PauloFerrao.ppt - Civil and Environmental Engineering

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					ARW: Life Cycle Analysis for Assessing Energy and Environmental
Implications of Information Technology
         Budapest, Hungary
                  September 1-3, 2003




Life Cycle Assessment
and Ecodesign
Paulo Ferrão
                       Outline

I.   Analysis of the evolution of the historical pattern
     of environmental strategies
II. Life cycle framework- ex: electrical and
     electronic equipment
III. Industrial Ecology Framework
IV. Ecodesign/DFE: a new software tool, towards
     the new framework
V. Conclusions and …software demonstration
         Historical pattern of
       Environmental Strategies
                                                      Time and
   Historical pattern of Environmental strategies
                                                        Space

Business-as-usual
 Compliance with
 regulation                        Process oriented
 Pollution prevention

             EIA, Energy audits,
                   Envir. audits
Extended product
responsability
 Eco-efficiency
                                   Product oriented
 Design for Environment
 Life Cycle Assessment
                           LCA
                 Life cycle thinking
                                                    MSW

                                              EEE

                                        Car

            Components
                            Assembly   Use
            Manufacturing
Resources
                                                    Waste
Resources




                                                Environment
               DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC
on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

Puts the EPR policy on place for Electrical and Electronic
Equipment: The establishment, by this Directive, of producer
responsibility is one of the means of encouraging the design and
production of electrical and electronic equipment which take into full
account and facilitate their repair,possible upgrading, reuse,
disassembly and recycling.

Motivation: The amount of WEEE generated in the Community is
growing rapidly. The content of hazardous components in electrical
and electronic equipment (EEE) is a major concern during the
waste management phase and recycling of WEEE is not
undertaken to a sufficient extent.
                     DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC
    Categories of electrical and electronic equipment covered
                           ANNEX IA
1. Large household appliances
2. Small household appliances
3. IT and telecommunications equipment
4. Consumer equipment
5. Lighting equipment
6. Electrical and electronic tools (with the exception of large-scale
    stationary industrial tools)
7. Toys, leisure and sports equipment
8. Medical devices (with the exception of all implanted and infected
    products)
9. Monitoring and control instruments
10. Automatic dispensers
               DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC
on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)



 For WEEE from private households, Member States shall ensure
 that by the 13 August 2005:
 a) systems are set up allowing final holders and distributors to return such
    waste at least free of charge.
 b) when supplying a new product, distributors shall be responsible for ensuring
    that such waste can be returned to the distributor at least free of charge on a
    one-to-one basis as long as the equipment is of equivalent type and has
    fulfilled the same functions as the supplied equipment.
 c) without prejudice to the provisions of (a) and (b), producers are allowed to
    set up and operate individual and/or collective take-back systems for WEEE
    from private households provided that these are in line with the objectives of
    this Directive;
               DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC
on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)


Member States shall ensure that by 31 December 2006 at
the latest a rate of separate collection of at least four
kilograms on average per inhabitant per year of WEEE
from private households is achieved.
Regarding WEEE sent for treatment, Member States shall ensure
that, by 31 December 2006, producers meet the following targets:
 – for WEEE falling under categories 1 and 10 of Annex IA, the rate of recovery
   shall be increased to a minimum of 80 % by an average weight per
   appliance, and component, material and substance reuse and recycling shall
   be increased to a minimum of 75 % by an average weight per appliance;
 – …
                     DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC
     Financing in respect of WEEE from private households

1.    Member States shall ensure that, by 13 August 2005,producers
      provide at least for the financing of the collection, treatment,
      recovery and environmentally sound disposal of WEEE from
      private households deposited at collection facilities, set up under
      Article 5(2).
2.    For products put on the market later than 13 August 2005, each
      producer shall be responsible for financing the operations referred
      to in paragraph 1 relating to the waste from his own products. The
      producer can choose to fulfil this obligation either individually or
      by joining a collective scheme.
                                       End-of-life processing
          Component suppliers               Manufacturer        Component suppliers

Raw material producers                                               Raw material producers


                                                                 Metals

                                                                  Glass

            Re-use       Components     Dismantler               Plastics    Recycling

                                                                 Rubber

                                          WEEE                    Other
          Siderurgy          Steel
                                         Shredder          SR
          Foundry     Non-ferr met..
                                                                Energy recovery
                                         Landfill
Sample images from a shredder
                                      SR treatment methods
                                                                                                      Incineration/
          Method         Process designation                     Technology               Recycling                   Status
                                                                                                      combustion
                         Salyp system                            SR separation                yes                     Projected facility
                         Hybrid Argonne’s and RPI                SR separation                yes                     Study
                         Galloo                                  SR separation                yes          yes        Existing facility
                         Mechanical pre concentration of light   Shredder,
     SR mechanical /                                                                          yes          yes        Study
ph   ysical separation   SR                                      SR separation
                                                                 SR separation,
                         Stena                                                                yes          yes        Existing facility
                                                                 incineration
                         VW-Sicon                                SR separation                yes                     Study
                                                                 Metal separation
                         RESHMENT                                                             yes          yes        Projected facility
                                                                 New combustion
                         Co-combustion with MSW in
                                                                 Combustion                                yes        Study
                         Germany
                         Co-combustion with MSW in
     Co-combustion                                               Grid combustion                           yes        Existing facility
                         Switzerland and Germany
                         Co-combustion in cement kilns           Combustion                                yes        Study
                         Co-combustion with MSW in Spain         Combustion                                yes        Study
                                                                 Dismantling, Shredding
                         VAI metallurgical recovery                                           yes          yes        Study
                                                                 Iron production
                         Citron                                  Pyrolysis                    yes                     Exiting facility
                                                                 Fluidised bed
                         EBARA                                                                yes          yes        Exiting facility
                                                                 gasification
                         Takuma                                  Pyrolysis                    yes          yes        Existing facility
         Pyrolysis/                                              Pyrolysis
                         THERMOSELECT                                                         yes                     Study
        gasification                                             Gasification
                         SVZ Schwarze Pumpe gaseification        Gasification                 yes          yes        Study
                                                                 Distillation
                         Dry distillation/gasification of ASR                                 yes          yes        Study
                                                                 Gasification
                         Vacuum pyrolysis                        pyrolysis                                            Study
                                   Galloo
                      Recycling    Recycling          Landfill


                       ferrous    non ferrous          Foam
                       metals       metals              fluff


                      Magnetic     Heavy                            Drum
ASR        Grinding                                   Air sep.
                       sep.       media sep.                       tumbler

                                    sand &                        plastics &    residues
                                     glass                          wood


                                     Road                         Heavy
                                  construction                   media sep.

  PP & PE from
                                                                  PP & PE
other waste flows

                                                 additives        Extrusion

                                                                 compounded      Landfill
                                                                   plastic     Incineration
                                         Ebara
                                              Road
                                           construction


                                              molten
                                               slag
ASR 80%

                                             Cyclonic
             Fluidized bed   Combustible
                                            combustion    flue gas     Boiler
                gasifier        gas
                                             chamber

Sludge 20%                                                             energy


                                            Bottom ash
                 solid       Metals sep.                             Exhaust gas
                                              (glass,
               residue       equipment                                treatment
                                             stones)

                                metals                                   ash


                              Recycling                                Landfill
                              Reshment

                         Recycling


                                                  reduced iron
                           metals      oxygen                     Recycling
ASR (55%)                                           & copper


                                       Smelting      melt           Road
             Grinding   Density sep.
                                       cyclone     granulate     construction


MSW flying
                                                   Gaseous
ash (45%)                                                           Boiler
                                                     fuel


                                                                    energy




                                                  Exhaust gas
                                                   treatment
                                   Citron

                                                        Thermal
                                                        energy
ASR (60%)
              Pelletization
                                 Rotating
                                                         Gravity    Exhaust gas
                                 furnace        gases
                                                        chamber      treatment
                                Oxyreducer
iron sludge    Grinding
   (40%)
                                  Metal
                                                         Zn dust     Mercury
                               concentrates


                                 Grinding               Recycling    Recycling


                                Recycling in
                              cement industry
                             VW Sicon


                                   Granulate     Recovery in blast furnace

                                                 Recycling as dewatering
  ASR                                 Fibre
                                                          agent

                      Mechanical                 Recycling in construction
           Grinding                   Sand
                       sorting                      and nFe smelters


Other SR                             metals             Recycling


                                   Dust/sludge         Incineration
        Physical nature of the economy

                                                          Others

                                                    MSW

                                              EEE

                                        Car

            Components
                            Assembly   Use
            Manufacturing

Resources                                            Waste




                                                      Environment
            Historical pattern of
          Environmental Strategies
                                                      Time and
   Historical pattern of Environmental strategies
                                                        Space

Business-as-usual
 Compliance with
 regulation                        Process oriented
 Pollution prevention

             EIA, Energy audits,
                   Envir. audits
Extended product
responsability
 Eco-efficiency
                                   Product oriented
 Design for Environment
 Life Cycle Assessment
                           LCA

Industrial Ecology
 Creating loop closing
  industrial ecosystems            Systems Oriented
 Promoting waste exchanges
 Cascading energy utilization
Towards a physical economy



Are there tools available
to support policy making
in the new framework?
                                          Others

                                        MSW

                                  EEE

                            Car
Components
                Assembly   Use
Manufacturing
                            Bulk- MFA

                                            Others

                                          MSW

                                    EEE

LCA                         Car
Components
                Assembly   Use
Manufacturing




        SFA                       MFA
                                Materials Flow Analysis


                                                      Air              Air
      Foreign hidden flows                           Water            Water

                  Imports                                                                Exports
TMR                          Domestic          DMI           Stocks           Domestic
                             extraction                                       output
                                                                                              Environmental
                                                             Economy                          burdens

                             Domestic hidden flows



                                                      ENVIRONMENT

                                                                                           * Matthews et al. (2000)
                Evolution of DMI vs. GDP
                                    (1988-1997)




Adapted from Bringezu and Schütz, 2000, Total Material Requirement of the European Union,
European Environment Agency, Technical report No 55.
Portuguese DMI evolution
               Portuguese DMI: Domestic/Imported

           200.000

           150.000
1000 ton




           100.000

            50.000

                 0
                 1960    1965   1970   1975    1980   1985     1990     1995
                                              Year
           Domestic - Non-Renewable     Domestic - Renewable          Imports

           • Almost all non-renewable domestic extraction is due to Rock,
           Clay and Clay extraction for construction
           •Imports: mainly fossil fuels
                       Portuguese DMI dynamics
                                       Portugal

             170,0             Metabolism time scale, from infraestructure to   use
             160,0
             150,0
(1990=100)




             140,0
             130,0
             120,0
             110,0
             100,0
              90,0
                 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
                   DPO to land (MSW)              Year
                   DPO to air (CO2)
                   Total DMI
                   GDP (US$, 1990)
      Environmental indicators framework


Enhance the capability of the decision making
process
Integrating physical and economical indicators,
environmental impacts and policies with
causality-effect relations


Requires appropriate Indicators Framework
                     Indicators framework: DPSIR
                                                                                  Risk assessment costs
                    Effectiveness                                                 and benefits of action/in
                    of responses                                                  action
                                                Responses


                             Effectiveness
                             of responses                         Effectiveness
        Drivers                                                   of responses
                                                                                             Impact

                                                Effectiveness
                                                of responses

Eco-efficiency                                                                                 Dose response
indicators and                                                                                 indicators and
emissions factors                                                                              relationships


                          Pressures                                        State



                                       Pathways and dispersion models
                           DPSIR framework
                                                               are useful to calculate pressures
            are the underlying factors                         indicators, to help decision-
Drivers     that influence a variety of       very static      makers to plan action and to
            relevant variables                                 serve as basis for scenario
                                                               development

            describe the variables that                        due to their celerity,
                                               should be
Pressures   directly cause environmental
                                              responsive
                                                               demonstrate the effectiveness
            burdens                                            of policy actions


                                                               Used to do a first assessment of
            show the current condition       have a great
State       of the environment                  inertia
                                                               the situation, and to answer the
                                                               question where do we stand?

                                                               formalize the cause-effect
            describe the ultimate          react even slower
                                                               relationships, are more scientific
Impact      effects on the environment        than state
                                                               “decision models” rather then
            or changes of state               indicators
                                                               statistical indicators

                                                               monitor the measures taken to
            demonstrate the efforts of
                                                               reduce the environmental
            society, namely decision-
Response    makers to solve the
                                             are very fast     problems, in conjunction with
                                                               others indicators show the
            problems
                                                               effectiveness of the measures

                                                                        (Jesinghaus, 1999)
Towards a physical economy



Are there tools available
to support DFE
in the new framework?
The “New Framework” requires the analysis of
         dismantling vs shredding




                                                                         Ferrous
                                                                         metals
                    Reuse
                    parts

 ELV          Dismantler                            hulk               Shredder
                            recovery/recycling




                                                                                   Heavy
       Hazardous




                                                                                    SR
        materials




                               Materials for




                                                            Light SR
                                                                        Non ferrous metals   Non ferrous
                                                                            separator          metals




                                                                                    SR
                    Landfill                     Residues                                       Materials for
                                                                       SR separator          recovery/recycling
                DfE Software Tool
                Life cycle approach


The method is implemented in the EoL module of a
software tool aimed at support eco efficient product
design. This tool considers the product’s life cycle

Objectives:
   Evaluate environmental impact through all the life
   cycle;
   Minimize end of life costs achieving a pre specified
   recycling rate;
                DfE Software Tool
                    Structure

Database            Modules           Results

                        DfU
                                    Environmental
                       (use)           impacts


Materials and           DfA
 processes                          Environmental
(transport &        (production)       impacts
manufacture)

                                    Environmental
                                       impacts
                        DfR
                                         &
                    (end of life)
                                    Optimum EoL
 EoL module                           strategy
       Optimization of disassembly sequence
                 Existing methods

                                                                 I
                                                 B

Exhaustive (Lambert, 2002):              D               C           F

   Considers the product’s connection            A

   diagram. Precedence relations are                         H

   established between parts;                G

                                                     E




  Identifies and represents all the feasible disassembly
  sequences (ex: transition matrix, AND/OR graphic, Petri
  Net). These consist in feasible groups of parts “linked” by
  disassembly actions;
          Optimization of disassembly sequence
          Existing methods


Exhaustive (Lambert, 2002):
   Economic information is considered by attributing costs to
   disassembly actions and revenues to parts (reuse or recycling)
   Optimum disassembly sequence is calculated using optimization
   methodologies such as linear programming and Petri Net
   optimization
   May require significant amounts of computational time and
   dismantling information (for assessing parallel disassembly
   sequences) and expert user intervention
           Optimization of disassembly sequence
           Existing methods

Simplified (Ramirez, 1996):
                                                                S1


   Considers the product’s bill of materials
   (parts and sub assemblies). Precedence
                                                   S2           S3                    S4




   relations are established for parts and
                                               A   G    E   C   I        S5       B        D




   sub assemblies                                                    F        H




       Revenues are attributed to parts and subassemblies
       (reuse, recycling, recovery or landfill). Costs are
       attributed to removal times for parts and sub assemblies
       Assessment of each disassembly sequence is done by
       evaluating the final state (set of separated parts and sub
       assemblies)
           Optimization of disassembly sequence
           Existing methods



Simplified (Ramirez, 1996):
   Optimum sequence is found by enumerating and comparing all
   the possible sets. For larger sets of parts a genetic algorithm
   based procedure is used
   The results may be highly dependent on the way the user
   supplies information on parts, subassemblies and precedence
   relations, namely for complex assemblies
         Optimization of disassembly sequence
         Proposed methodology
                                                                         I
                                                         B




Main topics
                                                 D               C           F

                                                         A

                                                                     H


   Considers the product’s connection diagram.       G

                                                             E



   Disassembly operations eliminate connections between
   parts. One operation may eliminate more than one
   connection
   Precedence relations are defined for operations
   The disassembly sequence is evaluated considering its final
   state (set of performed and non-performed operations).
   In a feasible sequence, all the performed operations comply
   with precedence relations
          Optimization of disassembly sequence
          Proposed methodology

Information for assessing economic value and recycling rate:
   Operation: time (costs are proportional), parts disconnected
   and precedence relations
   Parts: mass, material composition and reuse value. Revenue
   from part (and groups of parts) is highest EoL value (reuse,
   recycling, shredding and landfill)
   Subassembly: higher level assembly and reuse value
   EoL scenarios: recycling value, shredding value (dependent
   on material composition), shredding efficiencies, SR
   separation efficiencies and landfill cost
                      DfE Software Tool
                           DfR module


The user supplies information on:
   product structure (parts and
   assemblies), part material
   composition and mass. Specific
   parts may be marked for removal
   EoL operators costs (buildings,
   equipment, labor), recycled
   material revenues and separation
   efficiencies
                        DfE Software Tool
                               DfR module

                       Connections



The information on
operations,
connections and
precedence relations
is introduced by
completely
disassembling the
product

                                            Precedence
                                            relations
                           DfE Software Tool
                              DfR module


The Software identifies
an optimum DFR strategy,
(maximum dismantling
profit), given a target
recycling rate and the
available recycling
infraestructure
Case Study: automobile seat
      Product Structure
Case Study: automobile seat
   Disassembly Operations
                                         Case Study: automobile seat
                                         Optimum disassembly sequence


                                                                                                           Disassembly sequence
                                         100%


                                                                                                           for a minimum cost
                                         80%
                                                                                                           achieving a recycling
Materials' end of life total costs (%)



                                                                                                           rate of 70%
                                         60%




                                         40%




                                         20%




                                          0%
                                                0%   20%            40%        60%            80%   100%

                                                           Recycling rate   Disassembled material
       Future policy directions ?

                       Environmental strategy
                                       Industrial
                Product oriented
                                        Ecology
Economy            Monetary            + Physical

Indicator
framework            DPSIR               DPSIR

Environmental         EIA,               + MFA,
toolbox              LCA,...             SFA,...

End-of-life      Product Green       + Material flows
Environmental     dot societies         symbiosis
business
                     Final remarks


DFE is an increasingly relevant concept, as a consequence of
a broader extended product responsibility policies at an EU
level
The DFR concept is not limited to disassembly operations, as
shredding and post shredding recycling technologies are
increasingly relevant
A new and innovative DFE software tool, including this broad
approach was developed and used in the auto industry
context
Future work will be concentrated on developing a database of
shredding and post-shredding recycling technologies.
   A development integrated in a new program…




M.Sc. in ENGINEERING DESIGN

                      ….at IST, LISBON


           http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/mscdesign/

				
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