Adaptive Infrastructure Laying the Foundation

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					Adaptive Infrastructure:
Laying the Foundation

Sjarif Abdat (

Universitas Indonesia

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  Reference:
         The Adaptive Enterprise: IT Infrastructure Strategies to Manage
          Change and Enable Growth
             Bruce Robertson and Valentin Sribar
             Addison Wesley, 2002

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 Adaptive Infrastructure

  Developing an adaptive infrastructure involves breaking
   down the raw infrastructure into:
         Platforms represent the aggregation of common technology.
         Patterns provide a way to organize infrastructure end-to-end
          and relate it to applications.
         Services involve infrastructure that isn’t application-specific,
          but that is shared physically at the implementation level across
          more than one application

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      The goal is to identify universal structure and processes that are
      reusable and that can adapt to future business and technical needs

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 Catalog Technologies

  Start with a raw list of infrastructure components, one that changes
   as often as technology changes, and organized them into a
   platform model
  The platform model will have layers based on technology groupings
  That will allow your expertise to be focused effectively
  Having categories in place will help to map the technologies to the
   patterns and services
  We could organize into a number of different common structures:
            By   technology similarities
            By   architecture domain
            By   program
            By   process
            By   support group

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 Building the Platform

  Most adaptive infrastructure platforms contain three basic sets, or
   strata of components:
         Physical.
          All components dealing with the tasks of physical connectivity, storage,
          and processing, including routers, disks, servers, and user devices
         Functional.
          All components involved in data manipulation, logical storage, data
          exchange, transformation, and workflow, including OS, DB, application
          servers, and integration servers
         Interface.
          The components providing system-to-person interaction, or system-to-
          system interaction.
  The final result is a set of infrastructure components that can be
   used by application developers in a standardized way

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 Adaptive Infrastructure Platform Layers

  Each successive component layer within each tier builds
   on the function of the component layers beneath it

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 Physical Components

  The network layer, is primarily concerned with
   locating and communicating among entities in a secure
   and manageable way.
  The storage layer, is concerned with handling the
   need for short-term and long-term data storage,
   including backup and redundancies.
  The server layer, includes both the server hardware
   and operating system software.

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 The Network Layer

  This layer provides a universal protocol (TCP/IP) that is
   essential to platform
  Component in the network layer include firewalls,
   routers, switches, proxy and caching services, and load
  Why TCP/IP?
         Become the facto standard for B2B comm. and data sharing
         Vast majority of current biz apps require IP support
         IP support is included within major desktop OS, Internet, VPN,
          intranet, and extranet.

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 Trends in Networking

  Current and long-term trends in networking focus on a
   number of different models:
         Local/campus networks (LANs)
                  o The price/performance of network hardware continues to improve
                  o Available bandwidth continues to grow
                  o Falling hardware price (10/100 eth, Giga eth, switches)
         Wide-area networks (WANs)
                  o The level of service is dictated by the size and location of remote
                    sites, the applications they support, and the costs of network
                    equipment and services required.
         Remote access
                  o VPN are often seen as a cost-effective alternative to conventional

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 Differentiating IP Services

  The focus must shift from building the IP foundation to
   enabling differentiated services on top of that
  These services will differentiate QoS guarantees and
   better security, along with more robust directory
  Force the business to make prioritization decisions on
   QoS (not networking personnel)

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 The Storage Layer

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 Storage Strategy

  To save money, consolidation strategies will be
         Collocating servers
         Using SAN for storage consolidation
  The most strategic aspect of storage strategies will be
  The ability to manage data and information across many
   business processes and applications, as well as across
   physical servers and storage devices.

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 The Server Layer

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 The Server Layer

  Hardware is becoming least expensive component of
   application infrastructure
  Should place less emphasis on server selection as a
   criterion for planning infrastructure
  Less powerful servers may work better for many
   applications than more powerful one.
  Three favorites
         Microsoft Windows 2000/ .NET Server
         Unix
         IBM System/390

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 Trend in Server Hardware and Deployment

  Microprocessor value continuing to follow Moore’s Law
  Next-generation bus technologies will address the
   common bottleneck
  Microsoft Windows 2000/.NET server will be the long-
   term dominant player
  The Unix platforms will consolidate around three product
   vendor choices:
         Sun Solaris
         IBM AIX
         HP-UX

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 Basic Issues in Server Selection

  Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
         TCO concerns will focus on supportability, availability of skilled
          development and implementation staff, and recurring support
          costs for HW, SW, and operations
         Component costs will decline to less than 25% of TCO, making
          vendor support considerations more important in server
          procurement strategies.
         A demonstrated expertise in support is the critical component of
          reduced TCO
  Playing to Windows 2000/.NET Server strengths
         Application choice advantage
         What Microsoft promised with Windows 2000/.NET server is a
          consistent, coherent infrastructure out of the box

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 Basic Issues in Server Selection

  Technology Consolidation
         Many Unix variants will continue to fade away, while Solaris,
          AIX, and HP-UX retain market share
         Linux will be used more as an operating system for Web and
          appliances servers, than for application and database servers
         In the Windows 2000/.NET server world, system vendors will
          attempt to differentiate their Windows 2000 implementations by
          adding various utilities and services on top.
  Server Consolidation

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 Functional Components

  The Database Layer
      Includes all the software components used to deliver database
  The Integration Layer
      Contains all components that provide integration services between
      back-end and other Web servers, application servers, or database
  The Application Server Layer
      Contains the software that support business logic

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 The Database Layer

  Database product such as Oracle, DB2, and Microsoft SQL
  Including gateways, middleware, and voice messaging repositories
  Federated database architecture will supersede universal database
  Creating consistent, enterprise-wide rules and practices for data
   administration and design is the most important step.
  Database selection
         Choosing a particular DBMS server platform and sticking with it
         Most users cannot do well because:
                  o Their application demand particular product
                  o Merged organizations made different choices in the past
                  o New technology enhancements (or pricing changes) introduces new options

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 The Integration Layer

  Contains all components that provide integration services between
   back-end and other Web servers, application servers, or database

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 The Integration Layer

  Integration servers provide a way to integrate e-
   Business applications with enterprise and legacy
   systems at the application layer
  Application servers are used to build applications, and
   integration servers are used to integrate applications
   once they are built.
  These two types of products are the main drivers in a
   rapidly converging middleware market

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 Integration Server Components

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 Integration Server Components

  Adapter Provides interface for applications to send or
   receive business events to of from other application
  Transport moves the business events around the
   network, often using messaging middleware
  Formatting transforms business events from one
   application-specific format to another using standardss
   such as XML
  Routing defines which applications received which
  Business Process Automation (BPA) is state-
   handling run time environment, generally used to
   control the execution of long-lived transactions

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 Best Fit for Integration Servers

  The complexity involved in integrating any given business process is
   determined by many factors, including
           Throughput (events per second)
           Number of applications involved
           State-handling requirements
           Number of interface involved
           The quality of those interface
  On state-handling issues, examine how long the state must be
   maintained and how dynamic the changes in business logic will be.
  An integration server, with its process automation engine, would be
   a better fit for more long-lived processes

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 The Application Server Layer

  The layer contains the software that support business
  Product such as: IBM WebSphere, BEA WebLogic,
   Microsoft 2000/.NET Server and its frameworks
  Application server layer contains software that makes it
   easier to leverage application service functionality.
  This layer does not contain the applications themselves

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 Application Server Trends

  Application servers are being rapidly adopted, but they are still in
   their infancy
  This situation will change dramatically as organization begin to
   adopt component-based development standards
  Today, organizations must choose between j2EE and .NET as their
   primary enterprise application integration architecture
  The choice of a primary application server platform will typically
   lead to related infrastructure choice. For ex:
         Choosing j2EE will require Unix platform such as Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, or
          possibly Linux
         Choosing .NET implies a more substantial enterprise role for the
          Microsoft Windows server environment

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 Interface Components

  The Presentation Layer
  The API Layer

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 The Presentation Layer

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 The Presentation Layer

  Much of the component choice involves picking the right
   presentation model for the right application and user
  The rise of e-Business is creating a demand for multiple
   points of interactions (POI) for customers, partners,
   employees, and suppliers
  Must cleanly separate presentation logic from
   application logic to promote proper 3/N-Tier design

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 The API Layer

  One of the key principles of adaptive infrastructure is
   the idea of breaking out APIs as distinctly separate layer
   in infrastructure stack.

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 The API Layer

  Creating a separate layer for APIs makes it easier to
   separate applications from the infrastructure
  Avoiding stovepipes and create a shared and reusable
  Avoiding programmers wrote applications from business
   logic all the way down to the operating system.
  Application developer can concentrate on the business
   analyst role and avoid having spend a lot of time
   working as system programmer.
  Much of separation between the infrastructure developer
   and application developer function occurs at the API

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 The APIs

  Infra-APIs
         Include low-level technology services, such as security, naming,
          or object invocation, which apps developers and infrastructure
          developers use to create business logic
         Off-the-shelf as a built-in part of application servers, such as
          EJB or .NET
         It is how app components will actually tap into lower-level app
          services, such as initialization, housekeeping, memory
          management, and fail-over
         The low-level code has nothing to do with business logic; it just
          makes business logic execute more effectively
         Example include container server and IDE that invoke off-the
          shelf services and create new infrastructure services, such as
          IBM WebSphere -> IBM VisualAge

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 The APIs

  Intra-APIs
         Help business logic communicate within individual application
          and typically are not exposed to other apps
         They are not reused outside a given application
         They are created and managed only by the application’s
  Inter-APIs
         Help business logic to communicate between applications
         They exposed the application business logic that will be used by
          other applications
         Should be defined by infrastructure developers

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 How to Handle APIs

  Application and infrastructure developers must create a
   formal policy and framework for creating, cataloging,
   and storing APIs.
  Infrastructure developers must combine the app
   requirements and the principles generated by the
   architectural group to design efficient, secure, and
   manageable interface
  Who will design APIs that support multiple applications?

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 Adding New Components

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 Adding a Layer

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 Other Layers?

  Include them in your component portfolio if any of the
   following applies
         They are often referred to as a group (such as security,
         Including them will not overly complicate politics in IT
         Including them helps simplify infrastructure complexity (Keeping
          the layers to 10 or less is a good rule of thumb)
         The components will not form a service themselves

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