Docstoc

CCA 2001

Document Sample
CCA 2001 Powered By Docstoc
					   maketas.qxd   11/20/01   1:19 AM   Page 1




                                 P RO G R E S S F O R A L L
                                          CO M M O N CO U N T RY A S S E S S M E N T
                                                    F O R L I T H UA N I A




                                                    UNITED NATIONS
                                                     September 2001




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd       11/20/01     1:19 AM     Page 2




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
                 The United Nations country team was:                                Progress For All - A United Nations Common Country
                 Ms. Cihan Sultanoglu, UN Resident Coordinator,                      Assessment of Lithuania. Mrs. Mariella C. Tefft, R.N,
                 UNDP Resident Representative and UNFPA Represen-                    M.S., Biostatistician and Ms. Virginija Poskute, Ph.D.
                 tative,                                                             in Economics, assisted by Mr. Gediminas Cerniauskas,
                 Mr. Mark Horton, IMF Resident Representative,                       Ph.D. in Economics, prepared the assessment. Mr.
                 Mr. Mantas Nocius, Chief of the World Bank Lithuania                Petras Adlys, Director of Lithuanian Department of
                 Mission,                                                            Statistics and his team provided the databases. The CCA
                 Dr. Robertas Petkevicius, WHO Liaison Officer,                      process was facilitated by Ms. Aase Fosshaug and Mr.
                 Ms. Lyra Vysockiene UNHCR Liaison Officer,                          Ernst van Koesveld JPO/Programme Officers at UNDP
                 Ms. Audra Sipaviciene, IOM Head of Vilnius Office,                  Lithuania, as well as by Mr. Mathieu Ryckewaert.
                 Mr. Jaunius Pusvaskis, Director of the Lithuanian
                 National Committee for UNICEF,                                      The cover page design shows a reproduction of a paint-
                 Ms. Leonarda Jekentaite-Kuzmickiene, Secretary-General              ing made by Mr. Marius Jonutis. Lay-out and cover
                 of the Lithuanian National Commission for UNESCO.                   design: Mr. Arnoldas Puikis.




                 SBN 9986-639-20-4

                 UDK 341.12
                     Pr-129

                      UNITED NATIONS
                       J. Tumo-Vaizganto str. 2, LT-2600, Vilnius, Lithuania, 2001




                 2




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:19 AM     Page 3




                                                                                                              TABLE OF CONTENTS




                 TABLE OF CONTENTS
                 Acknowledgements                                     2       5.1.2. Household type
                 Table of Contents                                    3       5.1.3. Number of children
                 Introduction                                         4       5.1.4. Socio-economic group
                 Methodology                                          5       5.1.5. Education level of household head
                 Executive Summary                                    6   5.2. Rural vs. urban poverty
                                                                              5.2.1. Disposable income
                 1. Current development situation in the country      9       5.2.2. Sources of disposable income
                 1.1. Political context                                       5.2.3. Consumption expenditure
                 1.2. Socio-economic context                              5.3. Combination of factors examined with regard
                 1.3. Inflation                                                to poverty level
                 1.4. Sector percentage of GDP                                5.3.1. Household type and residential area
                 1.5. Employment                                              5.3.2. Socio-economic group and residential area
                 1.6. Unemployment                                            5.3.3. Education level of household head and
                 1.7. Social security                                         residential area

                 2. Demography                                       13   6. Health                                              28
                 2.1. Size of the Lithuanian population                   6.1. Reorganization of the health care system
                 2.2. Factors affecting the size of the Lithuanian        6.2. Universal health coverage
                     population                                           6.3. Health status of Lithuanian people
                     2.2.1. Vital statistics                                  6.3.1. Life expectancy
                     2.2.2. Migration to and from Lithuania                   6.3.2. Infant mortality
                     2.2.3. Fertility                                         6.3.3. Mortality
                     2.2.4. Abortion                                      6.4. External causes of mortality
                     2.2.5. Marriage and divorce                          6.5. Tuberculosis
                 2.3. Distribution of the Lithuanian population           6.6. HIV/AIDS
                      by residential area and age group
                                                                          7. Education                                           34
                 3. Governance                                       16   7.1. Increased enrolment
                 3.1. Corruption                                          7.2. Compulsory education
                 3.2. Decentralization of government                      7.3. ICT in schools
                 3.3. Public administration reform                        7.4. Students in higher education
                 3.4. Civil society                                       7.5. Educational reform
                 3.5. Information and Communication Technologies
                      in development                                      8. Environment                                         37
                                                                          8.1. Environmental policy
                 4. Human Rights                                     19   8.2. Environmental management
                 4.1. Challenges in the Human Rights area                 8.3. Environmental quality indicators
                 4.2. Rights of women, children and youth
                 4.3. Asylum seekers and refugees                         Conclusions: Priorities for the UN System in Lithuania 39
                 4.4. Crime
                                                                          Annex: Key Statistical Indicators                      41
                 5. Poverty                                          23          Selected References                             52
                 5.1. Extent of poverty in Lithuania                             List of Acronyms                                54
                     5.1.1. Other factors affecting poverty




                                                                                                                                  3




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd       11/20/01     1:19 AM   Page 4




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 INTRODUCTION
                 The objective of the Common Country Assessment              obligations and the efficient use of UN resources
                 (CCA) for Lithuania is to provide an overview of            towards those ends.
                 national development based on the compilation and
                 analysis of a set of selected indicators. The CCA intends   The CCA for Lithuania addresses selected areas of
                 to reveal Lithuania's essential development achieve-        development in which UN agencies working with the
                 ments, needs and challenges. Based on that analysis and     Government and civil society could have the greatest
                 assessment, possible areas for the United Nations system    impact in promoting sustainable human development
                 co-operation in Lithuania are outlined.                     and improving basic living conditions as well as pro-
                                                                             viding support in those areas, which would, inter alia,
                 The CCA examines the national situation in relation to      help Lithuania to comply with the EU accession
                 internationally agreed-upon goals set by action plans or    requirements in line with the national priorities.
                 programmes at the UN Global Conferences:
                 · The World Summit for Children, the Convention on          Thus, the CCA for Lithuania:
                   the Rights of Children;                                   · Provides an analytical summary of the current level
                 · The UN Conference on Environment and Development;           of national development;
                 · The International Conference on Population and            · Identifies improving or deteriorating trends in relevant
                   Development;                                                indicators;
                 · The International Conference on Nutrition;                · Suggests priority issues that can provide a focus for joint
                 · The World Summit for Social Development;                    assistance from the United Nations system;
                 · The Fourth World Conference on Women;                     · Initiates the development of a common database on key
                 · The Second International Conference on Human                indicators, which should be updated regularly.
                   Settlements / Habitat II;
                 · The World Food Summit;                                    In addition, the CCA provides an outline for the coun-
                 · The Vienna Conference on Human Rights.                    try's standing in the framework of the goals of the
                                                                             Millennium Declaration. The Declaration was signed
                 The findings of the CCA are expected to contribute to       by the President of Lithuania in September 2000
                 the Government's monitoring of its progress towards         together with other Heads of State who attended the
                 the achievement of its national goals and international     historic Millennium Summit.




                 4




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01    1:19 AM   Page 5




                                                                                                                METHODOLOGY




                 METHODOLOGY
                 The CCA is prepared in the context of the implementa-    Migration (IOM). All of these offices contributed to
                 tion of the Secretary-General's Reform Programme for     the identification of thematic issues during the consul-
                 the United Nations system launched in 1997 as part of    tation process initiated in 2000. The Lithuanian
                 the instruments to bring greater coherence to the UN     Department of Statistics provided the statistical data
                 activities at the country level. The United Nations      used in this publication, unless otherwise stated in the
                 Development Group (UNDG) composed of most devel-         text. The principal socio-economic trends and chal-
                 opment oriented UN institutions, was charged with        lenges of the country were identified based on the
                 providing guidance to this process.                      analysis of statistical information.

                 The CCA for Lithuania was prepared during the year       The present CCA follows the Country Review that was
                 2001 by the Office of the Resident Coordinator in        undertaken during the first half of the year 2000 by
                 Vilnius in co-operation with the UN agencies and         UNDP, which is the only UN organization that has a
                 organizations present in Lithuania: the United Nations   multi-year cooperation framework in Lithuania. The
                 Development Programme (UNDP), World Health               Country Review was prepared through a participative
                 Organization (WHO), World Bank (WB), the                 process in which the main partners of the UN system;
                 International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations        Government counterpart ministries and institutions,
                 High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), as well as       multilateral and private donors, NGOs and the civil
                 the National Committees of the United Nations            society at large, were broadly consulted.
                 Children's Fund (UNICEF), United Nations
                 Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization        It is intended to update the CCA on an annual basis.
                 (UNESCO) and the International Organization for




                                                                                                                                 5




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd       11/20/01     1:19 AM   Page 6




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                                                                               decrease in the population due to mortality exceeding
                 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                             the birth rates. Fertility rates have declined consider-
                                                                               ably during the transition period - from 2.02 in 1990
                 The Common Country Assessment, as indicated in the            to a decade low of 1.28 in 2000. Lithuanian women
                 introduction, provides an analytical summary of the           have fewer and fewer children, which contributes to the
                 current development situation in Lithuania. Based on          decline in the population. The distribution of the pop-
                 the trends of relevant indicators, priority issues that can   ulation by residential area and age group shows that a
                 provide a focus for joint assistance from the United          greater proportion of the rural population is under
                 Nations system are suggested. Different areas of the          working age (<= 15 years old) as well as a greater pro-
                 country's development, such as human rights, demog-           portion of elderly (60 + years old). Both of these cate-
                 raphy, health, education, poverty reduction, gover-           gories are usually not active in the labour market and
                 nance and the environment are analyzed.                       thus are not a source of income for the household they
                                                                               live in. The birth rates are higher in rural areas than in
                 1. The current development situation in the                   urban areas, but there are fewer rural inhabitants par-
                 country is discussed in relation to the political and         ticipating in the work force making an income to sus-
                 socio-economic context. During the first decade of tran-      tain their families. The latest Census, which was taken
                 sition from command to market economy, Lithuania              in 2001 in line with the UN recommendations,
                 had liberalized markets, privatized the majority of           revealed a country of 3.6926 million people with
                 enterprises and on the basis of restrictive monetary poli-    approximately 2/3 living in urban areas.
                 cy managed to reduce the annual inflation rate to 1% in
                 2000. These transformations subsequently led to a sta-        3. Governance, Lithuania has achieved stability of
                 ble political and economic system which permits to            institutions guaranteeing democracy and the rule of
                 state that Lithuania can be regarded as a functioning         law. There are also significant achievements in protec-
                 market economy. On the other hand, the EU                     tion of human rights and respect for minorities. The
                 Commission indicated that the continuation of struc-          dialogue between NGOs and governing institutions has
                 tural reform programme is a prerequisite for being "able      become considerably more open and constructive dur-
                 to cope with competitive pressure and market forces           ing the last years. There are a number of concrete exam-
                 within the Union in the medium term". High levels of          ples of NGOs influencing the final content of laws and
                 unemployment and budget deficits reflect structural           implementing joint projects with the authorities.
                 problems in infrastructure and agriculture and relative-      Nevertheless, there are areas which still need attention:
                 ly low productivity of industry. Furthermore, the gains       the fight against corruption and the continued reform
                 and burdens of socio-economic reforms have been dis-          of the judiciary. A relatively high level of crime is
                 tributed unequally in the society. Differences in the pos-    among the biggest concerns as well. Technical assis-
                 sibilities of economic activity for the population, varia-    tance for the development and implementation of the
                 tions in income from the state and private sector make        National Anti-corruption strategy may be considered as
                 big cities (especially Vilnius and Klaipëda) more advan-      an important arena for future activities of international
                 tageous in comparison to the communities of rural             organizations and bilateral co-operation. The introduc-
                 municipalities. In UNDP's Human Development                   tion of structures for monitoring and evaluation of
                 Report 2001 Lithuania has moved up five points to the         regional development must have priority. Decentral-
                 ranking of 47, which has placed the country among the         ization of decision-making powers from the state level
                 High Human Development Countries.                             to counties and municipalities still raises some concern.
                                                                               Capacities of local governments have to be developed
                 2. Demography, Before World War II, 77 % of                   by strengthening municipal finances and training civil
                 Lithuania's people lived in rural areas. By 1970 , the        servants employed by municipalities. The strengthen-
                 population was half-urban and half-rural. Today, in           ing of regional structures has to focus more on the
                 2001, 68.1 % of all Lithuanians are living in urban           establishment of local and regional partnerships.
                 centres and 39.1 % are living in rural areas. After inde-
                 pendence, the total population reached a peak in 1992         4. Human Rights, Political and civil rights are far
                 with 3.7469 million people. From 1994, there is a slow        ahead of socio-economic rights. Despite the solid legal


                 6




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01    1:19 AM    Page 7




                                                                                                             EXECUTIVE SUMMARY




                 foundations supporting human rights, they are not           knowledge network and broad experience in poverty
                 equally assured either in terms of their nature (politi-    eradication, could be invaluable. The UN system has
                 cal, economic, social) or in terms of the possibility for   been called to facilitate the work of the Presidential
                 everybody to exercise them (men, women, children,           Poverty Monitoring Commission, established in 2001
                 rural and urban residents). Laws do not always reflect      as well as to support the preparation of a national
                 and balance the various interests of the public. The sit-   action plan for alleviation and reduction of poverty.
                 uation regarding human rights awareness and develop-
                 ment in rural areas and small towns is significantly        6. Health, Lithuania has fundamentally reorganized
                 worse than in the large cities. Various UN agencies         its health care system during the past decade. With
                 provided significant support to the Lithuanian govern-      international assistance, Lithuania has made radical
                 ment in ensuring that human rights are protected in         changes in the legal framework and the financing of
                 Lithuania after the regaining of independence. The          health care. The health care laws passed in 1996 cre-
                 areas for improvement or concern in protection of           ate the basis for introducing health insurance and
                 human rights include poor conditions in jails, devel-       accrediting health care institutions. An evaluation of
                 opment of effective crime control and prevention pro-       the most important health statistics during the past
                 grammes, ineffective social integration of refugees,        decade indicates improvement in many areas of health.
                 educational programmes on human rights, certain             However, there remain many areas of concern. In 2000
                 aspects in protection of women, children and youth          the life expectancy at birth of urban people was greater
                 rights. Lithuania is the first country in the central and   than rural people by more than 4 years and the life
                 eastern european region to undertake the preparation        expectancy at birth of females was greater than males
                 of a National Human Rights Action Plan.                     by more than 10 years on average. Hence, it is notice-
                                                                             able that almost all health data reflect a less favourable
                 5. Poverty, the negative effects of the transitional        situation for people living in rural areas and for men.
                 process in Lithuania is spread unevenly in Lithuania.       The mortality rates for rural people are generally high-
                 The data shows that the overall situation of poverty in     er than for urban people. Similarly, the rates for males
                 Lithuania is improving, but very slowly. The most vul-      are higher than for females. The three main causes of
                 nerable are young families with two or more children,       mortality in Lithuania for the past decade have been
                 the long-term unemployed, single pensioners, the dis-       cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and external causes
                 abled, and those who lost hope of finding work. The         (suicide, transport accidents, accidental drowning,
                 highest level of poverty is among those households          accidental alcohol poisoning, and homicide, etc.). The
                 where the breadwinner is younger than 30 or older than      overall infant (less than 1 year of age) mortality rate
                 60, families with small children and/or headed by a         has improved over the past 10 years from 10.3 deaths
                 woman, and families with unemployed members.                per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 8.5 deaths in 2000.
                 Pensioner households are not, as is often claimed, the      The peak of the infant mortality rate came in 1992
                 poorest. Poverty among farmers and those living on          with 16.5 deaths per 1,000 live births. The rates are
                 allowances or scholarships is much higher. Poverty in       higher in the rural than in the urban areas. Since over
                 rural areas remains much higher than in urban areas.        half of infant deaths occur in the first 27 days of life,
                 The Poverty Reduction Strategy, that was developed by       the higher rural area's rates can partly be explained by
                 the National Social Committee in 1999-2000 defined          a lesser ability to reach in time the sophisticated
                 Lithuania's strategic goals for the reduction and pre-      neonatology hospital units.
                 vention of poverty. The strategy aims at eliminating
                 extreme poverty in Lithuania by 2003 (from 0.9% in          7. Education, the increasing figures of GDP spent
                 1999) and reducing poverty (according to the official       on education in Lithuania indicate that it is a priority
                 relative poverty line) to at least 13% by 2005 (from        area for the nation. The reforms within the education
                 15.8% in 1999). Action at national and local levels         system have adhered to the principles of democratisa-
                 could be not enough for rapid poverty reduction. For        tion, liberalisation and integration into the European
                 the strategic goals to be achieved, co-operation with a     education system. The principles of humanism, nation-
                 wide-range of regional and international partners,          al identity and openness are permanently being devel-
                 including the UN agencies having advantage of global        oped as well. The educational reforms are expected to


                                                                                                                                     7




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd       11/20/01     1:19 AM   Page 8




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 speed up the formation of free, independently thinking       Conclusion:
                 and acting individuals and a civil, open and democrat-       Priorities for the UN System in Lithuania
                 ic society. Nevertheless, in spite of obvious achieve-
                 ments in educational reform, there are areas of concern      The UNDP office, hosting the Office of the Resident
                 and improvement. The following priority goals have           Coordinator was opened in 1992. The UNDP is the
                 been formulated for the second stage of the education        only agency that has a multi-year co-operation pro-
                 reform: the modernisation of teaching and the curricu-       gramme (the current Country Co-operation
                 lum and improvement in the quality of education,             Framework (CCF) covers the period 2001-2003).
                 improvement in the social and pedagogical conditions         UNFPA has annual funding to support a variety of
                 for education and the harmonisation of the education         activities and projects. The UN specialized agencies
                 system emphasising equal access for all.                     have programmes or projects in line with their region-
                                                                              al strategies. Due to limited resources available to most
                 8. Environment, the overriding goal of Lithuania's           countries in the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
                 environmental protection strategy is to guarantee the        region, the UN agencies might concentrate their
                 country's balanced and sustainable development, which        involvement in certain priority areas, on policy advice
                 will maintain a healthy natural environment and pro-         and pilot activities where they have regional and global
                 tect biological and scenic diversity, ensuring the benefi-   experience, areas that are identified in this CCA and
                 cial utilisation of natural resources. Air and water qual-   the assistance to the Government in implementation of
                 ity is a priority. The majority of environmental stan-       follow-up to global UN conferences. Poverty reduction,
                 dards and norms applied in Lithuania fully satisfy           promotion of good governance and the protection of
                 international requirements, and a number of them are         the environment constitute the most important areas of
                 more stringent. Nevertheless, steps towards sustainable      focus. Successful future co-operation of the UN system
                 development in some environmental areas are insuffi-         implies building partnership with other donors, the
                 cient and will need additional government and public         Government and civil society. Taking into account
                 attention in order for conceptual decisions to be made       Lithuania's goal to become a full member of the EU,
                 and changes in action plans to occur. There is a need        capacity building and enhancing national execution of
                 for a more participatory approach to sustainable devel-      the initiatives that were successfully undertaken or
                 opment, requiring closer co-operation between deci-          implemented with the assistance of the UN as well as
                 sion-makers and civil society. Implementation of some        supporting Lithuania's interest as an emerging donor
                 programs in environmental protection is a concern in         are among priorities in the co-operation.
                 sectors requiring heavy investments.




                 8




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:19 AM     Page 9




                                                                                                                             Chapter 1
                                                                                CURRENT DEVELOPMENT SITUATION IN LITHUANIA




                                                                                 matters such as unemployment, social security, poverty
                 CURRENT DEVELOP-                                                eradication, family, children and youth support.
                 MENT SITUATION IN
                                                                                 Many bilateral treaties were signed in the early years
                 LITHUANIA                                                       after independence. Lithuania joined the United
                                                                                 Nations in September 1991 and became a member of
                 1.1. Political Context                                          the Council of Europe in May 1993. In January 1994
                                                                                 Lithuania signed the NATO Partnership for Peace
                 In 1990 Lithuania regained its independence and                 treaty and in June 1994 Lithuania became an associate
                 rejoined the world community as an independent state.           member of the West European Union. Free trade agree-
                 The country has deep traditions of statehood and expe-          ments with the EU came into force on 1 January 1995
                 rience in developing an independent democracy, but              and an association treaty with the European Union was
                 these traits had proven difficult to preserve during 50         signed in June 1995. Negotiations concerning
                 years of soviet rule. After independence was regained,          Lithuania's membership in the Union were officially
                 Lithuania demonstrated its intention to revive its for-         opened in 1999. Despite frequent changes in govern-
                 mer democratic institutions. A new constitution was             ment, the country's main foreign policy objectives have
                 adopted by referendum on 25th October 1992. The                 remained the same, i.e. the country intends to become
                 constitution decrees that Lithuania is a sovereign demo-        full member of NATO and the EU together with the
                 cratic republic and grants all citizens the right to partic-    first group countries of the enlargement. Lithuania
                 ipate in the government of their country both directly          expects a formal invitation to join NATO and close all
                 and through democratically elected representatives. The         the required chapters for EU accession in 2002.
                 constitution opts for a mixed political system, making
                 Lithuania a parliamentary-presidential republic. Execu-         1.2. Socio-economic Context
                 tive powers are vested in the President of the Republic,
                 who is elected directly for a five-year term, and the           Clear support for European Union (EU) and NATO
                 Government, which is headed by the Prime Minister.              accession across the political spectrum in Lithuania has
                                                                                 allowed for continued and steady progress in economic
                 Democracy is now well established in Lithuania.                 reforms during 2000-2001. The Lithuanian authorities
                 Several elections and changes of government have been           aimed to restore policy credibility during 2000, follow-
                 completed of which the most recent regular parliamen-           ing the prolonged difficulties associated with the
                 tary elections were held in October 2000. The election          August 1998 financial crisis in Russia and a contraction
                 brought a shift in the political scene marked by an             of real GDP by -3.9 percent in 1999. Efforts were
                 increased support to small and rather young parties             made to reduce the fiscal deficit to a more sustainable
                 such as the New Union and the Liberal Union. They               level and to accelerate structural reforms, while pre-
                 later formed the nucleus of the so-called New Policy            serving the currency board arrangement, which is cen-
                 Coalition that came to power after the elections in the         tered on the peg of the litas to the U.S. dollar.
                 autumn of 2000. However, the centre-left Social                 Macroeconomic gains have been impressive and growth
                 Liberals/New Union coalition was dissolved in June              has been restored, with real GDP growing by 3.3 per-
                 2001, mainly due to disagreements over fiscal policy            cent in 2000, as compared with projections of 2.7 per-
                 and privatization of large state owned enterprises. The         cent. The economic recovery was underpinned mainly
                 new Prime Minister, a former President of Lithuania             by export growth of 20.6 percent. Inflation has
                 and leader of the Social Democratic Party appointed a           remained subdued, and wage growth has been
                 new 13-member cabinet, of which three are women, in             restrained, although unemployment increased from
                 July 2001. The centre-left government consists of the           10.0 percent at end-1999 to over 13 percent. These
                 Social Democratic Party, Social Liberals, and their pro-        economic reform efforts have continued in 2001, with
                 gramme pledges to adhere to the national objectives of          policy continuity achieved through two changes of gov-
                 EU and NATO accession, conduct transparent and                  ernment, in October 2000 and again in July 2001.
                 rational privatization and streamline public adminis-           There are numerous signs that the economic recovery is
                 tration. In addition, the program refers to urgent social       accelerating in 2001.


                                                                                                                                        9




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 10




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 The Lithuanian authorities sharply reduced the deficit      been characterized by weak private sector credit growth-
                 of the general government-including the national            credit to the private sector from Lithuanian banks actu-
                 budget, municipalities and extra-budgetary funds            ally declined by -1.2 percent in 2000-and by a build-up
                 (social insurance, health insurance, road fund)-from        of foreign assets of Lithuanian banks of US$266 million
                 8.5 percent of GDP in 1999 to 2.8 percent in 2000.          during 2000. It is hoped that both of these trends will
                 The key policy actions taken were to suspend the            be reversed in 2001 by more local investment and cred-
                 Savings Restitution Program until 2002, to raise the        it. The Bank of Lithuania announced in June 2001 that
                 payroll tax funding the Social Insurance Fund (SoDra),      it would re-peg the litas on February 1, 2002 from the
                 across the board spending cuts, including on civil serv-    U.S. dollar to the euro at the prevailing market
                 ice wages, and limiting new government net lending to       exchange rate between the dollar and euro.
                 companies, in particular the oil industry. Government
                 expenditure arrears that emerged during 1999 were           1.4 Sector percentage of GDP
                 largely eliminated during 2000 and in the first half of
                 2001 at the central government level, although munic-
                 ipal arrears have persisted.

                 Lithuania's external economic position remains strong.
                 Export growth and an improved fiscal position con-
                 tributed to a sharp decline of the current account of the
                 balance of payments, from 11.2 percent of GDP in
                 1999 to 6.0 percent in 2000. This more favorable
                 external position in turn restored confidence in the
                 litas, and international credit ratings have been upgrad-
                 ed, while spreads for Lithuanian debt versus benchmark
                 U.S. treasury bonds narrowed sharply during 2000.           A host of structural reforms were implemented in 2000
                 Gross official foreign exchange reserves increased by       and the first half of 2001. Key steps included the pas-
                 US$150 million during 2000 to US$1.37 billion,              sage of a new bankruptcy law and amendments to the
                 equivalent to 2.6 months' of imports. External debt         labor law in March 2001, privatization of the Savings
                 has increased modestly, from 27.0 percent of GDP at         Bank and the Lithuanian Shipping Company to foreign
                 end-1999 to 27.3 percent at end-2000.                       investors with commitments for significant investments
                                                                             in the two companies in the coming years, and accession
                 1.3 Inflation                                               to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in May 2001.

                                                                             The economic recovery has accelerated in 2001, with
                                                                             GDP growth picking up to 4.4 percent in the first quar-
                                                                             ter of 2001. While exports have continued to grow by
                                                                             12.9 percent, domestic demand has also begun to recov-
                                                                             er, growing by 5.6 percent in the first quarter, following
                                                                             a decline of domestic demand by 0.2 percent in 2000.
                                                                             The authorities have targeted a further reduction of the
                                                                             fiscal deficit to 1.4 percent in 2001. In spite of the lower
                                                                             fiscal deficit, a further reduction of the current account
                                                                             is not anticipated, given the overall recovery of domes-
                                                                             tic demand, in particular of investment.
                 Price inflation has remained quite modest in Lithuania,
                 reflecting in part the peg of the litas to the dollar and   Given the world economic slowdown, GDP growth is
                 the strength of the dollar versus the euro. Consumer        cautiously projected to accelerate from 3.3 percent in
                 price inflation measured just 0.8 percent in 1999 and       2000 to 3.6 percent in 2001 and further to 4.7 percent in
                 1.0 percent in 2000. Monetary conditions have also          2002. The current account deficit is expected to remain


                 10




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:19 AM    Page 11




                                                                                                                             Chapter 1
                                                                               CURRENT DEVELOPMENT SITUATION IN LITHUANIA




                 in the range of 5.5 to 6.5 percent of GDP over the medi-       with the emergence of new forms of employment. The
                 um-term, a level which should be comfortably financed          restructuring of employment caused a decrease in
                 by foreign direct investment. External debt ratios are         employment in the industrial sector and an increase in
                 expected to remain moderate and stable, and inflation          the share of total employment devoted to services and
                 should remain low, less than 3 percent per annum.              agriculture. An increase in employment in the private
                                                                                sector has coincided with a reduction in the role of the
                                                                                state in regulating employment and labour relations.

                                                                                In 2000, 20,1% of the labour force worked in industry
                                                                                and 6,1 % in construction. The services sector is devel-
                                                                                oping fast, employing 54,2 % of the labour force.
                                                                                Nevertheless, the Lithuanian economy depends relative-
                                                                                ly heavily on agriculture as far as employment is con-
                                                                                cerned (19,6 % of the labour force was employed on
                                                                                farms and other agriculture related activities in 2000,
                                                                                while only 7.6% of GDP was produced in the sector).
                 Structural reforms in the near term will target a strength-    The agricultural sector needs restructuring, as the plots
                 ening of municipal finances, pension reform, improve-          of the land the farmers obtained during the privatiza-
                 ments in tax administration and in the business climate.       tion are too small and inefficient to be profitable.
                 The authorities will undertake the privatization of the
                 Agriculture Bank-the last remaining state-owned bank-
                 and the restructuring and sale of Lithuanian Power and
                 Lithuanian Gas. To reduce unemployment in the medi-
                 um term, the government will foster labor market flexi-
                 bility and job training, as well as a strengthened and bet-
                 ter-targeted social safety net. More generally, structural
                 reforms are targeted to facilitate Lithuania's accession to
                 the European Union, to improve competitiveness and to
                 promote income growth.

                 1.5 Employment

                                                                                1.6 Unemployment

                                                                                According to the Labour Exchange the unemployment
                                                                                rate rose from 4.4% in 1993 to 11,5 % in 2000. Labour
                                                                                Force Surveys that were carried out by the Department
                                                                                of Statistics indicate a much higher level of unemploy-
                                                                                ment (14.1% in 1999). The wide differences in region-
                                                                                al unemployment levels reveal that the highest unem-
                                                                                ployment is found in and surrounding the large cities
                                                                                and in agricultural regions. The rise in youth and long-
                 The very broad and intensive economic transforma-              term unemployment is an issue of concern.
                 tions in Lithuania resulted in radical changes in
                 employment. Employment trends in the country                   1.7 Social Security
                 between 1990 and 1999 are characterized by the emer-
                 gence of unemployment, unofficial employment and a             Social security policy in Lithuania since the regaining
                 decrease in total employment until 1996. A slow                of independence had to deal with confronting issues:
                 increase in employment from 1996 to 1998 coincided             the system had to be adjusted to a market economy and


                                                                                                                                      11




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 12




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 to provide a social security net for the population neg-       well as state interference. Nevertheless, fiscal discipline
                 atively affected by the transition process. Replacement        and control of current account deficit has to be main-
                 rate of the average old age pension is quite low to com-       tained. Furthermore, the gains and burdens of socio-
                 pare with that of other European countries, it makes up        economic reforms have been distributed unequally in
                 to 40% of net average salary in the country. In spite of       the society. Differences in possibilities of economic
                 quite low pensions and other payments from The Social          activity for the population, variations in income from
                 Insurance Fund, the public pension system remains              the state and private sector make big cities (especially
                 financially unsustainable in the long-term, the Fund's         Vilnius and Klaipeda) more advantageous in compari-
                 budget deficit is constantly increasing. Private social        son to the communities of rural municipalities.
                 insurance still does not exist in the country (in spite of
                 the enforced law allowing for the establishment of pri-
                 vate pension funds). In order to solve social insurance
                 budget deficit problems and to allow future pensioners
                 to enjoy higher income replacement rate, the
                 Government has placed renewed emphasis on a more
                 fundamental pension reform envisaging three-pillar
                 system. The first pillar is expected to remain financed
                 by pay-as-you-go principle, the second - compulsory
                 funded pillar, and the third one - voluntary funded
                 pension.

                 From the human development point of view, there are            Lithuania's current reform agenda is often conditioned
                 differences in labour and other income depending on            by its overarching goal of achieving membership in the
                 the place of residence, i.e. better conditions are in cities   European Union (EU). At its Helsinki summit of
                 and regions where industry is more developed. These            December 1999, the EU invited Lithuania to begin for-
                 variations in income determine different demand for            mal membership negotiations. This has led to an empha-
                 social assistance and social services in Lithuania. Much       sis on pursuing harmonization with EU directives in a
                 higher amount of social assistance benefits is paid per        broad range of areas. Reforms which will promote this
                 one rural inhabitant than per one urban inhabitant.            objective while also improving growth prospects include:
                 Since most of the social assistance payments are income        (I) strengthening public administration, both at the cen-
                 or means tested, this indicates that in terms of living        tral and sub-national levels; (II) accelerating the restruc-
                 standards the situation is quite different in rural areas      turing of agriculture and agro-processing to raise the
                 from that in cities and towns.                                 competitiveness of these sectors; (III) limiting direct and
                                                                                hidden State aids; (IV) continuing the fight against cor-
                 Lithuania has preserved macroeconomic stability and            ruption; and (V) establishing the budgetary institutions
                 managed to reduce the fiscal and external imbalances as        for effective absorption of EU pre-accession support.




                 12




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01    1:19 AM    Page 13




                                                                                                                        Chapter 2
                                                                                                                    DEMOGRAPHY




                                                                            2.2. Factors affecting the size of the
                 DEMOGRAPHY                                                 Lithuanian population

                 2.1 Size of the Lithuanian Population                      2.2.1. Vital statistics

                 The Lithuanian people suffered through a tumultuous        In the past decade, 1993 marked the last year in which
                 half-century and have finally seen the light at the end    the birth rate was higher than the mortality rate, thus
                 of the tunnel beginning with their reestablishment of      there was a modest natural increase in the population
                 independence in 1990. Figure D-1 shows the pattern of      until then. From 1994 on, the mortality rate began to
                 contraction and growth of the Lithuanian population        exceed the birth rate resulting in a slow, natural
                 from 1939 to 2001, though the data points are few and      decrease in the population (Figure B-2).
                 far between prior to 1989. Before World War II, 77%
                 of Lithuania's people lived in rural areas. By 1970, the
                 population was half-urban and half-rural. The popula-
                 tion reached a peak in 1992 with 3.7469 million peo-
                 ple, and by then 68.5% of the people lived in urban
                 centres. Since 1992 the number of inhabitants has
                 decreased slowly. In January, 2001, the population
                 declined to 3.6926 million people with 68.1% living in
                 urban centres and 31.9% living in rural areas.




                                                                            2.2.2. Migration to and from Lithuania:

                                                                            Figure B-3 displays the pattern of migration over the
                                                                            past decade. From 1990 to 1993, there were massive
                                                                            numbers of people leaving and coming to Lithuania
                                                                            following the reestablishment of independence in
                                                                            March of 1990. Larger numbers were exiting the coun-
                                                                            try than entering it, resulting in a negative net migra-
                                                                            tion. With Lithuania's achievement of moderate sta-




                                                                                                                                 13




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 14




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 bility in the political arena, the migration pattern also   foetus is legally aborted. If the abortion rate were
                 achieved some stability from 1994 to the present.           lower, then most likely the birth rate and fertility rate
                 During this period, only a small negative or positive net   would increase, which might then promote a natural
                 migration has been observed.                                increase in the population.

                 2.2.3. Fertility:                                           2.2.5. Marriage and divorce:

                                                                             The marriage and divorce rates also indirectly affect
                                                                             the birth and fertility rates, which in turn affect the
                                                                             size of the population. The marriage rate has decreased
                                                                             from 5.0 marriages per 1,000 population in 1998 to
                                                                             4.6 marriages per 1,000 population in 2000. At the
                                                                             same time that the overall marriage rate has decreased,
                                                                             the overall divorce rate has increased. Figure B-6 dis-
                                                                             plays the pattern of the divorce rate over the past 7
                                                                             years by residential area. The overall divorce rate
                                                                             decreased from 1993 to 1995, and from then it has
                 The total fertility rate also affects the size of the       increased, reaching a rate of 64.4 in 2000. Generally,
                 Lithuanian population. Figure B-4 displays the pattern      the divorce rate in urban areas was higher than the
                 of the total fertility rate in Lithuania over the past      divorce rate in rural areas, except for the period from
                 decade. In 1990, the rate was 2.02, and it has been in      1997 to 1998 when the rural rate was minimally high-
                 steady decline ever since. In 2000, it reached a decade     er than the urban rate.
                 low of 1.28. The figure also displays the fertility rate
                 that is needed for population stability. The conclusion
                 is that Lithuanian women are having fewer and fewer
                 children, which contributes to the decline in the
                 Lithuanian population, as observed in Figure B-1.

                 2.2.4. Abortion:




                                                                             2.3. Distribution of the Lithuanian
                                                                             population by residential area
                 Figure B-5 shows the pattern of the legally induced         and age group
                 abortion rate over the past 7 years. In 1993, the abor-
                 tion rate was 743.4 abortions per 1,000 live births.        Figure B-7 displays the percentage distribution of the
                 The rate peaked at 763.8 abortions in 1995, and from        2000 urban and rural populations by age group and
                 then it has declined to a rate of 481.1 abortions in        gender. The distribution of the urban population fits a
                 2000. This is still considered a fairly large rate.         normal, bell-shaped curve fairly well. However, the
                                                                             distribution of the rural population shows the curve
                 The 2000 abortion rate of 481.1 abortions per 1,000         skewed mostly to the right (the 60+ years old group)
                 live births means that for every 2 live births almost 1     and somewhat to the left (the <=15 years old groups).


                 14




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd   11/20/01   1:19 AM   Page 15




                                                                                               Chapter 2
                                                                                           DEMOGRAPHY




                                                  The figure shows that the rural population has a greater
                                                  proportion of their population under working age
                                                  (<=15 years old) than the urban population by 2.3%, as
                                                  well as a greater proportion of elderly (60+ years old)
                                                  by 5.5%. The younger age groups are not in the labour
                                                  force and thus are not a source of income for the house-
                                                  holds they live in. Similarly, most of the older group is
                                                  not in the work force and contribute only pension
                                                  income to their households.




                                                                                                        15




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 16




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                                                                              of abuse of official position. In April 1998, the
                 GOVERNANCE                                                   Government adopted a decree on measures against eco-
                                                                              nomic and financial crimes, organized crime and cor-
                 Since regaining its independence in 1990, Lithuania          ruption.
                 has been confronted with the necessity to create nation-
                 al state institutions of democratic governance based on      An evaluation of the frequency and the extent of
                 political freedoms and the rule of law. Development of       "bribe tax" in Lithuania was presented in the
                 governance in Lithuania apart from creating national         Transition Report of the European Bank for
                 legislation, concentrates on the establishment and           Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in collabo-
                 strengthening of public institutions responsible for the     ration with the World Bank*. The data from the report
                 enforcement of legislation. Courts, tax inspections and      indicates that there are about 23% of firms bribing fre-
                 customs are established to assure law, order and fair rev-   quently in Lithuania. According to the PHARE survey
                 enues of the state. Ministries, committees of the gov-       (1999), corruption is condemned by 74.1% of the
                 ernment, county and municipal administrations are the        population, but 60.4% of respondents are prepared to
                 main bodies for the design and supervision of policies       give at least a token bribe in order to resolve certain
                 on national, regional and local levels. The Social           issues.
                 Insurance Fund, the Labour Exchange, the State
                 Patient Fund are the main agencies responsible for the
                 implementation of social policies and the functioning
                 of the social safety net.

                 All general and municipal elections are free and dem-
                 ocratic since 1990. Lithuania has achieved stability of
                 institutions guaranteeing democracy and the rule of
                 law. The EU Commission concluded in 1999 that
                 Lithuania fulfils the Copenhagen political criterion. It
                 means that there are significant achievements not only
                 in stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy,
                 the rule of law, but also in protection of human rights
                 and respect for minorities. Nevertheless, there are
                 areas which still need attention: the fight against cor-     Corruption is not only a regional, but an international
                 ruption and the continued reform of the judiciary.           danger as well. This phenomenon is especially danger-
                 Relatively high level of crime is among the biggest          ous for newly established democracies taking in to
                 concerns as well.                                            account relative weaknesses of public administration.
                                                                              Technical assistance for the implementation of the
                 3.1 Corruption still remains a source of concern, in         recently adopted National Anti-corruption strategy
                 spite of a number of important measures in the fight         may be considered as an important arena of future
                 against it. Empirical evidence on corruption is limited,     activities of international organizations and bilateral
                 but the general perception appears to be that corrup-        co-operation.
                 tion is below CIS levels and close to that in Central
                 Europe. According to the 2000 global survey of               Progress in legal and judicial reform is particularly
                 Transparency International, Lithuania is ranked 38 and       needed. Many laws are excessively detailed and obscure,
                 the level of corruption is decreasing. Relevant legal acts   permitting wide variation in interpretation. Court pro-
                 that took effect in 1997 include a public procurement        ceedings sometimes are too lengthy, especially in com-
                 law (on which more work is needed for EU harmoniza-          mercial cases, hampering the application of the new
                 tion and to improve enforcement); a law on the com-          bankruptcy law. The main immediate areas of concern
                 patibility of public and private interests in the public     are staffing shortages, poor training and organizational
                 service; and a law on financing political campaigns. A       problems despite an increase in the number of judges,
                 "clean hands" commission has investigated some cases         and some improvements in their training.


                 16                                                                           * EBRD Transition Report 1999, ISBN 1 898802 11 4




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01        1:19 AM       Page 17




                                                                                                                                                             Chapter 3
                                                                                                                                                         GOVERNANCE




                 3.2 Decentralization of government responsi-                                      ment of administrative capacities in the country: ration-
                 bilities has been extensive. Its real impact is limited by                        alization of public administration functions, develop-
                 weak capacity of local governments, especially as con-                            ment of accountability regimes, introduction of per-
                 cerns the budget (limited allocation of funds based on                            formance management, as well as involvement of private
                 government strategy and priorities, weaknesses in                                 institutions in policy implementation.
                 financial management), and by the lack of a tradition
                 of municipal governance. A further wave of sub-nation-                            3.4 Democratic reforms were backed by appearance of
                 al reform is planned in which the number of municipal                             independent mass media and the Civil society .
                 governments will be increased in stages, compounding                              Among positive developments in relation to governance,
                 the problem of inadequate capacity. The EU is sup-                                increasing number of non-governmental organizations
                 porting improvements in capacity to handle EU pre-                                taking active part in decision-making process is signifi-
                 accession and structural funds but these efforts need to                          cant. After the restoration of the independence, the
                 be placed within a broader framework of effective pub-                            Constitutional right to establish or join NGOs became
                 lic expenditure management. More work also needs to                               an effective means of civil development. NGOs are
                 be done to strengthen external and internal auditing                              becoming more professional, developing their organiza-
                 and financial control, in both ministries and local gov-                          tional capacities. The number of NGOs is increasing
                 ernments. Capacities of local governments have to be                              with years. There were about 1,500 in beginning of the
                 developed by strengthening municipal finances and                                 nineties, and about 5,000 of NGOs were active in 1999.
                 training civil servants employed by municipalities.                               In spite of the increasing number of NGOs, the partic-
                                                                                                   ipation level of the public in their activities is very low
                 As for enhancement of regional policies, there were                               - only 9% of the population are members of NGOs*.
                 quite a few positive developments taking place in
                 Lithuania. A law on regional development was adopted
                 in 2000. This law aims at establishing the legal basis for
                 the formulation and implementation of regional devel-
                 opment policies. The National Regional Development
                 Agency became operational in November 1999, but due
                 to its limited human and financial resources it had dif-
                 ficulties in carrying out its foreseen tasks. The introduc-
                 tion of structures for monitoring and evaluation of
                 regional development should get a priority. The
                 strengthening of regional structures needs to focus more
                 on the establishment of local and regional partnerships.

                 3.3 Public administration reform has been high                                    With support and assistance from the international
                 on the agenda during the last decade. One of the require-                         donor community, NGOs are more successfully engag-
                 ments for EU membership refers to establishment of                                ing governmental authorities on both the national and
                 adequate administrative structures and capacity. With                             local levels. The dialogue between NGOs and governing
                 external support, including assistance from UNDP, a                               institutions has become considerably more open and
                 number of important measures have already been taken                              constructive during the last years. Nevertheless, a more
                 to ensure appropriate state administration: support to                            enabling environment for capacity building and long-
                 the development of a professional civil service, improv-                          term sustainability of NGOs is needed. In particular
                 ing policy management across levels of government,                                NGOs in rural areas need support. The United Nations
                 improving the relationship between the public adminis-                            system together with the donor community in general
                 tration and citizens, introducing strategic management                            has played a significant role in strengthening the NGO
                 and programme budgeting and others. Regardless of the                             community. At a time when operational assistance to
                 significant progress that has been made, however, several                         such civil society institutions is declining, it is impor-
                 areas remain in which reforms are still to be introduced.                         tant that governmental support as well as contributions
                 Progress in the following areas is crucial for the improve-                       from the private sector and others are unleashed.


                 * According to the National Public Opinion Survey Report "NGOs in Lithuania", June, 1998, Vilnius. Conducted by Social Information Centre          17




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 18




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 3.5 Information and Communication Tech-                          To summarize, in spite of significant achievements in
                 nologies (ICT) in development: In order to facil-                development of state governance institutions based on
                 itate communication between state and citizens, the gov-         principles of democracy and rule of law, there are areas
                 ernment has established a working group responsible for          for future improvement. Assistance to the Government
                 creation of a model for e-governance. Its realization            in dealing with problems of corruption and crime,
                 would allow to considerably improve the provision of             development of regional policies, accountable adminis-
                 state services on national and local levels. It is foreseen as   trative structures, and enhancement of civil society
                 a wide spectrum of services available through internet,          would improve national governance institutions' trans-
                 simple and flexible application procedures. The                  parency and accountability to the people.
                 Lithuanian Parliament adopted a "White Paper" on an
                 ICT Strategy for Lithuania in 2001.




                 18




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM        Page 19




                                                                                                                                          Chapter 4
                                                                                                                                    HUMAN RIGHTS




                                                                                             - protocol 6 abolishing the death penalty. In 2001,
                 HUMAN RIGHTS                                                                Lithuania ratified the 1996 European Social Charter.

                 Since regaining its independence in 1990, Lithuania                         Establishment of the Centre for Human Rights in 1994
                 put in place a sound legal and institutional framework                      is among positive facts in this area as well. The activi-
                 for the protection of human rights. In March 1991 the                       ties of the Centre are aimed at the most pressing issues
                 Parliament of the Republic of Lithuania committed                           of human rights, and attempt to fill the gaps in the
                 itself to adhering to the principles of the Universal                       education and information of the general public, espe-
                 Declaration of Human Rights, adopted a resolution to                        cially teachers and lawyers, on human rights.
                 accede to the International Covenant on Economic,
                 Social and Cultural Rights and the International                            The role of the mass media and NGOs in promoting
                 Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The                                 and protecting human rights is important and the
                 Constitution is based on the ideas and principles of the                    Constitution backs this up. It has to be assured that the
                 above international human rights documents. The                             role of mass media and NGOs is broadened and
                 Constitution guarantees unconditional respect for                           enhanced in the future as well.
                 human rights and freedoms, guarantees the most
                 important civil and political rights - the right to private                 4.1. Challenges in the Human Rights area
                 property, the right to freedom and the inviolability of a
                 private life, the right to the free expression of beliefs, to               One of the significant achievements within the legal
                 assembly, to free speech and a free press, and the right                    system reform is the adoption of the Civil and Criminal
                 to participate in the governing of the country.                             Codes, which will enter into force gradually starting
                 Economic, social and cultural rights are given consider-                    from mid-2001. The Code of Criminal Procedure is
                 ation in the Constitution as well. In 1995 Lithuania                        still under preparation.
                 ratified the European Convention for the Protection of
                 Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR)                                However, continued reform of the system of human
                 together with its additional Protocols 4, 7, 11 and later                   rights protection is needed since not always national
                                                                                             laws and newly established or reformed institutions are
                 Institutional reform of the judicial system included:                       functioning effectively. Among the concerns in the pro-
                 · Reforming of the court system of general jurisdiction (there is a four-   tection of human rights in Lithuania is the practical
                   tiered court system which replaced two-tiered system since 1995),
                                                                                             application of the laws defending human rights. The
                 · Introduction of a system of specialised administrative courts in 1999,
                 · Establishment of the Constitutional Court in order to maintain            extent to which various groups are protected and
                   constitutional supervision in 1993,                                       ensured differs. There is more achieved in protecting
                 · Reforming the prosecutor's office and police.                             civil, political and cultural rights until now compared
                                                                                             with economic rights. All-embracing national system of
                 Besides judicial procedures there are other instruments
                                                                                             monitoring of the implementation of human rights is
                 for defending human rights in Lithuania:
                 · the Committee on Human Rights in the Seimas;                              yet to be developed. Raising awareness of judiciary and
                 · the Parliamentary Ombudsman institution, established in 1994;             the public at large of the protection of human rights
                 · the Office of the Ombudsman of Equal Opportunities for Women              available under international and regional human
                   and Men, established in 1999;                                             rights instruments remains to be an issue in need of
                 · the Office of the Ombudsman of Children's Rights;
                                                                                             continuous efforts.
                 · an independent media: many journalistic investigations help law
                   and order institutions uncover serious crimes and their perpetrators;
                 · growing network of non-governmental human rights organizations.           The above concerns will be addressed through UN-
                   The involvement of civil society and its democratic institutions are      assisted drafting and adoption of a National Action
                   now gaining the opportunity for having a real input into enhancing
                                                                                             Plan for the Promotion and Protection of Human
                   the human rights. Such NGOs deal mostly with the problems of
                   children, violence against women, integration of ex-convicts into
                                                                                             Rights, in response to the 1993 Vienna World
                   society, reduction of poverty (both charitable and project oriented       Conference on Human Rights. Under the leadership of
                   organizations), protection of rights and assistance to asylum seekers     the Parliamentary Committee on Human Rights, the
                   and refugees.                                                             participatory process of drafting the Action Plan is
                                                                                             expected to be finalised by the end of 2002.


                                                                                                                                                   19




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 20




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 Among the challenges for the country in protection of        4.2. Rights of Women, Children and Youth
                 human rights is development of multi-disciplinary edu-
                 cational programs (starting with schools and ending          Another human rights area where greater progress is
                 with professional training) aiming at informing the          needed concerns protection of rights of women, chil-
                 general public, youth as well as officials on human          dren and youth. There are quite a few achievements
                 rights. Although since the regaining of independence,        and positive trends in Lithuania following the UN
                 Lithuanians have become more socially conscious and          Fourth Conference on Women in Beijing.
                 aware of human rights, not all society members are
                 informed equally about them and mechanisms available          Among the most significant developments:
                 to protect them. According to a UNDP-commissioned             · The Government in 1996 approved the Action Plan for the
                                                                                 Advancement of Women in Lithuania. The Action Plan is being
                 public opinion poll in November 2000, nine out of ten
                                                                                 implemented in collaboration with Government institutions and
                 Lithuanian people think that human rights in                    women's NGO, the most successful implementation process took
                 Lithuania are either systematically (38.6%) or occa-            place with regard to legislative and educational activities;
                 sionally (54%) violated. One out of four believes that        · The national machinery for dealing with women's issues
                 there is no system of human rights protection in                launched in 1994 was gradually expanded;
                                                                               · The NGO "Women's Issues Information Centre" (WIIC) was
                 Lithuania; two thirds of the respondents claim that
                                                                                 established with support from UNDP as a focal point to follow
                 while such a system exists, it is not effective. Just over      up on the Beijing Platform for Action. Creation of the databases
                 40% of people believe that they themselves should pro-          and development of gender statistics at the WIIC formed the
                 tect their rights, and only 17% consider it to be a task        basis for gender analysis, which enables the Government to
                                                                                 introduce gender-mainstreaming policies;
                 of NGOs.
                                                                               · The Law on Equal Opportunities came into effect in 1999;
                                                                               · The Office of the Ombudsman for Equal Opportunities was
                 The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees               established and started monitoring the enforcement of the provi-
                 (UNHCR) continuous work in educating secondary                  sions of the above law at the same year making Lithuania among
                 school teachers in human right topics and particularly          the pioneers in the region in this area;
                                                                               · The number of women's organizations grew significantly. They have
                 rights of asylum seekers and refugees, including supply
                                                                                 become stronger and more influential. By 1st January 1999, 63
                 and development of teaching materials and methodolo-            NGO were active in the field of women or gender equality issues.
                 gies, could be mentioned as a successful UN initiative
                 in this respect.
                                                                              Positive changes in the status of women and the provision
                 Among human rights trends, noticeable improvements           of equal opportunities are noticeable in several spheres of
                 in reforming the police and the army should be men-          life. However, at the same time, gender equality has to be
                 tioned. There has been a significant reduction in            improved in many spheres. Women in Lithuania are
                 human rights violations committed by army officials.         underrepresented significantly in some professions and in
                 Nevertheless, the abuse of detention laws and abuse of       a managerial sector as a whole, they are in a disadvan-
                 power by police still happens occasionally.                  taged position in the labour market. Political representa-
                                                                              tion and participation in decision-making processes in
                 Another problematic area related to the human rights         general remains an open problem. Considering the drop
                 protection concerns conditions in overcrowded and            of women in parliament from 18 % to 10.6 % after the
                 poorly maintained jails, especially in pre-trial confine-    elections in 2000, (compared to the increase from 7 % to
                 ment facilities. Prolonged detention in some cases is        18 % in the 1996 elections), there are indications that
                 still a problem. One development regarding the               stronger co-operation, mutual support among women, as
                 administration of prisons the transfer of the                well as specific programmes to address the issue are need-
                 Penitentiary department from the Ministry of the             ed. Another crucial problem to be addressed is violence
                 Interior to the Ministry of Justice. The country is          against women, and domestic violence in particular. An
                 attempting to reform its prison system; however, the         institutional mechanism for dealing with problems of
                 progress has been very slow. Positive developments           domestic violence is being formed only very slowly.
                 could be mentioned in respect of substantial improve-
                 ment of living conditions for asylum seekers.                The protection of children's and youth rights and wel-
                                                                              fare fall under the official responsibility of the


                 20




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:19 AM     Page 21




                                                                                                                              Chapter 4
                                                                                                                       HUMAN RIGHTS




                 Ministries of Social Security and Labour and of the            everybody to exercise them (men, women, children and
                 Interior. Children's Rights Service of the Ministry of         youth, rural and urban residents). Laws do not always
                 Social Security was established in 1994 in order to            reflect and balance the various interests of the public.
                 focus more attention on the social welfare needs of chil-      Political and civil rights are far ahead of socio-econom-
                 dren. The institution of the Controller (Ombudsman)            ic rights. Poverty strikes families with children more
                 for protection of the rights of the child was established      often than other groups of the population, depriving
                 in 2000. The Government in 2000 approved the                   the children of poor families from vital capabilities nec-
                 National Programme Against Commercial Sexual                   essary for their future lives. The situation regarding
                 Abuse and Sexual Violence against Children.                    human rights awareness and development in rural areas
                 International organizations have been active in protect-       and small towns is significantly worse than that in the
                 ing children rights and welfare as well. Despite the           large cities. Various UN agencies provided significant
                 established institutional and legal framework to deal          support to the Lithuanian government in ensuring that
                 with problems of children, there are areas that need           human rights are protected in Lithuania after the
                 improvement. Local institutions dealing with the rights        regaining the independence. The above-mentioned
                 of children are severely understaffed. Problems of child       areas for improvement or concern in the protection of
                 abuse, improving of child protection in public care,           human rights can be regarded as an important chal-
                 increasing number of out-of-school children, child             lenge for the future partnership with UN agencies.
                 prostitution, increasing juvenile delinquency, alcohol
                 and drug abuse among youth (under-18) are of very              4.3. Asylum seekers and refugees
                 important concern of the state.
                                                                                Another important area in the protection of human
                                                                                rights in Lithuania concerns the situation of asylum
                                                                                seekers, refugees and foreigners in general. This area
                                                                                can be characterised as one of those where very rapid
                                                                                improvements were made and progress achieved (e.g.
                                                                                introduction and operation of alternative status of pro-
                                                                                tection for those foreigners who do not fall under the
                                                                                criteria of refugee, but are nevertheless in need of pro-
                                                                                tection under international human rights instruments;
                                                                                substantial revision of legislation in order to align with
                                                                                the EU requirements and approval of National Action
                                                                                Plan in the field of asylum, effective operation of free
                                                                                legal aid system for asylum seekers established by the
                                                                                UNHCR and implemented by the NGO, as well as
                 Reform of the juvenile criminal justice has started in         partnership work of NGOs with the Ministry of Social
                 1998 under the UNDP and UNICEF assisted                        Security and Labour and local municipalities in imple-
                 Programme. The Programme, which should continue                menting social integration of refugees).
                 through 2002, aims at reducing juvenile criminality
                 through modernisation and humanisation of the juve-            In spite of obvious achievements in this area, there are
                 nile criminal justice. The reform includes changes in          still problems faced, in particular in the area of social
                 the legislation, specialisation of the relevant legal insti-   integration of refugees, including unwillingness of local
                 tutions as well as a public awareness campaign.                municipalities to receive refugees and legal obstacles in
                 Lithuania is considered to be among the pioneers in            implementing social integration of humanitarian
                 this field in the region.                                      refugees (e.g. limited access to state guaranteed health
                                                                                care, no access to certain social benefits). Legal and
                 To conclude, it can be said that despite the solid legal       financial obstacles for extending residence permits of
                 foundations supporting human rights, they are not              humanitarian refugees hamper the effective operation
                 equally assured either in terms of their nature (political,    of alternative protection regime. Positive developments
                 economic, social) or in terms of the possibility for           throughout 2001 to revise the main Refugee Act are


                                                                                                                                       21




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 22




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                                                                              launched a regional advocacy campaign against traf-
                                                                              ficking in women.

                                                                              Quantitative and qualitative crime indicators have
                                                                              changed in a negative direction faster than a new and
                                                                              adequate system for crime control and prevention has
                                                                              been created. Thus in the area of the human rights
                                                                              protection as far as security of citizens is concerned,
                                                                              initiation and implementation of local programs and
                                                                              measures which would help to stop the increase in
                                                                              crime and would provide special social assistance for
                                                                              crime victims is needed. The creation of an effective
                                                                              system of social crime prevention would improve the
                 diminished by introduction of restrictive approaches         safety of the population and the protection of human
                 that may raise concern in view of Lithuania's commit-        rights and interests.
                 ments under international instruments on human
                 rights and refugees.                                          Lithuania, being an active participant in many
                                                                               internationally acknowledged human rights
                 4.4. Crime                                                    organizations since regaining independence:
                                                                               · pledged commitment to the principles of the Universal
                                                                                 Declaration of Human Rights in 1991;
                 The state should guarantee social stability and the per-      · acceded to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and
                 sonal security of its people. Beside governmental insti-        Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and
                 tutions, an independent Centre for the Prevention of            Political Rights in 1991;
                                                                               · signed the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to
                 Crime in Lithuania which co-ordinates crime preven-
                                                                                 National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities of the
                 tion programs and activities has been established to            UN in 1992. The Declaration influenced the development of
                 that end. Crime rates were increasing rapidly during            national legislation: a Law on Religious Communities and
                 the last decade in Lithuania, only in 1999 they slowed          Associations was adopted in 1995;
                 down. Property related and serious violent crime has          · ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
                                                                                 Discrimination Against Women in 1995;
                 grown and its proportion in the overall crime rate has
                                                                               · ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1995 and
                 increased. Juvenile delinquency is growing faster than          adopted national legislation concerning the rights of the child
                 the general crime rate (nearly half of all convicted crim-      including the Law on Fundamentals of Protection of the Rights
                 inal offenders are between ages 14 and 24). Unless              of the Child of 1996 and the Law on Childcare of 1998;
                                                                               · acceded to the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel,
                 appropriate crime prevention measures are put into
                                                                                 Inhuman or Degrading Treatment and Punishment in 1996;
                 effect, this tendency could result in a new wave of           · ratified more than 20 ILO conventions, most of which directly
                 increasing criminal activity.                                   related to fundamental human rights in 1994;
                                                                               · ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
                 Organized crime includes crimes related to manage-              Discrimination in 1998;
                                                                               · ratified the European Convention on the Protection of Human
                 ment and finance, trafficking in women and illegal
                                                                                 Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and other protocols addition
                 drugs, prostitution, etc., is both a national and an            al to this Convention in 1995;
                 international problem. Broader and more effective             · ratified the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to
                 inter-state co-operation by law and order institutions in       the Status of Refugees in 1997. Rights of asylum seekers and
                 the sphere of prevention and control of organized crime         refugees are protected under national legislation enforced in
                                                                                 1997 and substantially improved through revision in 2000;
                 is necessary. The situation demands implementation of
                                                                               · ratified the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless
                 various mutual mechanisms of legal assistance such as           Persons in 1999;
                 extradition, the tracing of suspects and operative meas-      · ratified the 1996 European Social Charter in 2001.
                 ures outside national borders. IOM has recently




                 22




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:19 AM    Page 23




                                                                                                                           Chapter 5
                                                                                                                            POVERT Y




                                                                              opportunity" condition. The people living in rural
                 POVERT Y                                                     areas experience poverty 2.6 times as often as city
                                                                              dwellers (27.6% vs. 10.5%).
                 National governments at the World Social Summit in
                 Copenhagen in 1995 committed themselves to eradi-            5.1.1. Other factors affecting poverty
                 cate absolute poverty, to satisfy the basic needs of their
                 citizens, to make an effort to include marginalized          Besides residential area, other factors affect whether
                 groups of society into a country's social and economic       one lives in poverty, such as the type of household one
                 development, to ensure that people living in poverty         lives in (single, couple, or other; with or without chil-
                 have access to resources and income enabling them to         dren), the number of children in one's household, the
                 reach an acceptable standard of living. To that aim, The     socio-economic group one belongs to, and the educa-
                 National Social Committee to develop the National            tion level of one's household head. The following four
                 Poverty Reduction Strategy was established by the            figures, D-2, D-3, D-4, D-5, display the poverty levels
                 President of the Republic of Lithuania in 1999. The          for each category of these factors by year.
                 Poverty Reduction Strategy was approved and present-
                 ed to the President and public in May 2000. The              5.1.2. Household type
                 Strategy presents a concept of poverty, defines its meas-
                 ures, describes the spread and nature of it, identifies
                 most vulnerable groups of the society, and defines
                 strategic goals for poverty prevention and its elimina-
                 tion. In 2001, by Presidential decree, a Poverty
                 Monitoring Commission was established as a watchdog
                 entity representing various stakeholders. A Poverty
                 Reduction Action Plan is to be prepared with assistance
                 from the UN system during the first quarter of 2002,
                 with a view to the implementation of the Strategy.

                 5.1. Extent of poverty in Lithuania

                 In 2000, almost one in every six Lithuanians, or 16%
                 of the Lithuanian people, lived below the relative
                 poverty line. The relative poverty line is estimated at
                 50% of the average consumer expenditure, and it is
                 used as the main indicator of poverty. Figure D-1 dis-
                 plays the percentage of people living below the relative
                 poverty line by residential area from 1996 to 2000. It
                 is immediately apparent that poverty is not an "equal



                                                                              Figure D-2 shows for years 1996-2000 the poverty level
                                                                              by household type, which is a combination of two fac-
                                                                              tors: household head (couple, single, or other) and child
                                                                              status (whether or not a household has children less than
                                                                              18 years old). Child status, taken alone, is the more
                                                                              important factor. Households without children are
                                                                              much less likely to be poor than households with chil-
                                                                              dren. But household head, taken alone, is also impor-
                                                                              tant. Generally, households headed by couples are less
                                                                              likely to be poor than households headed by singles, and


                                                                                                                                    23




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 24




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 households headed by others (e.g. more than two adults,       Figure D-4 shows the poverty level by socio-economic
                 extended generations, etc.) are the most likely to be poor.   group for years 1996-2000. People self-employed in a
                                                                               business other than agriculture are the least likely to be
                 5.1.3. Number of children                                     poor. In 2000, only 7.7% of these self-employed peo-
                                                                               ple were poor, compared to 11% of hired workers, and
                                                                               20.4% of pensioners. The poorest were self-employers
                                                                               in agriculture at 35.3% and others at 41.1%. The per-
                                                                               centage of farmers living in poverty has grown most dra-
                                                                               matically, from 26.3% in 1996 to 39.9% in 1999. In
                                                                               2000, the poverty level for farmers decreased to 35.3%.

                                                                               5.1.5. Education level of household head:

                                                                               Figure D-5 displays the poverty level by education level
                                                                               of household head for the years 1997-1999. As expect-
                                                                               ed, households headed by people with higher education
                                                                               (university and above) are the least likely to be poor
                                                                               (2.2% in 1999). And those households headed by peo-
                                                                               ple with only basic or less education are the most likely
                                                                               to be poor (26.3% and 26.6% in 1999). In 1999,
                 Figure D-2 showed the importance of child status on           households headed by people with intermediate educa-
                 poverty level. But the number of children less than 18        tion, specialized secondary (vocational) or secondary,
                 years old is also important. Figure D-3 displays the pover-   had poverty levels of 10.3% and 19.4%, respectively.
                 ty level by number of children for years 1997-1999. The       There was a very slight trend during those three years for
                 probability of being poor increases with the number of        the poverty level to decline for households whose heads
                 children. The biggest difference occurs between house-        had at least a secondary education. For those households
                 holds with 3 or more children (35.4% in 1999) and all         whose heads had basic or less education, the slight trend
                 other households (12.2% to 18.7% in 1999).                    was in the reverse, with an increase in the poverty level.

                 5.1.4. Socio-economic group:




                                                                               5.2. Rural vs. urban poverty

                                                                               Earlier figures showed us that the poverty level is much
                                                                               higher in rural areas than in urban centres and that
                                                                               farmers are much more likely to be poor than the self-


                 24




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:19 AM    Page 25




                                                                                                                           Chapter 5
                                                                                                                            POVERT Y




                 employed in other businesses, hired workers, or pen-         from self-employment in agriculture (24.2%), com-
                 sioners. The following figures will focus on factors that    pared to 2.3% for urban dwellers. Rural people also
                 might partly explain the difficult conditions under          received a higher percentage of their income from retire-
                 which rural people, and farmers in particular, live.         ment pensions (20.7% vs. 13.1%) and other benefits
                                                                              (13.1% vs. 8.2%) than urban people.
                 5.2.1. Disposable income
                                                                              We have also seen from the distribution of the rural
                                                                              population by age group that it is more heavily skewed
                                                                              to the elderly and the young, the former group with
                                                                              limited pension income and the latter group contribut-
                                                                              ing no income to the household.

                                                                              5.2.3. Consumption expenditure




                 Figure D-6 shows the average monthly disposable income
                 per capita by residential area for the years 1996-2000. In
                 1996, urban people had 31.1% more disposable income
                 then rural people. In 2000, the gap increased to 49.5%
                 more disposable income for urban people.

                 5.2.2. Sources of disposable income
                                                                              Figure D-8 shows the average monthly consumption
                 Figure D-7 displays the percentage distribution of dis-      expenditure per capita by residential area for the years
                 posable income by source and residential area for 2000.      1996-2000. In 1996, urban people spent 27.8% more
                 Urban dwellers derived 59.4% of their income from
                 employment, almost twice that of rural people (29.1%).
                 Rural people derived almost a quarter of their income




                                                                                                                                    25




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 26




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 money than rural people did. By 2000, urban dwellers        D-11, D-12, D-13, display poverty level by a combina-
                 were spending 37.2% more money than rural people were.      tion of two factors.

                 Figure D-9 displays the percentage being spent in differ-   5.3.1. Household type and residential area
                 ent categories by residential area in 2000. The most
                 noteworthy category is food and non-alcoholic bever-        Figure D-11 shows us the poverty level by household
                 ages. Rural people spent a much greater percentage          type and residential area. In 1999, the poverty level of
                 (56.2%) than urban people (40.4%) on food and non-          rural households ranged from being 70% to 247%
                 alcoholic beverages. They also spent a slightly higher      higher than urban households, depending on the
                 percentage on alcohol and tobacco than urban dwellers       household type. Rural households showed a clear pro-
                 (4.4% vs. 3.8%). However, for all other categories, rural   gression in poverty level, from the couple without chil-
                 people spent proportionally less than urban people.         dren at 13.9% to the other household with children
                                                                             <18 at 38.8%. On the other hand, urban households
                                                                             showed no clear-cut progression in poverty level. The
                                                                             household headed by a single adult with children<18
                                                                             had the highest poverty level (21.5%) of all the urban
                                                                             households. The urban couple without children had the
                                                                             lowest poverty level at 5.9%.




                 Figure D-10 shows the percentage of employed people
                 in each economic sector compared to the percentage
                 that sector contributed to the gross domestic product of
                 2000. In a balanced economy, each economic sector's
                 percentages should be approximately equal. While
                 19.6% of employed people worked in the agriculture,
                 hunting & forestry, and fishing sector, it contributed
                 only 7.6% to the country's gross domestic product. The
                 percentage of employed people who worked in the con-
                 struction sector and the percentage it contributed to the   5.3.2. Socio-economic group and
                 economy are approximately equal. And the industry           residential area
                 and services sectors, the largest sectors in the country,
                 contributed more to the economy, while employing            Figure D-12 shows the poverty level by socio-economic
                 fewer people, proportionally. In effect, the agriculture    group and residential area for 1999. The poverty level
                 sector can be considered a drain on the economy due to
                 this imbalance and inefficiency. The UN can be of
                 assistance in the modernization of the agriculture sector
                 and the retraining of farmers, as well as contributing to
                 the creation of income-generating activities.

                 5.3.Combination of factors examined
                 with regard to poverty level

                 Figure D-1 has already shown us that the probability of
                 being poor is 2.6 times more likely if one lives in rural
                 areas rather than urban centres. The next three figures,




                 26




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01    1:19 AM    Page 27




                                                                                                                         Chapter 5
                                                                                                                           POVERT Y




                 for rural households ranged from being 63% to 411%
                 higher than urban households, depending on their
                 socio-economic group. With the exception of the others
                 group (53.2%), those self-employed in agriculture had
                 the highest poverty level at 40.6% among the rural peo-
                 ple. Again, with the exception of the others group
                 (32.6%), pensioners had the highest poverty level at
                 26.2% among the urban dwellers. Urban businessmen
                 had the lowest poverty level at 4.7%.

                 5.3.3. Education level of household head
                 and residential area                                        rural households, whose head had only a basic education
                                                                             level, had the highest poverty level at 35.7%. And among
                 Figure D-13 displays the poverty level by education level   the urban households, those with a primary education or
                 of household head and residential area for 1999. The        less reached the highest poverty level at 20.6%. Urban
                 poverty level of the rural households ranged from being     households, whose head achieved a higher education
                 49% to 300% higher than the urban households, as the        level, had the lowest poverty level at 1.5%.
                 education level of the household head climbed. Those




                                                                                                                                  27




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 28




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                                                                               in Lithuania and are in a vulnerable situation, are not
                 HEALTH                                                        yet covered by the state guaranteed health care system.

                 6.1. Reorganization of the health                             The dawn of health insurance in Lithuania has intro-
                 care system                                                   duced market principles in resource utilization and
                                                                               finance-based services. The long-term results of this
                 Good health is not only an essential aspect of an indi-       new system on the overall access to health care will have
                 vidual's well being, but collectively, it is a measure of a   to be seen. Patients are now treated for shorter periods
                 society's wealth. Lithuania has fundamentally reorgan-        of time at inpatient facilities, which decreases the aver-
                 ized its health care system during the past decade.           age length of stay, which in turn makes these facilities
                 With international assistance, Lithuania has made rad-        more accessible to all patients who need inpatient care.
                 ical changes in the legal framework and the financing of      Patients pay no co-payments for the majority of inpa-
                 health care. The Law on a Health Care System (1994)           tient and outpatient services. However, the low fees for
                 provides the legal framework for developing a health          some services at inpatient facilities puts a financial con-
                 care policy and defines the roles of state and local gov-     straint on these institutions, which then have to charge
                 ernments in administering the health care system. The         patients for some of their medications and dressings.
                 health care laws passed in 1996 create the basis for          This same low-fee structure exists for primary care out-
                 introducing health insurance and accrediting health           patient facilities, making them also financially con-
                 care institutions. Despite the legal foundations for          strained. Thus, the total number of medical facilities
                 health care reform, not all of the new laws are being         has dwindled in rural areas, disadvantaging the rural
                 fully enforced. In 1998 Parliament approved the               poor in terms of access to health care.
                 National Health Programme, which calls for action in
                 public health, general practice development, and med-         The pharmaceutical market has been privatized, and
                 ical training; implementation of new medical technolo-        there has been a constant growth in private dental prac-
                 gies; and restructuring of hospital sectors, all for the      tices. The State Sickness Fund covers about 40% of
                 purpose of promoting healthy life styles, preventing          national expenditures for medications and about 30%
                 diseases, and effectively treating sick people.               of dental care costs. All together, patients are paying
                                                                               about 25% of their total health care costs. This figure
                 National, regional, and municipal health authorities, as      is among the highest in Europe.
                 well as state and territorial sickness funds, form an
                 institutional health network throughout the country.          6.3. Health status of the Lithuanian people
                 National legislation has contributed to the empower-
                 ment of municipalities and counties, but NGOs (repre-         An evaluation of the most important health statistics
                 senting both patients and medical professionals) need         during the past decade indicates improvement in many
                 to gain a stronger voice in the decision-making on            areas of health. However, there remain many areas for
                 local, regional, and national levels.                         concern. The following discussion and figures will
                                                                               examine the principal indicators reflecting the state of
                 6.2. Universal health care coverage                           health of the Lithuanian people.

                 Universal health care coverage is granted to all              6.3.1. Life expectancy
                 Lithuanian citizens and permanent residents under the
                 provisions of the Constitution, the Law on a Health           Overall life expectancy at birth has increased about a
                 Care System, and the Law on Health Insurance. All             half-year from 1990 at 72.33 years to 2000 at 72.87
                 employers and employees pay health insurance contri-          years. At first look this does not seem much of an
                 butions, which amount to approximately 10% of each            improvement, but when one looks at the entire decade,
                 employee's salary. The state budget pays the health           one will notice that life expectancy at birth dipped to a
                 insurance contributions for the vulnerable social groups      low in 1994 of 68.71 years, so the gain of 4.16 years in
                 of children, the elderly, and the unemployed. However,        six years is quite an improvement indeed. Figure E-1
                 foreigners, who receive humanitarian residence permits        shows the life expectancy at birth by residential area


                 28




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01    1:19 AM    Page 29




                                                                                                                             Chapter 6
                                                                                                                                HEALTH




                 and gender for the past decade. Similar trends as the
                 overall above are noted. In 2000 the life expectancy at
                 birth of urban people is greater than rural people by
                 more than 4 years and the life expectancy at birth of
                 females is greater than males by more than 10 years on
                 average.




                                                                             Figure E-3 shows the infant mortality rates for urban
                                                                             and rural areas during the past decade. The rates are
                                                                             higher in the rural than in the urban areas. Since over
                                                                             half of infant deaths occur in the first 27 days of life, the
                                                                             higher rural area's rates can partly be explained by a less-
                 6.3.2. Infant mortality                                     er ability to reach in time the sophisticated neonatology
                                                                             hospital units of major urban centres, which are rich in
                 The overall infant (less than 1 year of age) mortality      technology to keep alive the sickest of newborns.
                 rate has improved over the past 10 years from 10.3
                 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 8.5 deaths in
                 2000. The peak of the infant mortality rate came in
                 1992 with 16.5 deaths per 1,000 live births. So the
                 overall rate has been reduced almost in half in the past
                 8 years. Figure E-2 shows the infant mortality rate over
                 the past 10 years, as well as the neonatal and post-
                 neonatal mortality rates, of which the infant mortality
                 rate is comprised. The post-neonatal mortality rate
                 remains fairly steady during the 10-year period, but the
                 neonatal mortality rate mirrors the trends in the overall
                 infant mortality rate. Thus, we can conclude that the
                 improvement in the overall infant mortality rate in the
                 past 8 years is due primarily to the improvement in the
                 neonatal mortality rate. The spike in the neonatal mor-
                 tality rates in 1992 can partly be explained by the 1991
                 change in the minimum standards for the registration        6.3.3. Mortality
                 of newborn children (alive or dead), which were low-
                 ered to 500 grams and 22 weeks of gestation. Since          The overall mortality rate during the past decade start-
                 children born alive at these new lower limits are at        ed at 10.6 deaths per 1,000 average population in
                 increased risk of dying, the mortality rate subsequently    1990, rose slowly to 12.5 deaths in 1994, and then
                 shot up the following year. Before this legal change,       decreased slowly to 10.5 deaths in 2000. Figure E-4
                 children born at these lower limits were not even           shows the mortality experience over the past 10 years
                 counted.                                                    by residential area and gender. The mortality rates for


                                                                                                                                       29




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 30




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 rural people are higher than for urban people and sim-       all areas for cardiovascular diseases, the number one
                 ilarly the rates for males are higher than for females. In   cause of death in Lithuania, have decreased from 615.7
                 2000, rural people died 65% more frequently than             deaths per 100,000 average population in 1990 to
                 urban people, and men died 23% more frequently than          566.4 deaths in 2000, after peaking in 1993 with a rate
                 females on average.                                          of 671.5 deaths (Figure E-5). The 2000 mortality rate
                                                                              for cardiovascular diseases in rural areas was 83%
                                                                              greater than in urban areas.

                                                                              Mortality rates over all areas for cancer, the second
                                                                              leading cause of death, have increased steadily from a
                                                                              rate of 188.0 deaths in 1990 to a rate of 211.4 deaths
                                                                              in 2000 (Figure E-6). The 2000 cancer mortality rate in
                                                                              rural areas was 35% greater than in urban areas.




                 The three main causes of mortality in Lithuania for the
                 past decade have been cardiovascular diseases, cancer,
                 and external causes (suicide, transport accidents, acci-
                 dental drowning, accidental alcohol poisoning, and
                 homicide, etc.). The following three figures, E-5, E-6,
                 E-7, show the mortality pattern of the above main
                 causes for the past decade by residential area. In all       And the mortality rates over all areas due to external
                 three figures the rural mortality rates are considerably     causes, the third leading cause of death, increased from
                 higher than those of urban areas. Mortality rates over       a rate of 119.4 deaths in 1990 to a peak of 185.9 deaths
                                                                              in 1994 and then decreased to a rate of 138.1 deaths in




                 30




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01    1:19 AM    Page 31




                                                                                                                         Chapter 6
                                                                                                                            HEALTH




                 2000 (Figure E-7). The 2000 mortality rate of external      Suicide: Suicide is the number one external cause of
                 causes in rural areas was 61% greater than in urban         death for Lithuanians. The suicide rate was acutely
                 areas.                                                      high for rural males at 113.3 deaths per 100,000 aver-
                                                                             age population. This rate was 97% higher than the rate
                 In 2000, cardiovascular diseases were the primary cause     of 57.5 for urban males, 388% higher than the rate of
                 of 53.8% of the deaths. Cancer was the primary cause        23.2 for rural females, and 785% higher than the rate
                 of 20% of the deaths. And 13.1% of the deaths can be        of 12.8 for urban females. The peak for suicides dur-
                 attributed to external causes. Together, these three main   ing the past decade came in 1996 with an overall rate
                 causes accounted for 87% of the mortality in 2000.          of 46.4. Since then it declined to 41.9 in 1999, but it
                 Figure E-8 below shows the mortality rate by main           has risen again to 44.1 in 2000.
                 cause of death, residential area, and gender for 2000.
                 Males have higher mortality rates than females for can-
                 cer and external causes in both urban and rural areas.
                 But females have higher mortality rates than males for
                 cardiovascular diseases in both areas. This seemingly
                 contradictory finding can be explained in part because
                 females live on average 10 years longer than males and
                 because males are dying at earlier ages from other caus-
                 es. Over all ages, cardiovascular diseases are the number
                 one cause of death for both males and females.
                 However, after one examines age-specific causes, one
                 sees that external causes of death predominate for males
                 from the ages of 1 to 54 years and for females from the
                 ages of 1 to 44 years. Cancer, in particular breast can-
                 cer, is the number one cause of death for females from
                 the ages of 45 to 54 years. And from the age of 55 years
                 and up, cardiovascular diseases are the predominant
                 cause of death for both males and females.

                                                                             Transport accidents: Transport accidents are the sec-
                                                                             ond major external cause of death for Lithuanians. The
                                                                             rate of 51.6 deaths per 100,000 average population for
                                                                             rural males was very high. In fact their rate was 93%
                                                                             higher than the rate of 26.7 for urban males, 334%
                                                                             higher than the rate of 11.9 for rural females, and
                                                                             670% higher than the rate of 6.7 for urban females.

                                                                             Accidental drowning: Accidental drowning is another
                                                                             major external cause of death for Lithuanians.
                                                                             Similarly, we see rural males taking the lead in mortal-
                                                                             ity. Their rate of 24.7 deaths per 100,000 average pop-
                                                                             ulation is 87% higher than the rate for urban males,
                                                                             375% higher than the rate of 5.2 for rural females, and
                 6.4. External causes of mortality                           815% higher than the rate of 2.7 for urban females.

                 Since 13.1% of the deaths in Lithuania in 2000 can be       Accidental Alcohol Poisoning: Accidental alcohol poi-
                 attributed to external causes, Figure E-10 displays the     soning is a major external cause of death for
                 mortality rates due to different external causes by resi-   Lithuanians. Here the mortality rate of 15.3 deaths per
                 dential area and gender.                                    100,000 average population for rural males is only 5%


                                                                                                                                  31




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 32




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 higher than the rate of 14.6 for urban males, but it is    to those in the neighbouring countries. The driving
                 212% higher than the rate of 4.9 for rural females and     force of the epidemic is injecting drug users (IDU).
                 264% higher than the rate of 4.2 for urban females.        65% of the HIV transmission in Lithuania occurs via
                                                                            sharing of injecting equipment among IDUs.
                 Homicide: In the first quarter of 2001, the number of      According to the Lithuanian AIDS Centre, since begin-
                 homicides has increased by 14.3% over the first quarter    ning of the epidemic, there were a total number of 266
                 of 2000. For all of 2000 the rate of homicide for urban    notified cases of HIV by the end of 2000. In 1999 the
                 males was the highest at 14.4 deaths per 100,000 pop-      Ministry of Health estimated drug abuse prevalence at
                 ulation. This rate was only 1% higher than the rate of     the rate of 83,3 per 100,000.
                 14.2 for rural males, but 109% higher than the rate of
                 6.9 for rural females and 260% higher than the rate of     The epicentres of the epidemic are the city port
                 4.0 for urban females.                                     Klaipeda, where the epidemic began in 1994 among the
                                                                            Lithuanian sailors infected with HIV overseas, and cap-
                 6.5. Tuberculosis                                          ital city Vilnius, where since 1997 the main transmis-
                                                                            sion way is needle haring among the IDUs. Therefore,
                                                                            IDUs are the most important focus group for HIV pre-
                                                                            vention activities.

                                                                            Lithuania has been experiencing a fast growing sex
                                                                            industry during the last couple of years, hence, the sec-
                                                                            ond focus group is female sex workers. Geographically,
                                                                            the country is located between Byelorussia and the
                                                                            Kaliningrad oblast of Russian Federation, therefore, it
                                                                            houses the main transit routes from Russia and
                                                                            Byelorussia to Russian enclave. There is an enormous
                                                                            traffic of goods and people from these neighbours that
                                                                            experience a bursting HIV epidemic. As there is no visa
                                                                            requirement between Kaliningrad and Lithuania, a
                                                                            considerable number of commercial sex workers and
                 The overall incidence of tuberculosis during the past 7    drug users make the passage to Lithuania.
                 years has risen from a rate of 50.8 new cases per
                 100,000 average population to a peak of 81.4 new cases
                 in 1998, and since then it has decreased to 72.2 new
                 cases in 2000. Figure E-11 shows the pattern of tuber-
                 culosis incidence from 1993 to 2000 by residential
                 area. We see that the incidence of tuberculosis is con-
                 siderably higher in rural areas than in urban areas
                 throughout the 7-year period.

                 6.6. HIV/AIDS

                 Although HIV infection in Lithuania has not yet
                 reached epidemic proportions and remains low com-
                 pared to many European countries, the number of HIV
                 carriers is growing. The need for continued vigilance is
                 especially significant considering that CEE and the CIS    Men having sex with men are relatively vulnerable
                 region together with South-east Asia, has the fastest      group too. Hence, although the epidemic in Lithuania
                 growth of new HIV infections in the world according        is still in its beginning stage, concentrated mainly
                 to UNAIDS. The patterns of transmission are similar        among IDUs, the sexual transmission has the strongest


                 32




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01    1:19 AM   Page 33




                                                                                                                        Chapter 6
                                                                                                                          HEALTH




                                                                          In Lithuania, low HIV prevalence rate is due, among
                                                                          other things, to the existence and activities, since 1989,
                                                                          of the National AIDS Centre, which is a reflection of
                                                                          the political will existing at the highest levels of the
                                                                          Government; as well as the strong partnership between
                                                                          the authorities, civil society, private sector and the
                                                                          media to tackle the epidemic at all fronts. However,
                                                                          the level of awareness may not necessarily translate in
                                                                          the same manner to all the decision-makers or to all
                                                                          parts of the country. Therefore, advocacy work, the
                                                                          efforts towards building working coalitions will have to
                                                                          continue. The experience gained in Lithuania is valu-
                 potential of increase. This projection is supported by   able, and may be useful for other countries. Although
                 the fact that the majority of HIV positive persons are   national action is a must, HIV/AIDS and drugs are
                 younger than 30 and the major share of new infections    cross-border issues and will have to be treated that way.
                 occur mostly among young people under 25.                UN system has played a significant role in dealing with
                 Therefore, the youth as the most sexually active group   the governance dimensions of the epidemic and will
                 are seen as a whole in need of special consideration.    continue to do so.




                                                                                                                                 33




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 34




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                                                                               Along with the economic difficulties caused by the
                 EDUCATION                                                     recession in recent years, and advocacy for the stronger
                                                                               role of the family has contributed to a decreasing num-
                 An investment in the intellectual development of the          ber of nurseries and day care centres in the country.
                 nation is the foundation for sustainable human devel-         The number of seats in those establishments was
                 opment. The increasing figures of GDP spent on edu-           reduced in urban areas from 169,000 in 1990 to
                 cation in Lithuania indicate that it is a priority area for   68,000 in 1995 (in rural areas from 40,500 to 9,300
                 the nation. The reforms within the education system           respectively). The number of children in pre-school
                 have adhered to the principles of democratisation, lib-       institutions decreased from 163,000 in 1990 to 90,000
                 eralisation and integration into the European education       in 1995, but increased to 96,000 in 1999.
                 system. The principles of humanism, national identity
                 and openness are permanently being developed as well.
                 The educational reforms are expected to speed up the
                 formation of free, independently thinking and acting
                 individuals and a civil, open and democratic society.




                                                                               The data indicates that the pre-reform enrolment rates
                                                                               for this age group are already achieved in urban areas,
                                                                               but they are still quite low in rural areas. The number
                                                                               of the available pre-school facilities is the restrictive fac-
                                                                               tor in this type of education. There were 116 children
                 The Constitution guarantees free state education irre-        in pre-school establishments per 100 available seats in
                 spective of gender, nationality, social background, belief    1999, and waiting lists are common.
                 or place of residence. According to the household surveys
                 carried out by the Department of Statistics, private          7.2. Compulsory education, as set by the Law on
                 spending in 1999 covered only 4% of total education           Education, is 10 years (to the age of 16). Compulsory
                 budget. However free education of foreigners having per-      education is free of charge, apart from partial payments
                 manent residence in the country on protection grounds         for the textbooks. Free lunches are served for children
                 remains to be rather a declaration than a daily reality.      from socially vulnerable families (e.g. families receiving
                                                                               social assistance or unemployment benefits, having
                 7.1. Increased enrolment, one of the most impor-              three or more children and single-parent families).
                 tant indicators of how an education system functions is
                 the involvement of the population in the learning             From 7 to 10 years old children attend primary school
                 process. The increasing percent of GDP allocated to           and from 11 to 16 years old basic or lower secondary
                 public education, from 4.8 % of GDP in 1993 to                school. According to the data from the Department of
                 6.5 % in 1999, corresponds to the recovery and even           Statistics, there were 4.1% of children aged 7-15
                 increase of children enrolment ratio. The net primary         (21,000) out of school in 1998. Compulsory education
                 enrolment ratio of children between 7-10 of age               of children from socially deprived families is among the
                 increased from 91.1 % in 1996 to 94.8 % in 2000.              biggest concerns. Local municipalities and NGOs are
                 Similarly, the ratio for net secondary enrolment for the      active in assuring the basic education for children from
                 age group 11-18 increased from 83.9 % in 1996 to              poor or dysfunctional families. Constant monitoring of
                 88.4 % in 2000. In addition, there has been a decrease        enrolment by age, regions and social groups is very
                 in the number of drop-outs not reaching grade 5 (10           important in order to develop and implement more tar-
                 years), from 1.98 in 1993 to only 0,41 in 2000.               geted educational policies.


                 34




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:19 AM    Page 35




                                                                                                                              Chapter 7
                                                                                                                           EDUCATION




                 A unique feature of the education system in Lithuania        The majority of young people (more than 95%) in
                 is the right of Lithuanian residents speaking Slavic lan-    Lithuania continue education after compulsory school.
                 guages to use mother tongue as a main language in            About 70% of this age group enter general secondary
                 compulsory education. 7.7% of pupils in basic schools        schools and about 30% join vocational schools to get
                 used Russian and 3.8% Polish language for studying           professional training. The percentage of girls studying
                 main subjects during year 1999-2000. Such percentage         in secondary schools is higher than boys (57% of pupils
                 is rather high taking into account that there were only      are females), while boys make up for higher percentage
                 8.1% Russians and 6.9% Poles in Lithuania in 1999.           in vocational schools (60% of pupils are males). The
                                                                              percentage of children seeking higher education is
                 Among the positive changes in the education system,          lower in less developed or distant regions and among
                 increasing demand for studying foreign languages             children from poor families. Social differences are
                 should be noted. Training in western languages has           becoming even more important, when college or uni-
                 increased since Lithuania regained independence. More        versity education is concerned.
                 and more students acknowledge the importance of
                 being able to use foreign languages. The most popular        Primary and secondary schools are funded from local
                 languages are English and Russian, followed by               government and district budgets. The school budgets of
                 German and French.                                           many local governments are at a deficit and are sup-
                                                                              ported by grants from the state budget. Deficit financ-
                 7.3. ICT in schools, some secondary schools have             ing does not guarantee that teachers' salaries are paid on
                 computer classes but it is not the case in the majority of   time, nor does it guarantee the means for acquiring and
                 them. As it was stated in the Lithuanian Human               maintaining equipment and facilities. The largest part
                 Development Report 2000, between 1998 and 1999,              of school financing goes towards paying salaries and
                 there was one computer for every 55 pupils in grades 5       utilities. The fact that local governments have unequal
                 to 12. Information technology classes were given in          financial resources also means that they finance teaching
                 84% of urban schools and just 16% of rural secondary         aids and facilities differently, despite the fact that basic
                 schools and gymnasiums (15 to 18 years). The figures         and secondary schools are required to guarantee a uni-
                 for basic schools are 21% and 5% respectively. Scarcity      form, state-designed standard of education.
                 of financing and lack of qualified teachers is usually
                 blamed for inadequate computer literacy. Insufficient        7.4. Students in higher education, the dynam-
                 investment in education, as far as computer instalment       ics of higher education follow the same pattern as the
                 in schools is concerned, does not allow the younger          majority of social-economic indicators of the country.
                 generation to fully benefit from the advances in new         Admissions to higher schools increased by 4,700 in
                 technology. Technical assistance from international          1999. About 85% of graduates from secondary school
                 donors may significantly shorten the distance to the e-      continued their studies in higher schools in 1998 com-
                 world.                                                       pared to only 65% in 1992.




                                                                                                                                       35




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 36




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 Apart from quantitative changes there are qualitative       financial situation of many educational institutions is
                 improvements in the educational system as well.             aggravated by the delays and partial fulfilment of gov-
                 International academic degrees of Bachelor, Master and      ernment financial obligations along with increase in the
                 Doctorate have been introduced. Lithuania joined the        price of goods and services. Furthermore, educational
                 UNESCO Convention acknowledging higher educa-               reforms were readjusted because of cutbacks in funding
                 tion diplomas from other European countries in 1994.        for the education sector due to the economic recession.
                 Students' rights are being protected by an independent      The government did not start to finance the pro-
                 NGO, the Lithuanian Students' Union. The Students'          gramme on the modernization of the curriculum, the
                 Union works along the principle that "education is a        pace of school computerization was slowed down, and
                 right, not a privilege".                                    there were no funds for the government programme on
                                                                             the training of social teachers. Also, state funds for
                                                                             summer recreation programmes and the prevention of
                                                                             juvenile crime have been cut.

                                                                             7.5. Educational reform, the following priority
                                                                             goals have been formulated for the second stage of the
                                                                             education reform: the modernization of teaching and
                                                                             the curriculum and improvement in the quality of
                                                                             education; improvement in the social and pedagogical
                                                                             conditions for education; and the harmonization of
                                                                             the education system. Application in practice of the
                 The majority of students in higher schools study free of    principle of equal opportunities is among the priori-
                 charge and receive small stipends. On the other hand,       ties of the country as well. The integration of disabled
                 the number of students receiving stipends is decreasing,    children into the education system has to be contin-
                 while the number of students paying tuition fees is         ued. Districts differ essentially in providing educa-
                 increasing. For example, 87% of students received           tional opportunities. Furthermore, the data indicates
                 stipends in 1993, 68% in 1996 and only 59% in 1999.         that rural-urban differences in education are most
                 Number of students paying tuition was increasing from       noticeable even at the pre-school level. Balanced
                 3,500 in 1995 to 7,100 in 1997 and to 19,800 (about         regional education development should be stimulated
                 24% of all students) in 1999. Thus study at higher          and supported by financial reforms. The establish-
                 schools is becoming increasingly dependent on a stu-        ment of the National Forum on Education, which
                 dent's standard of living, given that access to loans for   brings together the major stake-holders, convened
                 education is limited.                                       with assistance from UNESCO and UNDP in 2001,
                                                                             is a step in the right direction for Lithuania towards
                 Thus, in spite of obvious achievements in educational       the implementation of the recommendations of the
                 reform, there are some areas of concern. In practice, the   Dakar Plan of Action.
                 education system has been short of funds. The difficult
                                                                             The UN organizations that are present in Lithuania,
                                                                             according to their specific mandates could offer policy
                                                                             advice and international expertise in the educational
                                                                             sector to the Lithuanian government and to help build-
                                                                             ing partnerships with possible donors. Furthermore,
                                                                             problem areas in education, those as indicated in the
                                                                             CCA, are regarded as crosscutting issues, therefore pos-
                                                                             sible help and proposals for their solution could be
                                                                             incorporated into various other programmes (for exam-
                                                                             ple within health, human rights, poverty eradication
                                                                             and other programmes) that the UN agencies develop
                                                                             or implement in Lithuania.


                 36




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01      1:19 AM     Page 37




                                                                                                                                   Chapter 8
                                                                                                                            ENVIRONMENT




                                                                                   protection management; analyses the direction and pace
                 ENVIRONMENT                                                       of economic growth; formulates long-term goals, sets out
                                                                                   priorities; develops a short and middle term action pro-
                 Environmental protection is a highly important factor             gramme; suggests financing sources. The overriding goal
                 in determining the extent of human development and                of Lithuania's environmental protection strategy is to
                 the sustainability of economic growth. The principal              guarantee the country's balanced and sustainable devel-
                 guarantor of ecological safety in Lithuania is the state,         opment, which will maintain a healthy natural environ-
                 working together with NGOs and the rest of society.               ment and protect biological and scenic diversity, ensur-
                 The main body responsible for the formulation and                 ing the beneficial utilisation of natural resources. Air and
                 implementation of environmental protection policy is              water quality are highlighted as priority issues of con-
                 the Ministry of Environment.                                      cern, as well as hazardous waste management, protection
                                                                                   from physical pollution, prevention of natural landscape
                 8.1. Environmental policy. The standards and                      degradation, protection of ecologically sensitive and nat-
                 norms adopted in Lithuania are conditioned by nation-             ural areas, optimisation of land use and forest structure.
                 al policy as well as by obligations under international
                 conventions and agreements. Lithuania has approved                8.3. Environmental quality indicators remained
                 the principles of sustainable development encapsulated            stable in the past years. Since 1991, atmospheric pollu-
                 in the resolution of the UN Conference on                         tion in Lithuania has decreased. Problems, however,
                 Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro                     such as acid rain, ozone layer depletion, climate change,
                 (UNCED).                                                          which are typical for most countries are characteristic
                                                                                   for Lithuania, too. Like in most other countries, trans-
                 The country has joined key international agreement and            port, energy and industry are major air pollution
                 conventions on environment policy development:                    sources in Lithuania. The biggest source of air pollution
                 · The Convention on Biological Diversity,
                                                                                   are transport emissions: around 70 percent in 1995, an
                 · The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment
                   of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Convention),                   increase by 11 thousand tons as compared with 1992.
                 · The Convention on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution,
                 · The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
                 · The Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and
                   Montreal Protocol.



                 The Law on Environmental Protection was passed in
                 1992 laying down the basic principles of environmen-
                 tal protection in Lithuania. The Law determines the
                 responsibility of State institution, foresees environmen-
                 tal impact assessment and prescribes the polluter-pays
                 principle. There are many other laws, governmental
                 decrees, and regulatory measures aimed at protecting
                 environment and natural resources. The majority of
                 environment standards and norms applied in Lithuania
                 fully satisfy international requirements, and a number
                 of them are even more stringent.

                 8.2. Environmental management is based on the
                 formulation and implementation of programs and strate-
                 gies. The first National Environmental Protection
                 Programme was drawn up in 1992. Lithuanian State
                 Strategy for Environmental Protection together with the
                 Action Plan was approved by the Parliament in 1996.
                 The Strategy evaluates environmental conditions and


                                                                                                                                            37




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 38




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 Ground water pollution has been detected in almost             Although in the EU reports Lithuania is listed as one of
                 one third of the country's area. Around 800 thousand           the countries that has achieved noticeable results in
                 inhabitants consume water from dug wells where                 environmental protection, good evaluation does not
                 nitrates exceed permitted limits. In some localities,          always reflect the real situation, and especially in the
                 such as the site of Jonava Achema Company, or oil              regions and localities. There is still no adequate district
                 storage facilities in Vilnius, Alytus, Marijampole,            level partner to participate in decision-making on
                 Svencionys as well as the former Soviet military sites'        development issues. It is the national structures which
                 ground water is heavily polluted with nitrates 30 to           are most developed, while regional structures are just
                 120 times exceeding the Highest Permissible                    barely beginning to materialize. The same could be said
                 Concentrations (HPC); and oil products.                        about broad public and NGO involvement into envi-
                                                                                ronmental problem solving and decision-making. No
                 In 1995, approximately 300 million m3 of untreated             strong working relations between NGOs and national
                 waste water were discharged to surface water bodies -          government has been established yet.
                 26 percent of this amount were treated to reach the
                 requirements of discharge standards, 56 percent were           In particular, close co-operation between decision-mak-
                 insufficiently treated and 18 percent were discharged          ers and the civil society is needed in order to achieve
                 untreated. The main cause of surface and ground water          sustainable development as well as multisectoral
                 contamination is insufficient treatment of municipal           approach to development processes. A good sign of the
                 and industrial waste waters as well as non-point source        integration of the environment protection into other
                 pollution.                                                     policies is the establishment of a National Commission
                                                                                on Sustainable Development (CSD) in 2000, headed
                 Domestic wastes stream is noticeably growing due to an         by the Prime Minister.
                 increasing use of food products' and household goods'
                 packaging, particularly disposable packaging. Domestic         Nevertheless, steps towards sustainable development in
                 wastes are practically not sorted out, thus nearly all are     some environmental areas are still insufficient and will
                 dumped.                                                        need additional government and public attention in
                                                                                order for conceptual decisions to be made and changes
                 In 1995, in Lithuania 153 000 t of hazardous wastes            in action plans to occur. Implementation of some pro-
                 were generated. Prohibited and old pesticides represent        grams in environment protection is a concern in sectors
                 a specific problem. Today 954 storage facilities contain       requiring heavy investments.
                 around 4000 t of pesticides of which nearly 2200 t have
                 been attributed to either prohibited, old or unidenti-         In this respect, UN assistance is of major relevance.
                 fied ones. During 1989-1995, 26 pesticide storage              UNDP, together with GEF and its Small Grants
                 facilities were on fire. 1700 t of hospital waste after dis-   Program for NGOs, provide a solid basis for institu-
                 infection are taken to domestic waste dumping sites            tional capacity building and facilitate bringing invest-
                 together with other domestic wastes.                           ments into the country's environment.




                 38




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:19 AM    Page 39




                                                                                                                              Conclusion:
                                                                                                 Prioritiesfor the UN System in Lithuania




                                                                               · In the implementation of the obligations in relation
                 CONCLUSION:                                                     to goals set by the UN global conferences,
                 PRIORITIES FOR THE UN                                         · In areas where the UN has and/or mobilize com
                                                                                 parative advantage and expertise, and;
                 SYSTEM IN LITHUANIA                                           · In areas of concern for the country's sustainable
                                                                                 development that are identified in the Common
                 The UN system agencies in Lithuania are recognized as           Country Assessment and in line with national
                 significant development partners despite the limited            priorities.
                 number of agencies represented and global resource
                 constraints that has characterized overseas development       On the implementation of results with respect to the
                 assistance during recent years. Technical co-operation        Global Conferences, UN support can be offered in the
                 from the UN system has contributed to the realization         provision of methodological advice, policy guidance
                 of national priorities in several key areas of economic       and the promotion of the widest possible NGO
                 and social development since the establishment of the         involvement and public participation both through
                 UNDP and UN Resident Coordinator's office in 1992.            advocacy and action at the ground. The UN assistance
                 The UN has been most successful in supporting capac-          can facilitate the process of adherence by the country to
                 ity building and institutional strengthening both at          the International Conventions and Action Plans agreed
                 national and decentralized levels, including the civil        upon at these international forums and, inter alia, it
                 society; and has played a catalytic role in bringing          will enable Lithuania to have better access to interna-
                 together different partners around common objectives.         tional funding mechanisms created for these purposes.
                 The UN has maintained a pro-active profile in raising
                 public awareness on issues of sustainable human devel-        The support and assistance provided by the UN where
                 opment ranging from environmental protection to the           comparative advantage and expertise exist, or where UN
                 prevention of HIV/AIDS and engaged in wide-ranging            can identify and make available such knowledge, will
                 advocacy activities, as well as collaborating with others     allow the decision-makers for a more systematic consid-
                 in relevant areas. In all such interventions, co-ordina-      eration of the various dimensions of the articulation of
                 tion between the UN entities has been emphasized with         national policy measures. This could be especially rele-
                 a view to unleash maximum synergies and to undertake          vant in respect to the National Development Plan
                 more efficient and cost-effective operations. The UN in       (NDP) for the period 2002-2004. The internal coher-
                 Lithuania enjoys political support at the highest levels      ence and consistency of the NDP can be enhanced
                 of the State and Government. Co-operation has been            through a consultative process that would bring together
                 particularly satisfying in advisory services related to the   different sectoral ministries as well as other national
                 promotion and formulation of social-economic poli-            stakeholders. The financial mechanisms for the imple-
                 cies, reforms of the judicial system and support to the       mentation of the NDP could also benefit from leverag-
                 follow-up of the Global Conferences of the nineties,          ing national, multinational and bilateral funds that may
                 culminating with the Millennium Summit. Today, ten            be available. This linkage between multi-dimensional
                 years after the reinstitution of independence and the         policies and the integration of development plans into
                 acknowledged progress in adapting to a market econo-          parliamentary and budgetary processes is essential for
                 my, whereas the overall framework of co-operation             achieving the desirable results.
                 remains the same in terms of priorities, the context is
                 quite different.                                              There are some areas of concern for sustainable human
                                                                               development in Lithuania as identified in this Common
                 All UN agencies active in Lithuania have been                 Country Assessment. The UN agencies that are present
                 focussing their interventions in accordance with their        in Lithuania often have available expertise and knowl-
                 specific mandates. Within the framework of the                edge of dealing with similar issues relevant for countries
                 Resident Co-ordinator System, this has also translated        going through transition from a regional or internation-
                 into sponsoring joint activities in overlapping areas. In     al perspective. The CCA identifying the key areas of
                 relation to these specific mandates and their strengths,      concern in development, provides a foundation in
                 the UN system assistance will continue to be:                 ensuring that Lithuania benefits to the maximum extent


                                                                                                                                        39




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:19 AM   Page 40




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 from the interventions of the UN agencies. Poverty          mitments undertaken at the Millennium Summit.
                 eradication measures, promotion of human rights and         Poverty in Lithuania is not engrained - the point is to
                 good governance, mainstreaming gender, support to           prevent it from becoming a structural issue. In relation
                 economic reforms and social security policies, environ-     to the other goals of the Declaration, Lithuania is also
                 mental protection are among the areas where assistance      quite ahead. The established quantitative targets have
                 from UN system can be further used by Lithuania fol-        already been achieved. Therefore, the emphasis is on
                 lowing the successful co-operation that has character-      quality rather than quantity when it comes to equal
                 ized the relationship from the very beginning.              access to education, health services and so on. National
                                                                             strategies on poverty eradication, sustainable develop-
                 Due to the limited amount of resources available for a      ment and education will have to be integrated and for-
                 medium-income country such as Lithuania, the UN             mulated through participatory processes. Capacity
                 agencies need to focus their attention in certain priori-   building at the national/central level must go hand in
                 ties areas where they have proven comparative advan-        hand with capacity building at the municipal level and
                 tages. This would involve support to pilot activities and   on the part of the civil society. Media and the private
                 policy advice in the areas that are identified in the CCA   sector must be brought in to the development debate as
                 and the respective co-operation frameworks and proj-        advocates, supporters and funders together with other
                 ects of the UN agencies, funds and programmes in the        elements of the civil society. The needs of the ageing
                 implementation of follow-up to global UN confer-            population must be met while taking care that the
                 ences. Successful future co-operation of the UN System      expectations of the youth are met. In all of this, UN is
                 implies building partnership with other donors, with        there as a partner, advisor, advocate and facilitator.
                 the Government and civil society, as well as the private
                 sector and the media. Taking into account Lithuania's       The other dimension of Lithuania's human develop-
                 goal to become full member of the EU with the first         ment standing among the nations of the world is that is
                 wave of candidate countries, among priorities in co-        has a lot to contribute to the global progress. UN organ-
                 operation may be capacity building and enhancing            isations must make an effort that the knowledge existing
                 national execution of the initiatives that were success-    and experiences gained in Lithuania is used elsewhere;
                 fully undertaken or implemented with the assistance of      and Lithuania must be supported in its development as
                 the UN, inter alia, to accompany Lithuania through          an emerging donor and in the context of East-east co-
                 the accession process and beyond. These three aspects       operation. Lithuania is already a member of the WTO,
                 of UN assistance are promoted and applied to ensure         and is expected to join NATO and the EU shortly as
                 ownership of the activities being undertaken, and           mentioned previously. Therefore, UN technical co-
                 their future sustainability.                                operation in Lithuania should be even more focused in
                                                                             sustainable human development and calibrated to meet
                 With Lithuania's classification among the High Human        the specific, sophisticated needs of the country while
                 Development category of countries in UNDP's Human           supporting it to be prepared as a donor itself in the not-
                 Development Report 2001, and the country's imminent         so-distant future. Being a donor should not be seen only
                 entry into the European Union, the UN/Lithuania rela-       in terms of finances and expertise either - it is also sup-
                 tionship has entered a new era. It is clear that there is   port for the implementation of international goals
                 still work to be done, especially at a time when major      world-wide. In the era of globalization, the enormous
                 European donors to Lithuania are directing their sup-       potential that this represents for improving living stan-
                 port through the EU mechanisms and others are pulling       dards must be balanced with universally recognized val-
                 out, for the UN System. It is commendable that              ues. The United Nations can help the process by work-
                 Lithuania, together with other European nations, has        ing with the Lithuanian authorities and the public,
                 decided to prepare a National Action Plan for the           together with other partners of Lithuania, to advocate a
                 Eradication of Poverty with a view to sustainable and       better world for all as Lithuania strengthens its effec-
                 equitable growth for current and future generations.        tiveness and presence as a dynamic member of the com-
                 This is very much in line with the international com-       munity of nations.




                 40




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01      1:20 AM    Page 41




                                                                                                                                       Annex
                                                                                                         KEY STATISTICAL INDICATORS




                 ANNEX: KEY STATISTICAL INDICATORS

                 Contextual data

                 INCOME POVERTY:
                 Poorest fifth's share of national consumption.                  7.9%


                 NUTRITION:
                 % of household income spent on food for the poorest quintile.   The poorest quintile spent on food 60.8% of total
                                                                                 consumption expenditure or 54.8 of disposable income.


                 HEALTH:
                 Maternal mortality rate.                                        8.8 (per 100.000 births)
                 Contraceptive prevalence rate.                                  11%


                 GENDER EQUALITY:
                 Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education.                  0.98


                 HOUSING:
                 No. of persons per room, or average floor area per person.      Average useful floor space
                                                                                 per capita 22,1 m2.


                 ENVIRONMENT:
                 GDP per unit of energy use.                                     -
                 Arable land per capita.                                         0.79 ha


                 2000:
                 GDP                                                             44929.8 mill. litas
                 Gross domestic savings as % of GDP.                             14.7%
                 Share of exports in GDP.                                        45.5%
                 Share of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in GDP.        3.4%
                 % of public expenditure on social services in GDP.              24.0%
                 Public expenditure on social service                            10787.2 mill. litas
                 Public expenditure includes:                                    expenditure of central and local government,
                                                                                 expenditure of Health insurance fund,
                                                                                 expenditure of Social security fund.
                 Social services covers:                                         education affairs and services;
                                                                                 health care affairs and services,
                                                                                 social security and welfare affairs and services,
                                                                                 recreational, cultural and religious affairs and services.




                                                                                                                                              41




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:20 AM    Page 42




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 Government budget
                 Indicators                                                 1995          1996           1997      1998          1999
                 General government expenditure % GDP         1
                                                                            30,7          29,1           29,8      33,7          34,7
                 General government revenues % GDP        2
                                                                             30           28,1           30,8      32,2          31,8
                 Total tax burden % GDP                                     28,6          26,8           29,5      30,6           30
                 1
                   Excluding capital expenditure and privatisation revenue.
                 2
                   Excluding capital revenue.


                 Economic development
                 Indicators                                                1993  1994    1995    1996     1997    1998 1999 2000
                 GDP at current prices, mill.litas                        11590* 16904   24103   31569    38340   42990 42655 44930
                 GDP at current prices, mill.USD                           2662* 4227     6026    7892     9585   10747 10664 11232
                 change, over previous year, at constant prices 1995, %    -16,2  -9,8     3,3     4,7      7,3    5,1   -3,9  3,3
                 GDP at current prices,by county, mill.litas
                      Alytus                                                                     1459      1753   1884    1886
                      Kaunas                                                                     6163      7744   8526    8369
                      Klaipëda                                                                   3916      4556   5189    5262
                      Marijampolë                                                                1333      1635   1812    1536
                      Panevëþys                                                                  2792      3359   3532    3143
                    Ðiauliai                                                                     3064     3636    3654 3545
                    Tauragë                                                                       824      871     928   909
                    Telðiai                                                                      1410     1658    1863 1829
                    Utena                                                                        1611      1882   2109 2064
                    Vilnius                                                                      8997     11246   13492 14113
                 GDP by county, mill.USD
                    Alytus                                                                        365       438     471  471
                    Kaunas                                                                       1541      1936    2131 2092
                    Klaipëda                                                                      979      1139    1297 1315
                    Marijampolë                                                                   333      409     453   384
                    Panevëþys                                                                     698      840     883   786
                    Ðiauliai                                                                      766       909     914  886
                    Tauragë                                                                       206       218     232  227
                    Telðiai                                                                       352       414     466  457
                    Utena                                                                         403       471     527  516
                    Vilnius                                                                      2249      2811    3373 3528
                 GDP per capita by PPP US $                                       4600   4900    5300      5900    6300 6200
                    change, %                                                             6,5     8,2      11,3     6,8  -1,6
                 GDP per capita, litas (at current prices)                3107*   4543   6488    8510     10347   11611 11529 12157
                 GDP per capita, USD                                       714*   1136   1622    2128      2587    2903 2882 3039
                    change, over previous year, %                           -16   -9,5    3,5     4,9       7,4     5,2  -3,8  3,4
                 GDP per capita, by county, thous.litas
                    Alytus                                                                        7,2       8,7    9,3     9,3
                    Kaunas                                                                        8,2      10,3   11,3    11,1
                    Klaipëda                                                                      9,4       11    12,5    12,7
                    Marijampolë                                                                   6,7       8,2   9,1     7,7
                    Panevëþys                                                                     8,6      10,4    11     9,8


                 42




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:20 AM    Page 43




                                                                                                                             Annex
                                                                                                       KEY STATISTICAL INDICATORS




                 Indicators                                               1993    1994   1995   1996    1997   1998   1999   2000
                       Ðiauliai                                                                  7,6      9     9,1    8,8
                       Tauragë                                                                   6,3     6,7    7,1     7
                       Telðiai                                                                   7,7     9,1   10,2    10
                       Utena                                                                      8      9,3   10,5   10,3
                       Vilnius                                                                   10     12,6   15,1   15,8
                 GROSS VALUE ADDED by sector, %
                       Agriculture, hunting and forestry, fishing (A+B)   14,2    10,7   11,7   12,2    11,7   10,3    8,4    7,6
                       Industry (C+D+E)                                   34,2     27    26,1   25,8    25,2   23,9   22,9   26,2
                       Construction (F)                                   5,1     7,2    7,1    7,1      7,7    8,6    7,9    6,2
                       Services                                           46,5    55,1   55,1   54,9    55,4   57,2   60,8    60
                 Employed by sector, %
                       Agriculture, hunting and forestry, fishing (A+B)   22,5    23,4   23,8   24,2    21,8   21,5   20,2   19,6
                       Industry (C+D+E)                                   25,7    22,4   21,2   20,1     20     20    19,8   20,1
                       Construction (F)                                   7,1     6,6     7     7,2     7,1    7,1    6,6    6,1
                       Services                                           44,7    47,6    48    48,5    51,1   51,4   53,4   54,2
                 Inflation:
                 December compared to December of previous year           188,7   45,1    35,7  13,1  8,4   2,4   0,3   1,4
                 Annual inflation (year on year)                          410,2   72,2    39,6  24,6  8,9   5,1   0,8   1,0
                 Current account deficit % to GDP                          -3,1   -2,1   -10,2  -9,2 -10,2 -12,1 -11,2  -6,0
                 Exports, mill.litas                                      8707    8077   10820 13420 15441 14842 12015 15238
                   by country, %
                       Russian Federation                                 33,1    28,2    20,4   24   24,5  16,5    7   7,1
                       Germany                                             6,8    11,5    14,4  12,8  11,4  13,1   16   14,3
                       Belarus                                             7,4     6,5    10,8  10,2  10,3   8,8  5,9    2,9
                       Latvia                                              7,3     8,4     7,1   9,2   8,6  11,1 12,8   15,0
                       Ukraine                                            11,2     6,1     7,5  7,7    8,8   7,8  3,7    4,4
                       Netherlands                                         2,8     5,2     4,9  3,3    2,8   2,5  3,5    4,8
                       Poland                                               7       5      3,9   3,2   2,3    3   4,5    5,5
                       United Kingdom                                      1,6     2,3     3,1  2,8    3,2   3,5  5,1    7,8
                       Italy                                               2,2     1,9     1,9   2,7   3,1   4,1  4,2    2,3
                       Denmark                                             1,5     1,7     2,7   2,6   3,4   4,1  6,2    4,9
                       Estonia                                             2,5     2,5     2,2  2,5    2,5   2,6  2,4    2,3
                       Sweden                                              1,8     3,1     2,5   1,7   1,9   2,6  4,2    4,4
                       France                                              0,8     1,2     1,7  1,6    2,2   3,5  4,7   4,4
                       USA                                                 0,3     0,6     0,7   0,8   1,6   2,8   4,4   4,9
                 Others                                                   13,7    15,8    16,2  14,9  13,4   14   15,4  15,1
                   Imports, mill.litas **                                 9798    9356   14594 18235 22577 23174 19338 21826
                   by country, %
                       Russian Federation                                                       29,0    25,3   21,2   20,1   27,4
                       Germany                                                                  15,4    17,5   18,2   16,5   15,1
                       Belarus                                                                   2,4     2,3    2,2    2,2   1,8
                       Latvia                                                                    1,7     1,7    1,8    2,0    1,6
                       Ukraine                                                                   3,3     2,1    1,9    1,5    1,5
                       Netherlands                                                               2,0     2,2    2,2   2,3    2,3
                      Poland                                                                    4,4      4,9   5,5    5,7    4,9


                                                                                                                                   43




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:20 AM   Page 44




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 Indicators                                           1993       1994     1995      1996      1997   1998 1999 2000
                        United Kingdom                                                               3,3       3,4    3,7   4,2    4,5
                        Italy                                                                        3,8       4,1    4,4   4,1    3,6
                        Denmark                                                                      3,6       3,8    3,8   3,9    3,1
                        Estonia                                                                      1,3       1,3    1,5   1,5    1,2
                        Sweden                                                                        3,1      3,3    3,7    3,4    3,4
                        France                                                                       2,1       2,8    3,4   3,6    4,2
                        USA                                                                           2,6      2,9    2,9    3,8    2,4
                        Others                                                                       22,0     22,4   23,6   25,2   23,0
                 Foreign direct investment, mill.litas                 136        125      290       610      1418   3702 1946 1516
                 Stock of direct investment capital at the end of year, mill.litas        1406      2801      4162   6501 8252 9337
                 Foreign debt end of year, mill.USD                              496,2    839,8 1203,0       1401,8 1684,4 2428,8 2474,3
                 * 1 litas = 0.25 USD From 25 June 1993.
                 ** Imported goods by country are broken up according to the county of origin of goods.


                 Employment
                 Indicators                                                                                 1997   1998   1999    2000
                 Employment, by Labour force survey
                 Labour force participation, %                                                              61,5   61,7   61,9    60,4
                  urban                                                                                      63    63,6   64,5    62,8
                  rural                                                                                     58,3   58,2    57     55,9
                  age group
                     14-19                                                                                  21,4   17,8   16,2    12,3
                     20-24                                                                                  70,9   69,4   69,2    63,8
                     25-29                                                                                  85,5   89,1   89,7    88,4
                     30-34                                                                                  87,3   90,6   92,7    88,1
                     35-39                                                                                  91,5   92,4   93,7    88,7
                     40-44                                                                                  94,7   94,3   95,1    91,3
                     45-49                                                                                  93,7   93,4   91,8    89,1
                     50-54                                                                                   84    86,5   90,2     87
                     55-59                                                                                  58,7   60,6   62,7    62,8
                     60-64                                                                                   25    24,1    26      27
                     65-69                                                                                   9,2    10     9,5    12,9
                     70+                                                                                    5,5     4,3    3,3     5,2
                  males                                                                                     70,3   69,6   69,2    67,1
                  females                                                                                   53,9   54,9   55,7    54,8
                 Employment rate,%                                                                          52,8   53,5   53,2    51,2
                  urban                                                                                     52,9   54,4   53,9    52,3
                  rural                                                                                     52,6   51,8   51,9    48,8
                  age group
                     14-19                                                                                  13,9   12,9   11,2     7,2
                     20-24                                                                                  55,4   55,1   51,7     47
                     25-29                                                                                  73,5   76,9   77,7    76,8
                     30-34                                                                                   76    76,6   78,8    73,2
                     35-39                                                                                  81,1   81,1   81,5    77,9
                     40-44                                                                                  81,3   83,7   81,3    78,4


                 44




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01    1:20 AM   Page 45




                                                                                                               Annex
                                                                                           KEY STATISTICAL INDICATORS




                 Indicators                                   1993   1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000
                      45-49                                                               80,7   81,8   82,3   76,9
                      50-54                                                               73,5   76,8   78,8   72,2
                      55-59                                                               52,8   55,4   56,9   54,7
                      60-64                                                                25    23,5   25,4   25,2
                      65-69                                                                9,2    10     9,5   12,6
                      70+                                                                  5,5    4,3    3,3     5
                   males                                                                  60,3   59,6   58,4   55,5
                   females                                                                46,4   48,2   48,7   47,5
                 Unemployment rate (official),
                 by Labour Exchange data, %                   4,4    3,8    6,1    7,1     5,9    6,4    8,4   11,5
                   males                                       5     3,8    5,7    6,6     5,6    6,2    8,5   12,3
                   females                                    3,7    3,8    6,6    7,7     6,3    6,6    8,2   10,8
                 Unemployment rate (Labour force survey), %                               14,1   13,3   14,1   15,4
                   urban                                                                  15,9   14,4   16,5   16,7
                   rural                                                                   9,8   11,1     9    12,8
                   age group
                      14-19                                                               34,9   27,4   30,9    43
                      20-24                                                               21,8   20,6   25,2   26,4
                      25-29                                                               14,1   13,7   13,3   13,1
                      30-34                                                               12,9   15,4    15     17
                      35-39                                                               11,4   12,2    13    12,1
                      40-44                                                               14,1   11,2   14,5   14,1
                      45-49                                                               13,9   12,4   10,4   13,7
                      50-54                                                               12,4   11,2   12,6    17
                      55-59                                                               10,1    8,6    9,2    13
                      60-64                                                                0,2    2,5    2,3    6,6
                      65-69                                                                      0,5            2,5
                      70+                                                                                       4,1
                   males                                                                  14,2   14,3   15,6   17,3
                   females                                                                13,9   12,2   12,6   13,3
                 Youth unemployment rate, %                                               25,2   22,2   26,5    29
                   urban                                                                  28,3   24,9   31,1   28,5
                   rural                                                                  19,9   18,4   19,7   29,9
                   males                                                                  27,4   23,5   27,9   30,8
                   females                                                                21,9   20,3   24,6   26,3
                 Duration of unemployment, %                                              100    100    100    100
                      1-6 months                                                          26,9   37,7   48,1   38,5
                      7-12 months                                                          23    32,6   31,7   27,7
                      13 months and more                                                  50,1   29,7   20,2   33,8
                   urban                                                                  100    100    100    100
                      1-6 months                                                          27,6   36,4    49    39,7
                      7-12 months                                                         21,5    33    32,4   27,9
                      13 months and more                                                  50,9   30,6   18,6   32,3
                   rural                                                                  100    100    100    100
                      1-6 months                                                          24,2    41    46,8   34,9


                                                                                                                      45




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:20 AM   Page 46




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 Indicators                                                            1997    1998     1999       2000
                      7-12 months                                                      28,7    31,5     25,8       27,1
                      13 months and more                                               47,1    27,5     27,4       37,9
                   Males                                                                100     100      100        100
                      1-6 months                                                       28,2    39,3     47,5       36,9
                      7-12 months                                                      24,8      31     30,5       29,2
                      13 months and more                                                47     29,7      22        33,9
                   Females                                                              100     100      100        100
                      1-6 months                                                       25,4    35,8     48,9       40,6
                      7-12 months                                                        21    34,5     33,2       25,6
                      13 months and more                                               53,6    29,7     17,9       33,8
                 Percentage of employment with a second job                             7,9     6,6      8,6         7


                 Wages and salaries
                 Indicators                                          1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
                 Average gross wages and salaries, litas              166 325 481 618 778 930 987 1008*
                 change over previous period                              95,9 47,8 28,6 25,9 19,5 6,2   2,1
                 Average gross wages and salaries by county, litas
                   Alytus                                                       448      545   701 844       888
                   Kaunas                                                       456      590   738 865       915
                   Klaipëda                                                     500      654   801 950      993
                   Marijampolë                                                  379      498   625 755      771
                   Paneveþys                                                    436      558   721 851      880
                   Ðiauliai                                                     421      531   676 807      812
                   Tauragë                                                      380      475   607 724      793
                   Telðiai                                                      449      615   782 936      1008
                   Utena                                                        550      692   832 982      1031
                   Vilnius                                                      543      695   877 1061     1138
                 change over previous period, %
                   Alytus                                                               21,7   28,6   20,4 5,2
                   Kaunas                                                               29,4   25,1   17,2 5,8
                   Klaipëda                                                             30,8   22,5   18,6 4,5
                   Marijampolë                                                          31,4   25,5   20,8 2,1
                   Paneveþys                                                             28    29,2    18 3,4
                   Ðiauliai                                                             26,1   27,3   19,4 0,6
                   Tauragë                                                               25    27,8   19,3 9,5
                   Telðiai                                                               37    27,2   19,7 7,7
                   Utena                                                                25,8   20,2    18 5,0
                   Vilnius                                                               28    26,2    21 7,3
                 Average net wages and salaries, litas               128   251 363      467    577    684 722      716*
                 change over previous period, %                            96,6 44,5    28,7   23,5   18,6 5,7     -0,9
                 Average net wages and salaries by county, litas
                   Alytus                                                       341      418   526    627   657
                   Kaunas                                                       346      448   550    641   675
                   Klaipëda                                                     375      490   592    697   726
                   Marijampolë                                                  295      387   476    568   580


                 46




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:20 AM    Page 47




                                                                                                                                   Annex
                                                                                                      KEY STATISTICAL INDICATORS




                 Indicators                                                      1993 1994 1995 1996 1997          1998    1999 2000
                   Paneveþys                                                                333 427 539             632     651
                   Ðiauliai                                                                 323 409 509             603     607
                   Tauragë                                                                  296 372 464             548     594
                   Telðiai                                                                  342 465 579             688     736
                   Utena                                                                    408 515 612             718     751
                   Vilnius                                                                  404 517 642             770     822
                 change over previous period, %
                   Alytus                                                                           22,7    25,6    19,3    4,8
                   Kaunas                                                                           29,4    22,8    16,5    5,3
                   Klaipëda                                                                         30,7    20,7    17,8    4,2
                   Marijampolë                                                                      31,2    22,8    19,5    2,1
                   Paneveþys                                                                        28,2    26,2    17,2     3
                   Ðiauliai                                                                         26,6    24,4    18,3    0,7
                   Tauragë                                                                          25,7    24,6    18,2    8,4
                   Telðiai                                                                           36     24,7    18,8     7
                   Utena                                                                            26,3    18,8    17,3    4,6
                   Vilnius                                                                          28,2    24,1     20     6,8
                 Labour costs (for employer), litas                               216    423 625 804       1012    1209    1283 1320*
                 Tax wedge, %                                                     40,9   40,7 42 41,9        43     43,4   43,7 45,8*
                 Official minimum standard of living, litas                      29,7    50,1 69,2 90,8    110,8   123,3    125 125
                 change over previous period, %                                  130,8   68,7 38,1 31,2      22     11,3    1,4   0
                 Official minimum monthly earning, litas                         32,7    56,5 134,6 240    374,2   417,5    430 430
                 change over previous period, %                                   141    72,8 138,2 78,3    55,9    11,6     3    0
                 * Provisional data.

                 Income
                 Indicators                                                                    1996    1997    1998       1999 2000
                 Average disposable income
                   Level (per capita per month, litas)                                        326,7    368,9   422,5 428 415,4
                   Change over previous year                                                            12,9    14,5  1,3   -2,9
                   Household head men                                                         342,2    375,5   435,3 442    425
                   Household head women                                                       302,8    358,5   403,7 406,4 403,2
                   Urban                                                                      352,7    403,1   463,5 475,2 464,9
                   Rural                                                                      268,9    298,4   336,3 327,1 311
                 Average household consumption expenditures
                   Level                                                                      348,1    382,6   426,8    425,4     404,4
                   Change over previous year                                                            9,9    11,6      -0,3      -4,9
                   Household head men                                                         359,9    388,8    435     431,8     407,5
                   Household head women                                                        330     372,7   414,8    415,5     400,4
                   Urban                                                                      373,3    413,9   466,7    469,5      443
                   Rural                                                                       292     317,8    343     331,1     322,9
                 Food share in household consumption expenditures (percentages)               55,2     52,2    48,1     45,7      44,4
                 Poverty head count ratio (poverty line 50% of the consumer spending)
                   Level                                                                        18      16,6       16      15,8    16
                    Man                                                                        17,2     15,6       15      14,6   15,2


                                                                                                                                          47




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:20 AM   Page 48




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 Indicators                                                                             1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
                    Women                                                                                17,4    15,5  15,2 14,5 14,9
                    Children                                                                             20,4     20   18,9 19,8 19,6
                    Urban                                                                                14,7    12,1  10,9      9,9    10,5
                    Rural                                                                                 26     25,9  26,5 28,2 27,6
                 Type of household
                    Single person                                                                        17,6    13,4  13,1 13,1 12,8
                    Single adult with children under 18                                                  22,2    21,6   22      25,7 14,9
                    Couple with children under 18                                                        15,9     15   13,9 15,5 15,3
                    Other household with children under 18                                               24,8     24   24,8 21,9 24,1
                    Couple without children                                                              11,1    11,2   8,7      8,6     9,9
                    Other household without children                                                     17,8    14,2  15,3 14,7 15,2
                 Socio - economic group
                    Self employers in agriculture                                                        26,3    30,2   32      39,9 35,3
                    Hired workers                                                                        13,8    12,8  12,1 11,5         11
                    Self employers                                                                        8,1     7,7   5,7      7,5     7,7
                    Pensioners                                                                           25,2    22,1  20,9 19,1 20,4
                    Others                                                                               42,8    39,6  40,8 40,4 41,1
                    Poverty gap*                                                                          25      24    23       23      23
                 Composition of the poor population
                  Type of household
                    Single person                                                                         7,3     6,3   6,8      7,1     7,4
                    Single adult with children under 18                                                   5,2     5,3    7       7,4     5,1
                    Couple with children under 18                                                        31,9    31,5  31,9 36,1 33,7
                    Other household with children under 18                                               31,7    33,3  31,4 25,3 29,4
                    Couple without children                                                               7,9     9,3   7,4       8      8,6
                    Other household without children                                                      16     14,4  15,5 16,1 15,9
                 Socio - economic group
                    Self employers in agriculture                                                         9,8    12,5  12,5 15,1 15,4
                    Hired workers                                                                         48     50,5  49,3 46,6 41,9
                    Self employers                                                                        2,3     1,6   1,4      2,1     2,2
                    Pensioners                                                                           29,4     29   27,6      27     29,9
                    Others                                                                               10,6     6,4   9,1      9,1    10,6
                 Expenditure inequality
                    D10/d1                                                                                8,7     8,5    8       8,1     7,9
                    D5/d1                                                                                 5,5     5,3   5,1      5,1     5,1
                    Gini - coefficient                                                                   0,32    0,32  0,31 0,31 0,32
                                      z - poverty line; yi - consumer expenditure of poor persons; q - number of poor.
                                      1993 - 1995 data, data by country, average income shortfall, human poverty index 2 are not available.


                 Population
                 Indicators                     1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998                            1999 2000 2001
                 Population, beginning
                 of year, thous.                     3736.5 3746,9 3736,5 3724 3717,7 3711,9 3707,2 3704               3700,8 3698,5 3692,6
                   change over previous year, %        0,8   0,3 -0,3     -0,3  -0,2   -0,2   -0,1 -0,1                 -0,1   -0,1 -0,2
                   urban, %                              68,4   68,5    68,2     68      68     67,8    68,4    68,2     68,2    68,2   68,1


                 48




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01     1:20 AM     Page 49




                                                                                                                                    Annex
                                                                                                         KEY STATISTICAL INDICATORS




                 Indicators                       1990     1991 1992 1993 1994       1995 1996 1997 1998             1999 2000 2001
                   rural, %                                 31,6 31,5 31,8     32      32 32,2 31,6 31,8             31,8 31,8 31,9
                 Dependency ratio                                        77    77      77  76    75   73               72   70
                 Divorces, per 100 marriages                             59   47      46   55   60   64               64   64
                   urban                                                 65    54      53  60    60   63               72   73
                   rural                                                 44    33      32  46    61   65               45   46
                 Suicides, rate per 100.000 inhabitants                 42,1 45,8    45,6 46,4  44   42              41,9 44,1
                   urban                                                 34    37    37,1  36    34 32,7             31,1 33,7
                   rural                                                59,6 64,4    63,5 68,7 65,7 61,8             65,3 66,4
                   males                                                73,5 81,9    79,1 79,3 77,1 73,6             73,8 75,6
                   females                                              13,9 13,4    15,6 17,1 14,5 13,7             13,6 16,1
                 Immigration                     14744     11828 6640 2850 1664      2020 3025 2536 2706             2679 1510
                   change over previous period, %                       -57   -42      21  50   -16   7                -1  -44
                 Emigration                      23592     20703 28855 15990 4246    3773 3940 2457 2130             1369 2616
                   change over previous period, %                       -45   -73     -11   4   -38  -13              -36  91
                 Refugees number (officially recognised)                        -       -   -     -   6                28   11  15

                 Crimes
                 Indicators                                            1993   1994     1995     1996      1997     1998     1999    2000
                 Prisoners rate per 100.000                             278    344      358      329       368      389      390     258
                 change, %                                              4.9   23.7      4.1      -8.1     11.9       5.7    0.26    -33.8
                 Juvenile prisoners (percentage as of total prisoners)  4.2    4.3      3.9      3.6        4       3.1       2.7    2.1
                 change, %                                             -8.7    2.4     -9.3      -7.7     11.1     -22.5    -12.9   -22.2
                 Homocides and attempt rate per 100.000 inhabitants 12.9      14.1     13.5     10.9      10.6      9.6       9.3   10.8
                 change, %                                             59.3    9.3     -4.3     -19.3     -2.8      -9.4     -3.1    16.1
                 Drug crimes per 100.000 inhabitants                    8.1     9      10.6     13.8        17     16.7     18.8    25.1
                 change, %                                             26.6   11.1     17.8     30.2      23.2      -1.8    12.6    33.5
                 Reported rape rate per 100.000 inhabitants             5.3    4.4      5.4      4.5       4.5      4.5       6.1     5
                 change, %                                              3.9    -17     22.7     -16.7        0        0     35.6     -18
                 Crime rate rate per 100.000 inhabitants               1619   1576     1637     1835      2046     2111     2084    2229
                 Registered crimes rate per 100.000, change              7    -2.7      3.9     12.1      11.5      3.2      -1.3     7


                 Social security
                 Indicators                                               1993    1994 1995 1996           1997     1998    1999    2000
                 Average old age pension (per month), litas                55,7   108,3 147    189         239,9    286,2   309,1   311,9
                   change over previous period, %                         176,6    94,4 35,8 28,5           26,9     19,3      8     0,9
                 Number of old age pension recipients, thous.             656,8   658,4 656,8 655,3         651      648    644,6   644,5
                   change over previous period, %                          -4,9     0,3  -0,2  -0,2         -0,7     -0,5    -0,5   -0,02
                 Total expenditures old age pension % of GDP                3,8     5,1   4,7  4,7           4,9      5,3     5,7    5,4*
                 Average disability pension, litas                         53,8   104,3 139,3 176,8        221,9     261    278,9   279,6
                   change over previous period, %                          194      94   33,6 26,9          25,5     17,6     6,9     0,2
                 Number of disability pension recipients, thous.          129,1   131,3 139,2 147          152,2    158,8   165,9   173,6
                   change over previous period, %                           5,3     1,7    6    5,7          3,5      4,3     4,5     4,6
                 Total expenditures disability benefits % of GDP           0,7       1     1     1           1,1      1,2     1,3    1,3*
                 Average social assistance benefit, litas                          21,9   40    47          56,8     57,5    60,4    64,1
                   change over previous period, %                                        82,7     17,5     20,9       1,2     5,1    6,1



                                                                                                                                            49




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01        1:20 AM   Page 50




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 Indicators                                                      1993    1994 1995 1996           1997    1998 1999 2000
                 Number of social assistance benefit recipients, thous.                  115,3 131,2 135,9        111,7    99 101,8 115,2
                   change over previous period, %                                               13,8  3,6         -17,8   -11,4 2,8 13,2
                 Total expenditures social assistance benefits of GDP, %                   0,3  0,3   0,2           0,2    0,2   0,2   0,2*
                 Average uneployment benefit, litas                                       51,2 79,3 122,1         173,1   187,6 191,4 186,9
                   change, %                                                                     55   54            42     8,4    2    -2,3
                 Number of unemployment benefit recepients, thous.               20,9    18,2 34,1 35,6           21,9    19,5 24,7 32,3
                   change, %                                                     260      -13    87   4,4          -38     -11   27     31
                 Total expenditures unemployment benefit % of GDP                0,06     0,06 0,13 0,16           0,12   0,11 0,14 0,18*
                 Total expenditures social security % of GDP                      8,1      9,7  9,5   9,9           10    11,2 12,2 11,9
                 * Provisional data.


                 Health
                 Indicators                                        1991 1992     1993     1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000
                 Life expectancy at birth, total                                 69,06    68,71   69,29    70,5   71,41   71,78   72,33   72,87
                   males                                           65,28 64,92   63,26    62,73   63,53   64,97    65,9    66,5   67,07   67,62
                   females                                         76,07 76,02   75,01    74,89   75,15     76    76,82   76,87   77,41   77,93
                   urban                                           71,78 71,69   70,32    69,76   70,37   71,83   72,82   73,26   74,09   74,37
                   rural                                           68,49 68,15   66.59    66,41   67,03   67,85   68,63   68,94   69,15   70,08
                 Mortality rate, total (per 1000 population)                     12,3     12,5    12,2    11,6    11,1      11    10,8    10,5
                   by cause (per 100.000 population)
                   diseases of circulatory sistem                                671,5    654,4   654,3   633,2   613,9    602     592    566,4
                   accidents, poisoning, trauma                                  167,5    185,9    176    157,6   146,9   144,7   142,4   138,1
                   neoplasms                                                     202,6    202,3   204,9   204,3   201,4   207,4   211,9   211,4
                 Mortality rate, urban (per 1000 population)                      9,7      10,1    9,9     9,3     8,9     8,9     8,7     8,7
                   by cause (per 100.000 population)
                   diseases of circuliatory system                               501,9    509,3    497     477    466,9   461,9   459,7   447,6
                   accidents, poisoning, trauma                                  149,5    162,3   152,7   132,5   122,5   119,9   113,9   115,6
                   neoplasms                                                     176,5    180,9   184,1    183    180,7   184,6   187,6   190,2
                 Mortality rate, rural (per 1000 population)                      18      17,5     17     16,4    15,8    15,6    15,3    14,4
                   by cause (per 100.000 population)
                   diseases of circuliatory system                               1034     962,5    987    966,5   930,2   902,2   875,5   820,6
                   accidents, poisoning, trauma                                  206,1     236    225,4   211,3   199,5   197,9   203,5   186,1
                   neoplasms                                                     258,5    247,9    249    249,8    246    256,1   264,1   256,9
                 Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births)                    15,4     14,0    12,4    10,0    10,3     9,2     8,6     8,5
                   change over previous period, %                                 -7        -9     -11     -19      3      -11     -7      -1
                   urban                                                         13,6      13     11,8     9,4     8,8     8,1     7,6      8
                   rural                                                         18,7     15,7    13,6    11,1    12,8    11,1    10,3     9,2
                 Child (under five) mortality rate ( per 1000 live births)        19      18,4    16,2    13,2    13,2     12     11,2    11,6
                   change over previous period, %                                 -5        -3     -12     -19      -       -9     -7       4
                   urban                                                         16,4     16,6    14,7    12,2     11     10,3     9,2    10,6
                   rural                                                         23,9     21,5      19    14,9     17     14,8    14,7    13,2
                 Tuberculosis (per 100.000 people) newly registered patients     50,8     63,0    63,6    70,3    79,0    81,4    76,9    72,2
                   urban                                                         50,7     61,7    61,3    67,5    75,0    78,7    70,4    58,4
                   rural                                                         51,1     65,7    68,4    76,3    85,8    87,4    91,0    72,9
                 Total fertility rate                                                                                                     1,28


                 50




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01     1:20 AM     Page 51




                                                                                                                                             Annex
                                                                                                                   KEY STATISTICAL INDICATORS




                 Indicators                                        1991 1992 1993 1994 1995                    1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
                 Pysicians(per 100.000 population)                                    393,4 403,0 397,0        398,2 398,4 395,1 394,2 380,0
                 Dentists (per 100.000 population)                                     53,0     50,4    46,9    46,1   58,1   61,0   62,3  66,2
                 Paramedical personnel (per 100.000 population)                      1071,3 1077,4 1070,6      1067,8 1039,0 1025,9 1043,7 999,7
                 Prevalence of drug abuse                                                                                                  83,3
                 Contraceptive prevalence rate (hormonal contraception)*                                 4,1
                 Contraceptive prevalence rate (IUDs)*                                                   17
                 Visits to physicians (thous.)                                       30323 28899 26356,8       25314 26743,4 24506,5 24466,1 22155,5
                   change,%                                                             -6       -5      -9      -4      6      -8     -0,2    -9
                 Visitis to dentists, (thous.)                                                 4810,2 4481     4346,6 5224,1 4438,3 4274,4 4052,6
                   change,%                                                                              -7      -3     20     -15      -4     -5
                 Notified cases of HIV                                                   4        9      11      12     31     52       66     65
                 Abortion rate (per 1000 live births)**                               743,4 718,5 763,8        711,5 601,1 568,7 521,2 481,1
                   change, %                                                            -2       -3       6      -7    -15      -5      -8     -8
                 Maternal Mortality rate (per 100.000 births)                                                                                  8,8
                 * % of all women in reproductive age according to the Family and Fertility Survey 1994-1995
                 ** Legaly induced abortations rate. Spontaneous miscarriage excluded.


                 Education
                 Indicators                                                      1993 1994 1995                    1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
                 Adult literacy rate, %                                                                                           99,4
                   male                                                                                                           99,6
                   female                                                                                                         99,3
                 Net primary enrollment ratio % of 7-10 theoretical age group                                      91,9 91,8 91 93,1 94,8
                 Net secondary enrollment ratio % of 11-18 theoretical age group                                   83,9 85,4 86 87,2 88,4
                 Net past-secondary non tertiary enrollment ratio % of 19-20
                 theoretical age group                                                                               2,2 2,5      2,8 2,9 3,7
                 Net tertiary enrollment ratio % of 91-24 theoretical age group                                     17,9 20,9    23,6 26,1 28,4
                 Combined net enrrolment ratio % of 16-24 age group                                                 37,7 42,6    46,8 51,6 55,7
                 Drop outs-children not reaching grade 5                         1,98 0,46 0,74                     0,5 0,43     0,35 0,24 0,41
                 Public education expenditure % of GDP                            4,8  5,6 5,6                      5,4 5,7      6,4 6,5     6


                 Environment
                 Indicators                                       1993      1994 1995  1996   1997   1998   1999 2000
                 CO2, mill.tonnes per year                          25        25  18    19     19     19     18
                 SO2 - total, thous. tonnes per year               125       117  94    93     77     94     70
                 Major protected areas, % of national territory 11,1        11,1 11,1  11,2   11,4   11,4   11,5   11,5
                 Generation hazardous waste, tonnes              215382 130483 153129 101040 131643 131496 105593 89849*
                 * Since 2000 - new calculation of waste.
                 The missing data of year 2000 will be published in autumn.




                                                                                                                                                  51




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:20 AM   Page 52




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 SELECTED REFERENCES
                 UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM:
                 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United nations :                                                http://www.fao.org
                 International Atomic Energy Agency:                                                                    http://www.iaea.org
                 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development :                                        http://www.worldbank.org
                 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development in Lithuania :                             http://www.worldbank.lt
                 International Court of Justice :                                                                     http://www.icj-cij.org
                 International Labour Organization :                                                                       http://wwwilo.org
                 International Monetary Fund :                                                                           http://www.imf.org
                 International Monetary Fund in Lithuania :                                             http://www.un.lt/IMF/default.htm
                 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS :                                                      http://www.unaids.org
                 United Nations :                                                                                         http://www.un.org
                 United Nations Children's Fund :                                                                     http://www.unicef.org
                 United Nations Development Programme :                                                                http://www.undp.org
                 United Nations Development Programme in Lithuania :                                        http://www.undp.lt/index.htm
                 United Nations Development Fund for Women :                                                  http://www.unifem.undp.org
                 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Orgnization :                                   http://www.unesco.org
                 United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights:                                                 http://www.unhchr.ch
                 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees :                                                       http://www.unhcr.ch
                 United Nations Industrial Development Organization:                                                http://www.unido.org
                 United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention :                                       http://www.undcp.org
                 United Nations Population Fund :                                                                     http://www.unfpa.org
                 United Nations Research Institute for Social Development :                                          http://www.unrisd.org
                 United Nations University :                                                                            http://www.unu.edu
                 World Health Organization :                                                                            http://www.who.int
                 World Trade Organization :                                                                              http://www.wto.org


                 International Organization for Migration:                                                            http://www.iom.int


                 EUROPE:
                 Council of the Baltic Sea States :                                                               http://www.baltinfo.org
                 European Bank for Reconstruction and Development :                                                   http://www.ebrd.org
                 European Central Bank :                                                                                http://www.ecb.int
                 European Commission :                                                                         http://europa.eu.int/comm
                 European Council :                                                                                        http://ue.eu.int
                 European Parliament :                                                                         http://www.europarl.eu.int
                 European Union :                                                                                http://www.europa.eu.int
                   Development DG :                                                        http://www.europa.eu.int/pol/dev/index_en.htm
                   Economic and Monetary Affairs DG :                                    http://www.europa.eu.int/pol/emu/index_en.htm
                   Employment and Social Affairs DG :                                    http://www.europa.eu.int/pol/socio/index_en.htm
                   Enlargement DG :                                                     http://www.europa.eu.int/pol/enlarg/index_en.htm
                   External Relations DG :                                                 http://www.europa.eu.int/pol/ext/index_en.htm
                   European Commission Delegation to Lithuania:                                                       http://www.eudel.lt




                 52




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd    11/20/01    1:20 AM   Page 53




                                                                                                    SELECTED REFERENCES




                 LITHUANIA :
                 Citizens Advice Bureau :                                                                     http://www.lrs.lt
                 Lithuanian centre for Human Rights:                                                       http://www.lchr.lt
                 Lithuanian National Committee for UNICEF:                             http://www.un.lt/UNICEF/index.htm
                 Lithuanian UNESCO National Commission:                                         http://www.un.lt/UNESCO
                 Lithuanian Parliament (Seimas) :                                                        http://www.seimas.lt
                 Ministry of Agriculture :                                                                 http://www.zum.lt
                 Ministry of Education and Science :                                                      http://www.smm.lt
                 Ministry of Environment :                                                               http://www.gamta.lt
                 Ministry of Foreign Affairs :                                                             http://www.urm.lt
                 Ministry of Finance :                                                                  http://www.finmin.lt
                 Ministry of Health :                                                                       http://www.sam.lt
                 Ministry of Internal Affairs :                                                             http://www.vrm.lt
                 Ministry of Justice :                                                                       http://www.tm.lt
                 Ministry of Social Security and Labour :                                               http://www.socmin.lt
                 Non-governmental organization Information and Support Centre NISC :                        http://www.nisc.lt
                 Nordic Council of Ministers Information Office in Vilnius                                  http://www.nmr.lt
                 Open Society Fund :                                                                         http://www.osf.lt
                 Social Policy Unit :                                                                        http://www.spg.lt
                 Women's Issues information Center :                                                 http://www.undp.lt/wiic




                                                                                                                             53




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor
   maketas.qxd     11/20/01       1:20 AM   Page 54




                 Pro g re s s Fo r A l l
                 COMMON COUNTRY ASSESSMENT FOR LITHUANIA




                 LIST OF ACRONYMS
                 AIDS             Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
                 CCA              Common Country Assessment
                 CCF              Country Co-operation Framework
                 CIS              Commenwealth of Independent States
                 CSD              Commission on Sustainable Development (in Lithuania)
                 EBRD             European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
                 ECHR             European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
                 EU               European Union
                 FAO              Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
                 GDP              Gross Domestic Product
                 GEF              Global Environment Facility
                 GVA              Gross value added
                 HDR              Human Development Report
                 IAEA             International Atomic Energy Agency
                 IBRD             International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
                 ICT              Information and Communication Technologies
                 IDU              Injecting Drug Users
                 IMF              International Monetary Funds
                 IOM              International Organization for Migration
                 MSSL             Ministry of Social Security and Labour (in Lithuania)
                 NGO              Non-governemental Organization
                 PHARE            Pologne Hongrie Assistance aux Réformes Economiques
                 PPP              Purchasing power parity
                 SPU              Social Policy Unit
                 UNAIDS           Joint United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS
                 UNCED            United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
                 UNHCR            United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
                 UNDG             United Nations Development Group
                 UNDP             United Nations Development Programme
                 UNESCO           United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Orgnaization
                 UNFPA            United Nations Population Fund
                 UNICEF           United Nations Children's Fund
                 UNIFEM           United Nations Development Fund for Women
                 UNS              United Nations System
                 WB               World Bank
                 WIIC             Women's Issues Information Center
                 WHO              World Health Organization
                 WTO              World Trade Organization




                 54




PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:11
posted:11/8/2011
language:English
pages:54