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					 NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
 Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


 NUP DFS / Lufthansa Simulation Workshops

Experiences from the NUP-2 Simulation Workshops:
• Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA)
• Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)



                                                             Objectives:
                                                             •   Look and Feel of potential Spacing
                                                                 applications for the future Frankfurt approach
                                                                 environment
                                                             •   Evaluation of the controller acceptance of
                                                                 Spacing Applications
                                                             •   Evaluation of a potential applicability of
                                                                 Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) or
                                                                 Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
                                                                 in the future Frankfurt approach environment



                                                        September 2005 / Slide 1
                                  Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
 NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
 Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


 NUP DFS / Lufthansa Simulation Workshops



Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA)




                                           similar to
                                           Visual Separation on Approach (VSA)
                                                        September 2005 / Slide 2
                                  Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


Frankfurt Approach Sector: Working arrangements


                                      OTKUR
                                                                                                                          GED
             Pick-up North
                                                                                                                                DF018
                                          ETARU
                                                                        DF470                    MTR         DF016
  OSMAX                                                                                                                          DF020
                                                                                                                                  DF040
               EPINO
                                                                             DF011
                                                                                                                  DF042           DF038
                                                                                                   DF043
                LAGES
                                                                DF082                 LEDKI               DF034
                                                                                                  DF484

                                 ROKIM                                                   DF480

                                                                                                       CHA                      PSA



                                                                          Pick-up South



                                                       September 2005 / Slide 3
                                 Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
    NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
    Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


    EVA proposed phraseology

     Visual Following Procedure                                                           EVA Procedure
             without CDTI                                                                   using CDTI
Controller:                                                             Controller:
Lufthansa 123, Traffic to follow is a Company                           Lufthansa 123, Confirm visual identification of
Airbus 320 in your 12 o„clock position, range 4                         Delta Lima Hotel 234.
nautical miles. Report when aircraft in sight.

Pilot after visual identification:                                      Pilot after checking CDTI and visual identification:
Aircraft in sight, Lufthansa 123.                                       Confirm visual Identification of Delta Lima Hotel
                                                                        234, Lufthansa 123.

Controller:                                                             Controller:
”Lufthansa 123, maintain own visual separation to                       ”Lufthansa 123, maintain own visual separation
traffic twelve o‟clock. 3 miles. Company A320.”                         to Delta Lima Hotel 234.”

Pilot:                                                                  Pilot:
”Traffic in sight, maintaining own visual separation,                   ”Delta Lima Hotel 234 in sight, maintaining own
Lufthansa 123.”                                                         visual separation, Lufthansa 123”


                                                DLH 234
 DLH 123

                                                           September 2005 / Slide 4
                                     Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
    NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
    Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


    EVA proposed phraseology

     Visual Following Procedure                                                           EVA Procedure
             without CDTI                                                                   using CDTI
Controller:                                                             Controller:
Lufthansa 123, Traffic to follow is a Company                           Lufthansa 123, Confirm visual identification of
Airbus 320 in your 12 o„clock position, range 4                         Delta Lima Hotel 234.
nautical miles. Report when aircraft in sight.

Pilot after visual identification:                                      Pilot after checking CDTI and visual identification:
Aircraft in sight, Lufthansa 123.                                       Confirm visual Identification of Delta Lima Hotel
                                                                        234, Lufthansa 123.
                                                                                    VSA conform
Controller:
The participating controllers and pilots do                             Controller:  Procedure
”Lufthansa 123, maintain own visual separation
not support the VSA conform procedure, to                               ”Lufthansa 123, maintain own visual separation
                                                                        Controller:
traffic twelve o‟clock. 3 miles. Company A320.”                         to Delta Lima Hotel 234.”
because it does not support the requirement                             Lufthansa 123, Confirm visual identification of
for a reduction of communication workload
Pilot:                                                                  Delta Lima Hotel 234.
                                                                        Pilot:
”Traffic in sight, maintaining own visual separation,                   ”Delta Lima Hotel 234 in sight, maintaining own
Lufthansa 123.”                                                         Pilot after checking CDTI and visual identification:
                                                                        visual separation, Lufthansa 123”
                                                                        Confirm visual Identification of Delta Lima Hotel
                                                                        234. Range 4 nautical miles, 12 o‟clock,
                                                DLH 234                 Lufthansa 123.
 DLH 123

                                                           September 2005 / Slide 5
                                     Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
     NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
     Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


     Conclusions from the EVA Workshops

1.    The EVA application was highly accepted by the participating controllers and
      pilots assuming the use of the simplified phraseology:
      Controller:
      ”Lufthansa 123, maintain own visual separation to Delta Lima Hotel 234.”

      Pilot:
      ”Delta Lima Hotel 234 in sight, maintaining own visual separation, Lufthansa 123”



2.   Third Party Identification via Voice Communication is still to be resolved.

3.   Procedure Mix between EVA (with CDTI) and Visual Following Procedure
     (without CDTI) seems to be possible.



                                                 DLH 234
 DLH 123

                                                            September 2005 / Slide 6
                                      Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


NUP DFS / Lufthansa Simulation Workshops



Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)




                                                       September 2005 / Slide 7
                                 Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


Frankfurt Approach Sector: Working arrangements


                                      OTKUR
                                                                                                                          GED
             Pick-up North
                                                                                                                                DF018
                                          ETARU
                                                                         DF470                  MTR         DF016
  OSMAX                          Tasks for the AAS Simulation Session:                                                           DF020
                                 - Sequencing of Aircraft                                                                         DF040
               EPINO             - (Handling of Sequences)
                                                                             DF011
                                                                                                                  DF042             DF038
                                                                                                    DF043
                LAGES
                                                                 DF082                LEDKI               DF034
                                                                                                  DF484

                                 ROKIM                                                      Tasks for the AAS Simulation Session:
                                                                                         DF480
                                                                                              - Sequencing of Aircraft
                                                                                                    CHA             PSA
                                                                                              - (Handling of Sequences)


                                                                           Pick-up South



                                                        September 2005 / Slide 8
                                 Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
 NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
 Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


 Spacing Functionality

1. Distance based Spacing / Time based Spacing


                                                                     Spacing x NM / x sec


2. Track Mode Spacing / Navigation Mode Spacing
                          Track Mode Spacing


                                                          Spacing x NM / x sec
    switch to Navigation Mode Spacing
    as soon as the aircraft is established on ILS




3. Altitude Changes


                                                          Point of Descent of the preceding aircraft


                                                                   Aircraft is able to follow 3D-track of the
                                                                   preceding aircraft incl. altitude changes
                           Spacing x NM / x sec



                                                        September 2005 / Slide 9
                                  Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
       NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
       Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


       Phraseology used for the Simulation




 Initiation Phase
ATC:    AZA400, expect spacing with TYR263V
A/C:     Expect spacing with TYR263V, AZA400


 Identification Phase
ATC:   AZA400, select target TYR263V
A/C:   Select target TYR263V, AZA400
A/C:   Target selected, AZA400


 Instruction Phase
ATC:   AZA400, remain 3 NM behind target
A/C:   Remain 3 NM behind target, AZA400



                                                             September 2005 / Slide 10
                                        Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
       NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
       Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


       Subjective Workload: Pick-Up Controller

                                                                               OTKUR
                                                                                                                   GED
                                                                 Pick-up North
                                                                                    ETARU

                                                         OSMAX

                                                                 EPINO



                                                                  LAGES

 Initiation Phase
ATC:    AZA400, expect spacing with TYR263V                                 ROKIM

                                                                                                             CHA         PSA
A/C:     Expect spacing with TYR263V, AZA400
                                                                                                   Pick-up South
 Identification Phase
ATC:   AZA400, select target TYR263V
A/C:   Select target TYR263V, AZA400
A/C:   Target selected, AZA400
                                                                           Related tasks of the Pick-Up Controllers:
 Instruction Phase                                                         • Sequencing of Aircraft
                                                                           • (Handling of Sequences)
ATC:   AZA400, remain 3 NM behind target
A/C:   Remain 3 NM behind target, AZA400



                                                             September 2005 / Slide 11
                                        Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
       NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
       Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


       Subjective Workload: Pick-Up Controller

                                                                                   Selection of appropriate aircraft
                                                                                         (similar performance)
  high voice communication workload
  during the Initiation / Identification /                                 Vectoring of aircraft to the initial position to
           Instruction Phases                                                             initiate Spacing

                                                                                         Increasing Subjective Workload
 Initiation Phase
ATC:    AZA400, expect spacing with TYR263V
                                                         Conclusion                                 Possible vectoring of
                                                                                                    trailing aircraft
A/C:     Expect spacing with TYR263V, AZA400
      Adding the increasing and the decreasing effects of the subjective controller workload,
             the handling of sequences still significantly increased
 Identification Phase
ATC:                  the subjective workload of the Pick-Up Controller
        AZA400, select target TYR263V
A/C:    Select target TYR263V, AZA400
       Decreasing Subjective Workload
A/C:    Target selected, AZA400                                                    Monitoring instead of Vectoring
                                                                                        for all following aircraft
 Instruction Phase
ATC:    AZA400, remain 3 NM behind target
A/C:    Remain 3 NM behind target, AZA400                                  Vectoring of first              Monitoring of all
                                                                           aircraft                        following aircraft only


                                                             September 2005 / Slide 12
                                        Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
 NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
 Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


 Subjective Workload: Feeder Controller




Related tasks of the Feeder Controller:
• Handling of Sequences




                                                       September 2005 / Slide 13
                                  Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
  NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
  Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


  Subjective Workload: Feeder Controller
• Feeder has to control the first aircraft in the sequence                              (similar subjective workload as today)
• High effort to monitor the last aircraft in the sequence, because                     (increased subjective workload)
      • the aircraft is not under „direct“ control of the controller,
      • but the controller has to separate the following aircraft
        relative to the last aircraft in the sequence

 • Very low effort to monitor additional aircraft in the sequence                       (very low subjective workload)

                                                    Conclusion
                      The more aircraft in a sequence
                           The higher the Reduction in Workload




                                                        September 2005 / Slide 14
                                   Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
  NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
  Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


  Effects: First Come - First Serve

 Difficulties to respect the “First come - First serve“ principle
 loss of flexibility (evolving gaps can‟t be used any more)




                                                          Today: alternating aircraft from North / South
                                                          Future: alternating sequences from North / South

                                                        September 2005 / Slide 15
                                   Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
  NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
  Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


  Effects: Time based / Distance based Spacing

• Early speed reductions because of long sequences on final:
  Speed reduction of the first aircraft effects all following aircraft in the sequence

• Distance based Spacing:              Strong effect

• Time based Spacing:                  Less (but still visible) effect

                                                                               waste of rare airspace
                                                                               non-economic aircraft configuration
                                                                               (leaving clean configuration early)




                                                                                                      time-based

                                 distance-based




                                                        September 2005 / Slide 16
                                   Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)


Conclusions from the AAS Workshops

Effects on Subjective Controller Workload
Controllers reported
        • an increase of subjective workload in cases when they had to initiate sequences
        • a reduction of subjective workload in cases when sequences were transferred to them



Limitation of Flexibility
Long Sequences resulted in a limitation of flexibility
(limitation of the applicability of the „First Come – First Serve“ principle)



Distance based Spacing vs. Time based Spacing
Distance based spacing  early speed reduction
Time based spacing  large spacing distances at high speeds




                                                                September 2005 / Slide 17
                                        Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH
 NUP Phase 2 – Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) and Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)
 Workshop Objectives • Extended Visual Acquisition (EVA) • Airborne Approach Spacing (AAS)




Thank you for your attention …


                                         … we would be happy to present you more of
                                           our view of the AAS application during the
                                           demonstration session in the evening




                                                       September 2005 / Slide 18
                                  Oliver Reitenbach / DFS , Matthias Groth / DLH

				
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