa_ssss@yahoo.com                    R 20
         Infestation by the aphid (Aphis craccivora) and            SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TOMATO CULTIVERS TO
leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii Burg) and its associated              INFECTION WITH POTATO SPINDLE TUBER
parasitoids on the faba bean (Vicia faba) varieties Misr 1,         VIROID AND ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH AND
Misr 2, Giza 40 and Giza 429 were investigated at                   PRODUCTION OF TOMATOES IN LIBYA. Hania Al-
Shandawel, Sohag governorate during 2004/05 and 2005/06             Gammudi¹, Jabr Khalil¹, Al-Taher Abu-Hlaka¹ and Khalid
growing seasons. The results revealed that most spread              El-Dogdog². (1) Plant Protection Department, Faculty of
occurred during February and March for both pests.                  Agriculture, University of Al-Fateh Tripoli, Libya, Email:
Susceptibility of faba bean varieties could be arranged (in         khalil_reem@hotmail.com; (2) University of Ain-Shams,
both months) in an increasing order based on the mean               Faculty of Agriculture, Egypt.
average of infestation by aphids per plant as follows: Misr 1               The Susceptibility of most of the cultivated tomato
(40.6), Misr 2 (42.6), Giza 40 (54.2) and Giza 429 (58.7).          cultivar in Libya to infection with Potato spindle tuber
For susceptibility to leafminer the arrangement of                  viroid (PSTVd) and its effect on growth and production
genotypes in an increasing order was: Misr 2 (18.2%), Giza          were evaluated. The following cultivars were mechanically
429 (19.8%), Misr 1 (23.9%) and Giza 40 (26.1%). Three              inoculated with the Libyan isolate of PSTVd: Felkato,
species of hymenopterus parasitoids attacking Aphis                 Sinkara, Libda, Yasamin, Thoraia, Hanaa and Kanza, and
craccivora were identified, namely Lysiphlebus fabarum,             infection rates were 95, 95, 90, 90, 80, 80 and 20%,

                                                        2009    /                        27                               E-131
respectively. Disease symptoms included malformation,
yellowing, necrosis, reduced leaf size and formation of dark         R 22
brown, yellow and white spots. The following cultivars               DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN SUSCEPTIBLE
were mechanically inoculated with the Egyptian isolate of            AND RESISTANT FABA BEAN, LENTIL AND PEA
PSTVd: Felkato, Zahra, Thoraia, Libda, Hoda, Farwa,                  GENOTYPES TO BEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS
Cherry tomato, Naziha, Reem Star and Kartika, and                    ON THE BASIS OF VIRUS MOVEMENT AND
infection rates obtained were 95, 95, 85, 85, 80, 80, 70, 40,        MULTIPLICATION. M. Alkhalaf1, S.G. Kumari2, A.A.
0.0 and 0.0%, respectively. Disease symptoms observed                Haj Kasem1, K.M. Makkouk2 and S. Al-Chaabi3. (1)
were leaf curling, rolling, malformation, dark brown spots,          Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria,
swelling of veins and large yellow spots, which turned               Email: Malkhalaf72@yahoo.com; (2) Virology Laboratory,
white. In addition, the effect of the Egyptian isolate of            International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry
PSTVd on the growth and production of Yasamin, Libda,                Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, Email:
Super Halim, Kanza and No. 185 Libyan tomato cultivars               s.kumari@cgiar.org; (3) General Commission of Scientific
was studied. It was found that the average reduction in the          Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Douma, P.O. Box 113,
production of tomato fruits was 34.4%, and in plants height          Damascus, Syria
was 17%, and in shoots fresh and dry weights was 41 and                        The movement and multiplication of Bean yellow
37%, respectively, and in roots fresh and dry weights was            mosaic virus (BYMV, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae)
35 and 37%, respectively.                                            were evaluated in 12 faba bean, 13 lentil, and 15 pea
                                                                     genotypes, which varied in sensitivity and susceptibility to
R 21                                                                 BYMV infection. Experiments were conducted under
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE NEWLY INTRODUCED                               artificial infection conditions in greenhouse and field
POTATO          CULTIVARS          INTO       LIBYA       TO         conditions during the 2006/2007 growing season. All
BACTERIAL SOFT ROT INFECTION AND ITS                                 plants of all crops were inoculated at the four leaf stage. In
ASSOCIATION               WITH          PHYSIOLOGICAL                the greenhouse, five plants from each genotype were tested
CHANGES. Hanan S. A. Mustafa, Azzeddin M. Y.                         for 24 days after inoculation (at two days interval).
Alawami and Issa A. Abogharsa, Plant Protection                      Different plant parts (growing point, stem, stem base, root)
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar                  were cut and printed on nitrocellulose membrane (NCM),
University,           El-Beida,        Libya,          Email:        and then all membranes were tested at the same time by the
Azzawami2002@yahoo.com                                               tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA). From samples collected
         Tubers of newly introduced potato cultivars in              in the greenhouse and the field, virus concentrations in each
Libya, namely Spunta, Pamela, Daisy, Daifla, Atlas and               section were estimated using a 0-3 scale (0= no reaction, to
Apollina were tested for their susceptibility to infection           3= extensive staining of the plant blot) and accordingly the
with soft rot bacterium (Erwinia carotovora subsp                    relative TBIA values for the different faba bean genotypes,
carotovora). Atlas cv. proved to be the most susceptible,            and infection rate for lentil and pea genotypes were
whereas Daifla was the most resistant. The activities of             estimated. The TBIA results revealed that the systemic
pectolytic and oxidative enzymes in diseased tubers were             movement and multiplication of BYMV were slower in the
profoundly higher than those in healthy ones. The highest            resistant than in the susceptible genotypes. Eight to ten days
enzymatic activities of pectin methyl esterase (PME) and             after inoculation, the virus was detected in all four plant
polygalacturonase (PG) were observed in diseased tubers of           parts of the susceptible faba bean (ILB 6101, ILB 6167,
Daifla cultivar. However, diseased tubers of Spunta gave             ILB 2134, ILB 3038, ILB 454, PBL 507), pea (IFPI 378,
the highest activities of polymethyl galacturonase (PMG).            IFPI 953, IG 134573 ) and lentil (ILL 262, ILL 1645, ILL
On the other hand, the highest significant activities of PME         4400, ILL 8635) genotypes tested; whereas, the virus was
in healthy tubers was detected in Pamela cultivar compared           not detected in all plant parts of the resistant lentil (ILL
to other cultivars. Moreover, there were insignificant               8216, ILL 7163, ILL 4736, ILL 336, ILL 83) and resistant
differences in PG and PMG activities in infected compared            pea (IFPI 224, IFPI 791, IFPI 1643, IFPI 2527, IFPI 3378,
to healthy tubers of different cultivars. Daisy and Apolline         IFPI 3660, IG 134697) genotypes until 24 days after
cvs. gave the highest activity of peroxidase (PO) in                 inoculation. The correlation coefficients were significant (P
diseased tubers, whereas the highest activity of polyphenol          = 0.05) between the results obtained from greenhouse and
oxidase (PPO) was detected in infected tubers of Atlas.              the field experiments. These findings suggested that virus
Concerning healthy tubers, the highest activities of PO and          movement and multiplication can be useful criteria in
PPO were noticed in Atlas and Pamella, respectively,                 differentiating between BYMV resistant and susceptible
compared to other cultivars. Electrolyte leakage from plant          faba bean, lentil and pea genotypes at around 8-10 days
cells was estimated by measuring electrical conductivity as          after inoculation.
indicator for permeability changes in potato tissues. There
were significant increases in the value of electrolyte               R 23
leakage in infected tubers of all tested cultivars, compared         PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A
to healthy ones. Electrolyte leakage in diseased tubers of           PLANT       PEROXYGENASE,          AN       ENZYME
Apolline and Atlas cvs. were significantly higher than at of         IMPLICATED IN OXYLIPINS BIOSYNTHESIS
other cultivars. It can be concluded that infection with soft        INVOLVIED IN PLANT DEFENSE MECHANISMS.
rot bacterium caused permeability changes in tuber tissues           Abdulsamie Hanano1, Michel Burcklen2, Martine Flenet2,
in all tested cultivars.                                             Anabella Ivancich3, Mathilde Louwagie4, Jérôme Garin4,

E-132    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
and Elizabeth Blée2. (1) Atomic Energy Commission of                 time of sampling. In Charle cv. the infestation started at the
Syria (AECS), P.O.Box 6091, Damascus, Syria, Email:                  7th week, whereas in the other two varieties infestation
ashanano@aec.org.sy; (2) Institut de Biologie Moléculaire            started in the second week.
des plantes, 28, rue Goethe, 67000 Strasbourg, France; (3)
Service de Bioénergétique, Commessariat à l’Energie                  R 25
Atomique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France ; (4) Laboratoire             REACTION OF SOME OLIVE CULTIVARS TO
de chimie des protéines, Commessariat à l’Energie                    PEACOCK EYE SPOT DISEASE IN SYRIA. S. Al-
Atomique, 38054 Grenoble, France.                                    Chaabi1, L. Matrod1, Y. Kutaefani1, J. Asmar2 and F.
          Oxylipins are various families of oxygenated poly-         Qaem3. (1) Administration of Plant Protection Research at
unsaturated fatty acids. In mammalians, oxylipins were               GCSAR, Douma, P.O. Box 113, Damascus, Syria, Email:
largely studied and known to be defense-related molecules.           gcsarshaabi@mail.sy; (2) Centre of Scientific Agricultural
Multiple studies have demonstrated that oxylipins play               Research, Tartous, Syria; (3) Centre of Scientific
important roles in animal reactions against biotic stresses,         Agricultural Research, Lattakia, Syria.
especially in bacterial infection. All enzymes of ploy-                        Peacock eye spot (Spilocaea oleaginea (Cast.)
unsaturated fatty acids metabolism have been characterized           Hughes) is the most wide spread and harmful disease on
and their encoding genes have been identified. In this work,         olive trees in the coastal region of Syria. The total infected
we studied a new plant enzyme, named Peroxygenase,                   areas with this disease was estimated in April 2008 by 3400
which is involved in plant oxylipins biosynthesis. A                 and 2560 ha in Tartous and Lattakia governorates,
purified fraction of the Peroxygenase from oat seeds (Avena          respectively. Except for some infected olive trees., the
sativa) which contain a high quantity of this protein was            disease was not recorded in all other non-coastal
obtained. The first 23 amino acids in the N-terminus of              governorates of Syria. Disease incidence in some areas of
purified protein were identified. If was found that a purified       Tartous gov. (Majdalone Al-Bestan and Bshebtah) was
protein shares a high sequence homology with unknown                 100% during spring of 2008, whereas it ranged between 20
protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cloning and                         and 60% in some areas of Lattakia gov. (Set-Markhow)
characterization of peroxygenase encoding gene have                  according to cultivar and location. Results of susceptibility
shown that this enzyme belongs to a new family of genes,             evaluation of 14 local and imported olive cultivars against
called Caleosins. Functional recombinant protein expressed           the disease under artificial inoculation in the glasshouse,
in yeast demonstrated an important activity of enzyme                during 2008 showed that reaction levels varied; Nebali cv.
giving oxygenated fatty acids. In-vitro, a significant               was the most susceptible, followed by Sorani, Mokharam
activation of peroxygenase activity was observed in                  Abu-Satl and Musa´abi, with lowest infection levels
wounded plants or those treated with some signal molecules           recorded on Kaessi and Zorallena, while rooted cuttings of
such as jasmonic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.             Tirilya cv were disease free. Duaibli, Besholeen, Khaoukhi,
Oxylipnis resulting via peroxygenase pathway possesses a             Khda´ari and Sorani olive cvs. were the most susceptible to
dramatic inhibition to the growth of Magnaporthe grisea, a           the disease under natural infection conditions during 2008
plant fungal pathogen. The germination of fungal spores              and 2009 seasons, whereas Abu-Satl, Mohasan, Abu-Satl-
and their mycotoxins production have also been altered.              Aadi, Jabeh, Aba´ady Aswad, Tirilya, Ayrouni and
These observations suggest that preoxygenase pathway                 Zorallina (Italy) cvs. were most resistant.
could have potential role not only in plant defense but also
in mycotoxins production in agricultural commodities.                R 26
                                                                     BREEDING FOR RESISTANCE TO SEPTORIA
R 24                                                                 TRITICI BLOTCH IN DURUM WHEAT. Mohammad
SUCEPTIBILITY OF THREE                    WATERMELON                 El-Khalifeh and Miloudi Nachit, ICARDA Durum
VARIETIES TO INFESTATION WITH TWO                                    Breeding Program, ICARDA, P.O.Box: 5466, Aleppo,
SPPOTTED         SPIDER        MITE       TETRANYCHUS                Syria, Email: M.Khalifa@cgiar.org
URTICAE KOCH IN BAGHDAD AREA, IRAQ. Luaay                                      Durum wheat is one of the main agricultural crops
K.Khalaf Al-Ani, Plant Protection Department, College of             in the Mediterranean countries, where the fungal diseases
Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq, Email:            are among the primary constraints in these countries,
Luaay_kalani@yahoo.com                                               particularly Durum Wheat which is largely grown in this
         A field study was conducted to compare the                  region and seriously attacked by Septoria tritici blotch
susceptibility of three different varieties of water melon           (STB). The objective of this study is to look for sources of
(charlestong gray, crimson sweet, charle) to infestation with        resistance to STB to be used in the crossing program at
two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch during              durum wheat breeding program/ICARDA, in order to
2008. T. urticae is considered one of the serious pests              improve the resistance to that disease. Therefore, a durum
attacking watermelon production in Iraq. Weekly samples              population of 112 F14 recombinant inbred lines (RILs)
were collected and examined under dissecting microscope,             derived by single-seed descent from the cross ICD-MN91-
and the mobile stages were counted. Charleston Gray                  0012 between Tamgurt (Jennah Khetifa) and Cham1 was
variety showed the highest infestation along the whole               screened under field conditions by using a bulk of Septoria
study reaching 89.66 mite/ leaf atthe 10th week of sampling.         tritici (ST) isolates; in addition it was screened under
The lowest infestation was in Charle with 10 mites/leaf              greenhouse conditions using two virulent isolates of ST
atthe 10th week of sampling. Moreover, the infestation of            (Gh1 and Gh10). The readings were taken at dough stage in
Crimson sweet was in between 27 mites/leaf at the same               the field and at tillering stage in the greenhouse using a 0-5

                                                         2009    /                         27                               E-133
scale, taking in consideration the vertical and horizontal           significant differences (P < 0.01) among the genotypes for
distribution of the pycnidia. The results demonstrated that          their responses to disease and the range of mean infection
32 Lines were found resistant to moderately resistant under          was 0 (for KH40 genotype) to 5 (for KO12 genotype).
field conditions, as well as 56 Lines under the greenhouse           Baseed on level of infection, all genotypes were classified
conditions against the first isolate and 90 Lines against the        in 3 significantly distinct groups: susceptible (one genotype
second isolate. By comparing these results with the                  with a mean of 5), moderately susceptible (17 genotypes
screening data for the last 7 years, 20 lines showed the             with a mean of 2.5) and resistant (18 genotypes with amean
same resistance; in addition, these lines showed also good           of 1.1). Phenotypic and genetic coefficients of variation
agronomic traits, such as yield, grain quality, and resistance       (50% and 38%, respectively) and broad-sense heritability
to other diseases. Consequently, these lines were used               (64%) indicated that there was genetic variation among the
intensively in the crossing program of 2009.                         genotypes for powdery mildew infection. Phenotypic and
                                                                     genetic correlation coefficients between intensity of
R 27                                                                 infection with seed yield (rPh = 0.12 and rg= 16) indicated
SELECTION OF BARLEY RESISTANT LINES TO A                             that, the disease had no significant adverse effect on seed
TUNISIA ISOLATE OF BARLEY YELLOW DWARF                               yield in this experiment, most probably because late
VIRUS-PAV. Asma Najar1, Hajar Ben Ghanem1, Salah                     infection. The results indicated the possibility of selection
Rezgui2, Safaa G. Kumari3, Stephania Grando3, Haitham                for resistance to powdery mildew.
Al- Saed3, Micheal Baum3 and Abderrazak Daaloul3. (1)
Institut National de Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie,               R 29
Rue hedi Kharray, 2049, ARIANA, Tunisia, Email:                      EVALUATION OF CUCUMBER CULTIVARS
najar.asma@iresa.agrinet.tn;       (2)    Institut   National        RESISTANCE TO VEGETABLE LEAFMINER,
Agronomique de Tunisie, Tunis, Tunisia; (3) International            LIRIOMYZA SATIVAE IN GREENHOUSES. Moslem
Center of Agricultural Research for the Dry Areas                    Basij, Alireza Askarianzadeh, Saeid Moharramipour,
(ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria                               Shahriyar Asgari and Ramin Rafezi., Shahed. University,
        The objective of this study was to select barley lines       Faculty of Agricultural Science, Tehran, Iran, Email:
resistant to Barley yellow dwarf virus under Tunisian                moslembasij@yahoo.com
environmental conditions. Promising resistant lines were                       Leafminer, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard has been
selected among ten crosses between parental cultivars                widely distributed in the world in recent years and it is
carrying the BYDV resistant gene Yd2 and others which                presently an important pest of vegetables and ornamentals.
carry resistant genes for major fungal diseases and high             Because of its high potential for resistance to current
yielding under Tunisian conditions. Studies were conducted           insecticides, the use of resistant cultivars seem to be an
over four growing seasons (2002/2003-2005/2006) under                effective approach in developing IPM programs for the
field conditions, with artificial inoculation of BYDV-PAV            pest. Cucumber is a preferred host for Liriomyza sativae. In
using Rhopalosiphum Padi as the virus vector. Selection              this studt 17 cultivars of cucumber were examined to
was carried out among F2, F3, F4 and F5 segregating                  evaluate their antixenosis resistance to this insect. Trials
populations. 198 resistant lines to BYDV-PAV were                    were conducted with 5 replications in a growth chamber at
selected. These lines were then evaluated for agronomic              25±1C,55±5% RH and 16:8 (light:dark) photoperiod.
performance in different growing areas: Beja (sub-humid)             Cucumber cultivars were evaluated on the basis of feeding
and Kef (semi-arid) during 2007 cropping season.                     punctures, number of larval mines, proportion of mines to
Considering especially the grain yield, 25 lines were shown          punctures and rate of injury. Cucumber cultivars were
to be superior to Rihane. Within these lines, only 8                 ranked by cluster method based on all measured characters
exceeded Manel and 16 could be used for both grain and               to four groups: susceptible (karim, Koraxh), semi-
forage crops. However, 2 lines seemed to have wide                   susceptible (khasib, Jiroft1, Evergreen, Vikima, and
adaptation under both semi-arid and sub humid conditions.            Soltan), semi-resistant (Maximus, Victor, Green magic,
                                                                     Royal, Service plus, Roodbar local) and resistant (Sanandaj
R 28                                                                 local, Gorgan local). No cultivar was immune to the injury.
RELATIVE RESISTANCE OF FLAX GENOTYPES
TO POWDERY MILDEW. Ghodratollah Saeidi and                           R 30
Mozhdeh Moshksar, Department of Agronomy and Plant                   SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ALMOND VARAITIES TO
Breeding, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of              INFESTATION WITH THE RED PLUM MOTH,
Technology,     Isfahan    84156-83111,      Iran,   Email:          GRAPHOLITHA FUNEBRANA IN CENTRAL SYRIA.
gsaeidi@cc.iut.ac.ir                                                 Amanni shlallo, Louai Aslaan and Wajih Alkassis, Faculty
          Powdery mildew of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)            of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria,
caused by the fungus Oidium lini is one of the important             Email: amannishllalo@yahoo.com
flax diseases. In this study, 81 genotypes of flax were                       Almond trees are one of the important trees in
evaluated for both infection to the disease and agronomic            SYRIA and plantations are located in the central area of the
traits. In this experiment, there was no control of the              country. Many pests attack almonds; Eurytoma amygdali
disease and the plants were infected under field conditions.         and Grapholitha funebrun were the most important. This
The infection intensity of each genotype was recorded                study was made to identify almond varieties resistant to G.
based on a scale from 1-5, where 0 (no infection) to 5               funebrana. Seven varieties (grown in central Syria) were
(complete infection of the plant). The results showed                investigated during the period 2004-2008 depending on the


E-134    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
ability of larvae to enter the hard stone and if the larvae            incognita was propagated in pure culture. Numerous
could complete their life cycle inside the stone during                treatments were evaluated: Halex, potassium fertilizer,
storage period. The most susceptible varieties were Shami              Halex and potassium fertilizer, control, and inoculationwith
Fourk (local) 40%, Princess (French) 38%, and Provista                 Fusarium alone, by nematodes alone and by Fusarium +
(27%) while the varieties Dimashq, Kastantin, Colorado                 nematodes and control. For the application of the
and Dafadae (local) were resistant.                                    Biochemical fertilizer (Halex), the roots of two weeks old
                                                                       tomato seedlings var. Rio Grande were immersed in
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT                                             suspension of Halex and moist soil at the rate of 800g
                                                                       Halex + 50 kg moist soilfor 20 min before planting in pots
IPM 1                                                                  arranged in a randomized split–split plot design. The
CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE OUTLOOK OF                                   potasium treatment 3 days after planting was with 0.46g
THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF RED PALM                                  potassium sulfate placed on the soil surface and mixed with
WEEVIL          (RHYNCHOPHORUS               FERRUGINEUS               soil, irragated and then ionculated with Fusarium +
OLIVIER). Emad Hussain Al-Turaihi, Agricultural                        nematodes (3 replicates for each treatment) for the split-
Development Department, Ministry of Environment, P.O.                  split designg treatment. The main Blocks consisted of the
Box 1966, Doha, Qatar, Email: al_turaihi@yahoo.com                     inoculated treatments, and the secondary Blocks of the
      Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most            fertilizer treatment.Results were recorded 45 days after
important fruit trees in the Arab countries. Since the late            planting. Results showed that the Fusarium inoculation
1980s red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus                       reduced the gall index as compared to the control
Olivier) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) has become a serious              (3.3/4.0).Similarly, number of eggmases (63.00/114.60),
insect pest in the region. The aim of this study is to develop         eggs/eggmases (100/163.30) and adult females/root
new pest control strategies for reducing the damage caused             (88.6/136.00) were reduced as compared to the control. In
by red palm weevil. The study showed that in spite of all              contrast, presence of M. incognita increased slightly
the efforts or methods used to control the red palm weevil             Fusarium wilt severity (3.6) compared to Fusarium
such as biological agents, pheromone traps and chemical                alone(3.3). The severity of wilt disease decreased in the
pesticides, thousands of date palm trees are dieing annually           halex and potassium fertilized plants (1.0) followed by
in certain locations and the weevil is still invading new              potassium fertilized plants (1.60) compared to unfertilized
areas in the region, posing a potential threat to date palm            plants (3.60). The fertilization with Halex alone or together
plantations. The current measures are not effective enough             with potassium gave significant reduction in disease
to succeed in eliminating red palm weevil because of great             severity and M. incognita reproduction (7.18/29.25) and
difficulty in early detection of infection and reaching all life       number of second stage juveniles/pot (23.7/126.6) as
stages of the weevil inside the palm trunk. The study also             compared to the controls. The reproduction factor was 6353
revealed that new strategies of control could be introduced            compared to 18603 for unfertilized plants. Moreover, the
in the near future to suppress red palm weevil through using           final nematodes population was decreased on the plants that
further techniques. These techniques include acoustic or               received potassium compared to untreated plants.
ultrasonic instruments, early detection sensors, plant traps,
forecasting model and improving the methods of trunk                   IPM 3
injection.                                                             EVALUATION THE IMPACT OF FARMER FIELD
                                                                       SCHOOLS          ON     THE       INTEGRATED         PEST
IPM 2                                                                  MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IN JORDAN. Ashraf
THE        EFFECT       OF      BIOFERTILIZER         AND              Saber Alhawamdeh1 and Alfredo Impeglia2. (1) National
POTASSIUM ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN                                   IPM Project Coordinator, Ministry of Agriculture, National
ROOT         KNOT       NEMATODE          MELOIDOGYNE                  Center for Agricultural Research and Extension NCARE,
INCOGNITA AND FUSARIUM OXYSPORIUM F. SP.                               Email: ash_agri@yahoo.com; (2) Regional IPM Project
LYCOPERSIC ON TOMATO CV. RIO GRANDE.                                   Coordinator in the Near East, Food and Agriculture
Asma S.W. Almabrok, Mahmoud E.M. Ehwaeti, Azzeddin                     Organization FAO, Email: faoipmne@scs-net.org
M. Y. Alawami and Mohamed A.M. Adam, Department of                           The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a concept
Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar El-Mukhtar              which promotes the use of biological control, good
University, P.O. Box 919, El-Beida, Libya, Email:                      agronomic practices and other means before using chemical
goody3cot@yahoo.com                                                    pesticides to control pests. The Regional IPM Programme
          This study aimed to evaluate the effect of                   in the Near East GTFS/REM/070/ITA, executed by FAO
biofertilization (Halex) and mineral potassium as a tool to            with funds from the Italian Government, was launched in
reduce the wilt and root knot diseases on tomato Rio                   2004. One of the aims of the program is to educate farmers
Grande cultivar. Root knot nematode population was                     in IPM using the Farmers Field School (FFS) extension
collected from eggplant from El-Hamama region. M.                      method to provide practical training to farmers based on
incognita and M. javanica were identified from this                    adult education; it empowers farmers through the
population based on perineal pattern. In addition, the                 participatory and non-formal education process. The FAO
identification of these species were confirmed by detection            Reg. IPM program trained so far more than 1,500 farmers
of esterase phenotype in adult females, where M. incognita             (20% of them are female farmers) and established more
had one band while M. javanica had three bands. M.                     than 100 FFSs in different agricultural areas in Jordan,
                                                                       especially in the Jordan valley and South Ghour (Safi). The

                                                           2009    /                        27                               E-135
Project deals with several crops, but particularly with              ranged from 3.75 to 6.75 against 6.94 to 8.69 predatory
cucumber and tomato. The positive results of the Project             species/15 plants in the untreated control. The observed
improved the crop and pest management, increased                     variable decrease of monitored predators could be attributed
farmer’s income by reducing the use of chemicals and                 to the species specificity and sensitivity to each of the
improved farmer’s livelihood. The Project in brief has a             tested treatments in organic and/ or conventional cotton
technical, social and institutional impact at the rural              production.
community level through farmer education, technology
development, farmers’ empowerment, alliance building and             IPM 5
policy support. The member farmers in FFS succeeded to               INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF CEREAL
reduce the cost of production mainly related to chemical             PESTS THROUGH A FARMER PARTICIPATORY
pesticides use by 60%. The Project results encouraged the            APPROACH IN MOROCCO. Saadia Lhaloui1, Rachid
National Center for Agriculture Research and Extension               Dahan1, Hassan Ouabbou1, Driss Hadarbach1, Fouad
(NCARE) to establish few FFSs as part of a newly                     Abbad1, Hamida Hilali1, Hamid Ramdani1, Hamid Hamal1,
established national program.                                        Kaddour Saffour1, Mustapha El Bouhssini2 and Amor
                                                                     Yahyaoui2. (1) INRA-CRRA Settat, P.O. Box 589, Settat,
IPM 4                                                                Morocco; (2) ICARDA, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria,
THE        USE       OF     FOLIAR         FERTILIZERS,              Email: slhaloui@yahoo.com; lhaloui@hotmail.com
ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND                                             The Moroccan economy is based mainly on
RELEASE OF TRICHOGRAMMA EVANESCENS IN                                agriculture. Cereals and food legumes are the major crops
THE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR                                   of the country and occupy nearly 70% of the arable lands.
CONTROLLING SPINY BOLLWORM, EARIAS                                   However, insects, diseases, and weeds are major production
INSULANA IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL                                 limiting factors and damage inflicted by these pests is
COTTON PRODUCTION. H.A. Awad1, A.A. Saad2, Kh.                       around 30% yearly and may reach 100% in cases of heavy
A. Abdel-Rhman1 and M. M. EL- Beasiony1. (1) Plant                   attacks. To protect these crops, INRA-Morocco and
Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center,          ICARDA have been conducting an IPM program to reduce
Alexandria, Egypt; (2) Department of plant protection,               the use of agricultural chemicals and advocate sustainable,
Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria                      environment-friendly management practices, with a farmer
University, Egypt, Email: ayten999@yahoo.com                         participatory approach on wheat, winter chickpea, and Faba
          The present study was conducted to evaluate four           bean. IPM Pilot Sites were established in major regions
IPM organic regimes [Naturalytes, Biocides, Botanicals and           where rainfed wheat and chickpea are the most important
release a parasitoid of Trichogramma spp.] for organic               crops. Wheat production faces a major pest problem, the
cotton production and six IPM regimes for conventional               Hessian fly. The major pest problem for chickpea is the
cotton production [O.P., oxime carbamate, pyrethroids, a             fungal disease Ascochyta blight. In each community, three
naturalyte, Spinosad and their mixtures with chemical                lead farmers were selected to test IPM options for wheat
insecticides at half recommended dose for each compound]             and chickpea. Through consultation meetings prior to
to determine the effective regimes for the integrated pest           planting, it was agreed that the IPM options for wheat will
management (IPM) of the spiny bollworm. The results                  focus on (i) Hessian fly control, (ii) weed control, (iii)
obtained indicated that the most effective foliar treatment          appropriate fertilization, (iv) and planting date. As for
was either ascorbic or salicylic acid at a rate of 1/2 g/l in        chickpea, the IPM options focused on (i) improved
both seasons during flowering period for organic cotton              chickpea variety, (ii) weed control, (iii) use of drill for
production at higher plant density (average reduction                planting, and (iv) planting date. The IPM options for Faba
52.5%). Whereas for conventional cotton, the highest                 bean focused on Orobanche and Botrytis control. For
reduction of spiny bollworm (51.10%) was obtained by                 wheat, the results showed that there were significant gains
using 0.2 g/L GreenzitSP100 + 0.5 g/L of ascorbic acid and           in grain yield between Hessian fly resistant and susceptible
0.5 g/l salicylic acid. The application of Trichogramma,             cultivars; and between early and late planting dates, up to
Agerin + Achook; Trichogramma + Agerin + Achook,                     100% increase. Use of resistant cultivars gave a yield
Spinosad + Meenark, Dipel + Meenark during boll                      increase of two fold over the susceptible one at the early
formation was most efficient in reducing infestation of              planting date, while it was up to three folds for the late
SBW in green bolls of organic production of cotton plants            planting date. In chickpea, using the best IPM options
at lower plant density in both seasons (75.97%). In                  improved yield significantly. Major gains came out from
conventional cotton production, the use of Curacron +                winter planting and early weed control compared to
Match, Pindelta+ Cotton Seed Oil, Spinosad + KZ oil,                 traditional spring planting. Advancing sowing date from
Larvin + Dipel with deflowering at the early flowering at            spring to winter using adapted chickpea variety with
lower plant density produced the lowest infestation level            optimum package increased yields from 2 to 4-folds or
(80.34 and 78.5%, in respect). In comparison to the                  more. On the other hand, pre-emergence herbicide
untreated control in organic cotton, all the evaluated               application significantly improved yields. Yields increase
treatments, gave somewhat lower mean numbers of each                 ranged from 20 to over 100%. This emphasizes early weed
inspected predator species/15 plants and ranged between              control as a principal component of winter chickpea
7.31 and 9.64 against 8.31 and 11.31 in the untreated                technology. For Faba bean, major gains (from near zero
control. In conventional cotton production, the level of             yield to more than 4 folds) were registered in the
decrease was somewhat higher in all tested treatments and            Orobanche and Botrytis controlled plots. The lead farmers’


E-136    Arab J. Pl. Prot. Vol. 27, Special Issue (Supplement), October 2009
sites were used as training sites for neighboring farmers            respectively. C. roseus plus oxamyl demonstrated a high
throughout the growing season. These sites were visited by           rate of increase in whole plant fresh weight (141.4%) and
a large number of farmers (over 500), and several decision           shoot dry weight (189.7%) and ranked second to N.
makers including newspapers reporters, and reporters from            oleander + oxamyl compared to untreated plants. All tested
the TV channels of Morocco. Meeting with farmers and                 treatments reduced significantly the total number of galls,
extension agents were organized during the season and after          egg-masses and number of eggs in egg-masses and were
harvest to discuss the results obtained from the exercise and        more efficient when used singly. Among the materials
establish plan of work for the upcoming season.                      tested, dried callus powder of N. oleander applied singly or
                                                                     combined with oxamyl surpassed the other treatments in
IPM 6                                                                reducing number of galls, egg-masses and number of eggs
ENHANCING MAIZE PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH                                 with values of 76.3 and 85.5%, 78.4 and 79.4% and 93.2
DISEASE          MANAGEMENT.            Hidayat      Rahman,         and 94.3%, respectively. Application of oxamyl either
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, NWFP                      alone or mixed with D. stramonium gave equal results in
Agricultural University, Peshwar, Pakistan, Email:                   reducing the number of galls by 73.8%. It can be conducted
kbmarwat@aup.edu.pk                                                  that callus powder derived from N. oleander applied either
          A maize breeding scheme has been adopted at                singly or integrated with oxamyl at its half recommended
NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar (Pakistan) that               dose was the best treatment to improve growth of tomato
facilitates the completion of one cycle of recurrent selection       plants, increase fruits yield and suppress M. incognita
for the incorporation of leaf blight resistance and grain            development and reproduction in naturally infested soil.
yield improvement in one year. The schedule entails
growing three maize crops in one year and has been                   IPM 8
successfully undertaken during the last two years (2006 and          EFFECT OF SOME CULTURAL PRACTICES ON
2007) to complete two cycles of S1 lines recurrent selection         TWO SUCKING PESTS INFESTATION OF
in Azam and Sarhad White maize populations. The gain for             SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.) IN SOHAG
resistance to maydis leaf blight disease was about 22.5%,            GOVERNORATE. Fargel A. Salman1, Hamed A. Abd El
reflecting a significant reduction in disease severity. The          Daiem1, Magedy A. Mohamed1 and Ahmed M. Salman1.
gain per cycle during these two years was 13%, each for              (1) Agriculture Research Center, Plant Protection Research
grain yield and ear length and about 35% for 1000 kernel             Institute, P.O. Box 12816, Egypt; (2) Plant Protection
weight in Azam population. Similarly for Sarhad White                Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University,
population, the gain per cycle was 19.5% for grain yield             Egypt, Email: dr_homam@hotmail.com
while10.4% and 4.1% for ear length and 1000 kernel                             This work was conducted at the Agricultural
weight, respectively. This new procedure allows maize                Research Station at Shandaweel, Sohag Province at Upper
breeders to produce three generations of maize crop in               Egypt, during two consecutive seasons, 2006 and 2007, to
single year which would have a significant impact by                 study the effect of some agricultural practices (sowing
speeding up maize cultivars development. The scheme can              dates, irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilization levels,
be easily adopted for the incorporation of disease resistance        phosphorus fertilization levels and row spacing) on the
in maize and tolerance to other biotic stresses as well in           infestation level of two pests, the two spotted spider mite,
maize breeding material of tropical origin.                          Tetranychus urticae Koch. and the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
                                                                     (Genn.), on soybean. The results obtained revealed that the
IPM 7                                                                population density of T. urticae decreased significantly
INTEGRATED CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE                                    with delayed sowing date, whereas B. tabaci populations
INCOGNITA INFESTING TOMATO USING DRIED                               were at their lowest level when planted early in the two
CALLUS POWDERS APPLIED SINGLY OR IN                                  seasons. The soybean plants irrigated every 14 and 21 days
COMBINATION            WITH         OXAMYL         UNDER             represented the lowest significant numbers of the both pests
MICROPLOT FIELD CONDITIONS. Ahmad H. Nour                            compared to those obtained with 7 days irrigation interval
El-Deen, A.G. EL-Sherif, Fatma A.M. Mostafa and A.R.                 during two seasons, respectively. On the other hand,
Refaei, Nematology Research Unit, Agricultural Zoology               Interaction effect between sowing date 1st June and
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University,             irrigation intervals every 14 and 21 days showed the lowest
Egypt, Email: ahnoureldeen2003@yahoo.com                             level of T. urticae infestation, while the 1st May sowing
              The effect of four dried callus powders                date and irrigation intervals every 14 and 21 days showed
derived from certain plants, i.e. tomato, periwinkle, thorne         the lowest level for B. tabaci infestation, during the two
apple and oleander applied separately or concomitantly               seasons, respectively. However, the population density of
with oxamyl at a half of the recommended dose each on                the two pests decreased significantly with the decreasing of
tomato seedlings grown in soil naturally heavily infested            both nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization levels.
with M. incognita under field conditions, indicated that             Interaction effect of nitrogen levels 5 or 15 Kg N/fed. and
dried callus powder derived from N. oleander either alone            phosphorus fertilization levels 15 or 30 Kg P2O5/fed.
or mixed with oxamyl significantly surpassed the other               exhibited the lowest level of the two pests infestation,
tested treatments in improving whole plant fresh and shoot           during the two seasons, respectively. Row spacing had a
dry weights as well as increasing numbers and weights of             significant effect on both pests, since the planting distance
fruits with values of 137.1 and 140.9%; and 54.8 and                 of 70 and 80 cm between rows led to low average
313.7% or 147.1 and 212.3%; and 91.8 and 412.0%,                     population density of the two pests during the two seasons.

                                                         2009    /                        27                               E-137
IPM 9                                                                during both seasons. The results of interactions among the
EFFECT OF CULTIVAR, PLANT SPACING AND                                different treatments, sowing dates x nitrogen fertilization
SOME INSECTICIDES ON TOMATO YIELD AND                                levels, sowing dates x potassium fertilization levels,
DAMAGE BY HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA. Mohamed                              nitrogen potassium fertilization levels and sowing dates x
H. Soliman1 and Hany E. M. Ismail2. (1) Plant Protection             nitrogen levels x potassium levels had a significant effect
Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki,              on the population density of B. brassicae during both
Giza, Egypt; (2) Hort. Department, Faculty of Agriculture,           seasons. Also, interactions between the early sowing date
Zagazig      University,     Zagazig,       Egypt,     Email:        (1st October) x N level (30 Kg/acre), the early sowing date
dr_homam@hotmail.com                                                 (1st October) x K level (48 Kg/acre) x K level (48 kg/acre)
         Two tomato cultivars, i.e., Castlerock and Super            and the early sowing date (1st October) x N level (30
Strain- B were evaluated under two plant spacings (25 or 50          Kg/acre) x K level (48 Kg/acre) gave the lowest aphid
cm within row) and three chemical treatments (Ectacron               population density during both seasons. In spite of the
and Ectaphos as insecticides and Kemesol as mineral oil,             treatments 1stOctober x 45 kg N/acre and 48 Kg k/acre were
each at 100% and 75% of the recommended rate (Ectaphos,              suitable for giving lower aphid infestations and high yield
Ectacron and Kemesol at 2.5, 1.75 and 12.5 cm3/I liter               at the same time. There was a highly significant positive
water) for yield and c