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					                                                                 News Report
   The University of South Dakota                                       Institute of American Indian Studies                           Summer 2009

Mission:                                                     Profession in Crisis:
The Institute of American Indian
Studies conducts research and
                                                      Shortage of Native American Lawyers
policy development on tribal                                                                By Sarah L. Williamson
governance and issues in
                                                      Historically low numbers of law-trained             reservation counties have over 1,000 citizens to
contemporary American Indian
society. The Institute also
                                                      professionals are living and working on South       every lawyer.
develops, coordinates and funds                       Dakota’s tribal lands. The number of lawyers         The number of South Dakota’s lawyers and
interdisciplinary research projects,                  working in rural areas in South Dakota is           members of the judiciary should reflect the
sustains relations with tribes                        critically low, but the problem is exacerbated on   state’s population. South Dakota has the third
and tribal colleges, advises on                       reservation counties.                               largest percentage of Native Americans of any
tribal relations and culture, issues
                                                      Currently, 33 percent of the state’s lawyers        state, behind only Alaska and New Mexico.
publications, administers several
                                                      work in Sioux Falls, and another 29 percent         Yet, since 1993, only 26 graduates of South
endowments supportive of
                                                      work in Rapid City and Pierre. If the city of       Dakota’s only law school, the University of
Native American education and
student life, and hosts lectures                      Aberdeen is added to this urban legal mix, 70       South Dakota School of Law, have listed
and conferences on topical Native                     percent of the state’s lawyers work in these four   themselves as Native Americans. On average,
American questions.                                   most populous areas. This means that only 30        that is only 1.6 Native American students per
                                                      percent of the state’s lawyers work in rural or     year. This means only 2 percent of USD Law
                                                      reservation areas.                                  School graduates are Native, in contrast to
Inside This Issue…                                                                                        the state’s overall Native population of nearly
                                                      The harm is realized when considering the fact
President Barack Obama:
                                                      that 54 percent of South Dakota’s citizens live     9 percent. On a national level, as of the 2000
Focus on Native Issues .....................2                                                             census, only 1 in 230 lawyers in the United
                                                      in rural areas, and 8.8 percent of the state’s
Native American Essay                                                                                     States was Native American.
Competition Winners .......................3
                                                      population is Native Americans living on or
                                                      near reservations. When nearly 70 percent of        The cost of law school is in no way helpful to
Studies on Violence
Against Native Women ....................3            the state’s lawyers work in only 4 cities, our      the current crisis. Many rural counties in South
                                                      reservations are left significantly under-served.   Dakota lack adequate legal representation
Higher Ed and Federal
Tribal Relations ................................5     Reservation counties have struggled for over       because for lawyers, there is a low potential to
Ullyot Scholars Named ....................6           30 years to attract and retain lawyers. South       earn enough income to pay back their student
                                                      Dakota’s counties with the lowest number of         loans. A 2002 National Student Loan survey
Supporter Profile—
Margaret Cash Wegner ....................7            lawyers are located on reservations, including      revealed that almost one in five college and
                                                      Corson, Dewey, Ziebach,                             professional school graduates changes career
Lakota Words .....................................7
Memorial for                                          Jackson, Shannon,
Leonard R. Bruguier .........................8        Todd, Lyman, Buffalo,
                                                      Charles Mix, and
                                                      Roberts counties. In
                                                      these areas, the county
                                                      prosecutor often lives
                                                      nowhere nearby. The
                                                      state’s attorney in Corson
                                                      County resides in Dewey
                                                      County, because no
             Dakota Hall 17
          414 East Clark Street
                                                      lawyers wanted to work
          Vermillion, SD 57069                        there. Ziebach, Jackson,
                                                      and Corson counties
          Phone: 605-677-5209
           Fax: 605-677-6525                          have not a single lawyer
          E-mail:                        living therein. All other
                                                                                                               continued on page 3
                                         President Barack Obama— A New Leader,
                                              A New Focus on Tribal Issues
                                                                                            By Sarah L. Williamson

                                                                                                          campaigns are not new, it is less common to see a President who
                                                                                                          keeps his promises. So far, Obama is on the right track with
                                                                                                          Native American interests.
                                                                                                          During his campaign, Obama vowed to appoint a Native
                                                                                                          American advisor to the highest ranks of his administration.
                                                                                                          He kept his promise. About one month after taking office,
                                                                                                          President Obama appointed Jodi Archambault Gillette as deputy
                                                                                                          associate director in his intergovernmental affairs office, set
                                                                                                          to oversee tribal issues on a national level. Gillette is a Lakota
AP photo courtesy of

                                                                                                          from North Dakota and a member of the Standing Rock Sioux
                                                                                                          tribe. No American Indian had served in the White House in
                                                                                                          the previous eight years, and no Native has ever served in such a
                                                                                                          powerful position.
                                                                                                          “Perhaps more than anyone else, the Native American community
                                   Native Americans across the United States voted to elect               faces huge challenges that have been ignored by Washington for too
                                   Barack Obama President of the nation on November 4, 2008.              long. It is time to empower Native Americans in the development
                                   President Obama took office in January 2009 after a long and           of the national policy agenda,” President Obama said.
                                   successful campaign. Much of Obama’s campaign focused on the           Prior to his election, Obama stated, “We’ve got to have the
                                   rejuvenation of Native American rights.                                President of the United States meeting on a regular basis with the
                                   “Few have been ignored by Washington for as long as Native             Native American leadership and ensuring relationships of dignity
                                   Americans—the first Americans,” said President Obama.                  and respect.” The President’s appointment of Jodi Archambault
                                                                                                          Gillette should aid in doing exactly that.
                                   During his campaign, the Crow Nation tribe in Crow Agency,
                                   Montana adopted Barack Obama as an honorary tribal member.             “I understand the tragic history,” President Obama said. “Our
                                   Obama was given the name “Barack Black Eagle,” “One Who                government has not always been honest or truthful in our deals.”
                                   Helps People Throughout the Land.”                                      Obama now has the opportunity to change that history. Natives
                                   Obama also made a campaign promise to improve health care and          in every corner of the nation are counting on the promises of this
                                   education opportunities on reservations across the nation. While       new President, dedicated to tribal nation building and enforcing
                                   promises like these made to Native Americans during presidential       the federal government’s obligations to Indian people.

                                           Winners Named for 18th Annual Native
                                                American Essay Competition
                                       The topic of the 2009 Native American Essay Competition            freshman Josh Rose of Box Elder, South Dakota. Josh attended
                                       was “The social, political, and/or economic impact of higher       Douglas High School and is the son of Michelle Rose and Mark
                                       education on federal-tribal relations.”                            McDaniel. Josh is majoring in Political Science and Alcohol and
                                                                                                          Drug Studies at USD and is of Crow Creek Sioux descent. His
                                       Applicants from USD’s freshman, sophomore, and junior classes
                                                                                                          winning essay is printed on page 5.
                                       submitted essays between 500 and 750 words and were analyzed
                                       on the elements of clarity, organization, and grammar. An          The second place scholarship of $750.00 went to Jay Schander,
                                       anonymous annual gift to the USD Foundation supports these         and the third place award of $500.00 went to Ben Bazemore
                                       three scholarships for Native American students.                   of Vermillion.
                                       This year’s competition was particularly fierce. Rising to the
                                       challenge was the first place winner of a $1,000.00 scholarship,

       Dueling Studies on Devastating Rate of
          Violence Against Native Women
                                                         By Kelsey Collier-Wise
The epidemic rate of violence against              problem that had seemed to go unnoticed     Indians are victims of violent crimes at a
Native women has made major headlines              by anyone but women’s advocates in Native   higher rate than other racial groups, and
recently, caused in part by the release of         communities. While less than one in five    that, unlike whites and blacks, American
studies with different theories of prevalence      non-Indian women will be a victim of        Indians were more likely to be victimized
and perpetrators. This recent                                                                         by someone of a different race.
attention raises serious questions                                                                    According to the BJS reports, this
about whether politicians and                    “The Bureau of Justice Statistics found              was especially true for victims of
administrators fully comprehend the           that a Native woman has a 2.5 times greater             sexual assault. The reports found
crisis of the situation and whether                                                                   that in 9 out of 10 cases involving
                                                chance of being raped than the average
they are capable of responding in a                                                                   American Indian victims, the
meaningful way to the problems of                     woman in the United States.”                    perpetrator was white or black, and
violence against Native women.                                                                        that American Indians were more
                                                                                                      likely to be assaulted by a stranger or
A 2007 report of Amnesty
                                                sexual assault in their lifetime, more than    acquaintance (as opposes to a friend, family
International entitled Maze of Injustice: The
                                                one-third of American Indian and Alaskan       member, or intimate partner) than victims
Failure to Protect Indigenous Women From
                                                Native women are victimized at least once      of other races.
Sexual Violence in the USA and two reports
by the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau      in their lifetime. A Native woman has a        Based on his experience as a state prosecutor,
of Justice Statistics (BJS) entitled American   2.5 times greater chance of being raped        South Dakota Attorney General Larry Long
Indians and Crime (issued in 1999 and           than the average woman in the United           challenged the BJS findings, especially
2004) brought national attention to a           States. The BSJ studies found that American    the finding that 90% of sexual assaults
                                                                                                                            continued on page 4

Shortage of Law-Trained Natives, continued from page 1
plans because of student debt, often moving     School of Law already has an Indian Law        in legal trouble often go to court without
away from low-paying jobs in public service     emphasis, offering students an opportunity     legal counsel because of expense or lack of
and government.                                 to learn about the unique legal concerns of    availability. When 1 in 12 South Dakota
A 2007 study by The Project on Student          American Indians on reservations. Courses      citizens is Native American, Indian people,
Debt, an initiative of the Institute for        offered include Federal Indian Law,            particularly on reservations, deserve more
College Access and Success, reveals that        Indian Civil Jurisdiction, Indian Criminal     Native legal representatives. Encourage
South Dakota leads the nation in the            Jurisdiction, Indian Gaming and Economic       young people to pursue a legal education.
percentage of students leaving college          Development, and Rights of Indigenous          Forgetting the sovereignty of our tribal
with loan debt. Eighty-one percent of           Peoples. Indian Law students are               courts and our Native citizen’s right to
South Dakota college graduates had              encouraged to do an externship in Indian       justice is not an option.
debt, compared to only fifty-nine percent       country. The Law School also hosts the
nationwide. The average debt for graduate       biennial Indian Law Symposium, allowing
school students nationwide in 2002 was          students to lead discussions with world-
$91,700. However, a number of federal           renowned speakers in Indian Law. USD
grant programs for Native Americans             School of Law also supports the Native
can help with the high cost of law school.      American Law School Advisory Committee
USD’s Ullyot Scholarship, an award of           and the Native American Law Students
$20,000 for four years, is granted to a         Association (NALSA). USD’s NALSA
number of American Indian students              chapter is one of the most recognized in the
each year.                                      country, having won several awards at the
                                                National level.
The current crisis can be resolved by                                                          Sarah L. Williamson is the Spring 2009 IAIS
simply encouraging our Native children to       A 2007 study published by the Wall Street      Graduate Assistant and a 2009 graduate of USD’s
consider entering the legal field. The USD      Journal revealed that Native Americans         joint degree JD/MBA program.

Studies on Violence in Indian Country, continued from page 3
against Native women were committed by             the usefulness of the results of the Attorney     requiring the General Accountability Office
someone of another race. With assistance           General study in understanding the real           (GAO) to study tribal justice systems in
from the South Dakota Division of Criminal         problems facing Native women. Attorney            the Dakotas and requested funds to expand
Investigation and Professors Rich Braunstein       General Long readily admits that sexual           law enforcement in Indian country. In
and William Anderson of the University             assaults are widely underreported. Thus,          March 2009, North Dakota Senator Byron
of South Dakota’s Government Research              prosecution and arrest data fail to provide a     Dorgen introduced the Tribal Law and
Bureau, Attorney General Long initiated            complete picture of sex crimes against Native     Order Act of 2009, giving a boost to law
his own study which almost completely              women. Charon Asetoyer, executive director        enforcement activities in Indian communities
contradicted the previous BJS studies. This        of the Native American Women’s Health             by encouraging more aggressive federal
report, entitled Jurisdictional Variation          Education Resource Center in Lake Andes,          prosecution, enhancing tribal sentencing
in American Indian Criminal Justice: An            posits that the Attorney General Study “does      authority, and expanding authority over
Argument for Stronger Understanding and            not include the number of perpetrators            all offenders who commit crimes in Indian
Better Methods (Attorney General study),           that have gotten off scot-free. ... A lot of      country. Yet to be addressed is a concerted
indicated that most crime against American         those cases don’t get to court, don’t even get    assessment of tribal resources necessary to
Indians in South Dakota was intra-racial,          investigated.” Lack of protection and fear of     support tribal legal and judicial systems
with 83% of American Indian sexual assault         additional victimization by law enforcement       and potential collaboration with local law
survivors having been victimized by another        keep Native women from reporting assaults.        enforcement authorities to stem the violent
American Indian.                                   Other systemic problems might explain             conditions within their own communities.
The disparate results of these two sets            the gaps in the state and federal reports.        Emerging from these studies and legislative
of studies may be explained by their               A comprehensive investigative reported            responses is a consensus around two key
varying demographic focus and manner of            conducted by the Denver Post found that           understandings: a problem exists and it
methodology. For example, the Attorney             federal prosecutors declined to prosecute         is stunningly severe; and until a more
General’s study focused on information             in 65% of criminal cases arising on Indian        comprehensive study is conducted, it is
available in South Dakota state and federal        reservations. U.S. Attorneys declined to          unlikely that anyone truly knows the full
court records while the BJS studies looked         prosecute sex crimes with adult victims           and tragic extent of the devastation
at national data (as pointed out by Dr.            in 76.5% of cases, and in 72.1% of cases          experienced by Native women. These
Braunstein, out of the 45,000 surveys used         involving sex crimes with child victims.          premises should fortify governmental resolve
                                                   Since 2004, the overall declination
in one of the BJS studies, only 135 came                                                             and guide state, federal, and tribal officials in
                                                   of prosecution rate for federal crimes
from areas considered “Indian country”                                                               their work toward meaningful law and policy
                                                   committed in South Dakota has been close
under federal law). Moreover, different                                                              changes that will ensure the protection of
                                                   to 76%. In other cases, federal prosecutors
methodology also may have played a part in                                                           Native women.
                                                   never even see cases arising in Indian country,
the contradictory messages created by the
                                                   and federal arrest rates were appalling
studies. The BJS studies relied heavily on
                                                   low — only in 7% of reported cases under
National Crime Victims Survey (NCVS)
                                                   FBI jurisdiction in 2006. Since state law
data, which gathers responses from national
                                                   enforcement authorities typically have no
samples of the public, assembling incidences
                                                   criminal jurisdiction in Indian country, and
of crime from the victims, regardless of
                                                   no such jurisdiction in South Dakota, and
whether law enforcement was involved or the
                                                   since tribal authorities have no criminal
perpetrator was prosecuted and convicted.
                                                   jurisdiction over non-Indians (with limited
The Attorney General’s study used Uniform          sentencing authority), the federal system
Crime Reporting (UCR) data combined                often is the only recourse for Indian victims
with other state and federal law enforcement       in Indian country seeking justice.
                                                                                                     Kelsey Collier-Wise is a Vermillion native and a
data, but no data from victims that would          Congress finally is taking these issues           2009 graduate of the USD School of Law. A full
include unreported and unprosecuted crime.         seriously. South Dakota Senator John Thune        version of this article with citations and notes is
Lack of direct communication with victims          introduced an amendment to the Indian             available on the IAIS website at http://www.usd.
of sexual assault raises serious questions about   Health Care Improvement Act in 2008               edu/iais.

                                                        Unifying the American Indian presence
                                                          at The University of South Dakota

                    The Impact of Higher Education on
                      Federal and Tribal Relations
                                                                By Josh Rose
As an essential element of any contemporary      requirements, then the scholarship would        educational funding leads to more Native
successful Native American, higher education     convert over to a low-interest loan. After      American students, leading to more money
has proven worthy of increased attention and     graduation, the tribe would utilize their       and, in turn, educational opportunities.
support from tribal and federal leaders. In      college educated students to benefit not        This chain of events would lead to a
order to meet social and political standards,    only their particular tribe, but all of the     revolutionized Native American community.
a certain level of education is required         tribes in the country. Should this take place   In other words, the success of tomorrow
for proper representation in the federal         not only will the underrepresented members      depends on measures taken today. Many
government. This increasing requirement          of the tribes be represented, but intertribal   strong advocates of the environmental
has, in turn, gained importance among            relations would improve. First, however,        movement proclaim that people must “think
tribes, who realize the importance of            the program needs funding. Before self-         globally, and act locally.” A similar mantra
advancing educational opportunities for          sustainability can be achieved, tribes may      applies to Native American tribes and
tribal members. With hopes of attaining          have to reach out to the federal government     education. That is, not only does education
stronger federal-tribal relations, better        for assistance. Within a few years of           bring legitimacy to the thought of proper
educated tribal members can more                 successful running, tribes could overtake       representation at a national level, but it
successfully communicate with the federal        the program and reimburse the United            creates opportunity at a local level. As more
government. Therefore, higher education          States government.                              Native Americans enter college and many
has become a key factor in ensuring the best     Without a doubt, every tribe is affected        postsecondary centers of education, they
interests of tribes across South Dakota.         by decisions made on Capitol Hill. Better       become increasingly better equipped to not
With the eventual goal of self-sustainability,   educated representatives will ensure that       only fulfill the needs of their tribe, but also
tribes recognize the need for additional         tribes will have a legitimate voice through     their country.
financial sources, other than the reserves       their Congressperson. In order to accomplish
of the Bureaus of Indian Affairs (BIA). By       this, the reputation of the Native American
creating more ways for Native Americans to       people must first be established as a group
finance their education, tribal enrollment       who values education. By improving
will increase, and more Native Americans         representation and increasing federal-tribal
will achieve the level of education society      communication, the federal government
currently demands. For instance, a program       will realize the legitimacy and need for
could be created that helps Native American      increasing funding of programs that remain
students with educational expenses, in           grossly underfunded, such as Indian Health
exchange for work at the tribe or at Indian      Services and educational programs. Clearly,
Health Services for a fixed amount of time.      such funding would benefit all tribes, and      Josh Rose is a freshman at USD. This essay won the
Not only would this benefit the students,        subsequently enable more tribal members         18th Annual Native American Essay Competition.
but the local Native American population         to attend college. Eventually, this would       Indian law and a desire to continue learning by
as well. If that student failed to meet the      lead to a reciprocating cycle in which more     working in the field of Indigenous Studies.

Ullyot Scholars Named for the 2009–2010 Academic Year
The Ullyot Scholarship is one of USD’s           academic potential and commitment to their      River Sioux, will participate in USD’s track &
most prestigious academic awards. The            communities. The Scholarship award is a         field program.
Ullyot Scholarship was established in            $20,000 four-year financial commitment.
                                                                                                 Current USD Ullyot Scholarship recipients
February 1993 by Dr. Glenn E. and Barbara        IAIS announced the Ullyot Scholarship
R. Ullyot. It became the largest scholarship                                                     are Brian Drapeaux, Yankton Sioux Tribe,
                                                 winners for the 2009–2010 academic year.
endowment for Native American students in                                                        majoring in Business; Marissa O’Brien,
                                                 Receiving the awards are Blossom Buum,
the state of South Dakota.                                                                       Oglala Sioux, majoring in Nursing; Pauline
                                                 Walker Rose, Andrew Owen and Nicholas
                                                                                                 Collins, majoring in Education; Michaela
Supported by the Ullyot Lakota Education         Mendoza. Buum is an Alaskan Native who
Endowment and administered by USD’s              will major in Elementary Education. Rose is     Sieber; Denise Casillas, Ph.D., a student of
Institute of American Indian Studies, the        a Cheyenne River Sioux who will major in        Clinical Psychology; Jason Murray, Ph. D.,
Ullyot Scholarship recognizes American           Music. Owen, a Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux,         an English student; Seth Pearman, B.A., a
Indian students who demonstrate strong           will major in Physics. Mendoza, Cheyene         business student; and Cori Bazemore, B.A.

      Supporter Profile—Margaret Cash Wegner
Margaret Cash Wegner’s steadfast support of                                                        School. The Wegner’s sponsor a Presidential
the annual Cash Memorial Lecture Series,                                                           Alumni scholarship on behalf of Margaret’s
established in honor of her late husband and                                                       son Joseph M. Cash, a medical doctor, and
former director of the Institute of American                                                       his father. Mrs. Wegner also sponsors the
Indian Studies, Joseph H. Cash, Ph. D.,                                                            Dean Joseph H. Cash Excellence in Writing
permits the Institute to continue its mission                                                      Award, three scholarships administered
of promoting education and awareness at                                                            through the College of Arts and Sciences.
USD of American Indian culture, history
and contemporary American Indian issues.

Mrs. Wegner married Joseph Cash in 1952.
In 1968, Dr. Cash joined USD’s faculty as
professor of history. He held the position
of Duke Research Professor of History and
served as director of the American Indian
Research Project, the Oral History Center,
and the Institute of American Indian Studies.
Dean Cash founded the South Dakota Oral           Margaret Cash Wegner, notable supporter of the
History Project, a division of the Institute’s    Institute of American Indian Studies at USD.
Oral History Center. In 1977, he was
named Dean of the College of Arts and            Deloria, Chuck Trimble and Madonna
Sciences, a position he held for ten years       Thunder. The 2010 Cash Lecturer is
before returning to full-time teaching in the    Patricia Cochran, President of the Alaska
Department of History.                           Native Science Commission and the Alaska
                                                 Inuit Circumpolar Conference who will
Four years after Dr. Cash’s death in 1991,       speak on climate change challenges facing
USD inaugurated the Cash lecture series          indigenous peoples.
in his memory. With the support of private
donors, including Mrs. Wegner, the Cash          Joining Mrs. Wegner’s inspirational and
Lecture has become a much anticipated            gracious support of the Institute is her
annual event at USD featuring Native             husband Dr. Karl H. Wegner, former                      Mrs. Cash Wegner at Victoria Falls,
American intellectual scholars such as Sam       professor and Dean of the USD Medical                    Zimbabwe in December 2008.

                                Spring and Summer Lakota Words
     Rays of sun are beginning to melt the hard          English Word             Lakota Word             Pronunciation
     Dakota ground as warm breezes commence              Spring                   wetu                    weh-too
     their season-long dance with the plain              Plant                    pezi                    phe-zhee
     grasses. With Spring and Summer come the
                                                         Seed                     su                      soo
     rebirth of the land, signifying new beginnings
     and new life.                                       Green                    to                      toe
                                                         Flower                   wanahca                 wah-knock-cha
     These Lakota translations are provided by
                                                         Graduation               wo’unspe ikihunipi      woe-oon-spay eek-ee-hoo-nee-pee
     Gene Thin Elk, USD Native American
     Cultural Center, and Jerome Kills Small,            River                    mni kaluze              mee-nee cak-loo-zay
     Lakota instructor.                                  Resilience               s’akeca                 shh-ah-kay-cha

                            Events and Announcements
• Director Patrice H. Kunesh awarded Bush Leadership                        increases bicultural “survival skills” for Native students
  Fellowship. Patrice Kunesh, Director of the Institute of                  in higher education, and builds strong networks
  American Studies and associate professor of law at USD,                   between home communities and USD and Wase Wakpa
  has been awarded a prestigious Bush Leadership Fellowship,                (Vermillion) communities.
  which will allow her to pursue a master’s degree in public
  administration at the Kennedy School of Government at                   • Oscar Howe Family Donates $50,000. The widow and
  Harvard University. The daughter of a Hunkpapa Lakota                     daughter of Oscar Howe, widely distinguished Native
  from the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, Kunesh dedicated herself              American artist, donated $50,000 to the College of Fine Arts
  early in life to improving the lives of Indian children and               and the University Art Galleries. The $50,000 gift will be
  reservation families. In addition to her academic program,                used in USD’s pursuit of a Native American Art Gallery and
  Kunesh will work with tribal communities to develop                       Academic Center. Upon completion, the Native American
  culturally relevant systems that reduce child abuse. Kunesh’s             Academic Center will have a gallery dedicated to Howe’s
  Fellowship will continue through the next academic year                   legacy. Howe’s collection can be seen year-round at USD’s
  and she will be sorely missed from the law school and IAIS!               Oscar Howe Gallery located in historic Old Main.

• Building Bridges Conference. The University of South                    • Native American Convocation. The University of South
  Dakota hosted the “Building Bridges Conference” on Friday,                Dakota will host its first annual Native Graduate Honoring
  March 27, 2009. Several high school and college students,                 at 6 p.m. on May 8, 2009 in the Neuharth Freedom
  counselors, and educators in our region visited USD for this              Forum. Twenty Native American students will graduate
  annual event. The theme for this year’s conference was O’yate             from USD on May 9 with achievements at all academic
  O’kiciyapi: People Helping One Another. The conference                    levels. USD faculty and staff, family and friends will
  increases awareness about the importance of persistence in                join in recognizing these students’ academic and
  education, identifies mentors and networks to aid students,               professional accomplishments.

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   Memorial: IAIS Director Leonard R. Bruguier (1944–2009)
Leonard R. Bruguier was born in 1944 in                                              appointment as Assistant Professor in the History
Wagner, South Dakota. Descended from                                                 Department. As Institute Director, Leonard
Theophile Bruguier and Yankton Itanchan War                                          administered, developed, and directed several
Eagle and Struck By The Ree, as an Ihanktonwan                                       American Indian related projects, activities,
Nakota, Leonard counted many relatives among                                         and programs involving the University of South
many tribes in South Dakota.                                                         Dakota. He promoted inter-University lines of
                                                                                     communication among Indian faculty and staff,
Leonard spent his early childhood at Greenwood                                       recruitment and retention of Indian students, and
on the Yankton Reservation and his later school                                      strengthened relations with tribes, tribal colleges,
years in Yankton, South Dakota where he                                              and other Indian organizations throughout the
graduated from high school. He served in the                                         state and region. He received several awards for
U.S. Marine Corps in Vietnam from 1963-1970                                          his writing, research, and public service.
and received numerous credentials and service
medals. Leonard earned a Bachelor of Arts degree                                       Leonard was a published author and editor of
in American History and a Masters of Public                                            several books and scholarly articles. He was a
Administration from the University of South Dakota. He obtained   proud member of the University faculty and helped students of all
his Ph.D. from Oklahoma State University in 1989.                 races fulfill their goals through higher education. He encouraged
                                                                  countless other Indian writers.
On January 1, 1990, Leonard assumed the directorship of
the Institute of American Indian Studies with a concurrent

                                                                                                                      Vermillion, SD 57069
                                                                                                                      414 East Clark Street
                                                                                                                         Dakota Hall 17

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